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Sample records for oryzae fermentation extract

  1. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    A fermentation extract of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae can be used as a prebiotic. The objective was to determine if dietary inclusion of a fermentation extract of A. oryzae as well as calf age would alter growth, health, performance parameters, and the growth and development of the rumen in Holstein calves from birth thru 1 wk postweaning; it was hypothesized that it would. Purchased bull calves (n=52) that originated from 1 of 13 farms were used in this experiment. All calves had serum IgG greater than 10 mg/mL. Calves were randomly assigned to a slaughter age, 4 (n=16) or 8 wk (n=36), and treatment, control (n=27) or fermentation extract of A. oryzae (AMF; n=25). Calves were housed and fed individually; no bedding was used and no forage was fed. Calves assigned to AMF were fed 2 g of AMF daily. Liquid AMF was delivered in milk replacer for the first 4 wk of the study; solid AMF was top-dressed on texturized starter thereafter. Calves were fed nonmedicated milk replacer twice daily (22.0% crude protein, 20.0% fat, dry matter basis; 680 g/d) and were weaned upon consumption of 0.91 kg of starter (20% crude protein, 2.0% fat; medicated with decoquinate) for 3 consecutive days or on d 45 of the study, whichever came first. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water throughout the study. Feed intake as well as fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily; body weight, withers height, and hip height were recorded weekly. Gross rumen measurements and rumen samples for future gross and histological analyses were taken at 4 and 8 wk. All calves grew similarly; weaning age averaged 40.39±0.77 d. Lifetime average daily gain was 0.60±0.05 kg/d and lifetime gain-to-feed ratio was 0.56±0.05. Milk replacer, starter, total dry matter intake, gross and histological rumen measurements, rumen pH, fecal and respiratory scores, and total medical costs were not affected by treatment. Despite total medical costs not differing by treatment, a lower percentage of AMF

  2. Effect of Canavalia gladiata Extract Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Chang, Jee-Yun; Nam, Da-Eun; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Canavalia gladiata has been used as a Chinese traditional folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the use of C. gladiata is limited because it contains antinutritional and allergy-causing proteins. We fermented C. gladiata with Aspergillus oryzae and investigated the effects of fermented C. gladiata (FCG) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. The mice were divided into five groups: untreated Balb/c mice; AD control (NC/Nga mice); FCGH (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg fermented C. gladiata water extract); FCG30 (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg of fermented C. gladiata 30% ethanol extract), and FCG80 (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg of fermented C. gladiata 80% ethanol extract). We found increases in the nonessential amino acids and essential amino acid in the FCG compared with the non-FCG. FCG attenuated macroscopic and histopathological changes in dorsal skin of mice when compared with the AD control group. The FCG30 and FCG80 groups, in particular, showed significant decreases in scratching episodes when compared with the AD control group. FCG improved immune responses, including increases in IgE and histamine for AD, through attenuation of Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We suggest that FCG may have benefits for improvement of AD function by improving the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and by producing anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26613583

  3. Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 inhibits fat accumulation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyoung-Ha; Suzuki, Yasuki; Yonekura, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lee, Chan Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Katoh, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured. RESULTS Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 µg/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes. PMID:26244085

  4. Cyanidin and malvidin in aqueous extracts of black carrots fermented with Aspergillus oryzae prevent the impairment of energy, lipid and glucose metabolism in estrogen-deficient rats by AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kang, Suna; Jeong, Do-Youn; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Park, Jae Jung; Yun, Ho Sik

    2015-03-01

    Black carrots (Daucus carota L.) are rich in anthocyanins which contribute many health benefits, but are limited by bioavailability and instability when exposed to oxygen, heat and light. Fermenting black carrots may improve the stability, absorption and bioactivity of its anthocyanins. Here, we examined whether and by what mechanisms the long-term consumption of unfermented black carrot extract (BC) and its extracts fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum (BCLP) or Aspergillus oryzae (BCAO) might prevent menopausal symptoms including impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism in estrogen-deficient animals with diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed four different high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin (OVX-control), 2 % BC, 2 % BCLP, or 2 % BCAO for 12 weeks. Sham rats were fed high-fat diets containing 2 % dextrin. The contents of total anthocyanins increased in BCAO compared to BC and BCLP, whereas the contents of cyanidin-3-rutinosides, malvidin-3,5-diglycosides and delphine-3-glucoside were lower and cyanidin and malvidin were much higher in BCLP and BCAO than BC. Fat mass and weight gain were lower in descending order of OVX-control > BC and BCLP > BCAO due to increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. However, BC, BCLP and especially BCAO all normalized HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in OVX rats. OVX increased serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, but BC, BCLP and BCAO significantly prevented the increases. BCAO markedly decreased hepatic triglyceride levels by increasing gene expressions of CPT-1 and PPAR-α, which are involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreasing mRNA expressions of FAS and SREBP-1c, which are associated with fatty acid synthesis. This was related to increased pAMPK → pACC signaling and improved hepatic insulin signaling (pAkt → pFOXO-1). Cyanidin and malvidin markedly decreased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing CPT-1 and

  5. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  6. Metabolomic Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens During Rice Koji Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Sunmin; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS), and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO) or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA) for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including α-amylase, protease, and β-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji. PMID:27314317

  7. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  8. Production of fructosyl transferase by Aspergillus oryzae CFR 202 in solid-state fermentation using agricultural by-products.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, P T; Ramesh, M N; Prapulla, S G

    2004-10-01

    Fructosyl transferase (FTase) production by Aspergillus oryzae CFR 202 was carried out by solid-state fermentation (SSF), using various agricultural by-products like cereal bran, corn products, sugarcane bagasse,cassava bagasse (tippi) and by-products of coffee and tea processing. The FTase produced was used for the production of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), using 60% sucrose as substrate. Among the cereal bran used, rice bran and wheat bran were good substrates for FTase production by A. oryzae CFR 202. Among the various corn products used, corn germ supported maximum FTase production, whereas among the by-products of coffee and tea processing used, spent coffee and spent tea were good substrates, with supplementation of yeast extract and complete synthetic media. FTase had maximum activity at 60 degrees C and pH 6.0. FTase was stable up to 40 degrees C and in the pH range 5.0-7.0. Maximum FOS production was obtained with FTase after 8 h of reaction with 60% sucrose. FTase produced by SSF using wheat bran was purified 107-fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-80%), DEAE cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified FTase was 116.3 kDa by SDS-PAGE. This study indicates the potential for the use of agricultural by-products for the efficient production of FTase enzyme by A. oryzae CFR 202 in SSF, thereby resulting in value addition of those by-products.

  9. High-efficiency l-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae using a novel modified one-step fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using the two different fermentation strategies of one-step fermentation (OSF) and conventional fermentation (CF). Compared to CF, OSF reduced the demurrage of the production process and increased the production of lactic acid. However, the qp was significantly lower than during CF. Based on analysis of μ, qs and qp, a novel modified OSF strategy was proposed. This strategy aimed to achieve a high final concentration of lactic acid, and a high qp by R. oryzae. In this strategy, the maximum lactic acid concentration and productivity of the lactic acid production stage reached 158g/l and 5.45g/(lh), which were 177% and 366% higher, respectively, than the best results from CF. Importantly, the qp and yield did not decrease. This strategy is a convenient and economical method for l-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae.

  10. Aspergillus oryzae S2 alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation: optimization of culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Kriaa, Mouna; Elgharbi, Fatma; Ayadi, Dorra-Zouari; Bejar, Samir; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus oryzae S2 was assayed for alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation (SSF). In addition to AmyA and AmyB already produced in monitored submerged culture, the strain was noted to produce new AmyB oligomeric forms, in particular a dominant tetrameric form named AmyC. The latter was purified to homogeneity through fractional acetone precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analyses revealed that, purified AmyC was an approximately 172 kDa tetramer of four 42 kDa subunits. AmyC was also noted to display the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence residues and approximately the same physico-chemical properties of AmyA and AmyB, to exhibit maximum activity at pH 5.6 and 60 °C, and to produce maltose and maltotriose as major starch hydrolysis end-products. Soyabean meal was the best substitute to yeast extract compared to fish powder waste and wheat gluten waste. AmyC production was optimized under SSF using statistical design methodology. Moisture content of 76.25%, C/N substrate ratio of 0.62, and inoculum size of 10(6.87) spores allowed maximum activity of 22118.34 U/g of dried substrate, which was 33 times higher than the one obtained before the application of the central composite design (CCD). PMID:25617840

  11. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  12. L-lactic acid production from starch by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in a genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae pure culture.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Satoshi; Yoshie, Toshihide; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid is a commodity chemical that can be produced biologically. Lactic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strains were constructed by genetic engineering. The A. oryzae LDH strain with the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase gene produced 38 g/L of lactate from 100g/L of glucose. Disruption of the wild-type lactate dehydrogenase gene in A. oryzae LDH improved lactate production. The resulting strain A. oryzae LDHΔ871 produced 49 g/L of lactate from 100g/L of glucose. Because A. oryzae strains innately secrete amylases, A. oryzae LDHΔ871 produced approximately 30 g/L of lactate from various starches, dextrin, or maltose (all at 100 g/L). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lactate from starch using a pure culture of transgenic A. oryzae. Our results indicate that A. oryzae could be a promising host for the bioproduction of useful compounds such as lactic acid.

  13. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, George J G; Visser, Jaap; Rinzema, Arjen

    2004-04-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol, which is always present in the cells, A. oryzae accumulated high concentrations of glycerol, erythritol and arabitol at relatively low a(w) (0.96-0.97) in SSF. Accumulation of such a mixture of polyols is rather unusual and might be typical for SSF. A. oryzae mycelium accumulating various polyols at low a(w) contained at least four distinct polyol dehydrogenases with highest activities toward glycerol, erythritol, D-arabitol and mannitol. NADP(+)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase activity correlated very well with glycerol accumulation. A similar correlation was observed for erythritol and NADP(+)-erythritol dehydrogenase suggesting that NADP(+)-dependent glycerol and erythritol dehydrogenases are involved in biosynthesis of glycerol and erythritol, respectively, and that these enzymes are induced by osmotic stress.

  14. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce. PMID:25945335

  15. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  16. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation. PMID:26724548

  17. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways. PMID:21416338

  18. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  19. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  20. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  1. Inhibition kinetics of lipid oxidation of model foods by using antioxidant extract of fermented soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wardhani, Dyah H; Fuciños, Pablo; Vázquez, José A; Pandiella, Severino S

    2013-08-15

    Fermentation by using Aspergillus oryzae has been reported to increase antioxidant activity of soybeans significantly. The effectiveness of the extract from fermented soybeans was studied in 3 model foods with different complexities, i.e., linoleic acid emulsion, sunflower oil emulsions and bulk sunflower oil. For the emulsion systems, oxidation at two different pH values (4.5 and 7) was also compared. A reparameterised logistic equation was used to describe and to predict the experimental data. In general, a good agreement between experimental trends and simulated data from the model was found. A crude antioxidant extract (5 mg/g) showed a comparable antioxidant activity to 0.26 mg/g of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the linoleic acid emulsions. The extract exhibited a better capability to retard primary products in the linoleic acid systems than the secondary products. The opposite effect was observed in the bulk sunflower oil and its emulsion systems.

  2. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae. PMID:22938823

  3. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  4. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product. PMID:26615750

  5. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  6. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  7. Characterization of the Production of Biogenic Amines and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in the Soybean Pastes Fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Yeun; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-04-01

    The production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered to be an attractive strategy. However, some LAB may produce biogenic amines (BA), which may be of concern from the safety viewpoint. The aim of the present study was to characterize the production of GABA and BA in the soybean pastes fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) FMB S46471 and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) GABA 100. After a ripening period of 90 days, the levels of BA (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) and GABA in the fermented soybean were assessed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae and L. brevis showed a range of 7,130-11,592 mg/kg for GABA, 178-305 mg/kg for tyramine, 139-163 mg/kg for putrescine, 7.4-10.8 mg/kg for histamine, and 7.1-7.9 mg/kg for cadaverine, whereas the soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae only showed a range of 30-1,671 mg/kg for GABA, 0.8-189 mg/kg for tyramine, 1.3-85 mg/kg for putrescine, up to 3.6 mg/kg for histamine, and 0.2-2.4 mg/kg for cadaverine. The results showed that the production of GABA was accompanied by the increase in the production of BA, even though the production levels of histamine and cadaverine were very low. This is the first study to simultaneously characterize the production of BA and GABA in GABA-enriched fermented soybean pastes, and warrants further study to minimize the production of BA while optimizing the production of GABA.

  8. Fuzzy logic control of rotating drum bioreactor for improved production of amylase and protease enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sukumprasertsri, Monton; Unrean, Pornkamol; Pimsamarn, Jindarat; Kitsubun, Panit; Tongta, Anan

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we compared the performance of two control systems, fuzzy logic control (FLC) and conventional control (CC). The control systems were applied for controlling temperature and substrate moisture content in a solidstate fermentation for the biosynthesis of amylase and protease enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae. The fermentation process was achieved in a 200 L rotating drum bioreactor. Three factors affecting temperature and moisture content in the solid-state fermentation were considered. They were inlet air velocity, speed of the rotating drum bioreactor, and spray water addition. The fuzzy logic control system was designed using four input variables: air velocity, substrate temperature, fermentation time, and rotation speed. The temperature was controlled by two variables, inlet air velocity and rotational speed of bioreactor, while the moisture content was controlled by spray water. Experimental results confirmed that the FLC system could effectively control the temperature and moisture content of substrate better than the CC system, resulting in an increased enzyme production by A. oryzae. Thus, the fuzzy logic control is a promising control system that can be applied for enhanced production of enzymes in solidstate fermentation.

  9. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  10. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-02-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn't show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  11. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste. PMID:27376833

  12. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  13. Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

  14. Enhancement of fructosyltransferase and fructooligosaccharides production by A. oryzae DIA-MF in Solid-State Fermentation using aguamiel as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Márquez, Diana B; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Mussatto, Solange I; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the production of fructosyltransferase (FTase) by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) using aguamiel (agave sap) as culture medium and Aspergillus oryzae DIA-MF as producer strain. SSF was carried out evaluating the following parameters: inoculum rate, incubation temperature, initial pH and packing density to determine the most significant factors through Box-Hunter and Hunter design. The significant factors were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The maximum FTase activity (1347U/L) was obtained at 32°C, using packing density of 0.7g/cm(3). Inoculum rate and initial pH had no significant influence on the response. FOS synthesis applying the enzyme produced by A. oryzae DIA-MF was also studied using aguamiel as substrate. PMID:27036329

  15. High level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A β-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant β-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the β-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries.

  16. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  17. Integration of chemical catalysis with extractive fermentation to produce fuels.

    PubMed

    Anbarasan, Pazhamalai; Baer, Zachary C; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gross, Elad; Binder, Joseph B; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2012-11-01

    Nearly one hundred years ago, the fermentative production of acetone by Clostridium acetobutylicum provided a crucial alternative source of this solvent for manufacture of the explosive cordite. Today there is a resurgence of interest in solventogenic Clostridium species to produce n-butanol and ethanol for use as renewable alternative transportation fuels. Acetone, a product of acetone-n-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, harbours a nucleophilic α-carbon, which is amenable to C-C bond formation with the electrophilic alcohols produced in ABE fermentation. This functionality can be used to form higher-molecular-mass hydrocarbons similar to those found in current jet and diesel fuels. Here we describe the integration of biological and chemocatalytic routes to convert ABE fermentation products efficiently into ketones by a palladium-catalysed alkylation. Tuning of the reaction conditions permits the production of either petrol or jet and diesel precursors. Glyceryl tributyrate was used for the in situ selective extraction of both acetone and alcohols to enable the simple integration of ABE fermentation and chemical catalysis, while reducing the energy demand of the overall process. This process provides a means to selectively produce petrol, jet and diesel blend stocks from lignocellulosic and cane sugars at yields near their theoretical maxima.

  18. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  19. Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR) to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun-Hyuk; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is an important enzyme for ascorbate recycling. To examine whether heterologous expression of MDHAR from Oryza sativa (OsMDHAR) can prevent the deleterious effects of unfavorable growth conditions, we constructed a transgenic yeast strain harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying OsMDHAR (p426GPD::OsMDHAR). OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells displayed enhanced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide by maintaining redox homoeostasis, proteostasis, and the ascorbate (AsA)-like pool following the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and molecules, metabolic enzymes, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors, compared to wild-type (WT) cells carrying vector alone. The addition of exogenous AsA or its analogue isoascorbic acid increased the viability of WT and ara2Δ cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing cells was greater than that of WT cells when cells at mid-log growth phase were exposed to high concentrations of ethanol. High OsMDHAR expression also improved the fermentative capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a standard cultivation temperature (30°C). The alcohol yield of OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast during fermentation was approximately 25% (0.18 g·g-1) higher than that of WT yeast. Accordingly, OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These results suggest that heterologous OsMDHAR expression increases tolerance to reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis and improves survival during fermentation, which enhances fermentative capacity.

  20. Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR) to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun-Hyuk; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is an important enzyme for ascorbate recycling. To examine whether heterologous expression of MDHAR from Oryza sativa (OsMDHAR) can prevent the deleterious effects of unfavorable growth conditions, we constructed a transgenic yeast strain harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying OsMDHAR (p426GPD::OsMDHAR). OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells displayed enhanced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide by maintaining redox homoeostasis, proteostasis, and the ascorbate (AsA)-like pool following the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and molecules, metabolic enzymes, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors, compared to wild-type (WT) cells carrying vector alone. The addition of exogenous AsA or its analogue isoascorbic acid increased the viability of WT and ara2Δ cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing cells was greater than that of WT cells when cells at mid-log growth phase were exposed to high concentrations of ethanol. High OsMDHAR expression also improved the fermentative capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a standard cultivation temperature (30°C). The alcohol yield of OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast during fermentation was approximately 25% (0.18 g·g-1) higher than that of WT yeast. Accordingly, OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These results suggest that heterologous OsMDHAR expression increases tolerance to reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis and improves survival during fermentation, which enhances fermentative capacity. PMID:27392090

  1. Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR) to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun-Hyuk; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is an important enzyme for ascorbate recycling. To examine whether heterologous expression of MDHAR from Oryza sativa (OsMDHAR) can prevent the deleterious effects of unfavorable growth conditions, we constructed a transgenic yeast strain harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying OsMDHAR (p426GPD::OsMDHAR). OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells displayed enhanced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide by maintaining redox homoeostasis, proteostasis, and the ascorbate (AsA)-like pool following the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and molecules, metabolic enzymes, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors, compared to wild-type (WT) cells carrying vector alone. The addition of exogenous AsA or its analogue isoascorbic acid increased the viability of WT and ara2Δ cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing cells was greater than that of WT cells when cells at mid-log growth phase were exposed to high concentrations of ethanol. High OsMDHAR expression also improved the fermentative capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a standard cultivation temperature (30°C). The alcohol yield of OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast during fermentation was approximately 25% (0.18 g·g-1) higher than that of WT yeast. Accordingly, OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These results suggest that heterologous OsMDHAR expression increases tolerance to reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis and improves survival during fermentation, which enhances fermentative capacity. PMID:27392090

  2. Expression of salt-induced 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Oryza sativa increases stress tolerance and fermentation capacity in genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), also termed thioredoxin peroxidases (TPXs), are a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that are critically involved in cell defense and protect cells from oxidative damage. In this study, a putative chloroplastic 2-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase (OsTPX) was identified by proteome analysis from leaf tissue samples of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings exposed to 0.1 M NaCl for 3 days. To investigate the relationship between the OsTPX gene and the stress response, OsTPX was cloned into the yeast expression vector p426GPD under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) promoter, and the construct was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. OsTPX expression was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. OsTPX contained two highly conserved cysteine residues (Cys114 and Cys236) and an active site region (FTFVCPT), and it is structurally very similar to human 2-Cys Prx. Heterologous OsTPX expression increased the ability of the transgenic yeast cells to adapt and recover from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stresses, such as a reduction of cellular hydroperoxide levels in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and menadione, by improving redox homeostasis. OsTPX expression also conferred enhanced tolerance to tert-butylhydroperoxide, heat shock, and high ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, high OsTPX expression improved the fermentation capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a high temperature (40 °C) and at the general cultivation temperature (30 °C). The alcohol yield in OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast increased by approximately 29 % (0.14 g g(-1)) and 21 % (0.12 g g(-1)) during fermentation at 40 and 30 °C, respectively, compared to the wild-type yeast. Accordingly, OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged cell survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These

  3. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  4. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise. PMID:25866748

  5. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  6. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids. PMID:25299086

  9. Influence of tea extract supplementation on bifidobacteria during soymilk fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) supplementation on the viability and membrane lipid compositions of Bifidobacterium was investigated. Fermented soymilk-tea (SMT) was produced by culturing selected bifidobacteria in soymilk supplemented with green or black TE. Culturability of four bacteria in the presence of various concentrations of TE was examined by plate count method. Bifidobacterium longum CSCC 5089 (BL5089) and B. longum CSCC 5022 (BL5022) were selected for further study based on their sensitivity to TE. The effect of TE supplementation on bacterial cell viability and integrity was assessed by flow cytometry in combination with fluorescence probes. Total lipids of bacterial cell were extracted using an enzyme-assistant extraction method. Fatty acids (FAs) were determined and quantified by GC-MS. Phospholipids (PLs) were separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and their relative abundances were determined by densitometry. Total tea phenolic content (TTP) in SMTs with varying concentrations of TE was quantified by HPLC. Among the four Bifidobacterium monitored, TE only significantly inhibited BL5089 (p<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner, with minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) determined to be 15.45mg/mL TTP for green TE and 7.34mg/mL TTP for black TE. Flow cytometric analysis revealed different staining patterns of cell populations and compromise in cell integrity upon exposure to high concentrations of TE. Results from GC-MS showed that unsaturated to saturated FA ratios significantly decreased (p<0.01) in the membrane of BL5089 cells upon TE exposure. Separation of PLs by HPTLC showed dramatic alterations in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol contents due to TE treatment.

  10. Extractive fermentation for enhanced propionic acid production from lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-05-01

    An extractive fermentation process using an amine extractant and a hollow-fiber membrane extractor to selectively remove propionic acid from the fermentation broth was developed to produce propionate from lactose. Compared to the conventional batch fermentation, the extractive fermentation had a much higher productivity ({approximately}1 g/(L{center_dot}h) or 5-fold increase), higher propionate yield (up to 0.66 g/g or more than 20% increase), higher final product concentration (75 g/L or higher), and higher product purity ({approximately}90%). Meanwhile, acetate and succinate productions in the extractive fermentation were significantly reduced. The improved fermentation performance can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition and a possible metabolic pathway shift to favor more propionic but less acetic and succinic acid production. The process was stable and gave consistent long-term performance over the 1.5-month period studied. The effects of propionate concentration, pH, and amine content in the solvent on the extractive fermentation were also studied and are discussed in this paper.

  11. Hematopoietic effect of deer antler extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis on murine marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yooheon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Hyun-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES We examined the chemical composition and the effect of fermented deer antler on hematopoietic factors in bone marrow cells. MATERIALS/METHODS For the preparation of fermented deer antler extract (FAB), fermentation was carried out using Bacillus subtilis at 30℃ for 7 days. The hematopoietic effect of FAB was investigated hematopoietic factors in marrow cells. RESULTS The contents of total sugar, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and uronic acid and the dry weight gradually increased with fermentation time. The sialic acid content (from 0.14 mg/mL to 0.54 mg/mL) was the highest on the 4th day of fermentation after which it decreased. The proliferating activity of bone marrow cells increased with fermentation times. The levels of various hematopoietic growth factors were determined to verify the beneficial effect of deer antler extract fermented by B. subtilis on hematopoiesis. FAB increased the number of stem cell factors and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in bone marrow cells. In addition, FAB augmented the burst-forming unit erythroid and total colonies in splenocyte-conditioned medium compared with non-fermented antler extract (NFA). However, FAB did not affect the mRNA levels of erythropoietin, an important factor for erythropoiesis. CONCLUSIONS FAB, like NFA, did not directly affect hematopoiesis, but contributed to hematopoiesis by stimulating the production of hematopoietic factors. PMID:26425273

  12. Improvement of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 by mutagenesis and optimization of culture conditions in solid-state fermentation for the hyper-production of extracellular cellulase.

    PubMed

    El-Ghonemy, Dina Helmy; Ali, Thanaa Hamed; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed; Moharam, Maysa El-Sayed; Talkhan, Fatma Nabeeh

    2014-11-01

    Spore suspensions of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 were subjected to mutagenesis using ultraviolet-irradiation followed by chemical treatments to improve the biosynthesis of cellulase. Ten mutant strains namely UEAC7, UEAR5, UNAC4, UNAC16, UNAR19, UNBC7, UNBR3, UNBR10, UNBR23 and UNBR25 were selected and their extracellular cellulase activities were assayed. Mutant UNAC4 gave the highest cellulase production [2,455 ± 28 U/g-dry substrate (ds) for filter paper-ase (FP-ase)] in a yield 4-fold exceeding that of the wild type strain (578 ± 5.0 U/g-ds for FP-ase). Rice straw (RS) was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 10 % (w/v). Maximum cellulase production was achieved at initial medium pH 5.5, initial moisture content 77 % and an incubation temperature 28 °C on the fifth day of growth. NH4Cl proved to be the suitable added nitrogen source for maximum enzyme production followed by peptone. These results clearly indicate the cost-effectiveness of solid state fermentation technology in the economic production of extracellular cellulase. The hyper-production of cellulase by mutant strain UNAC4 has potential for industrial processes that convert lignocellulosic material (e.g. RS) into products of commercial value such as glucose and biofuels.

  13. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. PMID:26670250

  14. Improvement of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 by mutagenesis and optimization of culture conditions in solid-state fermentation for the hyper-production of extracellular cellulase.

    PubMed

    El-Ghonemy, Dina Helmy; Ali, Thanaa Hamed; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed; Moharam, Maysa El-Sayed; Talkhan, Fatma Nabeeh

    2014-11-01

    Spore suspensions of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 were subjected to mutagenesis using ultraviolet-irradiation followed by chemical treatments to improve the biosynthesis of cellulase. Ten mutant strains namely UEAC7, UEAR5, UNAC4, UNAC16, UNAR19, UNBC7, UNBR3, UNBR10, UNBR23 and UNBR25 were selected and their extracellular cellulase activities were assayed. Mutant UNAC4 gave the highest cellulase production [2,455 ± 28 U/g-dry substrate (ds) for filter paper-ase (FP-ase)] in a yield 4-fold exceeding that of the wild type strain (578 ± 5.0 U/g-ds for FP-ase). Rice straw (RS) was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 10 % (w/v). Maximum cellulase production was achieved at initial medium pH 5.5, initial moisture content 77 % and an incubation temperature 28 °C on the fifth day of growth. NH4Cl proved to be the suitable added nitrogen source for maximum enzyme production followed by peptone. These results clearly indicate the cost-effectiveness of solid state fermentation technology in the economic production of extracellular cellulase. The hyper-production of cellulase by mutant strain UNAC4 has potential for industrial processes that convert lignocellulosic material (e.g. RS) into products of commercial value such as glucose and biofuels. PMID:25119245

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food.

  17. Butanol fermentation from microalgae-derived carbohydrates after ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Orr, Valerie; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Lipid extracted algae (LEA) is an attractive feedstock for alcohol fuel production as it is a non-food crop which is largely composed of readily fermented carbohydrates like starch rather than the more recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials currently under intense development. This study compares the suitability of ionic liquid extracted algae (ILEA) and hexane extracted algae (HEA) for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The highest butanol titers (8.05 g L(-1)) were achieved with the fermentation of the acid hydrolysates of HEA, however, they required detoxification to support product formation after acid hydrolysis while ILEA did not. Direct ABE fermentation of ILEA and HEA (without detoxification) starches resulted in a butanol titer of 4.99 and 6.63 g L(-1), respectively, which significantly simplified the LEA to butanol process. The study demonstrated the compatibility of producing biodiesel and butanol from a single feedstock which may help reduce the feedstock costs of each individual process.

  18. Mathematical model for ethanol production by extractive fermentation in a continuous stirred tank fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Kollerup, F.; Daugulis, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase that removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique together with other key parameters such as extraction efficiency and residual glucose concentration. The model accommodates variable liquid flow rates entering and leaving the system, since it was found that the aqueous outlet flow rate could be up to 35% lower than the inlet flow rate during extractive fermentation of concentrated glucose feeds due to the continuous removal of ethanol from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The model predicts a total ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a solvent dilution rate of 5.0 h/sup -1/. This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. The model has furthermore illustrated the possible trade-offs that exist between obtaining a high extraction efficiency and a low residual glucose concentration.

  19. An integrated biohydrogen refinery: synergy of photofermentation, extractive fermentation and hydrothermal hydrolysis of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% biowaste destruction. The selective separation of organic acids from waste-fed fermentations provided suitable substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production, which enhanced the gross energy generation up to 11-fold. Therefore, electrodialysis provides the key link in an IBHR for 'waste to energy'. The IBHR compares favourably to 'renewables' (photovoltaics, on-shore wind, crop-derived biofuels) and also emerging biotechnological options (microbial electrolysis) and anaerobic digestion.

  20. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  1. Studies on extraction of mannanase enzyme by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 from fermented palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abd; Samat, Noraini; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2013-09-15

    Microbial mannanases have become biotechnologically important in industry but their application is limited due to high production cost. In presents study, the extraction of mannanase from fermented Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) in the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Local isolate of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was grown on PKC in (SSF) using column bioreactor. The optimum condition were achieved after two washes of fermented PKC by adding of 10% glycerol (v/v) soaked for 10 h at the room temperature with solvent to ratio, 1:5 (w/v).

  2. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts. PMID:23091343

  3. Inhibition of ruminal cellulose fermentation by extracts of the perennial legume cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer).

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Hatfield, R D; Buxton, D R

    1993-02-01

    Cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.) is a perennial legume used as a pasture or rangeland plant for ruminants. A study was undertaken to determine whether reported variations in its ruminal digestibility may be related to the presence of an antinutritive material. In vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of cicer milkvetch by mixed rumen microflora was poorer than was the fermentation of NDF in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Fermentation of cicer milkvetch NDF was improved by preextraction of the ground herbage with water for 3 h at 39 degrees C. Such water extracts selectively inhibited in vitro fermentation of pure cellulose by mixed ruminal microflora and by pure cultures of the ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Inhibition of the cellulose fermentation by mixed ruminal microflora was dependent upon the concentration of cicer milkvetch extract and was overcome upon prolonged incubation. Pure cultures exposed to the extract did not recover from inhibition, even after long incubation times, unless the inhibitory agent was removed (viz., by dilution of inhibited cultures into fresh medium). The extract did not affect the fermentation of cellobiose by R. flavefaciens but did cause some inhibition of cellobiose fermentation by F. succinogenes. Moreover, the extracts did not inhibit hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, or p-nitrophenylcellobioside by supernatants of these pure cultures of cellulolytic bacteria or by a commercial cellulase preparation from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The agent caused cellulose-adherent cells to detach from cellulose fibers, suggesting that the agent may act, at least in part, by disrupting the glycocalyx necessary for adherence to, and rapid digestion of, cellulose.

  4. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  5. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  6. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  7. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Rocio I; Peñas, Elena; Torino, M Inés; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Dueñas, Montserrat; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of solid (SSF) or liquid state fermentation (LSF) for 48 and 96 h on the production of water soluble extracts from kidney beans was investigated. SSF was carried out by Bacillus subtilis, whilst LSF was performed either by natural fermentation (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LPF). SSF extracts showed high soluble phenolic compound content (31-36 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (508-541 μg trolox equivalents/g), whilst LSF extracts exhibited potential antihypertensive activity due to their large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content (6.8-10.6 mg/g) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity (>90%). Therefore, fermentation can be considered as a valuable process to obtain bioactive ingredients from kidney beans, which could encourage their utilisation in the formulation of added-value functional foods.

  8. Modeling of fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing reversible chemical complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce end-product inhibition by removing fermentation products in situ or in an external recycle loop. A model is presented for fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing chemical complexation. The model is formulated considering the kinetics of cell growth and the equilibrium distribution of lactic acid between aqueous and organic phases. Simulations have been carried out for different sets of operating conditions. The choice of pH balances faster kinetics at higher pH against lower product concentrations in the solvent and more difficult regeneration. A key need is for liquid extractants or solid sorbents combining stronger uptake ability with economical regeneration and satisfactory biocompatibility.

  9. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Rocio I; Peñas, Elena; Torino, M Inés; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Dueñas, Montserrat; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of solid (SSF) or liquid state fermentation (LSF) for 48 and 96 h on the production of water soluble extracts from kidney beans was investigated. SSF was carried out by Bacillus subtilis, whilst LSF was performed either by natural fermentation (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LPF). SSF extracts showed high soluble phenolic compound content (31-36 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (508-541 μg trolox equivalents/g), whilst LSF extracts exhibited potential antihypertensive activity due to their large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content (6.8-10.6 mg/g) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity (>90%). Therefore, fermentation can be considered as a valuable process to obtain bioactive ingredients from kidney beans, which could encourage their utilisation in the formulation of added-value functional foods. PMID:25442563

  10. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth.

  11. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  12. Radical Scavenging Activities of Undaria pinnatifida Extracts Fermented with Cordyceps militaris Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the various radical scavenging activities of fermented Undaria pinnatifida by the mycelia fermentation method. U. pinnatifida was fermented with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using solid culture and compared with unfermentated U. pinnatifida and C. militaris mycelia for antioxidant activities. The various radical scavenging activities of extracts from U. pinnatifida fermented with C. militaris mycelia (FUCM) were evaluated by electron spin resonance. The antioxidant activities of the FUCM extracts were assayed for ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorption capacity. The free radical scavenging activity of FUCM extracts was higher than that of C. militaris mycelia or U. pinnatifida alone. FUCM extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) increased up to 35 times, 10 times, and 16 times that of U. pinnatifida extracts on DPPH, alkyl, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, respectively. These results indicate that FUCM extracts have different chemical ingredients from U. pinnatifida and could provide beneficial antioxidant activity.

  13. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.

    PubMed

    Webber, Daniel M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Theivendran, Sivarooban

    2014-11-01

    Heat-stabilized, defatted rice bran (HDRB) serves as a potential source of phenolic compounds which have numerous purported health benefits. An estimated 70% of phenolics present in rice bran are esterified to the arabinoxylan residues of the cell walls. Release of such compounds could provide a value-added application for HDRB. The objective of this study was to extract and quantify phenolics from HDRB using fermentation technology. Out of 8 organisms selected for rice bran fermentation, Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis had the maximum phenolic release of 26.8 mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram HDRB. Response surface methodology was used to further optimize the release of rice bran phenolics. An optimum of 28.6 mg FAE/g rice bran was predicted at 168 h, 0.01% inoculation level, and 100 mg HDRB/mL. Fermentation of HDRB for 96 h with B. subtilis subspecies subtilis resulted in a significant increase in phenolic yield, phenolic concentration, and radical scavenging capacity. Fermented rice bran had 4.86 mg gentistic acid, 1.38 mg caffeic acid, 6.03 mg syringic acid, 19.02 mg (-)-epicatechin, 4.08 mg p-courmaric acid, 4.64 mg ferulic acid, 10.04 mg sinapic acid, and 17.59 mg benzoic acid per 100 g fermented extract compared to 0.65 mg p-courmaric acid and 0.36 mg ferulic acid per 100 g nonfermented extract. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented HDRB extract indicates that rice bran fermentation under optimized condition is a potential means of meeting the demand for an effective and affordable antioxidant.

  14. Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture.

  15. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  16. Removal and upgrading of lignocellulosic fermentation inhibitors by in situ biocatalysis and liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Kyle J; Saldarriaga, Carlos Rafael Castillo; Velasquez, Fernando Peregrino Cordoba; Liu, Tongjun; Hodge, David B; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are known to inhibit microbial growth during fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates, and the ability to diminish hydroxycinnamic acid toxicity would allow for more effective biological conversion of biomass to fuels and other value-added products. In this work, we provide a proof-of-concept of an in situ approach to remove these fermentation inhibitors through constituent expression of a phenolic acid decarboxylase combined with liquid-liquid extraction of the vinyl phenol products. As a first step, we confirmed using simulated fermentation conditions in two model organisms, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that the product 4-vinyl guaiacol is more inhibitory to growth than ferulic acid. Partition coefficients of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-vinyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol were measured for long-chain primary alcohols and alkanes, and tetradecane was identified as a co-solvent that can preferentially extract vinyl phenols relative to the acid parent and additionally had no effect on microbial growth rates or ethanol yields. Finally, E. coli expressing an active phenolic acid decarboxylase retained near maximum anaerobic growth rates in the presence of ferulic acid if and only if tetradecane was added to the fermentation broth. This work confirms the feasibility of donating catabolic pathways into fermentative microorganisms in order to ameliorate the effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on growth rates, and suggests a general strategy of detoxification by simultaneous biological conversion and extraction. PMID:25311910

  17. Comparative evaluation of three different extraction methods for rice (Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Naoki; Monma, Kimio; Ibe, Akihiro; Kamata, Kunihiro

    2009-04-01

    Recently, more immediate and precise cultivar-identifying methods targeting the specific and/or introduced gene(s) have been put into practical use for various rice cultivars. However trustworthy and innovative the biotechnological analyses may be, DNA purity and quality do have unpredictable influences upon the identification. Extraction methods of rice DNA have hardly ever been compared in a comprehensive manner. In this study, we investigated extraction characteristics of three methods by using 10 rice cultivars and then examined template availability of rice DNAs thereby extracted. An UV spectrophotometric study with a view toward methods revealed three different facts: The Isoplant II kit method with inhibitor absorption yielded the most DNAs, the Takara kit method with magnetic trapping produced the best DNAs free from contaminative proteins, and the enzymatic digestion method exclusively with enzymatic digestions prepared the best DNAs free from contaminative polysaccharides. Moreover, with a view toward cultivars, an insignificant difference in yield was not entirely bore out, and some difference in cultivar might cause significant difference in yield; however, no significant difference in purity was found among the cultivars used. On the other hand, electrophoretic images of the DNAs from the same cultivars showed considerable differences in quality among the methods. Furthermore, the DNA extracts from certain brands of rice proved really available for cultivar identification by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) related to sequence-tagged sites. Therefore, this study suggested that these extraction methods may be used as the situation demands and that the DNAs thereby extracted might work successfully even in cultivar-identifying PCRs.

  18. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  19. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. PMID:27560489

  20. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  2. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  3. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  4. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  5. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS+ radical scavenging activity was higher (p < 0.01) in A. charticola compared to that in R. oryzae and ascorbic acid (as a control). A higher (p < 0.01) content of total phenolics was detected in A. charticola than that in R. oryzae. Total flavonoids were higher (p < 0.01) in R. oryzae as compared with that in A. charticola. The fungus A. charticola had a higher (p < 0.01) level of total tannins than R. oryzae. In conclusion, both filamentous fungi isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS+. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents. PMID:26848695

  6. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-02-02

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity was higher (p < 0.01) in A. charticola compared to that in R. oryzae and ascorbic acid (as a control). A higher (p < 0.01) content of total phenolics was detected in A. charticola than that in R. oryzae. Total flavonoids were higher (p < 0.01) in R. oryzae as compared with that in A. charticola. The fungus A. charticola had a higher (p < 0.01) level of total tannins than R. oryzae. In conclusion, both filamentous fungi isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS⁺. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents.

  7. Aspergillus oryzae-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Consortium Allows Bio-Hybrid Fuel Cell to Run on Complex Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Justin P; Hoyt, Thomas; LeFors, Hannah M; Sumner, James J; Mackie, David M

    2016-01-01

    Consortia of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are examined for their abilities to turn complex carbohydrates into ethanol. To understand the interactions between microorganisms in consortia, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to follow the concentrations of various metabolites such as sugars (e.g., glucose, maltose), longer chain carbohydrates, and ethanol to optimize consortia conditions for the production of ethanol. It is shown that with proper design A. oryzae can digest food waste simulants into soluble sugars that S. cerevisiae can ferment into ethanol. Depending on the substrate and conditions used, concentrations of 13% ethanol were achieved in 10 days. It is further shown that a direct alcohol fuel cell (FC) can be coupled with these A. oryzae-enabled S. cerevisiae fermentations using a reverse osmosis membrane. This "bio-hybrid FC" continually extracted ethanol from an ongoing consortium, enhancing ethanol production and allowing the bio-hybrid FC to run for at least one week. Obtained bio-hybrid FC currents were comparable to those from pure ethanol-water mixtures, using the same FC. The A. oryzae-S. cerevisiae consortium, coupled to a bio-hybrid FC, converted food waste simulants into electricity without any pre- or post-processing. PMID:27681904

  8. Aspergillus oryzae-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Consortium Allows Bio-Hybrid Fuel Cell to Run on Complex Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Justin P; Hoyt, Thomas; LeFors, Hannah M; Sumner, James J; Mackie, David M

    2016-02-04

    Consortia of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are examined for their abilities to turn complex carbohydrates into ethanol. To understand the interactions between microorganisms in consortia, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to follow the concentrations of various metabolites such as sugars (e.g., glucose, maltose), longer chain carbohydrates, and ethanol to optimize consortia conditions for the production of ethanol. It is shown that with proper design A. oryzae can digest food waste simulants into soluble sugars that S. cerevisiae can ferment into ethanol. Depending on the substrate and conditions used, concentrations of 13% ethanol were achieved in 10 days. It is further shown that a direct alcohol fuel cell (FC) can be coupled with these A. oryzae-enabled S. cerevisiae fermentations using a reverse osmosis membrane. This "bio-hybrid FC" continually extracted ethanol from an ongoing consortium, enhancing ethanol production and allowing the bio-hybrid FC to run for at least one week. Obtained bio-hybrid FC currents were comparable to those from pure ethanol-water mixtures, using the same FC. The A. oryzae-S. cerevisiae consortium, coupled to a bio-hybrid FC, converted food waste simulants into electricity without any pre- or post-processing.

  9. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  10. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  11. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  12. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  13. Ethanol extract of fermented soybean, Chungkookjang, inhibits the apoptosis of mouse spleen, and thymus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Bok; Lee, Hye Sung; Kim, Sook Jin; Yoo, Hyung Jae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Chen, Gang; Youn, Hyun Joo

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis is a step of the cell cycle which is important in the regulation of immune cell populations. Chungkookjang is a Korean traditional fermented soybean containing microorganisms, enzymes, and bioactive compounds which was used in the treatment of mouse spleen as well as thymus cells (CH1-fermented soybean containing barley, wormwood, and sea tangle; CH2-fermented soybean) and was found to exhibit substantially reduced small DNA fragmentation. An MTT assay showed that the treatment of CH1 and CH2 into the mouse splenocytes and thymocytes sharply increased their survival. Moreover, a FACS analysis also showed that CH1 and CH2 are effective at suppressing the apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes. The fermented soybean isoflavone concentrations, which are implicated in lowering breast and prostate cancers, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and improving bone health, were determined using Capillary Electrophoresis-Electrochemical Detection (CE-ED). The amount of Daidzein in fermented soybean significantly increased by 44-fold dramatically, compared with those in unfermented soybean. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Chungkookjang promote the survival of the mouse spleen and thymus cells in culture by suppressing their apoptotic death. Future studies should investigate which genes are related to apoptosis of the immune cells.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    PubMed

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products. PMID:26989840

  15. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    PubMed

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products.

  16. Anticoagulating effects of water-extractive components from heshiko and narezushi, Japanese fermented aquatic products.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombotic effects of water-extractive components (extracts) from heshiko and narezushi, traditional fermented aquatic products in Japan, were investigated in terms of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis by means of animal experiments. Blood clot formation was suppressed by administration of heshiko and narezushi extracts to both groups of Wistar rats fed artificial and high-fat experimental diets. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time of plasma prepared from the rats, as indices of blood coagulation, were not prolonged by administration of heshiko or narezushi extracts. In contrast, the activities of plasmin and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), key enzymes in the fibrinolytic system, were significantly increased by administration of heshiko and narezushi extracts. These results suggest that the anticoagulating effects of heshiko and narezushi extracts are associated with the promotion of the fibrinolytic system via enhancement of plasmin and tPA activities.

  17. Application of solid-phase extraction to agar-supported fermentation.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Géraldine; Adelin, Emilie; Cortial, Sylvie; Servy, Claudine; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF), a variant of solid-state fermentation, has recently been improved by the development of a dedicated 2 m(2) scale pilot facility, Platotex. We investigated the application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to Ag-SF in order to increase yields and minimize the contamination of the extracts with agar constituents. The selection of the appropriate resin was conducted on liquid-state fermentation and Diaion HP-20 exhibited the highest recovery yield and selectivity for the metabolites of the model fungal strains Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. SPE applied to Ag-SF resulted in a particular compartmentalization of the culture. The mycelium that requires oxygen to grow migrates to the top layer and formed a thick biofilm. The resin beads intercalate between the agar surface and the mycelium layer, and trap directly the compounds secreted by the mycelium through a "solid-solid extraction" (SSE) process. The resin/mycelium layer is easily recovered by scraping the surface and the target metabolites extracted by methanol. Ag-SF associated to SSE represents an ideal compromise for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites with limited economic and environmental impact.

  18. Fructan extracts from wheat stem and barley grain stimulate large bowel fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jenkins, Colin L D; Bushell, Rhys; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of inulin-type fructans for bowel health are well established, but less so for other fructan sources. In vitro data suggest that fructans extracted from cereals are readily fermented and produce favorable short-chain fatty acid profiles; however, whether this occurs in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that in rats, fructans extracted from wheat stem and barley grain would have similar effects on fermentation as oligofructose (OF). Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dietary treatments that contained either 2% or 5% fructan, provided by a barley grain fructan extract (BGFE), a wheat stem fructan extract, or OF or no added fructan (control). The duration of the feeding study was 14 days. Rats fed diets containing 5% fructan had higher cecal digesta weights; larger acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid pools; and lower pHs in comparison with the control group. In addition, only the 5% OF and 5% BGFE groups increased cecal butyrate pools, and 5% BGFE was the only group in which colonic digesta pH was lower than that of the control. Diets containing 2% fructan did not affect any of these fermentation end points. Whereas bifidobacteria numbers in cecal digesta of 2% and 5% OF were higher than that in the control group, they were not different from those in rats fed diets containing BGFE and wheat stem fructan extract. Barley grain and wheat stem fructans produced similar large bowel fermentation patterns to OF when fed to rats at 5% of the diet. PMID:22935343

  19. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones.

  20. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones. PMID:22833369

  1. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  2. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2003-02-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be

  3. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield.

  5. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  6. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield. PMID:27214164

  7. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. PMID:24958776

  8. Red Dyeing Silk in Room Temperature Using Fermented Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Yam Tuber (Pachyrhizus erosus) by Monascus purpureus as an Alternatives of an Eco-friendly Textile Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauliza, I. N.; Mardiyati; Sunendar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Potential dyes to be developed derived from fermentation by Monascus purpureus. As a staple food, rice can be replace to the yam tuber lees as a substrates. The purpose of this study was to compare the dyeability between fermented rice and yam tuber by Monascus purpureus on silk fabrics at the room temperature in any different pH of dyebath. Monascus purpureus first cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for 7 days. Yam tuber peeled, grated and squeezed. The material is taken from yam tuber lees, then inoculated with Monascus purpureus for 14 days until an uniform red color obtained. The substrate is dried and then characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Dyes obtained from fermented rice and yam tuber then extracted and used for dyeing silk at room temperature with various pH of the dyebath. Results showed that dyeing silk with fermented yam tuber having the same color characteristics as fermented rice. The optimum color absorption at a wavelength of 520 nm for both, except on the results of dyeing using fermented yam tuber extract with pH 6 and pH 7. The maximum absorption is achieved at pH 3 with values dyeing K/S 5.840. Color fastness to rubbing are excellent (5 point) in dry rub, while the wet rub still good at the range of 4 to 4/5.

  9. Impact of Extraction Parameters on the Recovery of Lipolytic Activity from Fermented Babassu Cake

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jaqueline N.; Godoy, Mateus G.; Gutarra, Melissa L. E.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  10. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Moumita; Ray, Rina Rani

    2011-01-01

    The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source. PMID:21687577

  11. Lactic fermentation to improve the aroma of protein extracts of sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sabrina; Wittig, Maximilian; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Bez, Jürgen; Eisner, Peter; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-09-15

    Lupin protein extracts (LPE) are prone to the emission of a beany off-flavour during storage, which confines its application in foods. Fermentation of LPE using several lactic acid bacteria was conducted to reduce off-flavour formation in stored samples. The aroma profile of untreated LPE was compared to those of fermented protein extracts (LPEF). Hexanal and n-hexanol were used as indicator substances of progressing lipid oxidation. The most powerful odourants were evaluated by GC-olfactometry-flavour dilution analysis and identified according to their mass spectra, odour descriptions, and retention indices. Twenty two volatile substances with dilution factors equal to or higher than 100 were determined in both LPE and LPEF, amongst them n-pentanal, n-hexanal, 1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octen-2-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and β-damascenone. The aroma profile was significantly modified by the fermentation process and the off-flavours were reduced and/or masked by newly formed compounds.

  12. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  13. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants.

  14. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  15. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  18. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  19. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  20. Use of bacterial extracts to enhance amino acid breakdown in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Herranz, B; Fernández, M; de la Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the intracellular cell-free extracts (ICFEs) of two bacterial strains (Lactobacillus sakei GO and Bacillus pumilus) on the amino acid catabolism and the sensory properties of dry fermented sausages, was investigated. Extracts were added to sausages alone or in combination with a protease, papain. Amino acid breakdown was monitored by the changes in free amino acids, ammonia and amine content during the ripening process. A 15% decrease in the content of free amino acids was observed in sausages added with the ICFE from L. sakei GO. Furthermore, the extract of L. sakei GO significantly reduced (54-68%) the content of the amino acids considered as precursors of the typical ripened flavour, i.e., valine, leucine and isoleucine. Chemical changes were not reflected in a significant improvement of the sensory quality of sausages added with the ICFEs. The potential use of the bacterial ICFEs studied in the present work for the manufacture of dry fermented sausages, and its comparison with the use of fungal extracts, are discussed. PMID:22061560

  1. Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Chae, In-Gyeong; Kim, Mi-Jin; Im, Nam-Kyung; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, In-Seon

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of fermented red ginseng (FRG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoid in FRG extracts were 17.01±2.00 μg/mg and 18.42±3.97 μg/mg, respectively. These extracts were capable of directly scavenging α, α-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. The antioxidative effects of the FRG extracts in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were also investigated. The activities of plasma alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by extract administration as compared to an STZ control group. Hepatic glutathione content depleted by STZ treatment was significantly increased by treatment of the FRG extracts, but the elevation of lipid peroxide content induced by STZ was significantly decreased by the extracts. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase decreased after STZ-treatment were recovered by the treatment of the FRG extracts. These results indicate that FRG extracts have antioxidative effets in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23717054

  2. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, P W; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2004-11-01

    Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in four consecutive periods of 10 d to study the effects of six natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles. Fermenters were fed a diet with a 52:48 forage:concentrate ratio (DM basis). Treatments were no extract (CTR), 15 mg/kg DM of a mixture of equal proportions of all extracts (MIX), and 7.5 mg/kg DM of extracts of garlic (GAR), cinnamon (CIN), yucca (YUC), anise (ANI), oregano (ORE), or pepper (PEP). During the adaptation period (d 1 through 8), samples for ammonia N and VFA concentrations were taken 2 h after feeding. On d 9 and 10, samples for VFA (2 h after feeding), and peptide, AA, and ammonia N concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding) were also taken. Differences were declared at P < 0.05. During the adaptation period, total VFA and ammonia N concentrations were not affected by treatments. The acetate proportion was higher from d 2 to 6 in CIN, GAR, ANI, and ORE, and the propionate proportion was lower from d 2 to 4 in CIN and GAR, and from d 2 to 5 in ANI and ORE, compared with CTR. However, the proportion of individual VFA (mol/100 mol) was similar in all treatments after d 6, except for valerate in d 9 and 10, which was lower in PEP (2.8 +/- 0.27) compared with CTR (3.5 +/- 0.27). The average peptide N concentration was 31% higher in MIX, and 26% higher in CIN and YUC compared with CTR (6.5 +/- 1.07 mg/100 mL). The average AA N concentration was 17 and 15% higher in GAR and ANI, respectively, compared with CTR (7.2 +/- 0.77 mg/100 mL). The average ammonia N concentration was 31% higher in ANI and 25.5% lower in GAR compared with CTR (5.5 +/- 0.51 mg/100 mL). The accumulation of AA and ammonia N in ANI suggested that peptidolysis and deamination were stimulated. The accumulation of AA N and the decrease in ammonia N in GAR suggests that deamination was inhibited. The accumulation of peptide N and the numerical decrease in AA N in CIN suggest that

  3. Persistence of Anticancer Activity in Berry Extracts after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emma M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I. R.

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0–50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer. PMID:23185422

  4. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I R

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  5. Purification and structure determination of gelatinase and collagenase inhibitors from Viola patrinii fermentation extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Kwak, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Hai Yang; Kang, Byoung-Won; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Jung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2010-12-01

    Investigation of collagenase and gelatinase inhibitory natural components afforded two isoflavonoids. Two isoflavonoids, tectorigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Viola patrinii fermentation extracts (VPFE). Of these, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited collagenase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at a concentration of less than 1.5 μM, and compound 2 showed gelatinases A and B inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at 0.3 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively.

  6. Improved functionality of fermented milk is mediated by the synbiotic interaction between Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract and Lactobacillus gasseri strains.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Oh, Sangnam; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Su Gyeong; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cooperative effect of selected Lactobacillus gasseri strains and Cudrania tricuspidata (CT) leaf extract in enhancing the health-promoting activities of fermented milk. Addition of CT increased total bacterial counts and proteolysis during fermentation of milk with L. gasseri strains. Antioxidant capacities were determined by measuring the ABTS, DPPH, and peroxyl radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing power. The antioxidant capacity of CT-supplemented milk was greater than that of milk without supplementation; moreover, the antioxidant activity of CT-supplemented milk was synergistically improved by fermentation with L. gasseri strains. In particular, CT-supplemented milk fermented by L. gasseri 505 showed the highest antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds in CT, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, were metabolized during fermentation with L. gasseri strains, and 3,4-dihydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid was produced as a fermentation metabolite. Moreover, the liberation of bioactive peptides of fermented milk was increased by the proteolytic activity of L. gasseri strains. In particular, six peptides, which were mainly derived from β-casein, were newly identified in this study. These findings suggest that L. gasseri strains metabolize the phenolic acids in the CT and the bioactive peptides released through this interaction improve the antioxidant activity of the fermented milk. PMID:26996626

  7. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  8. Assessment of morphological changes of Clostridium acetobutylicum by flow cytometry during acetone/butanol/ethanol extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    González-Peñas, Helena; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated in extractive fed-batch experiments. In conventional fermentations, metabolic activity ceases when a critical threshold products concentration is reached (~21.6 g solvents l(-1)). Solvents production was increased up to 36.6 and 37.2 g l(-1), respectively, using 2-butyl-1-octanol (aqueous to organic ratio: 1:0.25 v/v) and pomace olive oil (1:1 v/v) as extraction solvents. The morphological changes of different cell types were monitored and quantified using flow cytometry. Butanol production in extractive fermentations with pomace olive oil was achieved mainly by vegetative cells, whereas the percentage of sporulating cells was lower than 10%.

  9. Extractive fermentation of xylanase from Aspergillus tamarii URM 4634 in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anna Carolina; Soares de França Queiroz, Alana Emília; Evaristo dos Santos Nascimento, Talita Camila; Rodrigues, Cristine; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana; Valente de Medeiros, Erika; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Herculano, Polyanna Nunes

    2014-08-01

    Of the many reported applications for xylanase, its use as a food supplement has played an important role for monogastric animals, because it can improve the utilisation of nutrients. The aim of this work was to produce xylanase by extractive fermentation in an aqueous two-phase system using Aspergillus tamarii URM 4634, increasing the scale of production in a bioreactor, partially characterising the xylanase and evaluating its influence on monogastric digestion in vitro. Through extractive fermentation in a bioreactor, xylanase was obtained with an activity of 331.4 U mL(-1) and 72% yield. The xylanase was stable under variable pH and temperature conditions, and it was optimally active at pH 3.6 and 90 °C. Xylanase activity potentiated the simulation of complete monogastric digestion by 6%, and only Mg2+ inhibited its activity. This process provides a system for efficient xylanase production by A. tamarii URM 4634 that has great potential for industrial use.

  10. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA. PMID:20416739

  11. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of fermented corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Oluseyi O; Edema, Mojisola O; Ayeni, Ayodeji O

    2008-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermentation on the proximate composition of corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed formulations. The test ingredients were moistened with tap water and allowed to ferment naturally at room temperature. During fermentation, samples of the fermenting materials were extracted at zero, 24 and 48 h for physico-chemical and microbiological analyses using standard procedures. The microorganisms associated with the fermenting materials were identified as Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Rhodotorula, Geotrichum candidum, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two (R. oligosporus and S. cerevisiae) out of microorganisms present were used as starter cultures to ferment the test ingredients and the fermented products were then analyzed. From the results obtained S. cerevisiae enhanced the protein and fat contents while R. oligosporus was able to degrade the fiber significantly. PMID:17502134

  13. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Orsolya Erzsebet; Csiszar, Emilia; Toth, Karolina; Szakacs, George; Koczka, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic and hydrolytic enzymes were produced with six selected fungi on flax substrate by solid state fermentation (SSF). The extracellular enzyme production of the organisms in two SSF media was evaluated by measuring the soluble protein concentration and the filter paper, endoxylanase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, 1,4-β-d-endoglucanase, polygalacturonase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase activities of the clear culture solutions produced by conventional extraction from the SSF materials. The SSF material of the best enzyme producer (Trichoderma virens TUB F-498) was further investigated to enhance the enzyme recovery by low frequency ultrasound treatment. Performance of both the original and ultrasound macerated crude enzyme mixtures was evaluated in degradation of the colored lignin-containing and waxy materials of raw linen fabric. Results proved that sonication (at 40%, 60% and 80% amplitudes, for 60min) did not result in reduction in the filter paper, lignin peroxidase and laccase activities of the crude enzyme solution, but has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of enzyme extraction from the SSF material. Depending on the parameters of sonication, the enzyme activities in the extracts obtained can be increased up to 129-413% of the original activities measured in the control extracts recovered by a common magnetic stirrer. Sonication also has an effect on both the enzymatic removal of the lignin-containing color materials and hydrophobic surface layer from the raw linen.

  15. Changes in Microbial Diversity, Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics in the Rumen in Response to Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Moon, Yea Hwang; Min, Kwan-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Sam Churl; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts on ruminal methanogenesis, four different groups of methanogens and ruminal fermentation characteristics. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Licorice and mugwort extracts (Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Artemisia capillaris, 0.5% and 1% of total substrate DM, respectively), previously used as folk remedies, were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with buffered-rumen fluid. Total gas production in Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment was not significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) while total gas production in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment was lower than that of the control. Artemisia capillaris extract and Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract reduced CH4 emission by 14% (p<0.05) and 8% (p<0.05), respectively. Ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased by 18% in the medicinal plant extracts treatments. Medicinal plant extracts also affected the order Methanobacteriales community. Methanobacteriales diversity decreased by 35% in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment and 30% in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment. The order Methanomicrobiales population decreased by 50% in the 0.5% of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment. These findings demonstrate that medicinal plant extracts have the potential to inhibit in vitro ruminal methanogenesis. PMID:25049911

  16. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h. PMID:21052547

  17. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    PubMed

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers. PMID:25674452

  18. Fermented guava leaf extract inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in Mouse macrophage cells by inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho; Park, Soo-Young; Jin, Yeong-Jun; Ko, Hee-Chul; Moon, Sang-Wook; Kim, Se-Jae

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the antiinflammatory activities of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaf. To improve the functionality of guava leaf, it was fermented with Phellinus linteus mycelia, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol extract from fermented guava leaf inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. Western blot analysis showed that fermented guava leaf extract decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the mechanism involved, the study examined the effect of fermented guava leaf extract on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Fermented guava leaf extract significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Immunochemical analysis revealed that fermented guava leaf extract suppressed LPS-induced degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Taken together, the data indicate that fermented guava leaf extract is involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB pathway, revealing a partial molecular basis for the antiinflammatory properties of fermented guava leaf extract.

  19. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  20. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  1. Ethanolic extract of fermented Thunb induces human leukemic HL-60 and Molt-4 cell apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a medicinal plant of the Saururaceae family which features antimutagenic and antiviral properties. For extraction, the whole plants were fermented or non-fermented with yeast and ethanol then the whole plants were dried, ground and extracted with 95% ethanol or water. The aims of this study were to compare cytotoxic effects, apoptosis induction, and mechanism(s) with the ethanolic and water extracts of fermented and non-fermented HCT. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay in human leukemic HL-60, Molt-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Apoptotic death was characterized by staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Peroxide radical production and reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-9 was identified by immunoblotting. The ethanolic extract of fermented HCT was cytotoxic to HL-60 >Molt- 4 > PBMCs, to a greater extent than the non-fermented preparation and the number of apoptotic cells was higher. The alcoholic (fermented) extract produced more radicals than the non-fermented in HL-60 cells but the converse was observed in Molt-4 cells. Reduction of MTP was found in HL-60 and Molt-4 cells treated with the alcoholic (fermented) extract and caspase-9 was cleaved dose-dependently in both cells. In conclusion, the alcoholic extract of fermented HCT was more toxic to human leukemic cells than the non-fermented and both cell lines underwent apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22393956

  2. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of germinated and fermented mung bean on ethanol-mediated liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.

  3. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Application of continuous substrate feeding to the ABE fermentation: Relief of product inhibition using extraction, perstraction, stripping, and pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.; Friedl, A.

    1992-09-01

    The technique of continuous substrate feeding has been applied to the batch fermentation process using freely suspended cells, for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production. To avoid the product inhibition which normally restricts ABE production to less than 20 g/L and sugar utilization to 60 g/L, a product removal technique has been integrated into the fermentation process. The techniques investigated were liquid-liquid extraction, perstraction, gas-stripping, and pervaporation. By using a substrate of whey permeate, the reactor productivity has been improved over that observed in a traditional batch fermentation, while equivalent lactose utilization and ABE production values of 180 g and 69 g, respectively, have been achieved in a 1-L culture volume. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Tea and soybean extracts in combination with milk fermentation inhibit growth and enterocyte adherence of selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties of pure plant extracts (PPEs) of green tea (GT), black tea (BT) and soybean individually or in combination with milk. Fermented phenolic enriched-milk (fPEM) was prepared by combining PPEs with milk and fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated by broth-dilution and agar diffusion assay. Anti-adhesive property of extracts was evaluated in Caco-2 cell model. Results from antibacterial tests showed that PPEs exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Tea extracts were more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria while soybean extract exhibited similar effects against all pathogens tested. For fPEM, although total phenolic contents decreased compared with those in PPEs, growth inhibitory effect of fPEM containing tea extracts was greatly enhanced. All extracts showed significant inhibition against pathogen adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In particular, adhesion inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was >89% when fPEM extracts were applied.

  8. Effect of extraction, microbial fermentation and storage on the cardenolide profile of Strophanthus kombé Oliv. seed preparations.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Diana N; Huber, Ursula; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2016-09-10

    Strophanthus extracts containing cardioactive cardenolides are still applied in European complementary medicine for the treatment of heart diseases. However, the cardenolide profile and the fate of individual compounds during extraction and storage are not well understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the cardenolide compound pattern in extracts of different polarity and their structural changes upon storage in aqueous fermented preparations. For this purpose, individual cardenolides were quantitated by a UHPLC-DAD validated method using an internal standard. Three different extraction protocols were compared: hydroethanolic extraction under reflux with and without previous defatting of the seed material and ultrasonic-assisted extraction at ambient temperature. Reflux extraction of non-defatted seeds showed maximum cardenolide yields. Differences in the cardenolide contents of seeds of the different origins Zimbabwe and Malawi were observed. The cardenolide profile and metabolization of individual compounds upon fermentation and storage of S. kombé seed extracts revealed that predominant cardenolides, mainly strophanthidin glycosides, changed upon storage over 12 months. Cardenolides exhibiting two or three saccharide moieties were degraded presumably by β-glucosidase activities, originating from the plant material or lactobacilli, releasing the corresponding monoglycosides. The latter were further degraded into the corresponding aglycones probably by acid hydrolysis as a result of lactic acid accumulation. PMID:27416523

  9. Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

    2008-11-15

    The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164. PMID:19260332

  10. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  11. Inhibitory effects of fermented extract of Ophiopogon japonicas on thrombin-induced vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun-Hui; Jeong, Gi Hee; Park, Sung Lyea; Won, Se Yeon; Paek, Nam Soo; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Ophiopogon japonicus is known to have various pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the effects of an extract of fermented Ophiopogon japonicas (FEOJ) on thrombin‑treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). FEOJ treatment inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs treated with thrombin as indicated by an MTT assay. These inhibitory effects were associated with decreased phosphorylation of AKT, reduced expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27KIP1 in thrombin‑induced VSMCs. In addition, FEOJ treatment suppressed the thrombin‑stimulated migration of VSMCs as demonstrated by a wound‑healing migration assay. Furthermore, zymographic analyses demonstrated that treatment of FEOJ with VSMCs suppressed the thrombin‑induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, which was attributed to the reduction of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB binding activity. Collectively, these results demonstrated that FEOJ induced p27KIP1 expression, reduced cyclin D1 expression and AKT phosphorylation, and inhibited MMP‑2 expression mediated by downregulation of NF‑κB binding activity in thrombin‑treated VSMCs, which led to growth inhibition and repression of migration. These results supported the use of FEOJ for the prevention of vascular diseases and provided novel insight into the underlying mechanism of action.

  12. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively. PMID:25812919

  13. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively.

  14. Fermentation of ginseng extracts by Penicillium simplicissimum GS33 and anti-ovarian cancer activity of fermented products.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Yin, Zhenhao; Wu, Lunpeng; Yin, Chengri

    2014-03-01

    A total of 58 isolates of β-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil around the wild ginseng roots under forest using Esculin-R2A agar. Among these isolates, strain GS33 showed a strong ability to convert ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into F2, Rg3, C-K, and convert ginsenoside Rg1 into Rh1, and F1. Fermented ginseng products can inhibit ES-2 cells growth and the IC₅₀ value was 0.73 mg ml⁻¹. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain GS33 belongs to the genus Penicillium and is most closely related to Penicillium simplicissimum (99 %).

  15. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  16. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hussin, Aminuddin Bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  17. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    PubMed

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets.

  18. Effects of diet and Aspergillus oryzae extract or Saccharomyces cervisiae on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and steers fed to meet requirements of natural markets.

    PubMed

    Zerby, H N; Bard, J L; Loerch, S C; Kuber, P S; Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L

    2011-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of diet and feed additive on growth and carcass characteristics of lambs and cattle destined for all natural markets. In Exp. 1, 48 Dorset × Hampshire lambs (initial BW 29.4 ± 0.1 kg) were used in a randomized complete block experiment to determine the effects of Aspergillus oryzae extract, Amaferm (AMF) supplementation (1 g/d) in an 85% concentrate diet on growth and carcass characteristics. Lambs were allotted to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen), and blocked by sex and BW. Lambs were fed until the average BW of each pen reached a target BW (55.4 kg for wethers and 50.0 kg for ewes), at which time the entire pen of lambs was slaughtered. Amaferm resulted in a greater (P=0.07) G:F. In Exp. 2, 168 crossbred steers (initial BW 300 ± 0.7 kg) were used in a trial with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to examine the effects of 0.5 g/d of Saccaromyces cervisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell SB (LEV), or 3 g/d of AMF with 2 corn sources, dry whole-shelled corn or high moisture corn, on growth and carcass characteristics. Neither LEV nor AMF improved (P>0.10) carcass characteristics compared with control or non-feed-supplemented steers. Addition of LEV to high-concentrate, corn-based diets did not improve (P>0.10) growth performance of feedlot steers. However, addition of AMF to a diet composed of dry whole-shelled corn resulted in an improvement (P<0.05) in G:F (0.208 vs. 0.194). Results indicate that at the amounts fed, AMF may improve G:F for lambs and steers fed dry corn-based finishing diets. PMID:21317341

  19. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising. PMID:27103893

  20. Microbiological characterization and functionality of set-type yogurt fermented with potential prebiotic substrates Cudrania tricuspidata and Morus alba L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 plant leaf extracts on fermentation mechanisms and health-promoting activities and their potential as a nutraceutical prebiotics ingredient for application in dairy products. The individual active phenolic compounds in the plant extract-supplemented milk and yogurts were also identified. Compared with control fermentation, the plant extracts significantly increased the growth and acidification rate of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. In particular, plant extract components, including monosaccharides, formic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, together play a stimulatory role and cause this beneficial effect on the growth of yogurt culture bacteria through fermentation. In addition, supplementation with the plant extracts enhanced antioxidant activities with increased total phenolic contents, especially the highest antioxidant activity was observed in yogurt supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract. PMID:27236762

  1. Microbiological characterization and functionality of set-type yogurt fermented with potential prebiotic substrates Cudrania tricuspidata and Morus alba L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 plant leaf extracts on fermentation mechanisms and health-promoting activities and their potential as a nutraceutical prebiotics ingredient for application in dairy products. The individual active phenolic compounds in the plant extract-supplemented milk and yogurts were also identified. Compared with control fermentation, the plant extracts significantly increased the growth and acidification rate of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. In particular, plant extract components, including monosaccharides, formic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, together play a stimulatory role and cause this beneficial effect on the growth of yogurt culture bacteria through fermentation. In addition, supplementation with the plant extracts enhanced antioxidant activities with increased total phenolic contents, especially the highest antioxidant activity was observed in yogurt supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract.

  2. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Danuta; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew; Jachacz-Jówko, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives), sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1), and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2). The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage). The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage. PMID:25961018

  3. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality.

    PubMed

    Neffe-Skocińska, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew; Jachacz-Jówko, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives), sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1), and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2). The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage). The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  4. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  5. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  6. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    PubMed

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s).

  7. Extraction of natural red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using aqueous two-phase polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Lopes, André Moreni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns related to the increasing and widespread application of synthetic coloring agents have increased the demand for natural colorants. Fungi have been employed in the production of novel and safer colorants. In order to obtain the colorants from fermented broth, suitable extraction systems must be developed. Aqueous two-phase polymer systems (ATPPS) offer a favorable chemical environment and provide a promising alternative for extracting and solubilizing these molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the partitioning of red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using an ATPPS composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). Red colorants partitioned preferentially to the top (PEG-rich phase). In systems composed of PEG 6,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol, optimum colorant partition coefficient (KC ) was obtained in the presence of NaCl 0.1 M (KC  = 10.30) while the PEG 10,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol system in the presence of Na2 SO4 0.5 M showed the highest KC (14.78). For both polymers, the mass balance (%MB) and yield in the PEG phase (%ηTOP ) were close to 100 and 79%, respectively. The protein selectivity in all conditions evaluated ranged from 2.0-3.0, which shows a suitable separation of the red colorants and proteins present in the fermented broth. The results suggest that the partitioning of the red colorants is dependent on both the PEG molecular size and salt type. Furthermore, the results obtained support the potential application of ATPPS as the first step of a purification process to recover colorants from fermented broth of microorganisms.

  8. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages.

  9. Extraction of natural red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using aqueous two-phase polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Lopes, André Moreni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns related to the increasing and widespread application of synthetic coloring agents have increased the demand for natural colorants. Fungi have been employed in the production of novel and safer colorants. In order to obtain the colorants from fermented broth, suitable extraction systems must be developed. Aqueous two-phase polymer systems (ATPPS) offer a favorable chemical environment and provide a promising alternative for extracting and solubilizing these molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the partitioning of red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using an ATPPS composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). Red colorants partitioned preferentially to the top (PEG-rich phase). In systems composed of PEG 6,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol, optimum colorant partition coefficient (KC ) was obtained in the presence of NaCl 0.1 M (KC  = 10.30) while the PEG 10,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol system in the presence of Na2 SO4 0.5 M showed the highest KC (14.78). For both polymers, the mass balance (%MB) and yield in the PEG phase (%ηTOP ) were close to 100 and 79%, respectively. The protein selectivity in all conditions evaluated ranged from 2.0-3.0, which shows a suitable separation of the red colorants and proteins present in the fermented broth. The results suggest that the partitioning of the red colorants is dependent on both the PEG molecular size and salt type. Furthermore, the results obtained support the potential application of ATPPS as the first step of a purification process to recover colorants from fermented broth of microorganisms. PMID:26097197

  10. Utilization of natural antioxidants: Green tea extract and Thymbra spicata oil in Turkish dry-fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2006-07-01

    Effect of natural (green tea extract, Thymbra spicata oil) and synthetic antioxidants (buthylatedhydroxytoluene, BHT) on the safety (biogenic amine and TBARS values) and quality (pH, colour and sensory attributes) of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) were investigated during the ripening periods. Addition of antioxidants decreased (P<0.05) the TBARS values. It was found that natural antioxidants decreased TBARS formation more than BHT. Antioxidants reduced (P<0.05) putrescine formation in the following order: green tea extract>green tea extract-T. spicata oil>T. spicata oil>BHT, and their mean values were 70.45, 76.05, 83.13, and 95.97mg/kg, respectively. The highest tyramine concentration was observed in control sucuk prepared without any antioxidants, while the lowest was in the recipe with green tea extract as their mean values were about 99.42 and 64.31mg/kg, respectively. The pH, L, b, and overall sensory quality were not significantly different (P>0.05) with the addition of green tea extract, T. spicata oil, green tea extract-T. spicata oil. These results indicated that the most effective antioxidant was found to be green tea extract. This study pointed out that natural antioxidants were more effective than synthetic antioxidants, so they could be easily utilized in sucuk to enhance quality and provide safer products.

  11. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step.

  12. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Hong, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  13. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC. PMID:27313637

  14. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Eom, Min Rye; Jung, Youn Sik; Hong, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC. PMID:27313637

  15. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  16. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  17. Development of an energy efficient means of extracting ethanol from fermentating biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, S.F.

    1983-12-07

    The development of a biological membrane in which yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are embedded in an artificial membrane by avidin-biotin binding such that each cell is exposed on both sides of the membrane is described. The purpose was to develop a means by which ethanol could be efficiently separated from fermenting biomass. (ACR)

  18. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun T.; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J.; Lee, Sang M.; Lee, Sang S.; Lee, Il D.; Lee, Su K.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  19. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.

  20. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  1. Protective effect of fermented soybean dried extracts against TPA-induced oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  2. Astaxanthin preparation by fermentation of esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal extracts with Stenotrophomonas species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Li, Xuemin; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2016-05-01

    Natural astaxanthin (Ax) is an additive that is widely used because of its beneficial biochemical functions. However, the methods used to produce free Ax have drawbacks. Chemical saponification methods produce several by-products, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis methods are not cost effective. In this study, a bacterial strain of Stenotrophomonas sp. was selected to enzymatically catalyze the saponification of Ax esters to produce free all-trans-Ax. Through single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken design, the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: a seed culture age of 37.79 h, an inoculum concentration of 5.92%, and an initial broth pH of 6.80. Under these conditions, a fermentation curve was drawn, and the optimal fermentation time was shown to be 60 h. At 60 h, the degradation rate of the Ax esters was 98.08%, and the yield of free all-trans-Ax was 50.130 μg/mL. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:649-656, 2016.

  3. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  4. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (PB; African locust bean), a natural nutritional condiment that features frequently in some African diets as a spice, was investigated in the present study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide (Daonil; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France), a reference antidiabetic drug. The effects of PB on lipid profiles were also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB on experimental animals, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. In addition, the weight of each animal was determined to assess any possible weight gain or loss in the experimental animals (diabetic rats treated with Daonil (group C), the aqueous extract of PB (group D) or the methanolic extract of PB (group E)) compared with control groups (non-diabetic (group A) and non-treated diabetic (group B)). 3. A single dose of 120 mg/kg, i.v., alloxan administered to rats resulted in significant increases in the FPG (P < 0.001) of test animals compared with controls. However, dietary supplementation with PB (6 g/kg extract for 4 weeks administered orally using an intragastric tube) ameliorated the alloxan-induced diabetes in a manner comparable with that of the reference antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB (6% w/w) elicited 69.2% and 64.4% reductions, respectively, in FPG compared with 70.4% in 0.01 mg/150 g glibenclamide-treated rats. 4. Although animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB gained weight in manner similar to normal controls, animals given the methanolic extract and glibenclamide lost weight in manner similar to non-treated diabetic rats. In addition, high levels of HDL and low LDL were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in

  5. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ω-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ω-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and α- and/or β-oxidation.

  6. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity. PMID:26299532

  7. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity.

  8. Studies on a new immunoactive peptide, FK-156. II. Fermentation, extraction and chemical and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, T; Nakahara, K; Nishiura, T; Hashimoto, M; Kino, T; Kuroda, Y; Okuhara, M; Kohsaka, M; Aoki, H; Imanaka, H

    1982-10-01

    An interesting immunoactive peptide, FK-156, has been isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces olivaceogriseus sp. nov. and Streptomyces violaceus. The compound was purified by column chromatography with activated carbon, ion exchange Sephadex and cellulose powder. FK-156, obtained as white powder, exhibits a wide variety of immunostimulatory activity in vivo and in vitro with experimental animals. Pretreatment of mice or rats with this peptide protected the animals against lethal infection with Escherichia coli and resulted in prolongation of life span of tumor bearing animals. PMID:6757224

  9. Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity.

  10. Bioproduction of 4-vinylphenol from corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate in two-phase extractive fermentation using free or immobilized recombinant E. coli expressing pad gene.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-05-10

    In situ extractive fermentation was used to produce 4-vinyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids extracted from corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Lactobacillus plantarum phenolic acid descarboxylase (PAD) gene. This microorganism mainly produced 4-vinylphenol (4VP) from p-coumaric acid (p-CA). In the first study , we observed that the concentrations of 4VP are higher than 1g/L which had a negative impact on decarboxylation of p-CA to 4VP by recombinant E. coli cells. Because of this, and in order to improve the downstream process, a two-phase aqueous-organic solvent system was developed. The results of the extractive fermentation indicated that it was possible to use hydrolyzates as aqueous phase to bioproduce 4VP, and recover simultaneously the product in the organic phase containing hexane. The detoxification of pre-treated corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate improved 4VP production up to 1003.5mg/L after 24h fermentation (QP=41.813mg/Lh). Additionally, preliminary experiments using cells immobilized in calcium alginate showed to be a good system for the biotransform of p-CA to 4VP in extractive fermentation, although the process hindered partially the recovery of 4VP in the organic phase. PMID:24731821

  11. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  12. Enhanced Product Recovery from Glycerol Fermentation into 3-Carbon Compounds in a Bioelectrochemical System Combined with In Situ Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Roume, Hugo; Arends, Jan B. A.; Ameril, Camar P.; Patil, Sunil A.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-01-01

    Given the large amount of crude glycerol formed as a by-product in the biodiesel industries and the concomitant decrease in its overall market price, there is a need to add extra value to this biorefinery side stream. Upgrading can be achieved by new biotechnologies dealing with recovery and conversion of glycerol present in wastewaters into value-added products, aiming at a zero-waste policy and developing an economically viable process. In microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), the mixed microbial community growing on the cathode can convert glycerol reductively to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO). However, the product yield is rather limited in BESs compared with classic fermentation processes, and the synthesis of side-products, resulting from oxidation of glycerol, such as organic acids, represents a major burden for recovery of 1,3-PDO. Here, we show that the use of an enriched mixed-microbial community of glycerol degraders and in situ extraction of organic acids positively impacts 1,3-PDO yield and allows additional recovery of propionate from glycerol. We report the highest production yield achieved (0.72 mol1,3-PDO mol−1glycerol) in electricity-driven 1,3-PDO biosynthesis from raw glycerol, which is very close to the 1,3-PDO yield reported thus far for a mixed-microbial culture-based glycerol fermentation process. We also present a combined approach for 1,3-PDO production and propionate extraction in a single three chamber reactor system, which leads to recovery of additional 3-carbon compounds in BESs. This opens up further opportunities for an economical upgrading of biodiesel refinery side or waste streams. PMID:27725929

  13. The cardioprotective effect of an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on cultured cardiomyocytes derived from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dludla, P V; Muller, C J F; Louw, J; Joubert, E; Salie, R; Opoku, A R; Johnson, R

    2014-04-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disorder of the heart muscle that contributes to cardiovascular deaths in the diabetic population. Excessive generation of free radicals has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM. The use of antioxidants, through dietary supplementation, to combat increased cellular oxidative stress has gained popularity worldwide. Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) is a popular herbal tea that contains a novel antioxidant, aspalathin. Literature has reported on the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects of rooibos. However, its protective effect against DCM has not been established. Therefore, this study investigated whether chronic exposure to an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos (FRE) has an ex vivo cardioprotective effect on hearts obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Adult Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg of STZ. Two weeks after STZ injection, cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured. Cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with FRE (1 and 10 μg/ml), vitamin E (50 μg/ml), and n-acetyl cysteine (1mM) for 6h, before exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or an ischemic solution. Cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2 or an ischemic solution showed a decrease in metabolic activity and glutathione content with a concomitant increase in apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment with FRE was able to combat these effects and the observed amelioration was better than the known antioxidant vitamin E. This study provides evidence that an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos protects cardiomyocytes, derived from diabetic rats, against experimentally induced oxidative stress and ischemia. PMID:24268738

  14. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage.

    PubMed

    Kurćubić, Vladimir S; Mašković, Pavle Z; Vujić, Jelena M; Vranić, Danijela V; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica M; Okanović, Đorđe G; Lilić, Slobodan V

    2014-08-01

    Fermented dry sausages (FDS) without nitrite added, fortified with bioactive phenol and flavonoid compounds originating from the ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia were food matrix for investigation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency. These activities were researched in order to improve the sausages' shelf-life, safety, and provide health benefits to consumers as well. The oxidative stability of the FDS, containing two different levels of natural preservative, was evaluated using five different contemporary methods for antioxidative activity. The activity was tested on the 20th day of the refrigerated storage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sausage extract were determined against six microorganisms, using a micro dilution method. Determined optimal effective concentration of dissolved K. vitifolia extract (12.5 g/kg of meat dough) revealed strong antioxidant activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations=15.625 μg/mL). The modified sausages had typical chemical-physical characteristics of FDS, controlled on 0, 13, 26 d of ripening and 20, 40 and 60 d of storage.

  16. Antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts and their gut fermentation products in the human colon carcinoma cell line caco-2.

    PubMed

    Bellion, Phillip; Hofmann, Thomas; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Knaup, Bastian; Richling, Elke; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2008-08-13

    Apples represent a major dietary source of antioxidative polyphenols. Their metabolic conversion by the gut microflora might generate products that protect the intestine against oxidative damage. We studied the antioxidant effectiveness of supernatants of fermented apple juice extracts (F-AEs, 6 and 24 h fermentation) and of selected phenolic degradation products, identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Cell free antioxidant capacity of unfermented apple juice extracts (AEs) was decreased after fermentation by 30-50%. In the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, F-AEs (containing <0.5% of original AE-phenolics) decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level more efficiently than the F-blank (fermented without AE) but were less effective than the respective AEs. Similarly, antioxidant effectiveness of individual degradation products was lower compared to respective AE constituents. Glutathione level was slightly increased and oxidative DNA damage slightly decreased by fermented AE03, rich in quercetin glycosides. In conclusion, F-AEs/degradation products exhibit antioxidant activity in colon cells but to a lesser extent than the respective unfermented AEs/constituents.

  17. Growth kinetics and physiological behavior of co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, fermenting carob sugars extracted with whey.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E; Constantino, A; Raposo, S; Felizardo, C; Gonçalves, D; Fernandes, T; Dionísio, L; Peinado, J M

    2016-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of carob waste sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) extracted with cheese whey, by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis has been analyzed. Growth and fermentation of S. cerevisiae in the carob-whey medium showed an inhibition of about 30% in comparison with water-extracted carob. The inhibition of K. lactis on carob-whey was greater (70%) when compared with the whey medium alone, due to osmolarity problems. Oxygen availability was a very important factor for K. lactis, influencing its fermentation performance. When K. lactis was grown alone on carob-whey medium, lactose was always consumed first, and glucose and fructose were consumed afterwards, only at high aeration conditions. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis was completely inhibited and, at low aeration, died after 3 days; at high aeration this culture could survive but growth and lactose fermentation were only recovered after S. cerevisiae became stationary. To overcome the osmolarity and K. lactis' oxygen problems, the medium had to be diluted and a sequential fermentative process was designed in a STR-3l reactor. K. lactis was inoculated first and, with low aeration (0.13vvm), consumed all the lactose in 48h. Then S. cerevisiae was inoculated, consuming the total of the carob sugars, and producing ethanol in a fed-batch regime. The established co-culture with K. lactis increased S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerance. This fermentation process produced ethanol with good efficiency (80g/l final concentration and a conversion factor of 0.4g ethanol/g sugar), eliminating all the sugars of the mixed waste. These efficient fermentative results pointed to a new joint treatment of agro-industrial wastes which may be implemented successfully, with economic and environmental sustainability for a bioethanol industrial proposal.

  18. Growth kinetics and physiological behavior of co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, fermenting carob sugars extracted with whey.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E; Constantino, A; Raposo, S; Felizardo, C; Gonçalves, D; Fernandes, T; Dionísio, L; Peinado, J M

    2016-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of carob waste sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) extracted with cheese whey, by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis has been analyzed. Growth and fermentation of S. cerevisiae in the carob-whey medium showed an inhibition of about 30% in comparison with water-extracted carob. The inhibition of K. lactis on carob-whey was greater (70%) when compared with the whey medium alone, due to osmolarity problems. Oxygen availability was a very important factor for K. lactis, influencing its fermentation performance. When K. lactis was grown alone on carob-whey medium, lactose was always consumed first, and glucose and fructose were consumed afterwards, only at high aeration conditions. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis was completely inhibited and, at low aeration, died after 3 days; at high aeration this culture could survive but growth and lactose fermentation were only recovered after S. cerevisiae became stationary. To overcome the osmolarity and K. lactis' oxygen problems, the medium had to be diluted and a sequential fermentative process was designed in a STR-3l reactor. K. lactis was inoculated first and, with low aeration (0.13vvm), consumed all the lactose in 48h. Then S. cerevisiae was inoculated, consuming the total of the carob sugars, and producing ethanol in a fed-batch regime. The established co-culture with K. lactis increased S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerance. This fermentation process produced ethanol with good efficiency (80g/l final concentration and a conversion factor of 0.4g ethanol/g sugar), eliminating all the sugars of the mixed waste. These efficient fermentative results pointed to a new joint treatment of agro-industrial wastes which may be implemented successfully, with economic and environmental sustainability for a bioethanol industrial proposal. PMID:27542743

  19. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid...

  4. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.

    PubMed

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dorado, Maria Pilar; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-05-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement.

  5. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Anti-Amnesic Effect of Fermented Ganoderma lucidum Water Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu Jin; Yang, Hee Sun; Jo, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Cheon; Park, Tae Young; Choi, Bong Suk; Seo, Kyoung Sun; Huh, Chang Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-amnesic effect of fermented Ganoderma lucidum water extracts (GW) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. GW were fermented by the lactic acid bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (FGWB), followed by Lactobacillus sakei LI033 (FGWBL). To induce amnesia, scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats 30 min before the behavioral tests. Step-through latencies of rats treated with primary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWB) and secondary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWBL) were significantly longer than those of rats treated with GW (300 mg/kg) in the retention trial of the multiple trial passive avoidance test. In the Morris water maze task, FGWBL significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials. Furthermore, swimming times within the target zone during the probe trial with FGWBL were significantly higher than the GW and FGWB treatments. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activities were lower in the brains of scopolamine-treated rats treated with FGWBL. These results suggest that FGWBL could be useful to enhance learning memory and cognitive function via cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:26176000

  7. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry.

  8. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  9. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  10. Fermented Acanthopanax koreanum Root Extract Reduces UVB- and H2O2-Induced Senescence in Human Skin Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Ja; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2016-07-28

    The present study assessed the effects of an aqueous extract of Acanthopanax koreanum root (AE) and of AE following fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) (AEF) on human skin fibroblast HS68 cells exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and oxidative stress. AEF effectively antagonized the senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and upregulation of p53 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) induced by UVB or H2O2 treatment in HS68 cells. It also exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in radical scavenging assays and reduced the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species induced by UVB or H2O2 treatment. The antioxidant and antisenescent activities of AEF were greater than those of nonfermented A. koreanum extract. AEF significantly repressed the UVB- or H2O2-induced activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -3, overexpression of MMP-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. This repression of NF-κB activation and MMP-1 overexpression was attenuated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase activator, suggesting that this AEF activity was dependent on this signaling pathway. Taken together, these data indicated that AEF-mediated antioxidant and anti-photoaging activities may produce anti-wrinkle effects on human skin. PMID:27090187

  11. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  12. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  13. Effective extraction of elastase from Bacillus sp. fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase system*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; He, Guo-qing; Li, Jing-jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for extracting elastase produced by Bacillus sp. EL31410. The elastase and cell partition behavio r in polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt systems was investigated. The suitable system for elastase extraction was PEG/KH2PO4-K2HPO4, in which elastase is mainly partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, while the cells remained in the other phase. The influence of defined system parameters (e.g. PEG molecular mass, pH, NaCl addition) on the partitioning behavior of elastase is described. The concentration of phase forming components, PEG and KH2PO4-K2HPO4, was optimized for elastase recovery by means of response surface methodology, and it was found that they greatly influenced extraction recovery. The optimal ATPS was 23.1% (w/w) PEG 2 000 and 11.7% (w/w) KH2PO4-K2HPO4. The predicted recovery was about 89.5%, so this process is suggested to be a rapid and convenient method for elastase extraction. PMID:16252343

  14. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Adriana C; Castro, Ruann J S; Fontenele, Maria A; Egito, Antonio S; Farinas, Cristiane S; Pinto, Gustavo A S

    2013-12-25

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 10(7) spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40 mL of water to 100 g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200 kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5 min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes.

  15. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 107 spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40 mL of water to 100 g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200 kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5 min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  16. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Nam, YoonYi; Jung, Harry; Karuppasamy, Sankarapandian; Lee, Jae-Yeon; Kang, Kyung-Don; Hwang, Kyo-Yeol; Seong, Su-Il

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of soy bean extract solution fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1E) in obese db/db mice. Eight-week-old male db/db mice were administered 33.3 mg/kg BTD-1E solution orally once a day for four weeks. The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.05). The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels compared with the db control group, respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01). The BTD-1E group showed significantly decreased liver weight relative to final body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.01). After four weeks of BTD-1E administration, lipid droplets in the liver were apparently decreased in the BTD-1E group compared to the db control group. In summary, our results suggest that BTD-1E has an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the obese mouse model. PMID:22787486

  17. Effects of a fermented barley extract on subjects with slightly high serum uric acid or mild hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Hokazono, Hideki; Omori, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Akaoka, Ieo; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    The uric acid-lowering effect and safety of a fermented barley extract P (FBEP) prepared from barley-shochu distillery by-products were investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blinded study. A total of 111 subjects with serum uric acid levels of 6.0-7.9 mg/dl were provided with either a drink containing 2 g/d of FBEP (test group) or a placebo drink. After 12 weeks, the serum uric acid levels changed by -0.21+/-0.56 mg/dl in the test group, showing a significant decrease in comparison to those of the placebo group (+0.02+/-0.54 mg/dl). Additionally, the uric acid clearance in the test group showed a tendency to increase after 12 weeks more than in the placebo group (p=0.054). No abnormalities in the physical and clinical tests were observed, and no adverse diagnostic findings were attributed to the intake of the test meal. These results demonstrated the benefits and safety of the FBEP treatment to subjects with slightly high serum uric acid or mild hyperuricemia.

  18. Antiobesity Effect of Garlic Extract Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum BL2 in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seop; Lim, Won-Chul; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is viewed as a serious public health problem. This study aimed to investigate the antiobesity effects of fermented garlic extract by lactic acid bacteria (LAFGE) on obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. The HFD-induced obese mice were orally administrated with 250 or 500 mg/kg LAFGE for 8 weeks. Feeding HFD-fed mice with 250 or 500 mg/kg LAFGE reduced body weight by 14% and 18%, respectively, compared to HFD. HFD-fed mice with 500 mg/kg LAFGE administration had lower epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissue mass by 36%, 44%, and 63%, respectively, compared to HFD. The concentration of plasma triacylglyceride and total cholesterol was significantly lower in the HFD-fed mice with LAFGE administration. Moreover, LAFGE supplementation suppressed adipogenesis by downregulation in mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and lipogenic proteins, including SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1. Based on these findings, LAFGE may ameliorate diet-induced obesity by inhibiting adipose tissue hypertrophy by suppressing adipogenesis. PMID:27627701

  19. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. PMID:27155264

  20. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield.

  1. Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Cho, Donghyun; Lee, Bum Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Choi, Jae Young; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure and accumulation of excess lipids in adipose tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea and its processed products (e.g., oolong and black tea) are introduced to exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Here, we propose that fermented green tea (FGT) extract, as a novel processed green tea, exhibits antiobesity effects. FGT reduced body weight gain and fat mass without modifying food intake. mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and inflammatory genes were downregulated in white adipose tissue of FGT-administered mice. FGT treatment alleviated glucose intolerance and fatty liver symptoms, common complications of obesity. Notably, FGT restored the changes in gut microbiota composition (e.g., the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides/Prevotella ratios), which is reported to be closely related with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, induced by high-fat diets. Collectively, FGT improves obesity and its associated symptoms and modulates composition of gut microbiota; thus, it could be used as a novel dietary component to control obesity and related symptoms.

  2. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  3. Effective saccharification of kraft pulp by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Sakai, Shoji; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp is a promising feedstock for bioproduction. The efficiency of kraft pulp saccharification was improved by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae. Application of the cellulase cocktail was demonstrated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, using kraft pulp and non-cellulolytic yeast. Such application would make possible to do an efficient production of other chemicals from kraft pulp.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Haliotis discus hannai fermented with Cordyceps militaris mycelia in RAW264.7 macrophages through TRIF-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hong-Joo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Suck; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2014-05-01

    In this study, Haliotis discus hannai (H. discus hannai) fermentation was attempted with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using a solid culture. We tried to ferment H. discus hannai to determine the optimal conditions fermentation with regards to its anti-inflammatory effects. The extracts of H. discus hannai fermented with C. militaris mycelia (HFCM-5) showed higher nitric oxide inhibitory effects than H. discus hannai and C. militaris alone. HFCM-5 also decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. HFCM-5 did not affect the MyD88-dependent pathway, but decreased phosphorylation of IRF3 and STAT1 which are involved in TRIF-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that HFCM-5 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via TRIF signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a functional food in the regulation of inflammation.

  5. Bioethanol fermentation by recombinant E. coli FBR5 and its robust mutant FBHW using hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate as substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjun; Lin, Lu; Sun, Zhijie; Hu, Ruofei; Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Hemicellulose is a potential by-product currently under-utilized in the papermaking industry. It is a hetero-carbohydrate polymer. For hardwood hemicelluloses, D-xylose is the major component upon depolymerization. At SUNY-ESF, wood extracts were obtained by extracting sugar maple wood chips with hot water at an elevated temperature. The wood extracts were then concentrated and acid hydrolyzed. Ethanologenic bacteria, E. coli FBR5, had a good performance in pure xylose medium for ethanol production. However, FBR5 was strongly inhibited in dilute sulfuric acid hydrolyzate of hot-water wood extract. FBR5 was challenged by hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate in this study. After repeated strain adaptation, an improved strain: E. coli FBHW was obtained. Fermentation experiments indicated that FBHW was resistant to the toxicity of hydrolyzate in the fermentation media of concentrated hydrolyzate, and xylose was completely utilized by the strain to produce ethanol. FBHW was grown in the concentrated hydrolyzate without any detoxification treatment and has yielded 36.8g/L ethanol.

  6. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  7. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  8. Effect of heat treatment on total phenolic and anthocyanin contents as well as antioxidant activity of the extract from Aspergillus awamori-fermented black soybeans, a healthy food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus awamori-fermented black soybeans, a healthy food ingredient, were subjected to heating at 40-100 degrees C for 30 min. After heat treatment, the methanol extract of the fermented black soybeans was examined for antioxidant activity including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrozyl radical-scavenging effect and the Fe(2+)-chelating ability. It was found that antioxidant activity exerted by the methanol extract was stable with heating at a temperature up to 80 degrees C for 30 min. The extract showed a reduced antioxidant activity after heating the fermented black soybeans at 100 degrees C for 30 min. However, it showed approximately 70% and 40%, respectively, of the original 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrozyl radical-scavenging effect and the Fe(2+)-chelating ability. Heating also reduced the total phenolic and anthocyanin content in the fermented black soybeans, but this reduction did not coincide closely with the reduction of antioxidant activity observed.

  9. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  10. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties.

  11. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters.

  12. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. PMID:27464006

  13. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5 g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7 g/L after 48 hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7 g/L, respectively, after 48 hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475 g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD.

  14. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms. PMID:27800004

  15. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  16. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  17. A toxic metabolite of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) petch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Davis, N D; Diener, U L

    1986-09-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated from dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) collected in Auburn and from hay shipped under refrigeration to Florida. Some of these samples were eaten by cattle and horses that subsequently developed lameness. Metabolites of N. oryzae were separated by thin layer chromatography and tested for toxicity. Only one metabolite was toxic. Metabolite A showed toxicity to brine shrimp with an LD50 = 500 micrograms/ml in 8 h. It also had an antibiotic effect on Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with a minimum inhibitory level of 10.1 micrograms/disc. As little as 435 micrograms of a crude methanolic extract of N. oryzae showed mild toxicity to chick embryos. The metabolite was not toxic to mice nor rats at the levels tested. Quantitative procedures developed for the determination of metabolite A showed that the maximum production occurred in yeast extract-sucrose liquid medium with an initial pH of 5-6, when incubated as a stationary culture for 28 days at 25 degrees C. It was concluded that metabolite A is a weak antibiotic rather than a mycotoxin, and was probably not associated with the symptoms of lameness observed in cattle and horses. The antibiotic is not one previously reported for N. oryzae. PMID:3095644

  18. Alcohol-free fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage phenolic extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle H; Wallig, Matthew; Luna Vital, Diego A; de Mejia, Elvira G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of phenolic compounds from a fermented blackberry-blueberry beverage to reduce diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 10weeks after 1week of pretreatment. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into six groups and allowed to drink (ad libitum) an alcohol-free blackberry-blueberry beverage [alcohol-free fermented beverage (AFFB), 8.4mg anthocyanin (ANC)/kg body weight (BW)/day]; three doses of a phenolic extract [postamberlite extract (PAE)] from AFFB at 0.1×, 1× and 2× ANC concentrations; sitagliptin (hypoglycemic positive control); or water (negative control). Weight and fat mass gain were attenuated in mice receiving the highest doses of PAE (18.9mg ANC/kg BW/day, P<.05). There were also reductions (P<.05) in percent fat mass, epididymal fat pad weights, mean adipocyte diameters and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol associated with PAE treatments. By the end of the study, fasting blood glucose for mice receiving 9mg (1×) or 18.9mg (2×) ANC/kg BW/day was significantly lower than in the water and the sitagliptin groups (P<.05). Histological and histochemical analyses revealed an unexpected change in liver of mice fed ANC at 1× or 2× doses consisting of liver enlargement and increased lipid deposition. PAE also induced the most differential gene expression changes, including highly significant downstream effects at all doses to reduce d-glucose concentrations. Overall, phenolic compounds from the fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage had an impact to attenuate the development of obesity and fasting blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:27133423

  19. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  20. Comparative study of multi-enzyme production from typical agro-industrial residues and ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude enzyme in fermentation with Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 for multi-enzyme complexes (MEC) production were comparatively studied. The results showed that orange peel and wheat bran were the best substrates for MEC production in SmF and SSF, respectively. After 72 h of cultivation under SmF, the maximal pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase activities reached 2610, 85, and 335 U/gds (units/gram dry substrate), respectively; while after 72 h of cultivation under SSF, these three enzymes' activities reached 966, 58, and 1004 U/gds, respectively. Effects of ultrasound on extraction of crude enzymes from SSF medium were determined, the maximal activities of pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase increased to 1.20, 1.48, and 1.30-fold, respectively. Apparent different mycelia growths of SSF and SmF were observed by scanning electron microscopy; and different isoforms of the crude enzyme extracts from SSF and SmF were presented by zymogram analysis.

  1. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process.

  2. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  3. Enhanced fumaric acid production from brewery wastewater and insight into the morphology of Rhizopus oryzae 1526.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    The present work explores brewery wastewater as a novel substrate for fumaric acid production employing the filamentous fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae 1526 through submerged fermentation. The effects of different parameters such as substrate total solid concentrations, fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size on the fungal morphologies were investigated. Different morphological forms (mycelium clumps, suspended mycelium, and solid/hairy pellets) of R. oryzae 1526 were obtained at different applied fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size. Among all the obtained morphologies, pellet morphology was found to be the most favorable for enhanced production of fumaric acid for different studied parameters. Scanning electron microscopic investigation was done to reveal the detailed morphologies of the pellets formed under all optimized conditions. With all the optimized growth conditions (pH 6, 25 °C, 200 rpm, 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 25 g/L total solid concentration, and pellet diameter of 0.465 ± 0.04 mm), the highest concentration of fumaric acid achieved was 31.3 ± 2.77 g/L. The results demonstrated that brewery wastewater could be used as a good substrate for the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 in submerged fermentation for the production of fumaric acid. PMID:24469587

  4. Effect of the dates of extraction on the quality of potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Saito, Katsuichi; Noda, Takahiro; Tsuda, Shogo; Mori, Motoyuki; Hasa, Yasuhiro; Kito, Hideki; Oda, Yuji

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fundamental properties of potato pulp and to explore its potential uses. Lactic acid bacteria were the dominant microbes in potato pulp over the season (maximum being 10(8)/g). The water content in potato pulp was approximately 80% in all season. Starch and fiber were the main components of potato pulp, amounting to 80% of the dried matter regardless of the season. The fermentation of potato pulp by Rhizopus oryzae progressed only in the potato pulp extracted at the end of the season. This indicated that the fermentation of potato pulp was influenced by the dates of extraction, and it was assumed that the quality of the components, such as pectin, varied with such dates.

  5. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  6. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species.

    PubMed

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/. PMID:26578696

  7. Fermentation of purple Jerusalem artichoke extract to improve the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro and ameliorate blood glucose in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sun Youb

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db). MATERIALS/METHODS The water extract of PJA was fermented by L. plantarum, and two strains of Bacillus subtilis to compare their anti-α-glucosidase activities in vitro by α-glucosidase assays. The anti-diabetes effect of LJA was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db) for seven weeks. During the experiment, food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. At the end of the treatment period, several diabetic parameters and the intestinal α-glucosidase activity were measured. RESULTS The LJA showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, it resulted in a significantly lower blood glucose concentration than the control. Serum insulin and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher and the concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol were significant lower in mice treated with LJA after seven weeks. In addition, the intestinal α-glucosidase activity was partially inhibited. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that LJA regulates blood glucose and has potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:27247724

  8. Screening for the effects of natural plant extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of a high-concentrate diet for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, P W; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2005-11-01

    Six natural plant extracts and three secondary plant metabolites were tested at five doses (0, 0.3, 3, 30, and 300 mg/L) and two different pH (7.0 and 5.5) in a duplicate 9 x 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine their effects on in vitro microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from heifers fed a high-concentrate finishing diet. Treatments were extracts of garlic (GAR), cinnamon (CIN), yucca (YUC), anise (ANI), oregano (ORE), and capsicum (CAP) and pure cinnamaldehyde (CDH), anethole (ATL), and eugenol (EUG). Each treatment was tested in triplicate and in two periods. Fifty milliliters of a 1:1 ruminal fluid-to-buffer solution were introduced into polypropylene tubes supplied with 0.5 g of DM of a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet (15.4% CP, 16.0% NDF; DM basis) and incubated for 24 h at 39 degrees C. Samples were collected for ammonia N and VFA concentrations. The decrease in pH from 7.0 to 5.5 resulted in lower (P < 0.05) total VFA, ammonia N, branched-chain VFA concentration, acetate proportion, and acetate:propionate, and in a higher (P < 0.05) propionate proportion. The interaction between pH and doses was significant for all measurements, except for ATL and CDH for butyrate, ATL and EUG for acetate:propionate ratio, and ORE for ammonia N concentration. The high dose of all plant extracts decreased (P < 0.05) total VFA concentrations. When pH was 7.0, ATL, GAR, CAP, and CDH decreased (P < 0.05) total VFA concentration, and ANI, ORE, CIN, CAP, and CDH increased (P < 0.05) the acetate:propionate. The CIN, GAR, CAP, CDH, ORE, and YUC decreased (P < 0.05), and EUG, ANI, and ATL increased (P < 0.05) ammonia N concentration. The effects of plant extracts on the fermentation profile when pH was 7.0 were not favorable for beef production. In contrast, when pH was 5.5, total VFA concentration did not change (ATL, ANI, ORE, and CIN) or increased (P < 0.05) (EUG, GAR, CAP, CDH, and YUC), and the acetate:propionate (ORE, GAR, CAP, CDH, and YUC) decreased

  9. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  10. Effects of sonication on the extraction of free-amino acids from moromi and application to the laboratory scale rapid fermentation of soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kok Ming; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping

    2017-01-15

    Soy sauce fermentation was simulated in a laboratory and subjected to 10min of sonication. A full factorial design, including different cycles, probe size, and amplitude was used. The composition of 17 free-amino acids (FAAs) was determined by the AccQ-Tag method with fluorescent detection. Main effect plots showed total FAAs extraction was favoured under continuous sonication at 100% amplitude using a 14mm diameter transducer probe, reaching 1214.2±64.3mg/100ml of total FAAs. Moreover, after 7days of fermentation, sonication treatment caused significantly higher levels (p<0.05) of glutamic acids (343.0±22.09mg/100g), total FAAs (1720.0±70.6mg/100g), and essential FAAs (776.3±7.0mg/100g) 3days sooner than the control. Meanwhile, enzymatic and microbial behaviours remained undisturbed. Collectively, the sonication to moromi resulted in maturation 57% faster than the untreated control. PMID:27542468

  11. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  12. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  13. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  14. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  15. Effects of dietary fibre-rich juice colloids from apple pomace extraction juices on intestinal fermentation products and microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Jacobasch, Gisela; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2003-09-01

    Effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymic liquefaction on food intake, body and faecal weights, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and selected intestinal microbiota were investigated in rats. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets without any apple dietary fibre (DF) (control) or supplement with 5 % B-juice colloids or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Rats fed with apple DF (5 % B-juice colloids or AIS) gained less weight than control rats (P<0.05). B-juice colloids did not affect food intake, whereas feeding AIS resulted in a 10 % higher food consumption than in control rats. Both juice colloids and AIS increased the weight of caecal contents in rats and lowered luminal pH values (P<0.05). In addition, SCFA concentrations and total yields were also raised (P<0.05) in caecum of these rats indicating good fermentability of apple substrates by gut microflora. Distinctly higher concentrations of acetate and propionate were found in intestinal contents of juice colloid-fed rats (P<0.05), whereas AIS also increased butyrate yield. Changes in microbiota due to apple DF in diets were restricted in the caecum to the Eubacterium rectale cluster (AIS; P<0.05) and in faeces to the Bacteroidaceae (juice colloids and AIS; P<0.05). The present study shows the physiological effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymic liquefaction on intestinal fermentation. Results may be helpful for the development of such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  17. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extracts Obtained from Raw and Fermented Wild Macrofungus, Lenzites quercina

    PubMed Central

    Ogidi, Olusola Clement; Oyetayo, Victor Olusegun; Akinyele, Bamidele Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In recent time, there is a major concern about antibiotic resistance displayed by some pathogenic microorganisms and this had involved a continuous search for natural antimicrobial products. The phytochemistry as well as antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Lenzites quercina was investigated. The extracts and purified fractions were, respectively, tested against indicator organisms using agar well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. The quantity of phytochemicals found in the extracts of L. quercina ranged from 14.4 to 20.7 mg/g for alkaloids, 6.1 to 12.8 mg/g for steroids, 4.5 to 10.6 mg/g for saponins, 2.8 to 17.2 mg/g for terpenoids, and 0.41 to 17.1 mg/g for flavonoids. The gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis of the extract reveals the presence of caprylic acid, stearic acid, tetradecanoic acid, methyl-11-octadecenoate, oleic acid, and 4-methyl-2-propyl-1-pentanol. Extracts of L. quercina and its purified fractions exhibited wider range of inhibition (4 mm to 26 mm) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial effects of L. quercina extracts indicate that this wild macrofungus contains significant amount of pharmacological agents, which could be extracted to curb the menace of antibiotic resistances by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26604928

  19. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  20. Optimization of medium for one-step fermentation of inulin extract from Jerusalem artichoke tubers using Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 to produce R,R-2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Xu, Hong; Li, Qiu-jie; Feng, Xiao-hai; Li, Sha

    2010-09-01

    The medium for one-step fermentation of raw inulin extract from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 to produce R,R-2,3-butanediol (R,R-2,3-BD) was developed. Inulin, K(2)HPO(4) and NH(4)Cl were found to be the key factors in the fermentation according to the results obtained from the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The optimal concentration range of the three factors was examined by the steepest ascent path, and their optimal concentration was further investigated according to the Box-Behnken design and determined to be 77.14 g/L, 3.09 g/L and 0.93 g/L, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration of the obtained R,R-2,3-BD was 36.92 g/L, at more than 98% optical purity. Compared with other investigated carbon resources, fermentation of the raw inulin extract afforded the highest yield of R,R-2,3-BD. This process featured one-step fermentation of inulin without further hydrolyzing, which greatly decreased the raw material cost and thus facilitated its practical application.

  1. Extraction and Esterification of Low-Titer Short-Chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Berton, Jan K E T; Naert, Pieter; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Rabaey, Korneel; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-23

    Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2 . In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. The esterification proceeded with a maximum conversion of 85.9±1.3 % after 30 min at 75 °C at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of reactants. Extraction and esterification can be tailored using mixed-anion ionic liquids; this is demonstrated herein using a common trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and a mixed chloride and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ionic liquid. As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis.

  2. Extraction and Esterification of Low-Titer Short-Chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Berton, Jan K E T; Naert, Pieter; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Rabaey, Korneel; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-23

    Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2 . In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. The esterification proceeded with a maximum conversion of 85.9±1.3 % after 30 min at 75 °C at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of reactants. Extraction and esterification can be tailored using mixed-anion ionic liquids; this is demonstrated herein using a common trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and a mixed chloride and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ionic liquid. As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis. PMID:27390131

  3. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  4. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  5. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  6. Effects of Monascus-fermented grain extracts on plasma antioxidant status and tissue levels of ubiquinones and α-tocopherol in hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Seong, Ki-Seung

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of Monascus-fermented mixed grain extracts (MFGEs) enriched with bioactive mevinolins (natural statins) and coenzyme Qs (CoQ9+CoQ10) on the blood lipids, antioxidant status, and tissue levels of CoQs and α-tocopherol (α-Toc) in hyperlipidemic rats. The oral administration of MFGEs (300 mg/kg body weight per day) for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio compared to the control and lovastatin supplement group of a dosage of 20mg/kg per day (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant increase in the ratios of α-Toc/LDL-C and CoQs/LDL-C in plasma and tissues and improvement in plasma antioxidant status as measured by TBARS and TRAP were observed in hypercholesterolemic rats (p<0.05). Regarding the effects of MFGEs on antioxidant levels of plasma and tissues, there were significant increases in the levels of α-Toc (p<0.05) and CoQs (p<0.01) after the 8-week MFGEs treatment. These data indicate that MFGEs supplementation not only decreases blood lipids and lipid peroxidation but also increases levels of antioxidants such as α-Toc and CoQs and may improve plasma antioxidant status as well as a hypolipidemic effect. PMID:23768376

  7. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Joo Wan; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-Kwang; Sohn, Jae Hak; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects. PMID:25214876

  9. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits. PMID:19698158

  10. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

  11. Anti-glycation properties of the aqueous extract solutions of dried algae products and effect of lactic acid fermentation on the properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Eda, Mika; Kataoka, Manami; Nemoto, Maki; Kawahara, Miho; Oshio, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2016-02-01

    The antioxidant and anti-glycation properties in aqueous extract solutions (AESs) of 11 dried algae products were investigated. AESs of brown algae Ecklonia kurome (kurome) and Ecklonia stolonifera (tsuruarame) showed a strong DPPH radical-scavenging capacity and Fe-reducing power with high total phenolic compound content. On the other hand, superoxide anion radical-scavenging capacities of Porphyra sp. (iwanori, red alga), sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (mekabu, brown alga), and Gelidiaceae sp. (tengusa, red alga) were also high. Anti-glycation activities in BSA-fructose and BSA-methylglyoxal glycation were also high in kurome, while iwanori showed high activity. Results of the BSA-fructose model agreed with those of superoxide anion radical-scavenging. On the other hand, those of the BSA-methylglyoxal model agreed with those of the phenolic content, DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and Fe-reducing power. Anti-glycation activities of iwanori, U. pinnatifida (wakame), and mekabu in the BSA-fructose model were clearly increased by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum AN6. PMID:26304454

  12. Telomere hypervariability in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Farman, Mark L; Kim, Yun-Sik

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY The gray leaf spot disease of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph = Pyricularia oryzae). A collection of single-copy and repetitive DNA markers was used to investigate genetic diversity among 22 isolates of the gray leaf spot pathogen. The single-copy DNA markers revealed only three polymorphisms among 95 restriction fragments spanning approximately 0.6% of the genome. In addition, Southern hybridization analysis and mating tests revealed that all isolates possessed the MAT1-2 mating-type allele. Fingerprinting of repetitive DNA loci using the Pot2 and MGR583 probes also revealed a high degree of genetic similarity (> 85%) among isolates. These data are consistent with the gray leaf spot pathogens having a recent evolutionary origin. In contrast to the results obtained with probes for internal chromosome loci, a telomere probe revealed that the chromosome ends of the very same isolates are highly divergent, with most isolates sharing less than 20% fingerprint similarity with any other isolate. Telomere mutations arise extremely frequently and changes in telomere fingerprint profiles were readily observed during vegetative growth and among cultures derived from single spores isolated from agar medium and from lesions on perennial ryegrass leaves. PMID:20565657

  13. Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also

  14. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the African Strain AXO1947 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Huguet-Tapia, J. C.; Peng, Z.; Yang, B.; Yin, Z.; Liu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the etiological agent of bacterial rice blight. Three distinct clades of X. oryzae pv. oryzae are known. We present the complete annotated genome of the African clade strain AXO194 using long-read single-molecule PacBio sequencing technology. The genome comprises a single chromosome of 4,674,975 bp and encodes for nine transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors. The approach and data presented in this announcement provide information for complex bacterial genome organization and the discovery of new virulence effectors, and they facilitate target characterization of TAL effectors. PMID:26868406

  16. Acetone-butanol fermentation of marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay; Gill, Gary A; Roesijadi, Guri

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to subject mannitol, either as a sole carbon source or in combination with glucose, and aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., containing mannitol and laminarin, to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  17. Specific Oligopeptides in Fermented Soybean Extract Inhibit NF-κB-Dependent iNOS and Cytokine Induction by Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Wu, Hong Min; Lee, Chan Gyu; Sung, Dae Il; Song, Hye Jung; Matsui, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The ethanol extract of fermented soybean from Glycine max (chungkookjang, CHU) has been claimed to have chemopreventive and cytoprotective effects. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of CHU on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokine induction by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands treatment and attempted to identify the responsible active components. Nitric oxide (NO) content and iNOS levels in the media or RAW264.7 cells were measured using the Griess reagent and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. CHU treatment inhibited NO production and iNOS induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4L) in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 productions were also diminished. Peptidoglycans (TLR2/6L) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (TLR9L) from CHU inhibited iNOS induction, but not poly I:C (TLR3L) or loxoribine (TLF7L). The anti-inflammatory effect resulted from the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) through the inhibition of inhibitory-κB degradation. Of the representative components in CHU, specific oligopeptides (AFPG and GVAWWMY) had the ability to inhibit iNOS induction by LPS, whereas others failed to do so. Daidzein, an isoflavone used for comparative purposes, was active at a relatively higher concentration. In an animal model, oral administration of CHU to rats significantly diminished carrageenan-induced paw edema and iNOS induction. Our results demonstrate that CHU has anti-inflammatory effects against TLR ligands by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which may result from specific oligopeptide components in CHU. Since CHU is orally effective, dietary applications of CHU and/or the identified oligopeptides may be of use in the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25184943

  18. Effect of quebracho-chestnut tannin extracts at 2 dietary crude protein levels on performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Capozzolo, M C; Lencioni, P; Cabral, C; Wattiaux, M A

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of a tannin mixture extract on lactating cow performance, rumen fermentation, and N partitioning, and whether responses were affected by dietary crude protein (CP). The experiment was conducted as a split-plot with 24 Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation; 669±55kg of body weight; 87±36 d in milk; 8 ruminally cannulated) randomly assigned to a diet of [dry matter (DM) basis] 15.3 or 16.6% CP (whole plot) and 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.80% of a tannin mixture in three 4×4 Latin squares within each level of CP (sub-plot). Tannin extract mixture was from quebracho and chestnut trees (2:1 ratio). Dietary CP level did not influence responses to tannin supplementation. A linear decrease in DM intake (25.5 to 23.4kg/d) was found, as well as a linear increase in milk/DM intake (1.62 to 1.75) and a trend for a linear decrease in fat-and-protein-corrected milk (38.4 to 37.1kg/d) with increasing levels of tannin supplementation. In addition, there was a negative linear effect for milk urea N (14.0 to 12.9mg/dL), milk protein yield (1.20 to 1.15kg), and concentration (2.87 to 2.83%). Furthermore, the change in milk protein concentration tended to be quadratic, and predicted maximum was 2.89% for a tannin mixture fed at 0.47% of dietary DM. Tannin supplementation reduced ruminal NH3-N (11.3 to 8.8mg/dL), total branched-chain volatile fatty acid concentration (2.97 to 2.47mol/100mol), DM, organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Dietary tannin had no effect on intake N (587±63g/d), milk N (175±32g/d), or N utilization efficiency (29.7±4.4%). However, feeding tannin extracts linearly increased fecal N excretion (214 to 256g/d), but reduced urinary N (213 to 177g/d) and urinary urea N (141 to 116g/d) excretion. Decreasing dietary CP did not influence milk production, but increased N utilization efficiency (milk N/N intake; 0.27 to 0.33), and decreased milk urea N (15.4 to 11.8mg/dL), ruminal NH3-N (11.0 to 9.3mg

  19. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Results Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l-1, which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g-1 in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g-1 in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l-1 h-1 after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l-1 while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l-1 the lowest rate of 0.12 g l-1 h-1 was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g-1) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l-1 and LGJ 25 g l-1, and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l-1. Conclusions This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l-1 concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l-1. Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients

  20. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  1. Fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation for food waste treatment and fermentation feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-01

    Potential of fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae as a food waste treatment process and for preparation of fermentation feedstock has been investigated. By fungal hydrolysis, 80-90% of the initial amount of waste was reduced and degraded within 36-48 h into glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN) and phosphate. Experiments revealed that 80-90% of starch can be converted into glucose and highest concentration of FAN obtained, when solid mashes of A. awamori and A. oryzae are successively added to fermentations at an interval of 24h. A maximal solid-to-liquid ratio of 43.2% (w/v) of food waste has been tested without a negative impact on releases of glucose, FAN and phosphate, and final concentrations of 143 g L(-1), 1.8 g L(-1) and 1.6 g L(-1) were obtained in the hydrolysate, respectively. Additionally, fungal hydrolysis as an alternative to conventional treatments for utilization of food waste is discussed.

  2. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  3. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Yeast Extracts from Cultivations of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Catalyzing ortho-Hydroxylation of Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Te-sheng; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of melanogenesis by yeast extracts from cultivations of recombinant Pichia pastoris catalyzing ortho-hydroxylation of flavonoids was investigated. The recombinant yeast harbored a fusion gene composed of the CYP57B3 gene from Aspergillus oryzae and a cytochrome reductase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ten flavonoids belonging to flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, and isoflavones were evaluated for biotransformation by the recombinant strain. The results showed that five flavonoids, including the flavone apigenin, the flavanones naringenin and liquiritigenin, and the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, could be biotransformed. The yeast extracts from the five biotransformation fermentations were then evaluated for inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in cultured mouse B16 melanoma cells. Three yeast extracts from biotransformation fermentation feeding with daidzein, genistein, or apigenin showed inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in the B16 cells, while the extract from genistein biotransformation exhibited the highest activity. The yeast extract from genistein biotransformation also showed inhibitory activity on cellular tyrosinase activity in the B16 cells. The present study shows a CYP with multiple flavonoid substrates for the first time and highlights the usage of yeast extracts from cultivations of the recombinant yeast catalyzing flavonoids' biotransformation in the development of skin-whitening agents.

  4. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  5. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  6. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  7. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  8. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.130 Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. Carbohydrase from Rhizopus oryzae may be safely used in the production of dextrose from starch...

  9. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.130 Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. Carbohydrase from Rhizopus oryzae may be safely used in the production of dextrose from starch...

  10. OsSERK1 regulates rice development but not immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shilu; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ruan, Deling; Yuan, Can; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xuewei; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK) proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of plant development and immunity. The rice genome contains two SERK genes, OsSerk1 and OsSerk2. We previously demonstrated that OsSerk2 is required for rice Xa21-mediated resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and for normal development. Here we report the molecular characterization of OsSerk1. Overexpression of OsSerk1 results in a semi-dwarf phenotype whereas silencing of OsSerk1 results in a reduced angle of the lamina joint. OsSerk1 is not required for rice resistance to Xoo or Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). Overexpression of OsSerk1 in OsSerk2-silenced lines complements phenotypes associated with brassinosteroid (BR) signaling defects, but not the disease resistance phenotype mediated by Xa21. In yeast, OsSERK1 interacts with itself forming homodimers, and also interacts with the kinase domains of OsSERK2 and BRI1, respectively. OsSERK1 is a functional protein kinase capable of auto-phosphorylation in vitro. We conclude that, whereas OsSERK2 regulates both rice development and immunity, OsSERK1 functions in rice development but not immunity to Xoo and M. oryzae. PMID:25266270

  11. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  13. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation.

  14. Functional analysis of histone deacetylase and its role in stress response, drug resistance and solid-state cultivation in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, histone deacetylases (HDACs) play key roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular process such as development regulation, stress response, secondary metabolism and genome integrity. Here, we provide a comprehensive phenotypic analysis using HDAC disruptants in Aspergillus oryzae. Our study revealed that four HDACs, hdaA/Aohda1, hdaB/Aorpd3, hdaD/Aohos2 and hst4/AohstD were involved in stress response, cell wall synthesis and chromatin integrity in A. oryzae. Osmotic stress sensitivity of HDAC disruptants differed between plate cultures and liquid cultures, suggesting that HDACs adapt to the difference environmental conditions. Using a common A. oryzae fermentation medium, rice-koji, we also characterized HDACs related to growth and enzyme production to investigate which HDACs will be required for adaptation to environmental conditions and stress resistances. Because HDACs are widely conserved, our study has broad applications and may inform work with filamentous fungi and other eukaryote. PMID:24613105

  15. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  16. Insecticidal and oviposition deterrent properties of some spices against coleopteran beetle, Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kalpana C; Devi, Sumithra S

    2013-06-01

    Eighteen spices were screened for their insecticidal potential and antiovipositional properties against the rice weevil- Sitophilus oryzae-a serious insect pest of stored food grains. The bioefficacy of the powders and hexane extracts of selected spices were determined by assessing the toxicity, effect on F1 progeny, contact toxicity, persistence and seed viability. Responses varied with the spices, dosage and exposure time. Powders of mace and pepper, at 1% level were highly effective resulting in total mortality of S. oryzae by one week followed by nutmeg and clove with 100% mortality and cinnamon and star anise with 90% mortality at 5% concentration. These spices also completely inhibited F1 progeny. The hexane extracts of these spices at 1,000 ppm showed insecticidal activity, with pepper extract recording 100% mortality by 5 days. S. oryzae was susceptible to clove oil resulting in 92% mortality. Mortality was 51.63% in nutmeg, 66.6% in cinnamon, and 79.8% in case of mace and star anise. Hexane extracts of star anise, cinnamon and clove at 0.59 μl/cm(2) on filter paper discs induced 100% mortality by 72 h. These spices offered protection to wheat up to 9 months without affecting seed germination thereby showing promise as grain protectants. PMID:24425960

  17. Purification and characterization of a thermostable hypothetical xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae HML366.

    PubMed

    He, Haiyan; Qin, Yongling; Li, Nan; Chen, Guiguang; Liang, Zhiqun

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae HML366 in sugar cane bagasse was subjected to ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography, and two xylanases, XynH1 and XynH2, were purified. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that XynH1 is identical to the hypothetical A. oryzae RIB40 protein XP_001826985.1, with a molecular weight of 33.671 kDa. Likewise, XynH2 was identified as xylanase XynF1 with a molecular weight of 35.402 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that XynH1 belongs to glycosyl hydrolases family 10. The specific activity of XynH1 was measured at 476.9 U/mg. Optimal xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0, and enzyme remained active within pH 4.0-10.0 and at a temperature below 70 °C. Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), and K(+) enhanced the XynH1 xylanase activity to 146, 122, 114, and 108%, respectively. XynH1 hydrolyzed Birchwood xylan and Larchwood xylan effectively. The K m and V max of XynH1 values determined were 1.16 mM and 336 μmol/min/mg with Birchwood xylan as the substrate. A. oryzae HML366 xylanase XynH1 showed superior heat and pH tolerance, therefore may have significant applications in paper and biofuel industries. These studies constitute the first investigation of the xylanase activities of the hypothetical protein XP_001826985.1 form A. oryzae. PMID:25604952

  18. Genomic-associated Markers and comparative Genome Maps of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenjie; Wang, Yi; Huang, Lisha; Feng, Chuanshun; Chu, Zhaohui; Ding, Xinhua; Yang, Long

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) cause two major seed quarantine diseases in rice, bacterial blight and bacterial leaf streak, respectively. Xoo and Xoc share high similarity in genomic sequence, which results in hard differentiation of the two pathogens. Genomic-associated Markers and comparative Genome Maps database (GMGM) is an integrated database providing comprehensive information including compared genome maps and full genomic-coverage molecular makers of Xoo and Xoc. This database was established based on bioinformatic analysis of complete sequenced genomes of several X. oryzae pathovars of which the similarity of the genomes was up to 91.39 %. The program was designed with a series of specific PCR primers, including 286 pairs of Xoo dominant markers, 288 pairs of Xoc dominant markers, and 288 pairs of Xoo and Xoc co-dominant markers, which were predicted to distinguish two pathovars. Test on a total of 40 donor pathogen strains using randomly selected 120 pairs of primers demonstrated that over 52.5 % of the primers were efficacious. The GMGM web portal ( http://biodb.sdau.edu.cn/gmgm/ ) will be a powerful tool that can present highly specific diagnostic markers, and it also provides information about comparative genome maps of the two pathogens for future evolution study.

  19. Antimicrobial peptide melittin against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen in rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Li, Caiyun; Li, Man; Zong, Xicui; Han, Dongju; Chen, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a destructive bacterial disease of rice, and the development of an environmentally safe bactericide is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides, as antibacterial sources, may play important roles in bactericide development. In the present study, we found that the antimicrobial peptide melittin had the desired antibacterial activity against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The antibacterial mechanism was investigated by examining its effects on cell membranes, energy metabolism, and nucleic acid, and protein synthesis. The antibacterial effects arose from its ability to interact with the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane by making holes and channels, resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic content. Additionally, melittin is able to permeabilize bacterial membranes and reach the cytoplasm, indicating that there are multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial action. DNA/RNA binding assay suggests that melittin may inhibit macromolecular biosynthesis by binding intracellular targets, such as DNA or RNA, and that those two modes eventually lead to bacterial cell death. Melittin can inhibit X. oryzae pv. oryzae from spreading, alleviating the disease symptoms, which indicated that melittin may have potential applications in plant protection. PMID:26948237

  20. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24755261

  1. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Suppression of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch by an aggressive mycoparasite and competitor, Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom.

    PubMed

    Sempere, F; Santamarina, M P

    2008-02-29

    The objective of this research was to study by means of different techniques, the interaction between Penicillium oxalicum and Nigrospora oryzae under different temperatures (15 and 25 degrees C), water activities (0.95, 0.98, and 0.995) and culture media (rice and rice extract agar). In dual culture, P. oxalicum was dominant over N. oryzae in spite of presenting in the majority of cases, lower growth rates. The microscopic study revealed that P. oxalicum is a powerful mycoparasite, which attacks the conidiophores and the spores of N. oryzae, not only surrounding them, but also penetrating, deforming, destroying and developing reproductive structures inside them. The antagonist did not change its way of performance in the different tested conditions. Water activity and temperature showed a significant effect on fungus growth. PMID:18177964

  3. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Seong Hun; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-11-03

    Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

  4. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Seong Hun; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal TC and TG contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics. PMID:26540072

  5. OM-X®, Fermented Vegetables Extract Suppresses Antigen-Stimulated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Miyake, Yasuyoshi; Kasashima, Takuya; Shimomiya, Yoshie; Nakamura, Yuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Muneaki

    2015-09-01

    OM-X® is a hand-made and naturally manufactured probiotic supplement. This fermented food product is made from vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and mushrooms, using 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. OM-X® is also known to have beneficial health properties, and some of its components show effects on antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation activity, indicating that OM-X® may be useful in the treatment of allergy responses and symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of OM-X® on Ag-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, clarified the underlying mechanisms, and determined the active compounds in OM-X® for suppression of degranulation. Treatment with OM-X® gradually suppressed Ag-stimulated degranulation throughout the maturation period. OM-X® also gradually produced melanoidins by lactic acid bacterial fermentation during the maturation process. There was a high correlation between the suppression levels of Ag-stimulated degranulation and the browning of OM-X®. Furthermore, the inhibition of Ag-stimulated degranulation by OM-X® was found to be partially due to the direct inactivation of NADPH oxidase. To elucidate the in vivo effects of OM- X®, type I allergy model mice were orally administered with OM-X®, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. OM-X® intake remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that OMX® could be a beneficial food to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  6. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  7. Analysis of the Proteins Secreted from the Oryza meyeriana Suspension-Cultured Cells Induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Dong, Yan; Yu, Chulang; Fang, XianPing; Deng, Zhiping; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Oryza meyeriana, a wild species of rice from China, shows high resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the cause of rice bacterial blight, one of the most serious rice pathogens. To better understand the resistance mechanism, a proteomic study was conducted to identify changes in the proteins secreted in embryo cell suspension cultures in response to Xoo. After two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), 72 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 34 proteins were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. Of the 34 proteins, 10 were up regulated and 24 down regulated. The secreted proteins identified were predicted to be involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, defense, ROS and cell wall modification. 77% of the 34 proteins were predicted to have a signal peptide by Signal P. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that transcript levels of 14 secreted proteins were not well correlated with secreted protein levels. Peroxidase activity was up regulated in both O. meyriana and susceptible rice but was about three times higher in O. meyeriana. This suggests that peroxidases may play an important role in the early response to Xoo in O. meyeriana. These results not only provide a better understanding of the resistance mechanism of O. meyeriana, but have implications for studies of the interactions between other plants and their pathogens. PMID:27196123

  8. Simultaneous Production and Recovery of Fumaric Acid from Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae with a Rotary Biofilm Contactor and an Adsorption Column

    PubMed Central

    Cao, N.; Du, J.; Gong, C. S.; Tsao, G. T.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated system of simultaneous fermentation-adsorption for the production and recovery of fumaric acid from glucose by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated. The system was constructed such that growing Rhizopus mycelia were self-immobilized on the plastic discs of a rotary biofilm contactor during the nitrogen-rich growth phase. During the nongrowth, production phase, the biofilm was alternately exposed to liquid medium and air upon rotation of the discs in the horizontal fermentation vessel. The product of fermentation, fumaric acid, was removed simultaneously and continuously by a coupled adsorption column, thereby moderating inhibition, enhancing the fermentation rate, and sustaining cell viability. Another beneficial effect of the removal of fumaric acid is release of hydroxyl ions from a polyvinyl pyridine adsorbent into the circulating fermentation broth. This moderates the decrease in pH that would otherwise occur. Polyvinyl pyridine and IRA-900 gave the highest loading for this type of fermentation. This fermentation system is capable of producing fumaric acid with an average yield of 85 g/liter from 100 g of glucose per liter within 20 h under repetitive fed-batch cycles. On a weight yield basis, 91% of the theoretical maximum was obtained with a productivity of 4.25 g/liter/h. This is in contrast to stirred-tank fermentation supplemented with calcium carbonate, whose average weight yield was 65% after 72 h with a productivity of 0.9 g/liter/h. The immobilized reactor was operated repetitively for 2 weeks without loss of biological activity. PMID:16535381

  9. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  10. Indigenous bacteria and fungi drive traditional kimoto sake fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan; Mills, David A

    2014-09-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. PMID:24973064

  11. Indigenous Bacteria and Fungi Drive Traditional Kimoto Sake Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. PMID:24973064

  12. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yonghong; Yang, Yingge; Zheng, Zhiming; Li, Wen; Wang, Peng; Yao, Liming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-02-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N+ implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2. Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ~ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38°C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  13. Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Iniya Kumar; Xiao, Liwen; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Shi, Jianghong

    2013-06-15

    Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production.

  14. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  15. Aspergillus oryzae pathways that convert phenylalanine into the flavor volatile 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Shunsuke; Osada, Lisa; Zhou, Shengmin; Fujita, Tomoya; Takaya, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 produced 2-phenylethanol (PE) when cultured in minimum medium containing l-phenylalanine as a sole source of nitrogen. The fungus accumulated less PE in the absence of l-phenylalanine, indicating that it converted l-phenylalanine to PE. The PE production associated with fungal glucose consumption was repressed by exogenous ammonium, indicating that nitrogen-metabolite repression controls the pathway that produces PE. We identified the A. oryzae ppdA gene that is expressed at high levels in the presence of exogenous l-phenylalanine and its encoded protein was an active phenylpyruvate decarboxylase. The fungal genome encodes predicted aminotransferases of phenylalanine and PE dehydrogenases, which, together with PpdA, are likely to constitute an Erlich pathway similar to that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces PE. We also identified an A. oryzae aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AadA) that converted l-phenylalanine to phenylethylamine (PEA), and phenylalanine-inducible PEA oxidase activity in fungal cell extracts, and found that both constitute an alternative pathway through which PEA generates PE. Incubating fungal cultures with l-[(2)H8] phenylalanine to distinguish PE produced by these pathways, indicated that the fungus produced PE by both pathways, but to a greater extent by the Erlich pathway. Gene disruption of ppdA and aadA showed that both pathways participate in the fungal conversion of l-phenylalanine to PE.

  16. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  17. Influence of Altered NADH Metabolic Pathway on the Respiratory-deficient Mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and its L-lactate Production.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chang; Guo, Chenchen; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory-deficient mutants of Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) AS 3.3461 were acquired by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to investigate changes in intracellular NADH metabolic pathway and its influence on the fermentation characteristics of the strain. Compared with R. oryzae AS 3.3461, the intracellular ATP level of the respiratory-deficient strain UV-1 decreased by 52.7 % and the glucose utilization rate rose by 8.9 %; When incubated for 36 h, the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the mutant rose by 74.2, 7.2, and 12.0 %, respectively; when incubated for 48 h, the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the mutant rose by 14.6 %; when a mixed carbon source with a glucose/gluconic acid ratio of 1:1 was substituted to culture the mutant, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio decreased by 4.6 %; the ATP content dropped by 27.6 %; the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity rose by 22.7 %; and the lactate yield rose by 11.6 %. These results indicated that changes to the NADH metabolic pathway under a low-energy charge level can effectively increase the glycolytic rate and further improve the yield of L-lactate of R. oryzae.

  18. Diversity of centromeric repeats in two closely related wild rice species, Oryza officinalis and Oryza rhizomatis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weidong; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Qiuying; Zhang, Yu; Han, Bin; Gu, Minghong; Xue, Yongbiao; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-05-01

    Oryza officinalis (CC, 2n = 24) and Oryza rhizomatis (CC, 2n = 24) belong to the Oryza genus, which contains more than 20 identified wild rice species. Although much has been known about the molecular composition and organization of centromeres in Oryza sativa, relatively little is known of its wild relatives. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a 126-bp centromeric satellite (CentO-C) from three bacterial artificial chromosomes of O. officinalis. In addition to CentO-C, low abundance of CentO satellites is also present in O. officinalis. In order to determine the chromosomal locations and distributions of CentO-C (126-bp), CentO (155 bp) and TrsC (366 bp) satellite within O. officinalis, fluorescence in situ hybridization examination was done on pachytene or metaphase I chromosomes. We found that only ten centromeres (excluding centromere 7 and 2) contain CentO-C arrays in O. officinalis, while centromere 7 comprises CentO satellites, and centromere 2 is devoid of any detectable satellites. For TrsC satellites, it was detected at multiple subtelomeric regions in O. officinalis, however, in O. rhizomatis, TrsC sequences were detected both in the four centromeric regions (CEN 3, 4, 10, 11) and the multiple subtelomeric regions. Therefore, these data reveal the evolutionary diversification pattern of centromere DNA within/or between close related species, and could provide an insight into the dynamic evolutionary processes of rice centromere.

  19. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and their regulatory effects on ethanol and lactic acid formation in the living culture of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2014-02-01

    In heterofermentation of Rhizopus oryzae, ethanol is the major byproduct which reduces the production of a desired product, an optically pure L-lactic acid. To improve lactic acid production, regulating the alcohol fermentative pathway to limit ethanol production has been done by various techniques. In vitro study on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibition in several organisms showed that 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol were competitively bound at the active sites that eventually limited ethanol production. In this study, 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol were present during fermentation of R. oryzae. It was found that both 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol not only strongly affected ethanol formation but they also indirectly regulated lactate production as observed by the decreasing affinity for glucose flux toward lactate and ethanol production. The increase in both ethanol and lactate formation rates revealed 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol not only regulated the reversible redox reaction by ADH, but they also caused the dynamic change in the conversion of all metabolites in the living R. oryzae in order to maintain the balanced flux for cellular growth and maintenance.

  20. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  3. Role of the FeoB Protein and Siderophore in Promoting Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on Rice▿

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Alok; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Our analysis revealed that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae genome encodes genes responsible for iron uptake through FeoB (homolog of the major bacterial ferrous iron transporter) and a siderophore. A mutation in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae feoB gene causes severe virulence deficiency, growth deficiency in iron-limiting medium, and constitutive production of a siderophore. We identified an iron regulated xss gene cluster, in which xssABCDE (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) and xsuA (Xanthomonas siderophore utilization) genes encode proteins involved in biosynthesis and utilization of X. oryzae pv. oryzae siderophore. Mutations in the xssA, xssB, and xssE genes cause siderophore deficiency and growth restriction under iron-limiting conditions but are virulence proficient. An xsuA mutant displayed impairment in utilization of native siderophore, suggesting that XsuA acts as a specific receptor for a ferric-siderophore complex. Histochemical and fluorimetric assays with gusA fusions indicate that, during in planta growth, the feoB gene is expressed and that the xss operon is not expressed. This study represents the first report describing a role for feoB in virulence of any plant-pathogenic bacterium and the first functional characterization of a siderophore-biosynthetic gene cluster in any xanthomonad. PMID:20382771

  4. Role of the FeoB protein and siderophore in promoting virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on rice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Alok; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2010-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Our analysis revealed that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae genome encodes genes responsible for iron uptake through FeoB (homolog of the major bacterial ferrous iron transporter) and a siderophore. A mutation in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae feoB gene causes severe virulence deficiency, growth deficiency in iron-limiting medium, and constitutive production of a siderophore. We identified an iron regulated xss gene cluster, in which xssABCDE (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) and xsuA (Xanthomonas siderophore utilization) genes encode proteins involved in biosynthesis and utilization of X. oryzae pv. oryzae siderophore. Mutations in the xssA, xssB, and xssE genes cause siderophore deficiency and growth restriction under iron-limiting conditions but are virulence proficient. An xsuA mutant displayed impairment in utilization of native siderophore, suggesting that XsuA acts as a specific receptor for a ferric-siderophore complex. Histochemical and fluorimetric assays with gusA fusions indicate that, during in planta growth, the feoB gene is expressed and that the xss operon is not expressed. This study represents the first report describing a role for feoB in virulence of any plant-pathogenic bacterium and the first functional characterization of a siderophore-biosynthetic gene cluster in any xanthomonad.

  5. Growth of Aspergillus oryzae during treatment of cassava starch processing wastewater with high content of suspended solids.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quy Tung; Miyata, Naoyuki; Iwahori, Keisuke

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae IFO 30113 was used for the treatment of the cassava starch processing (CSP) wastewater. The observations on the fungal morphology showed that, in the shake flasks containing the CSP wastewater with the high concentration of suspended solids, the formation of pellets originated from the adherence of germinated spores to solid particles in medium. The attached solid particles were also digested during the fungal fermentation and resulted in the formation of the smooth and hollow pellets. The changes of the culture conditions such as inoculum size, initial pH of wastewater, inoculum type and nutrient elements affected on the fungal morphology, biomass accumulation and treatment efficiencies of A. oryzae IFO 30113. In the typical pH range (pH 4-5) of the CSP wastewater, the formation of smooth pellets was predominant and A. oryzae IFO 30113 was satisfiable for the production of fungal biomass and treatment efficiencies. The supplementation of nitrogen sources has shown an improvement in the fungal biomass accumulation and the treatment efficiency of A. oryzae IFO 30113 growing in the CSP wastewater. Especially, high biomass yields (up to 0.8 g/g-COD) were achieved in flasks supplied with peptone. With ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source, 87% total organic carbon (TOC), 91% COD and 94% starch were removed after 96-h incubation. The possibility of the pellet formation despite the presence of the high content of suspended solids would be of great advantage to perform the treatment process and the fungal biomass production on the airlift-type bioreactors by lowering medium viscosity and better mass exchange of oxygen and nutrients.

  6. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine.

    PubMed

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-10-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O32-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Thiosulfate was a quantitative fermentation product. The other fermentation products were ammonia and acetate, and all could be formed by cell-free extracts.

  7. Detection of Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 in Japan and establishment of a rapid, sensitive and direct diagnostic method based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken; Urayama, Syun-Ichi; Katoh, Yu; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hase, Shu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-02-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 (MoCV1) is a mycovirus with a dsRNA genome that infects the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and impairs its growth. To date, MoCV1 has only been found in Vietnamese isolates of M. oryzae, and the distribution of this virus in M. oryzae isolates from other parts of the world remains unknown. In this study, using a one-step reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay, we detected a MoCV1-related virus in M. oryzae in Japan (named MoCV1-AK) whose sequence shares considerable similarity with that of the MoCV1 Vietnamese isolate. To establish a system for a comprehensive survey of MoCV1 infection in the field, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for direct detection of the virus. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was at least as high as that of the one-step RT-PCR assay. In addition, we detected MoCV1-AK in M. oryzae-infected oatmeal agar plates and lesions on rice leaves using the RT-LAMP assay without dsRNA extraction, by simple sampling with a toothpick. Preliminary screening of MoCV1 in Japanese M. oryzae isolates indicated that MoCV1 is currently distributed in rice fields in Japan. Our results provide a first example of the application of RT-LAMP for the detection of mycoviruses, which will accelerate surveys for mycovirus infection. PMID:26547578

  8. Rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance of lambs fed diets containing plant extracts rich in tannins and saponins, and associated emissions of nitrogen and methane.

    PubMed

    Sliwiński, B J; Kreuzer, M; Wettstein, H R; Machmüller, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Tannins were added to experimental diets at levels of 1 and 2 g/kg DM (hydrolysable tannins; Castanea sativa wood extract) and saponins at 2 and 30 mg/kg DM (sarsaponin; Yucca schidigera extract). These levels were far below thresholds expected to be adverse in ruminants. Effects were measured in lambs by comparison with unsupplemented control diets calculated to be either deficient (10%) or adequate in protein. The diets consisted of hay, concentrate (1:1) and extra wheat starch with increasing body weight. Ruminal pH, VFA concentration, protozoa count and apparent digestibilities of organic matter and fibre did not differ among treatments. The low tannin dose significantly decreased bacteria count compared to the high saponin dose. Saponin supplementation and the high tannin dose showed some potential to reduce ruminal ammonia concentration. This was associated with weak trends towards lower urine N excretion (only tannins) and ammonia emission from manure. Methane release was increased by the low tannin dose compared to the unsupplemented control. Diet effects on heat production were not systematic. In conclusion, the extracts rich in tannins or saponins gave only slight indications for either increased body nitrogen retention or reduced nitrogen emission. However, effects might have been larger with more pronounced dietary protein deficit.

  9. Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

    2006-02-01

    Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration.

  10. Increased Flavonoid Compounds from Fermented Houttuynia cordata using Isolated Six of Bacillus from Traditionally Fermented Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ryun Hee; Ha, Bae Jin

    2012-06-01

    Flavonoids, which form a major component in Houttuynia cordata Thunb., display a wide range of pharmacological activities. The expression of plant flavonoids is partly regulated by fermentation. Therefore, we studied the effects of fermentation on H. cordata in order to identify the strains present during the fermentation process, and to determine whether fermented H. cordata could be used as a probiotic. Our results showed that all 6 of the bacterial strains isolated from fermented H. cordata (FHC) belonged to the genus Bacillus. As expected, fermenting H cordata also increased the flavonoid content as increases were observed in the levels of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. To test the effects of fermentation, we treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with non-fermented H. cordata extracts (HCE) or FHC extracts (FHCE). Compared to the HCE-treated cells, the FHCE-treated cells showed increased viability. No cytotoxic effects were detected in the FHCE-treated groups in the 2 cell lines used in the study, namely, RAW264.7 and RBL-2H3. FHCE-treated HepG2 cells showed decreased growth, compared to HCE-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the fermented H. cordata predominantly contained Bacillus strains. Furthermore, FHCE are able to prevent LPS-induced inflammatory effects and inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells. PMID:24278599

  11. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  12. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  13. Time-dependent correlation of the microbial community and the metabolomics of traditional barley nuruk starter fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community and the metabolites of barley nuruk were studied to determine the time-dependent correlation between the fermentation of microbes and metabolites. Samples were analyzed by a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and qPCR analysis), and metabolite analysis using GC-MS. Barley nuruk consists of varying amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The PCR-DGGE results showed that only one phylotype, Aspergillus oryzae, was predominant throughout fermentation, reaching a maximum on day 9. The bacterial load was higher on day 6 of fermentation, and then gradually decreased because of increased fungal activity. The shift in fungal and bacterial diversity observed by DGGE was further confirmed by qPCR analysis. In addition, microbes closely related to Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera appeared to play key roles in the fermentation of barley nuruk. GC-MS analysis combined with multivariate analysis, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA, showed fermentation time-dependent metabolite patterns. A total of 21 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, were identified. In particular, glycerol, malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose were produced at the early fermentation stages (0-6 d), whereas glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, mannitol, and xylitol were produced during the latter stages of fermentation (9-18 d). Mixed culture fermentation was found throughout the natural fermentation of barley nuruk starter. Most likely, A. oryzae had a major role in saccharification, along with other mixed cultures.

  14. Effector Diversification Contributes to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Phenotypic Adaptation in a Semi-Isolated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro; Booher, Nicholas J.; Dossa, Gerbert S.; Grande, Genelou; Szurek, Boris; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Oliva, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shaped contemporary pathogen populations in agricultural landscapes is quite important to define appropriate management strategies and to support crop improvement efforts. Here, we took advantage of an historical record to examine the adaptation pathway of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in a semi-isolated environment represented in the Philippine archipelago. By comparing genomes of key Xoo groups we showed that modern populations derived from three Asian lineages. We also showed that diversification of virulence factors occurred within each lineage, most likely driven by host adaptation, and it was essential to shape contemporary pathogen races. This finding is particularly important because it expands our understanding of pathogen adaptation to modern agriculture. PMID:27667260

  15. A new β-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native β-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous β-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing.

  16. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  17. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  18. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection.

  19. Regulating yeast flavor metabolism by controlling saccharification reaction rate in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Bi; Xu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), in which filamentous fungi produce hydrolases to degrade the starch into fermentable sugar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae simultaneously transforms the sugars to ethanol and flavor compounds. The saccharification rate plays an important role in regulating the liquor yield and flavor profile. This work investigated the effect of saccharification rate on fermentation by regulating the inoculation ratio (1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:5, 1:10) of S. cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, the main saccharification agent. We found no significant difference in reducing sugar content among the mixed cultures with different ratios. This indicated a balance of the saccharification rate and the sugar consumption rate, in which the former was controlled by the interaction between A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae, and the latter controlled the metabolism of the two species. The ethanol yield was the highest in ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:5, while the total production of flavor compounds was the highest for the ratio of 1:0.5, which was mainly attributed to the vigorous metabolism of S. cerevisiae. The inoculum ratio of 1:10 produced the second highest content of flavor compounds in which a large number of alcohols and esters were derived from the vigorous metabolism of A. oryzae. This indicated that the saccharification rate significantly influenced the flavor metabolism. This study improves understanding of the interaction and cooperation between A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae in co-culture fermentation for Chinese liquor making.

  20. [Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink].

    PubMed

    Donskaya, G A

    2014-01-01

    The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance--RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 25-35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 10-19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca-by 25-35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations. PMID:25929025

  1. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

  2. Meroterpenes from Psoralea corylifolia against Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youwu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yingchun; Li, Yiming; Guo, Fujiang

    2014-10-01

    Six new meroterpenes, namely, 13-methoxyisobakuchiol (1), 13-ethoxyisobakuchiol (2), 12,13-dihydro-13-hydroxybakuchiol (3), Δ(10)-12,13-dihydro-12-(R,S)-methoxyisobakuchiol (4 and 5), and 15-demetyl-12,13-dihydro-13-ketobakuchiol (6), together with four known ones, namely, Δ(3),2-hydroxybakuchiol (7), Δ(1),3-hydroxybakuchiol (8), bakuchiol (9), and Δ(1,3)-bakuchiol (10), were isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. Their structures were identified based on spectral data, including those obtained via 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectral analyses. Antifungal screening results indicated that all compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:25127019

  3. Recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Succinic acid is of high interest as bio-feedstock for the chemical industry. It is a precursor for a variety of many other chemicals, e.g. 1,4-butandiol, tetrahydrofuran, biodegradable polymers and fumaric acid. Besides optimized production strains and fermentation processes it is indispensable to develop cost-saving and energy-effective downstream processes to compete with the current petrochemical production process. Various methods such as precipitation, sorption and ion exchange, electrodialysis, and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated for the recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth and are reviewed critically here. PMID:19898782

  4. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ.

  5. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ. PMID:24751382

  6. A mutation in the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae wxoD gene affects xanthan production and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The effect of a mutation in the wxoD gene, that encodes a putative O-antigen acetylase, on xanthan production as well as bacterial chemotaxis was investigated. The mutation increased xanthan production by 52 %. The mutant strain was non-motile on semi-solid agar swarm plates. In addition, several genes involved in chemotaxis, including the cheW, cheV, cheR, and cheD genes, were down-regulated by a mutation in the wxoD gene. Thus, the mutation in the wxoD gene affects xanthan production as well as bacterial chemotaxis. However, the wxoD gene is not essential for the virulence of X. oryzae.

  7. Atypical regulation of virulence-associated functions by a diffusible signal factor in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rikky; Ranjan, Manish; Pradhan, Binod B; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2012-06-01

    In Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, a secreted fatty acid signaling molecule known as diffusible signal factor (DSF) is required for virulence and growth on low-iron medium. To identify other virulence-associated traits that are regulated by DSF in this pathogen, we have performed microarray analysis of transcriptional changes between the wild type and DSF-deficient mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Expression of genes that encode secreted hydrolytic enzymes, motility, and chemotaxis functions are negatively regulated by DSF while functions involved in adhesion and biofilm formation are positively regulated. Enzymatic assays for hydrolytic enzymes as well as assays for chemotaxis, motility, attachment, and biofilm formation corroborate these findings. These results demonstrate that, in X. oryzae pv. oryzae, DSF-mediated cell-to-cell signaling coordinates transition from solitary to biofilm lifestyle by promoting expression of attachment functions and negatively regulating expression of motility functions. This is in contrast to X. campestris pv. campestris, a pathogen of crucifers, wherein the DSF system positively regulates motility functions and negatively regulates biofilm formation. These results indicate that virulence-associated functions can be regulated in a completely contrasting fashion by the same signaling system in very closely related bacteria.

  8. Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E.; Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J.

    1996-12-01

    The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Xylose fermentation with Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, the fermentation of xylose to ethanol with a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, was examined. The focus of this investigation was on the physiological parameters which most strongly affect the economic feasibility of using this bacterium for industrial ethanol production. In rich medium (containing economically impractical concentrations of yeast extract) yields as high as 0.43 gm ethanol/gm xylose and growth rates of 0.4 to 0.5 hr/sup -1/ were observed. The predominant by-products of the fermentation were acetate and lactate. Nutritional studies indicated that the cost of the growth medium could be dramatically reduced by replacing most of the yeast extract used with nicotinic acid and vitamin B/sup 12/. Ethanol was found to be very inhibitory to growth and ethanol formation. To overcome the problem of inhibition, cells were gradually adapted to high concentrations (up to 4.2%) of ethanol. However, the ethanol yield of adapted cells was typically 30 to 40% less than the yield of non-adapted cells. Environmental parameters such as pH and by-product concentrations had only a slight effect on the ethanol yield produced by tolerant cells. A mutant, selected from an adapted strain, was found to produce 60% less lactate than its parent. This low-lactate producing mutant had a slightly improved ethanol yield. The results obtained with the tolerant, low-lactate producing mutant were used in the design of an industrial-scale fermentation process. An economic evaluation of the process indicates that ethanol production with this bacterium is currently uneconomical.

  10. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  11. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  12. Clostridium oryzae sp. nov., from soil of a Japanese rice field.

    PubMed

    Horino, Haruka; Ito, Miyuki; Tonouchi, Akio

    2015-03-01

    An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain designated KC3(T) was isolated from a rice straw-degrading culture, for which soil of a Japanese rice field was used as the inoculum. Cells of strain KC3(T) were determined to be non-cellulolytic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, ellipsoidal, spore-forming rods, 0.8-1×4-25 µm. Endospores were formed at a terminal position in elongated cells (12-25 µm, mean 15 µm). The temperature range for growth was 20-50 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.0-7.5, with an optimum at pH 6.0 (slightly acidophilic). Strain KC3(T) fermented cellobiose to lactate, butyrate, acetate, formate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo 11,12 dimethylacetal. The DNA G+C content of strain KC3(T) was 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC3(T) shared low sequence similarity (<93 %) with type strains of the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (Clostridium rRNA cluster I). Analyses of the DNA gyrase A and ATP synthase beta subunit sequences supported the affiliation of strain KC3(T) to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto. The evidence presented here indicates that strain KC3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Clostridium oryzae is KC3(T) ( = DSM 28571(T) = NBRC 110163(T)).

  13. Nematicidal Activity of Kojic Acid Produced by Aspergillus oryzae against Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yoon; Jang, Ja Yeong; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Hye Won; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joo Hong; Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, In Seon; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The fungal strain EML-DML3PNa1 isolated from leaf of white dogwood (Cornus alba L.) showed strong nematicidal activity with juvenile mortality of 87.6% at a concentration of 20% fermentation broth filtrate at 3 days after treatment. The active fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, which belongs to section Flavi, based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA, calmodulin (CaM), and β-tubulin (BenA) genes. The strain reduced the pH value to 5.62 after 7 days of incubation. Organic acid analysis revealed the presence of citric acid (515.0 mg/kg), malic acid (506.6 mg/kg), and fumaric acid (21.7 mg/kg). The three organic acids showed moderate nematicidal activities, but the mixture of citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid did not exhibit the full nematicidal activity of the culture filtrate of EML- DML3PNa1. Bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and EI-MS analyses led to identification of kojic acid as the major nematicidal metabolite. Kojic acid exhibited dose-dependent mortality and inhibited the hatchability of M. incognita, showing EC50 values of 195.2 µg/ml and 238.3 µg/ml, respectively, at 72 h postexposure. These results suggest that A. oryzae EML-DML3PNa1 and kojic acid have potential as a biological control agent against M. incognita.

  14. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%).

  15. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  16. Isolation and characterization of matrix associated region DNA fragments in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Saito, W; Ono, K; Moriyama, H; Takahashi, S; Inoue, M; Masuda, K

    1997-09-01

    To investigate the interactions between chromosomal DNA and nuclear matrices in higher plants, matrix associated regions (MARs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) DNAs were cloned. First, we prepared nuclear matrices from isolated nuclei by digesting them with EcoRI and then extracting with 2 M NaCl. About 6% of the total DNA remained in the nuclear matrices after this digestion and extraction. The residual DNA fragments in the nuclear matrices were cloned. Some of the cloned DNA fragments showed binding to certain nuclear proteins. One of the MAR fragments contained sequences related to known consensus motifs and a hairpin loop structure. A method is presented for isolation of matrix associated region (MAR) DNAs from plant cells.

  17. Lethal and mutagenic effects of ion beams and γ-rays in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Akemi; Tanaka, Hisaki; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo; Hamada, Ryoko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Katsuya; Narumi, Issay

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a fungus that is used widely in traditional Japanese fermentation industries. In this study, the lethal and mutagenic effects of different linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in freeze-dried conidia of A. oryzae were investigated. The lethal effect, which was evaluated by a 90% lethal dose, was dependent on the LET value of the ionizing radiation. The most lethal ionizing radiation among that tested was (12)C(5+) ion beams with an LET of 121keV/μm. The (12)C(5+) ion beams had a 3.6-times higher lethal effect than low-LET (0.2keV/μm) γ-rays. The mutagenic effect was evaluated by the frequency of selenate resistant mutants. (12)C(6+) ion beams with an LET of 86keV/μm were the most effective in inducing selenate resistance. The mutant frequency following exposure to (12)C(6+) ion beams increased with an increase in dose and reached 3.47×10(-3) at 700Gy. In the dose range from 0 to 700Gy, (12)C(5+) ion beams were the second most effective in inducing selenate resistance, the mutant frequency of which reached a maximum peak (1.67×10(-3)) at 400Gy. To elucidate the characteristics of mutation induced by ionizing radiation, mutations in the sulphate permease gene (sB) and ATP sulfurylase gene (sC) loci, the loss of function of which results in a selenate resistant phenotype, were compared between (12)C(5+) ion beams and γ-rays. We detected all types of transversions and transitions. For frameshifts, the frequency of a +1 frameshift was the highest in all cases. Although the incidence of deletions >2bp was generally low, deletions >20bp were characteristic for (12)C(5+) ion beams. γ-rays had a tendency to generate mutants carrying a multitude of mutations in the same locus. Both forms of radiation also induced genome-wide large-scale mutations including chromosome rearrangements and large deletions. These results provide new basic insights into the mutation breeding of A. oryzae using ionizing radiation.

  18. In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and

  19. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn.

  20. Fermentation of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose by bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Stouthamer, A H

    1968-08-01

    For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3.

  1. Effect of steam explosion and microbial fermentation on cellulose and lignin degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juan; Cheng, Wei; Yin, Qingqiang; Zuo, Ruiyu; Song, Andong; Zheng, Qiuhong; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Junxi

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase nutrient values of corn stover, effects of steam explosion (2.5 MPa, 200 s) and Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) fermentation on cellulose and lignin degradation were studied. The results showed the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the exploded corn stover were 8.47%, 50.45% and 36.65% lower than that in the untreated one, respectively (P<0.05). The contents of cellulose and hemicellulose in the exploded and fermented corn stover (EFCS) were decreased by 24.36% and 69.90%, compared with the untreated one (P<0.05); decreased by 17.35% and 38.59%, compared with the exploded one (P<0.05). The scanning electron microscope observations demonstrated that the combined steam explosion and fermentation destructed corn stover. The activities of enzymes in EFCS were increased. The metabolic experiment showed that about 8% EFCS could be used to replace corn meal in broiler diets, which made EFCS become animal feedstuff possible.

  2. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  3. Cell biology of the Koji mold Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has been used for the production of sake, miso, and soy sauce for more than one thousand years in Japan. Due to the importance, A. oryzae has been designated as the national micro-organism of Japan (Koku-kin). A. oryzae has been intensively studied in the past century, with most investigations focusing on breeding techniques and developing methods for Koji making for sake brewing. However, the understanding of fundamental biology of A. oryzae remains relatively limited compared with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we have focused on studying the cell biology including live cell imaging of organelles, protein vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and Woronin body functions using the available genomic information. In this review, I describe essential findings of cell biology of A. oryzae obtained in our study for a quarter of century. Understanding of the basic biology will be critical for not its biotechnological application, but also for an understanding of the fundamental biology of other filamentous fungi.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nor'Aishah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Rahim, Harun A.; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Mazlan, Norida; Abdullah, Shamsiah

    2016-02-01

    Rice is arguably the most crucial food crops supplying quarter of calories intake. Fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae promotes blast disease unconditionally to gramineous host including rice species. This disease spurred an outbreaks and constant threat to cereal production. Global rice yield declining almost 10-30% including Malaysia. As Magnaphorthe oryzae and its host is model in disease plant study, the rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest to overcome the importance of the disease to world agriculture. Therefore, in this study, our prime objective was to isolate samples of Magnaphorthe oryzae from diseased leaf obtained from MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang, Malaysia. Molecular identification was performed by sequences analysis from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic affiliation of the isolated samples were analyzed by comparing the ITS sequences with those deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence of the isolate demonstrated at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaphorthe oryzae. Morphological observed under microscope demonstrated that the structure of conidia followed similar characteristic as M. oryzae. Finding in this study provide useful information for breeding programs, epidemiology studies and improved disease management.

  5. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  6. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. A new diketopiperazine alkaloid from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Mohammad Magdy; Nasr, Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from terrestrial Aspergillus oryzae sp. MMAO1 using M2 medium afforded a new diketopiperazine alkaloid, 7,9-dihydroxy-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-8-methoxy-2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-6H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4-dione (1a), containing the unusual amino acid L-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxyphenylalanine. This was co-isolated with ditryptophenaline (2), cyclo-(Tryp,Tyr) (4), cyclo-(Pro,Val), α-cyclopiazonic acid (3), kojic acid and uridine. Re-cultivation of the fungal strain on Dox medium led to the production of bisdethio(bismethylthio)gliotoxin (5), pseurotin A (6) along with linoleic acid, α-cyclopiazonic acid (3) and kojic acid. The chemical structure of the new diketopiperazine alkaloid including the relative configuration was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry, and by comparison with the related literature. The new alkaloid (1a) showed no antimicrobial activity or cytotoxicity against brine shrimps.

  8. CitB is required for full virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Masood; Taheri, Elaheh; Tarighi, Saeed

    2015-10-01

    To identify novel virulence associated genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a Xoo isolate (XooIR42), obtained from north of Iran, was selected to generate a mini-Tn5 transposon mutation library. One mutant (XooM176) that indicated reduced virulence on rice plants, while grew similar to wild type was selected. This mutant had an insertion in a coding region with 96% amino acid identity to a response regulator of Xoo KACC10331, citB (Xoo_RS12710). Genome analysis of Xoo KACC10331 indicated several genes including a flagelin protein (FlgL) and a chemotaxis protein (Xoo_RS12720) which were identified as virulence genes 4297 and 1403 nucleotides from the citB, respectively. The swarming motility, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, induced a hypersensitive response, in planta growth and pathogenicity were reduced in XooM176 mutant compared to that of wild-type. A plasmid containing the full citB gene of Xoo KACC10331was sufficient to complement the XooM176 mutant for lesion formation and resistance to hydrogen peroxide. We therefore propose that Xoo requires CitB for full pathogenicity in rice plants and also for protection against oxidative stress.

  9. Proteomic and functional analyses of a novel porin-like protein in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jee; Lee, Sang-Won; Han, Sang-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Proteomic analysis is a useful technique for postulating and elucidating protein functions. In the present work, a shotgun proteomic analysis was used to identify functions of the PXO_03968 gene (previously known as the ax21) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a causal agent for bacterial blight disease in rice. Structural prediction performed on the protein sequence encoded by PXO_03968 reveals that it encodes a putative porin-like protein, possessing a β-barrel domain with 10 β-strands and a signal peptide at the N-terminus. We renamed the gene as an omp1X (outer membrane protein 1 in Xoo), generated its knock out mutant (XooΔomp1X), and compared the protein expression level in the mutant to that in the wild type. A total of 106 proteins displayed more than 1.5-fold difference in expression between the mutant and the wild type strains. COG analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in cell motility as well as signal transduction. In addition, phenotypic analysis demonstrated that motility and biofilm formation in XooΔomp1X are lower than the wild type. These results provide new insights into the functions of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. DgcA, a diguanylate cyclase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae regulates bacterial pathogenicity on rice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianmei; Zou, Xia; Huang, Liangbo; Bai, Tenglong; Liu, Shu; Yuan, Meng; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Ya-Wen; Wang, Haihong; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ΔdgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases. PMID:27193392

  11. Deciphering the Role of Tyrosine Sulfation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Using Shotgun Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jee; Park, Chang-Jin; Bae, Nahee; Han, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial tyrosine sulfotransferase, RaxST, is required for activation of rice XA21-mediated immunity, and it catalyzes sulfation of tyrosine residues of Omp1X and RaxX in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, a causal agent of bacterial blight in rice. Although RaxST is biochemically well-characterized, biological functions of tyrosine sulfation have not been fully elucidated. We compared protein expression patterns between the wildtype and a raxST knockout mutant using shotgun proteomic analysis. Forty nine proteins displayed a more than 1.5-fold difference in their expression between the wildtype and the mutant strains. Clusters of orthologous groups analysis revealed that proteins involved in cell motility were most abundant, and phenotypic observation also showed that the twitching motility of the mutant was dramatically changed. These results indicate that tyrosine sulfation by RaxST is essential for Xoo movement, and they provide new insights into the biological roles of RaxST in cellular processes. PMID:27298602

  12. Direct suppression of a rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) by monoterpene (S)-limonene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kang, Mihyung; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Sungbeom

    2016-05-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a severe disease of rice plants. Upon pathogen infection, rice biosynthesizes phytoalexins, including diterpenoids such as momilactones, phytocassanes, and oryzalexins. However, information on headspace volatiles in response to Xoo infection is limited. We have examined headspace volatile terpenes, induced by the infection of Xoo, and investigated their biological roles in the rice plant. Monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-terpene, and (S)-limonene and sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, α-copaene, and β-elemene were detected from 1-week-old Xoo-infected rice seedlings, by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All monoterpenes were constitutively released from rice seedlings before Xoo infection. However, (S)-limonene emission was further elicited after exposure of the seedlings to Xoo in coincidence with upregulation of limonene synthase gene (OsTPS20) transcripts. Only the stereospecific (S)-limonene [and not (R)-limonene or other monoterpenes] severely inhibited Xoo growth, as confirmed by disc diffusion and liquid culture assays. Rice seedlings showed suppressed pathogenic symptoms suggestive of resistance to Xoo infection after foliar treatment with (S)-limonene. Collectively, our findings suggest that (S)-limonene is a volatile phytoanticipin, which plays a significant role in suppressing Xoo growth in rice seedlings.

  13. Direct suppression of a rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) by monoterpene (S)-limonene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kang, Mihyung; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Sungbeom

    2016-05-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a severe disease of rice plants. Upon pathogen infection, rice biosynthesizes phytoalexins, including diterpenoids such as momilactones, phytocassanes, and oryzalexins. However, information on headspace volatiles in response to Xoo infection is limited. We have examined headspace volatile terpenes, induced by the infection of Xoo, and investigated their biological roles in the rice plant. Monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-terpene, and (S)-limonene and sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, α-copaene, and β-elemene were detected from 1-week-old Xoo-infected rice seedlings, by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All monoterpenes were constitutively released from rice seedlings before Xoo infection. However, (S)-limonene emission was further elicited after exposure of the seedlings to Xoo in coincidence with upregulation of limonene synthase gene (OsTPS20) transcripts. Only the stereospecific (S)-limonene [and not (R)-limonene or other monoterpenes] severely inhibited Xoo growth, as confirmed by disc diffusion and liquid culture assays. Rice seedlings showed suppressed pathogenic symptoms suggestive of resistance to Xoo infection after foliar treatment with (S)-limonene. Collectively, our findings suggest that (S)-limonene is a volatile phytoanticipin, which plays a significant role in suppressing Xoo growth in rice seedlings. PMID:26530963

  14. Enhanced fermentation systems with continuous removal of inhibitory products

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. A major limitation of microbial fermentations is the dilute aqueous product streams that result, largely due to inhibition of the microbes by the desired products. If these inhibitory products can be removed during the ongoing fermentation, the overall rates, yields, and net product formation may be increased. Simultaneous fermentation and separation have been tested with different separation techniques, such as adsorption, liquid extraction, pervaporation, membrane separations, distillation, and others. These separations can occur directly in situ within the fermentor or indirectly using a sidestream separator with recycle of the unused substrate. These approaches are briefly reviewed. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have investigated two modified immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) to remove the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the separation by adsorption of tactic acid, and the other uses liquid solvent extraction for the production of butanol. Keywords: extractive fermentation, in situ separation, adsorption, tactic acid, butanol.

  15. Differential Requirement of Oryza sativa RAR1 in Immune Receptor-Mediated Resistance of Rice to Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Young; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Han, Muho; Ryu, Hak-Seung; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Sun, Li; He, Zuhua; Seo, Young-Su; Canal, Patrick; Ronald, Pamela C.; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The required for Mla12 resistance (RAR1) protein is essential for the plant immune response. In rice, a model monocot species, the function of Oryza sativa RAR1 (OsRAR1) has been little explored. In our current study, we characterized the response of a rice osrar1 T-DNA insertion mutant to infection by Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. osrar1 mutants displayed reduced resistance compared with wild type rice when inoculated with the normally virulent M. oryzae isolate PO6-6, indicating that OsRAR1 is required for an immune response to this pathogen. We also investigated the function of Os-RAR1 in the resistance mechanism mediated by the immune receptor genes Pib and Pi5 that encode nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins. We inoculated progeny from Pib/osrar1 and Pi5/osrar1 heterozygous plants with the avirulent M. oryzae isolates, race 007 and PO6-6, respectively. We found that only Pib-mediated resistance was compromised by the osrar1 mutation and that the introduction of the OsRAR1 cDNA into Pib/osrar1 rescued Pib-mediated resistance. These results indicate that OsRAR1 is required for Pib-mediated resistance but not Pi5-mediated resistance to M. oryzae. PMID:23563801

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of Magnaporthe oryzae partitivirus 1.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanan; He, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Fang, Shouguo; Deng, Qingchao

    2016-11-01

    A novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, designated Magnaporthe oryzae partitivirus 1 (MoPV1), was isolated from a strain of the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The MoPV1 genome has two dsRNA genome segments. The larger segment (1763 bp) has a single open reading frame (ORF) with a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The smaller segment (1491 bp) contains a single ORF encoding a putative coat protein (CP). Homology searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that MoPV1 is a new member of the genus Gammapartitivirus. This is the first report of a mycovirus of the family Partitiviridae identified in Magnaporthe oryzae.

  17. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion.

  18. Reclassification of Xylanibacter oryzae Ueki et al. 2006 as Prevotella oryzae comb. nov., with an emended description of the genus Prevotella.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2012-11-01

    16S rRNA gene sequence information has indicated that Xylanibacter oryzae has a close relationship with the genus Prevotella. To clarify the taxonomic position of X. oryzae, we determined the sequence of hsp60 as it represents an alternative phylogenetic marker for identification and classification of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. On the basis of hsp60 sequences, X. oryzae was located within the genus Prevotella, indicating that the species does not represent a distinct taxon at the genus level. Statistical tests (the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test and the approximately unbiased test) supported the finding that X. oryzae is monophyletic with members of the genus Prevotella and thus belongs to the genus. On the basis of the phylogenetic findings, we propose that X. oryzae should be reclassified as Prevotella oryzae comb. nov.; the type strain is KB3(T) (=JCM 13648(T) =DSM 17970(T)). An emended description of the genus Prevotella is also provided.

  19. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  20. Absence of mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and subchronic oral toxicity of Touchi extract.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Tomohide

    2007-01-01

    Touchi, a traditional Chinese food used mainly for seasoning is obtained by first steaming soybeans followed by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (koji). A series of toxicological studies was conducted to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic potential and subchronic toxicity of a water extract of Touchi, a known inhibitor of alpha -glucosidase activity. Touchi extract (TE) did not induce reverse mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA at concentrations up to 5000 microg/plate, in either the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. No deaths occurred and no abnormal clinical signs were observed in any animal in any group in an in vivo micronucleus test, and TE was devoid of clastogenic activity when administered orally to mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Thus, TE was evaluated as negative in the bacterial reverse mutation and mouse bone marrow micronucleus tests under the conditions of these assays. To evaluate its subchronic toxicity, SPF rats were administered TE at doses of 0, 250, 1000, and 2500 mg/kg/day via oral gastric intubation. No treatment-related toxic changes were seen in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, necropsy, organ weight, or histopathology. The no observed adverse effect level for TE was thus considered to be more than 2500 mg/kg/day in both males and females. These results are consistent with Touchi's status as a traditional Chinese food derived from fermented soybeans and its purported long history of use. Specifically, these data are consistent with the expected safety of human consumption of TE up to at least 5 g/day.

  1. The biosynthesis, structure and gelatinization properties of starches from wild and cultivated African rice species (Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wambugu, Peterson W; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Alex Chi; Henry, Robert J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-09-20

    The molecular structure and gelatinization properties of starches from domesticated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its wild progenitor (Oryza barthii) are determined and comparison made with Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), the commonest commercial rice. This suggests possible enzymatic processes contributing to the unique traits of the African varieties. These have similar starch structures, including smaller amylose molecules, but larger amounts of amylose chains across the whole amylose chain-length distribution, and higher amylose contents, than O. sativa. They also show a higher proportion of two- and three-lamellae spanning amylopectin branch chains (degree of polymerization 34-100) than O. sativa, which contributes to their higher gelatinization temperatures. Fitting amylopectin chain-length distribution with a biosynthesis-based mathematical model suggests that the reason for this difference might be because O. glaberrima and O. barthii have more active SSIIIa and/or less active SBEIIb enzymes.

  2. Solid-state fermentation in rotating drum bioreactors: operating variables affect performance through their effects on transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Stuart, D M; Mitchell, D A; Johns, M R; Litster, J D

    1999-05-20

    Aspergillus oryzae ACM 4996 was grown on an artificial gel-based substrate and on steamed wheat bran during solid-state fermentations in 18.7 L rotating drum bioreactors. For gel fermentations fungal growth decreased as rotational speed increased, presumably due to increased shear. For wheat bran fermentations fungal growth improved under agitated compared to static culture conditions, due to superior heat and mass transfer. We conclude that the effects of operational variables on the performance of SSF bioreactors are mediated by their effects on transport phenomena such as mixing, shear, heat transfer, and mass transfer within the substrate bed. In addition, the substrate characteristics affect the need for and the rates of these transport processes. Different transport phenomena may be rate limiting with different substrates. This work improves understanding of the effects of bioreactor operation on SSF performance. PMID:10099618

  3. Volatile components and sensory characteristics of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes during fermentation periods.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Pinitklang, Surapong; Laohakunjit, Natta; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2016-03-01

    Headspace-volatile components and sensory characteristics, including color, Maillard reaction products and free amino acid profiles, of two types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, were investigated during the fermentation periods up to 6 months. The results showed that the colors of both products were changed with a decrease in CIELAB values over the fermentation period, except for yellowness of Kapi Ta Deang. Essential amino acids such as lysine and leucine and non-essential amino acids such as glutamic acid and alanine were found to be predominant free-amino acids in the products. After headspace volatile component extraction of the product was carried out using a SPME fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS and analyzed by GC-MS, the main compounds responsible for distinct volatiles in the products were N-containing compounds, especially pyrazines which give roasted nutty odor. The results of sensory evaluation from panelists also suggest that fermentation period had an effect on sensory characteristics of the fermented shrimp pastes. Moreover, the sensory perceptions of the products would associate with their color, the Maillard reaction products, amino acid profiles and volatile compounds. PMID:27570264

  4. Enhancing the antitumor cell proliferation and Cu(2+)-chelating effects of black soybeans through fermentation with Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chou, Cheng-Chun; Lo, Yi-Chen

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, black soybeans were fermented with Aspergillus awamori at 30°C for 3 days. The effect of fermentation on the antiproliferative effect against human colon cancer cells, Caco-2 and HT-29 as well as Cu(2+)-chelating effect of black soybeans was investigated. It was found that the water, 80% methanol or 80% ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) antiproliferative and Cu(2+)-chelating effect than did the respective extract of non-fermented black soybeans. Generally, the methanol extract and the ethanol extract of fermented black soybeans exerted higher antiproliferative effect on both Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. While water extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest Cu(2+)-chelating effect among the various extracts examined. Taking into account of extraction yields further revealed that bioactive principles that exhibit Cu(2+)-chelating effect could be extracted to the largest extent with water as the extraction solvent. With same amount of sample, water extract obtained from fermented black soybeans possesses the highest Cu(2+)-chelating abilities.

  5. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. 173.130 Section 173.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations...

  6. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  7. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  8. Prebiotic digestion and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Macfarlane, G T; Englyst, H N

    2001-02-01

    Prebiotics, as currently conceived of, are all carbohydrates of relatively short chain length. To be effective they must reach the cecum. Present evidence concerning the 2 most studied prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides and inulin, is consistent with their resisting digestion by gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes in vivo. However, the wide variety of new candidate prebiotics becoming available for human use requires that a manageable set of in vitro tests be agreed on so that their nondigestibility and fermentability can be established without recourse to human studies in every case. In the large intestine, prebiotics, in addition to their selective effects on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, influence many aspects of bowel function through fermentation. Short-chain fatty acids are a major product of prebiotic breakdown, but as yet, no characteristic pattern of fermentation acids has been identified. Through stimulation of bacterial growth and fermentation, prebiotics affect bowel habit and are mildly laxative. Perhaps more importantly, some are a potent source of hydrogen in the gut. Mild flatulence is frequently observed by subjects being fed prebiotics; in a significant number of subjects it is severe enough to be unacceptable and to discourage consumption. Prebiotics are like other carbohydrates that reach the cecum, such as nonstarch polysaccharides, sugar alcohols, and resistant starch, in being substrates for fermentation. They are, however, distinctive in their selective effect on the microflora and their propensity to produce flatulence.

  9. Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-12-01

    Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities. PMID:23072615

  10. Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-12-01

    Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities.

  11. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  12. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) improved after fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the antimicrobial activity in both extracts of fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased total FAA content. In addition, among 27 kinds of volatile components analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, sulfur-containing compounds accounted for 65.23%, but decreased to 43.65% after fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties. PMID:26308368

  13. Whey as a brewing material. III. Fermentation of wort containing hydrolyzed whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Tenney, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrafiltration of whey removes most of the protein, leaving lactose and minerals in the permeate. Salinity may be controlled by demineralization, resulting in a product that ferments easily, yielding beers of normal and controllable composition and character. Up to 30% extracts may be derived from whey. Several strains of yeast isolated from breweries are capable of the fermentation.

  14. Composition and safety analysis of Chinese traditional fermented soybean paste made by transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Yukui, Rui; Wenya, Wang; Hongxing, Zhang; Fusuo, Zhang; Yinhua, Jin; Jing, Guo

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese soybean paste was produced by cooked transgenic soybean fermentation with the composition of moisture 53%, amino acid 0.84% (calculated by nitrogen), votive sugar 6.21% and total acid 1.66%. A number of microorganism species were isolated and identified, including fungi and bacteria, and the bacterium species Rhizopus oryzae Went and Prinsen Geerligs were dominant in transgenic soybean paste. The results showed that the transgenic soybean paste contain abundant amino acids and vitamins (vitamin A, 42.87 IU; vitamin B, 10.31 mg; vitamin B, 20.64 mg; nicotinamide, 2.54 mg; pantothenic acid, 0.63 mg; vitamin B, 6,847 microg; folic acid, 105 microg; vitamin B, 123.85 microg; and biotin, 56.34 microg). Pathogenic microorganisms were not be detected in the transgenic fermented soybean paste.

  15. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  16. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    PubMed

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice.

  17. A novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae YB103: screening, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qiurun; Liu, Aili; Guo, Hailun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Mu

    2016-03-01

    Thermostable lipases offer major biotechnological advantages over mesophilic lipases. In this study, an intracellular thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant lipase-producing strain YB103 was isolated from soil samples and identified taxonomically as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The lipase from X. oryzae pv. oryzae YB103 (LipXO) was purified 101.1-fold to homogeneity with a specific activity of 373.9 U/mg. The purified lipase showed excellent thermostability, exhibiting 51.1% of its residual activity after incubation for 3 days at 70 °C. The enzyme showed optimal activity at 70 °C, suggesting it is a thermostable lipase. LipXO retained 75.1-154.1% of its original activity after incubation in 20% (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents at 70 °C for 24 h. Furthermore, LipXO displayed excellent stereoselectivity (e.e.p >99%) toward (S)-1-phenethyl alcohol in n-hexane. These unique properties of LipXO make it promising as a biocatalyst for industrial processes. PMID:26791383

  18. Genetic analysis of geraniol metabolism during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Damien; Erny, Claude; Claudel, Patricia; Riveill, Geneviève; Karst, Francis; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2013-04-01

    Geraniol produced by grape is the main precursor of terpenols which play a key role in the floral aroma of white wines. We investigated the fate of geraniol during wine fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The volatile compounds produced during fermentation of a medium enriched with geraniol were extracted by Stir-bar sorptive extraction and analysed by GC-MS. We were able to detect and quantify geranyl acetate but also citronellyl- and neryl-acetate. The presence of these compounds partly explains the disparition of geraniol. The amounts of terpenyl esters are strain dependant. We demonstrated both by gene overexpression and gene-deletion the involvement of ATF1 enzyme but not ATF2 in the acetylation of terpenols. The affinity of ATF1 enzyme for several terpenols and for isoamyl alcohol was compared. We also demonstrated that OYE2 is the enzyme involved in geraniol to citronellol reduction. Fermenting strain deleted from OYE2 gene produces far less citronellol than wild type strain. Moreover lab strain over-expressing OYE2 allows 87% geraniol to citronellol reduction in bioconversion experiment compared to about 50% conversion with control strain. PMID:23200656

  19. Combination Patterns of Major R Genes Determine the Level of Resistance to the M. oryzae in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunyu; Xiao, Ning; Yu, Ling; Pan, Cunhong; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Guangqing; Dai, Zhengyuan; Pan, Xuebiao; Li, Aihong

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating disease of rice and poses a serious threat to world food security. In this study, the distribution and effectiveness of 18 R genes in 277 accessions were investigated based on pathogenicity assays and molecular markers. The results showed that most of the accessions exhibited some degree of resistance (resistance frequency, RF >50%). Accordingly, most of the accessions were observed to harbor two or more R genes, and the number of R genes harbored in accessions was significantly positively correlated with RF. Some R genes were demonstrated to be specifically distributed in the genomes of rice sub-species, such as Pigm, Pi9, Pi5 and Pi1, which were only detected in indica-type accessions, and Pik and Piz, which were just harbored in japonica-type accessions. By analyzing the relationship between R genes and RF using a multiple stepwise regression model, the R genes Pid3, Pi5, Pi9, Pi54, Pigm and Pit were found to show the main effects against M. oryzae in indica-type accessions, while Pita, Pb1, Pik, Pizt and Pia were indicated to exhibit the main effects against M. oryzae in japonica-type accessions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that combination patterns of major R genes were the main factors determining the resistance of rice varieties to M. oryzae, such as 'Pi9+Pi54', 'Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pi54+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3' and 'Pi5+Pit+Pid3' in indica-type accessions and 'Pik+Pib', 'Pik+Pita', 'Pik+Pb1', 'Pizt+Pia' and 'Pizt+Pita' in japonica-type accessions, which were able to confer effective resistance against M. oryzae. The above results provide good theoretical support for the rational utilization of combinations of major R genes in developing rice cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance.

  20. Combination Patterns of Major R Genes Determine the Level of Resistance to the M. oryzae in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunyu; Xiao, Ning; Yu, Ling; Pan, Cunhong; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Guangqing; Dai, Zhengyuan; Pan, Xuebiao; Li, Aihong

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating disease of rice and poses a serious threat to world food security. In this study, the distribution and effectiveness of 18 R genes in 277 accessions were investigated based on pathogenicity assays and molecular markers. The results showed that most of the accessions exhibited some degree of resistance (resistance frequency, RF >50%). Accordingly, most of the accessions were observed to harbor two or more R genes, and the number of R genes harbored in accessions was significantly positively correlated with RF. Some R genes were demonstrated to be specifically distributed in the genomes of rice sub-species, such as Pigm, Pi9, Pi5 and Pi1, which were only detected in indica-type accessions, and Pik and Piz, which were just harbored in japonica-type accessions. By analyzing the relationship between R genes and RF using a multiple stepwise regression model, the R genes Pid3, Pi5, Pi9, Pi54, Pigm and Pit were found to show the main effects against M. oryzae in indica-type accessions, while Pita, Pb1, Pik, Pizt and Pia were indicated to exhibit the main effects against M. oryzae in japonica-type accessions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that combination patterns of major R genes were the main factors determining the resistance of rice varieties to M. oryzae, such as 'Pi9+Pi54', 'Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pi54+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3' and 'Pi5+Pit+Pid3' in indica-type accessions and 'Pik+Pib', 'Pik+Pita', 'Pik+Pb1', 'Pizt+Pia' and 'Pizt+Pita' in japonica-type accessions, which were able to confer effective resistance against M. oryzae. The above results provide good theoretical support for the rational utilization of combinations of major R genes in developing rice cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance. PMID:26030358

  1. Fermentation with Aspergillus awamori enhanced contents of amino nitrogen and total phenolics as well as the low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activity of black soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-04-27

    A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.

  2. Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

  3. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  4. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. PMID:27664604

  5. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. PMID:26735878

  6. Induction of chlorosis, ROs generation and cell death by a toxin isolated from Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tsurushima, Tetsu; Minami, Yukari; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the conidia germination fluid from an Avena isolate (Br58) of Pyricularia oryzae had chlorosis-inducing activity on oat leaf segments. The same activity was also present in the acetone extract of an oatmeal agar culture of Br58. Fungal cultures were used for a large-scale preparation. A series of acetone and ethyl acetate extraction monitored by chromatography was used to isolate an active fraction. The active principle was purified by HPLC. We show by NMR and LC/MS that the toxin was an oxidized C18 unsaturated fatty acid named Mag-toxin. Mag-toxin induced chlorosis on oat leaf segments incubated in the light but not in the dark. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death were induced by Mag-toxin in oat cells. The sub-cellular localization of ROS generation induced by the toxin treatment was correlated with the location of mitochondria. Interestingly, the induction of ROS generation and cell death by Mag-toxin was light-independent. PMID:21071840

  7. Hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties of a new fermented tea product obtained by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunari; Tamaru, Shizuka; Nishizono, Shoko; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Matsui, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Echizen, Yoshie; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  8. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced leaf wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial leaf blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887

  9. Characterization of recombinant β-amylases from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tomojiro; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2011-01-01

    Four putative β-amylase genes found in the Oryza sativa cDNA sequence database (KOME) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant proteins from two of these genes showed β-amylase activity. Similarly to β-amylases from other plants, the optimum pH of the recombinant rice β-amylases was about 5.5-6.0, but they exhibited inferior heat stability to soybean β-amylase.

  10. Investigation of the dominance behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Benedetta; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2013-07-15

    During wine fermentation, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae compete in the same fermenting must and dominance takes place when one strain overcomes all the others. The purpose of this study was to investigate this phenomenon by identifying S. cerevisiae strains endowed with this feature and to test them in laboratory fermentations. First, autochthonous S. cerevisiae from Nebbiolo fermentations were isolated, molecularly identified and characterized. Genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains were subsequently subjected to physiological characterization and to micro-scale fermentation, the weight loss kinetics was measured and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the fermentation. Then, the strains that presented good fermentation characteristics were chosen for further analysis and to determine the dominance feature. For this purpose, couples of strains were co-inoculated in Nebbiolo must and the fermentations were monitored by microbiological and chemical analysis. Two different inoculation approaches were used: co-fermentations in flasks with mixed cells and reactor co-fermentations, in which the cells from the two different strains were kept separate by means of a 0.45 μm filter membrane, which allowed the fermenting must to move freely between the two compartments. During the flask co-fermentations, a minisatellite PCR protocol was applied, in order to differentiate the two strains and determine which one was able to dominate. The protocol included a culture-dependent approach and an independent one. In the first case, DNA extraction was performed on all the colonies scraped off the plates after sampling. In the second case, DNA extraction was performed directly on the fermenting must. The strains that were able to dominate were tested against several S. cerevisiae in order to confirm this dominance behavior. Dominance was observed in the early stages of fermentation, as early as 3days. Combinations of dominant and not-dominant strains were

  11. Chemical characterisation and application of acid whey in fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M

    2015-04-01

    Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period. PMID:25829588

  12. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  13. A novel non-thermostable deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Katase, Toru; Sakai, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Abe, Keietsu; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-09-01

    Three putative deuterolysin (EC 3.4.24.29) genes (deuA, deuB, and deuC) were found in the Aspergillus oryzae genome database ( http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/dogan/project/view/AO ). One of these genes, deuA, was corresponding to NpII gene, previously reported. DeuA and DeuB were overexpressed by recombinant A. oryzae and were purified. The degradation profiles against protein substrates of both enzymes were similar, but DeuB showed wider substrate specificity against peptidyl MCA-substrates compared with DeuA. Enzymatic profiles of DeuB except for thermostability also resembled those of DeuA. DeuB was inactivated by heat treatment above 80° C, different from thermostable DeuA. Transcription analysis in wild type A. oryzae showed only deuB was expressed in liquid culture, and the addition of the proteinous substrate upregulated the transcription. Furthermore, the NaNO3 addition seems to eliminate the effect of proteinous substrate for the transcription of deuB. PMID:27050120

  14. Jewelry boxes contaminated by Aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Roussel, Anaïs; Millon, Laurence; Delaforge, Marcel; Reboux, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the Chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. Based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis was positive for A. oryzae. This could not be confirmed by molecular techniques because of the genetic proximity of A. oryzae and A. flavus. Because A. flavus can produce aflatoxins, we tested for them using mass spectrometry. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 were not detected; however, given the specifics of this situation, we could not discard the possibility of the presence of other aflatoxins, such as P1, B3, GM2, and ethoxyaflatoxin B2. We concluded that the contamination by A. oryzae was probably due to food products. However, because of the possible presence of aflatoxins, occupational health risks could not be entirely ruled out. The decision was therefore taken to destroy all the jewelry boxes by incineration. To avoid a similar situation we propose: (1) to maintain conditions limiting mold contamination during production (not eating on the work site, efficient ventilation systems); (2) to desiccate the products before sending them; and (3) to closely control the levels of dampness during storage and transport.

  15. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  16. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.

  17. A mutation in the aroE gene affects pigment production, virulence, and chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Il; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice. To study its function, a random insertion mutation library of Xoo was constructed using the Tn5 transposon. A mutant strain with decreased virulence against the susceptible rice cultivar IR24 was isolated from the library (aroE mutant), which also had extremely low pigment production. Thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction (TAIL-PCR) and sequence analysis of the mutant revealed that the transposon was inserted into the aroE gene (encoding shikimate dehydrogenase). To investigate gene expression changes in the pigment- and virulence-deficient mutant, DNA microarray analysis was performed, which showed downregulation of 20 genes involved in the chemotaxis of Xoo. Our findings reveal that mutation of the aroE gene affects virulence and pigment production, as well as expression of genes involved in Xoo chemotaxis.

  18. A novel L-arabinose-responsive regulator discovered in the rice-blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (Magnaporthe oryzae).

    PubMed

    Klaubauf, Sylvia; Zhou, Miaomiao; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy

    2016-02-01

    In this study we identified the L-arabinose-responsive regulator of Pyricularia oryzae that regulates L-arabinose release and catabolism. Previously we identified the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor (TF), AraR, that has this role in the Trichocomaceae family (Eurotiales), but is absent in other fungi. Candidate Zn2Cys6 TF genes were selected according to their transcript profiles on L-arabinose. Deletion mutants of these genes were screened for their growth phenotype on L-arabinose. One mutant, named Δara1, was further analyzed. Our analysis demonstrated that Ara1 from P. oryzae is the functional analog of AraR from A. niger, while there is no significant sequence similarity between them. PMID:26790567

  19. A novel L-arabinose-responsive regulator discovered in the rice-blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (Magnaporthe oryzae).

    PubMed

    Klaubauf, Sylvia; Zhou, Miaomiao; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy

    2016-02-01

    In this study we identified the L-arabinose-responsive regulator of Pyricularia oryzae that regulates L-arabinose release and catabolism. Previously we identified the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor (TF), AraR, that has this role in the Trichocomaceae family (Eurotiales), but is absent in other fungi. Candidate Zn2Cys6 TF genes were selected according to their transcript profiles on L-arabinose. Deletion mutants of these genes were screened for their growth phenotype on L-arabinose. One mutant, named Δara1, was further analyzed. Our analysis demonstrated that Ara1 from P. oryzae is the functional analog of AraR from A. niger, while there is no significant sequence similarity between them.

  20. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  1. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  2. The thiG Gene Is Required for Full Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by Preventing Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyue; Liang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Kexue; Dong, Wenxia; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Ming-guo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is an important serious bacterial diseases of rice in many rice-growing regions, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The thiG gene from Xoo strain ZJ173, which is involved with thiazole moiety production in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway, is highly conserved among the members of Xanthomonas. The thiG deletion mutant displayed impaired virulence and growth in thiamine-free medium but maintained its normal growth rate in the rice tissues, indicating that the thiG gene is involved in Xoo virulence. Compared to the wild type strain, the formation of cell-cell aggregates was affected in thiG deletion mutants. Although biofilm formation was promoted, motility and migration in rice leaves were repressed in the thiG mutants, and therefore limited the expansion of pathogen infection in rice. Quorum sensing and extracellular substance are two key factors that contribute to the formation of cell-cell aggregates. Our study found that in the thiG mutant the expression of two genes, rpfC and rpfG, which form a two-component regulatory signal system involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by a second messenger cyclic di-GMP is down-regulated. In addition, our study showed that xanthan production was not affected but the expression of some genes associated with xanthan biosynthesis, like gumD, gumE, gumH and gumM, were up-regulated in thiG mutants. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the role of the thiazole biosynthsis gene, thiG, in virulence and the formation of aggregates in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:26222282

  3. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  4. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  5. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  6. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  7. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo–rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  8. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  9. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  10. [Fecal fermentation in meteorism].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Zapata-Solari, C

    1977-12-01

    An old test to investigate fecal fermentation was modified with the purpose of changing it from qualitative to quantitative. The modified test consists in placing in stove, at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, 5 grams of feces, suspended in water. The fermentable alimentary residues, present in the feces, suffer the action of bacteria, also there present, yielding gas that is collected and measured. Using the test, fecal fermentation was determined in 3 groups of individuals: a) 40 patients with meteorism that had persisted or improved only slightly or fairly with treatment; b) 28 apparently healthy subjects; and c) 6 patients with meteorism that had disappeared or become minimal with treatment. In the group of 28 apparently healthy subject, the obtained results varied from 0.1 to 1.1 ml gas/24 h., with a mean +/- s.d. of 0.55 +/- 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. When a distribution curve was made with the results obtained in the group of 40 patients with meteorism, these results separated into 2 subgroups: one subgroup with 28 patients, in whom results varied from 1.0 to 13.3 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 4.8 gas/24 h. (only) in 1 of these 28 patients a normal result of 1.0 ml. gas/24 h. was obtained, while in the remaining 27 patients results of 1.5 or more ml. gas/24 h. were obtained); and the other subgroup with 12 patients, in whom results varied from 0.0 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.29 ml. gas/24 h. Finally, in the group of 6 patients with successfully treated meteorism, results were from 0.1 to 0.9 ml. gas/24 h., with a mean of 0.4 ml. gas/24 h. The above mentioned results strongly suggest the existence of a relationship between meteorism and exagerated fecal fermentation. The nature of this relationship has not yet been completely clarified. However, the test used to determine fecal fermentation already promises to be very helpful for a better understanding and management of meteorism.

  11. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  12. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  13. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  14. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  15. Hindgut fermentations in nonavian species.

    PubMed

    McBee, R H

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative discussion of the hindgut of insects, mammals, fishes, and reptiles includes morphology of the hindgut, general appearance, content, materials fermented, fermentation products, microorganisms involved, and value of the hindgut to the host animal. The problems faced by small animals in securing adequate energy from a hindgut fermentation to be of value to the animal are presented. It is suggested that our present analytical methods are not adequate and that new approaches to analyzing the hindgut fermentation value should be investigated, such as using fecal bacterial mass as an index. It is also suggested that experimental and commercial feeding should be designed so that herbivores are not converted to omnivores.

  16. Investigation of malic acid production in Aspergillus oryzae under nitrogen starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Brown, Stephen H; McCulloch, Michael; Berry, Alan; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Malic acid has great potential for replacing petrochemical building blocks in the future. For this application, high yields, rates, and titers are essential in order to sustain a viable biotechnological production process. Natural high-capacity malic acid producers like the malic acid producer Aspergillus flavus have so far been disqualified because of special growth requirements or the production of mycotoxins. As A. oryzae is a very close relative or even an ecotype of A. flavus, it is likely that its high malic acid production capabilities with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status may be combined with already existing large-scale fermentation experience. In order to verify the malic acid production potential, two wild-type strains, NRRL3485 and NRRL3488, were compared in shake flasks. As NRRL3488 showed a volumetric production rate twice as high as that of NRRL3485, this strain was selected for further investigation of the influence of two different nitrogen sources on malic acid secretion. The cultivation in lab-scale fermentors resulted in a higher final titer, 30.27 ± 1.05 g liter(-1), using peptone than the one of 22.27 ± 0.46 g liter(-1) obtained when ammonium was used. Through transcriptome analysis, a binding site similar to the one of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast transcription factor Msn2/4 was identified in the upstream regions of glycolytic genes and the cytosolic malic acid production pathway from pyruvate via oxaloacetate to malate, which suggests that malic acid production is a stress response. Furthermore, the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was identified as a target for metabolic engineering, after it was confirmed to be transcriptionally regulated through the correlation of intracellular fluxes and transcriptional changes.

  17. Combination Patterns of Major R Genes Determine the Level of Resistance to the M. oryzae in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ling; Pan, Cunhong; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Guangqing; Dai, Zhengyuan; Pan, Xuebiao; Li, Aihong

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating disease of rice and poses a serious threat to world food security. In this study, the distribution and effectiveness of 18 R genes in 277 accessions were investigated based on pathogenicity assays and molecular markers. The results showed that most of the accessions exhibited some degree of resistance (resistance frequency, RF >50%). Accordingly, most of the accessions were observed to harbor two or more R genes, and the number of R genes harbored in accessions was significantly positively correlated with RF. Some R genes were demonstrated to be specifically distributed in the genomes of rice sub-species, such as Pigm, Pi9, Pi5 and Pi1, which were only detected in indica-type accessions, and Pik and Piz, which were just harbored in japonica-type accessions. By analyzing the relationship between R genes and RF using a multiple stepwise regression model, the R genes Pid3, Pi5, Pi9, Pi54, Pigm and Pit were found to show the main effects against M. oryzae in indica-type accessions, while Pita, Pb1, Pik, Pizt and Pia were indicated to exhibit the main effects against M. oryzae in japonica-type accessions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that combination patterns of major R genes were the main factors determining the resistance of rice varieties to M. oryzae, such as ‘Pi9+Pi54’, ‘Pid3+Pigm’, ‘Pi5+Pid3+Pigm’, ‘Pi5+Pi54+Pid3+Pigm’, ‘Pi5+Pid3’ and ‘Pi5+Pit+Pid3’ in indica-type accessions and ‘Pik+Pib’, ‘Pik+Pita’, ‘Pik+Pb1’, ‘Pizt+Pia’ and ‘Pizt+Pita’ in japonica-type accessions, which were able to confer effective resistance against M. oryzae. The above results provide good theoretical support for the rational utilization of combinations of major R genes in developing rice cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance. PMID:26030358

  18. Taka-amylase A in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cong Ha; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Sato, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Michio

    2005-11-01

    A study of Taka-amylase A of conidia from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was done. During the research, proteins from conidia and germinated conidia were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, 2-D gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis, MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry, and native-PAGE combined with activity staining of TAA. The results showed that TAA exists not only in germinated conidia but also in conidia. Some bands representing degraded products of TAA were detected. Conidia, which formed on starch (SCYA), glucose (DCYA), and glycerol (GCYA) plates, contained mature TAA. Only one active band of TAA was detected after native-PAGE activity staining. In addition, TAA activity was detected in cell extracts of conidia using 0.5 M acetate buffer, pH 5.2, as extraction buffer, but was not detected in whole conidia or cell debris. The results indicate that TAA exists in conidia in active form even when starch, glucose, or glycerol is used as carbon source. TAA might belong to a set of basal proteins inside conidia, which helps in imbibition and germination of conidia.

  19. Effect of coated urea on cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. grown in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Zisong; Zhu, Qihong; Zhu, Hanhua; Zhang, Yangzhu; Huang, Daoyou

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of three types of coated urea on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in contaminated soil. Pot-culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse from July to November 2012 on the rice cultivar "Hua Hang Si Miao" in Guangzhou (China). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were control (CK) (N 0 mg/kg), prilled urea (PU) (N 200 mg/kg), polymer-coated urea (PCU) (N 200 mg/kg), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) (N 200 mg/kg). Our results indicated that applications of PCU and SCU slightly increased the dry weight of rice grains. The application of SCU significantly decreased the CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Cd concentrations by 15.4 and 56.1%, respectively. Sequential extractions showed that PCU and SCU applications led to a significant decrease in Cd in the exchangeable fraction and an increase in the bound iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides fractions. Cd concentrations in grains treated with PCU were reduced by 11.7%, whereas SCU significantly reduced Cd concentrations by 29.1%. SCU reduced Cd transfer from the straws to the grain. Our results demonstrated that PCU and SCU may be effective in mitigating Cd accumulation in rice grown in acidic Cd-contaminated soil, especially in plants receiving SCU.

  20. Assessing medium constituents for optimal heterologous production of anhydromevalonolactone in recombinant Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anhydromevalonolactone (AMVL) is a bioactive natural product that arises from a molecular biology technique using Aspergillus oryzae as a heterologous host. AMVL has been used as a precursor for the synthesis of insect pest control reagents and has numerous applications in the biotechnological and medical industries. In this study, the Plackett-Burman Design and the Central Composite Design, which offer efficient and feasible approaches, were complemented to screen significant parameters and identify the optimal values for maximum AMVL production. The results suggested that sucrose, NaNO3, yeast extract and K2HPO4 were the key factors affecting AMVL production in a complex medium, whereas the major components required for a defined medium were NaNO3, K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and trace elements. These factors were subsequently optimized using the response surface methodology. Under optimal conditions, a maximum AMVL production of 250 mg/L in the complex medium and 200 mg/L in the defined medium was achieved, which represents an increase of approximately 3-4-fold compared to the commonly used malt extract medium. PMID:25006541

  1. First Report of Rhizopus oryzae as a Postharvest Pathogen of Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Won-Il

    2011-06-01

    Soft rot in apple caused by Rhizopus oryzae was found for the first time in Korea. A detailed description of the specimen is given along with its internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence. The fungus was identified as Rhizopus oryzae based on the mycological characteristics, molecular data, and pathogenicity testing.

  2. Characterization of field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae with mating type, DNA fingerprinting, and pathogenicity assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the harmful nature of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, it is beneficial to characterize field isolates to help aid in the deployment of resistance (R) genes in rice. In the present study, 190 field isolates of M. oryzae, collected from rice fields of Yunnan province in China, were a...

  3. Regulation of expression of the Rhizopus oryzae uricase and urease enzymes.

    PubMed

    Farley, Peter C; Santosa, Sugiarto

    2002-12-01

    The regulation of intracellular urease and uricase activities was examined in Rhizopus oryzae. Urease activity (2.4 U/mg protein) was present in R. oryzae mycelium grown in minimal medium containing NH4CI as sole nitrogen source. This activity increased threefold under nitrogen derepression conditions, but no induction by urea was detected. Control of urease activity in R. oryzae differs from that found in Neurospora crassa but resembles the situation in Aspergillus nidulans. No uricase activity was detected in R. oryzae mycelium grown in minimal medium containing NH4Cl as sole nitrogen source. Uricase activity was increased 10- to 40-fold under derepression conditions and was induced by exogenous uric acid (60- to 78-fold). Control of the R. oryzae uricase differs from that found in N. crassa and A. nidulans. This is the first analysis of the regulation of enzymes from the purine catabolic pathway in any member of the Zygomycetes.

  4. The rice endophyte Harpophora oryzae genome reveals evolution from a pathogen to a mutualistic endophyte.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Hui; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, Chen; Kubicek, Christian P; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Mao, Li-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chen; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long

    2014-07-22

    The fungus Harpophora oryzae is a close relative of the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and a beneficial endosymbiont of wild rice. Here, we show that H. oryzae evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. The overall genomic structures of H. and M. oryzae were found to be similar. However, during interactions with rice, the expression of 11.7% of all genes showed opposing trends in the two fungi, suggesting differences in gene regulation. Moreover, infection patterns, triggering of host defense responses, signal transduction and nutritional preferences exhibited remarkable differentiation between the two fungi. In addition, the H. oryzae genome was found to contain thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, which led to the disruption of 929 genes. Our results indicate that the gain or loss of orphan genes, DNA duplications, gene family expansions and the frequent translocation of transposon-like elements have been important factors in the evolution of this endosymbiont from a pathogenic ancestor.

  5. Suppression of Rice Blast by Preinoculation with Avirulent Pyricularia oryzae and the Nonrice Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, H K; Lyngs Jørgensen, H J; Mathur, S B; Smedegaard-Petersen, V

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Avirulent isolates of Pyricularia oryzae and isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a nonrice pathogen, were used to suppress rice blast caused by P. oryzae. In greenhouse experiments, both fungi substantially reduced leaf blast when applied 24 h or more before the pathogen. B. sorokiniana, but not avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, systemically reduced disease in leaf 5 when applied to whole plants at the four-leaf stage. In field experiments, both fungi were able to reduce neck blast significantly. No increase in grain yield was obtained by using avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, whereas five sprays with B. sorokiniana from seedling to heading stages increased the grain yield in two of three experiments conducted at two locations in Nepal. The significant increase in yield was observed under high inoculum pressure of P. oryzae. Induced resistance is suggested to be involved in the suppression of disease.

  6. Suppression of Rice Blast by Preinoculation with Avirulent Pyricularia oryzae and the Nonrice Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, H K; Lyngs Jørgensen, H J; Mathur, S B; Smedegaard-Petersen, V

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT Avirulent isolates of Pyricularia oryzae and isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a nonrice pathogen, were used to suppress rice blast caused by P. oryzae. In greenhouse experiments, both fungi substantially reduced leaf blast when applied 24 h or more before the pathogen. B. sorokiniana, but not avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, systemically reduced disease in leaf 5 when applied to whole plants at the four-leaf stage. In field experiments, both fungi were able to reduce neck blast significantly. No increase in grain yield was obtained by using avirulent isolates of P. oryzae, whereas five sprays with B. sorokiniana from seedling to heading stages increased the grain yield in two of three experiments conducted at two locations in Nepal. The significant increase in yield was observed under high inoculum pressure of P. oryzae. Induced resistance is suggested to be involved in the suppression of disease. PMID:18944948

  7. The ColRS system of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is required for virulence and growth in iron-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Pandey, Alok; Vishnu Priya, M R; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, produces siderophores only under iron-limiting conditions. We screened 15 400 mTn5-induced mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and isolated 27 mutants that produced siderophores even under iron-replete conditions. We found that the mTn5 insertions in 25 of these mutants were in or close to six genes. Mutants with insertions in five of these genes [colS, XOO1806 (a conserved hypothetical protein), acnB, prpR and prpB] exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. Insertions in a sixth gene, XOO0007 (a conserved hypothetical protein), were found to affect the ability to grow on iron-limiting medium, but did not affect the virulence. Targeted gene disruptants for colR (encoding the predicted cognate regulatory protein for ColS) also exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. colR and colS mutants were defective in the elicitation of hypersensitive response symptoms on the nonhost tomato. In addition, colR and colS mutants induced a rice basal defence response, suggesting that they are compromised in the suppression of host innate immunity. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that a functional ColRS system is required for the optimal expression of several genes encoding components of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Our results demonstrate the role of several novel genes, including colR/colS, in the promotion of growth on iron-limiting medium and the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  8. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  9. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  10. Polymorphic minisatellites in the mitochondrial DNAs of Oryza and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yujiro; Yoshida, Yu; Terachi, Toru; Toriyama, Kinya; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphic analyses of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are rare in comparison with chloroplast DNA, because few target sequences in angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are known. Minisatellites, a tandem array of repeated sequences with a repeat unit of 10 to ~100 bp, are popular target sequences of animal mitochondria, but Beta vulgaris is the only known angiosperm species for which such an analysis has been conducted. From this lack of information, it was uncertain as to whether polymorphic minisatellites existed in other angiosperm species. Ten plant mitochondrial DNAs were found to contain minisatellite-like repeated sequences, most of which were located in intergenic regions but a few occurred in gene coding and intronic regions. Oryza and Brassica accessions were selected as models for the investigation of minisatellite polymorphism because substantial systematic information existed. PCR analysis of 42 Oryza accessions revealed length polymorphisms in four of the five minisatellites. The mitochondrial haplotypes of the 16 Oryza accessions with chromosomal complement (genome) types of CC, BBCC and CCDD were identical but were clearly distinguished from BB-genome accessions, a result consistent with the notion that the cytoplasmic donor parent of the amphidiploid species might be the CC-genome species. Twenty-nine accessions of six major cultivated species of Brassica were classified into five mitochondrial haplotypes based on two polymorphic minisatellites out of six loci. The haplotypes of Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata accessions were identical to Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra accessions, respectively. The haplotypes of Brassica napus accessions were heterogeneous and unique, results that were consistent with previous studies.

  11. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  12. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced.

  13. Characterization and in vitro biological activities of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Saetae, Donlaporn; Wattanachaiyingyong, Ongart; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Yasuda, Masaaki; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2015-03-01

    In this work, chemical and biological characteristics of two types of Thai fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, at different fermentation periods and their raw materials were investigated. Kapi had low water activity and high proteins with high glutamic acid and lysine. Both Kapis, which had different sources, showed similar characteristics. The number of lactic acid bacteria in the products increased during the early stages of fermentation. Free α-amino acid contents in the products increased with the fermentation time. The water extracts from Kapi products showed strong antioxidative activities against ABTS(+) radical, and ACE inhibitory activity but they did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. Biological activities in Kapi could be developed by fermentation process, enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins and non-enzymatic browning reactions. Kapi could, thus, serve as a potential source of natural bioactive substances. PMID:25745266

  14. Gas controlled hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Zeng, Raymond J; Bernet, Nicolas; Pratt, Steven; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Batstone, Damien John

    2012-04-01

    Acidogenic fermentation is an anaerobic process of double purpose, while treating organic residues it produces chemical compounds, such as hydrogen, ethanol and organic acids. Therefore, acidogenic fermentation arises as an attractive biotechnology process towards the biorefinery concept. Moreover, this process does not need sterile operating conditions and works under a wide range of pH. Changes of operating conditions produce metabolic shifts, inducing variability on acidogenic product yield. To induce those changes, experiments, based on reactor headspace N(2)-flushing (gas phase), were designed. A major result was the hydrogen yield increase from 1 to 3.25±0.4 ( [Formula: see text] ) at pH 4.5 and N(2)-flushing of 58.4 (L·d(-1)). This yield is close to the theoretical acidogenic value (4 [Formula: see text] ). The mechanisms that explain this increase on hydrogen yield shifts are related to the thermodynamics of three metabolic reactions: lactate hydrogenase, NADH hydrogenase and homoacetogenesis, which are affected by the low hydrogen partial pressures. PMID:22342590

  15. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date.

  16. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. PMID:27457698

  17. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  18. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  19. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Xu, Shu-De; Li, Peng; Liu, Jing-Shan; Liu, Dan-Ni

    2014-01-01

    A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL) was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL) was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0) and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0). PMID:24368519

  20. Development of enzyme technology for Aspergillus oryzae, A. sojae, and A. luchuensis, the national microorganisms of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichishima, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the modern enzymology in Japanese bioindustries. The invention of Takadiastase by Jokiti Takamine in 1894 has revolutionized the world of industrial enzyme production by fermentation. In 1949, a new γ-amylase (glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.3) from A. luchuensis (formerly designated as A. awamori), was found by Kitahara. RNase T1 (guanyloribonuclease, EC 3.1.27.3) was discovered by Sato and Egami. Ando discovered Aspergillus nuclease S1 (single-stranded nucleate endonuclease, EC 3.1.30.1). Aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) from A. tubingensis (formerly designated as A. saitoi) activates trypsinogen to trypsin. Shintani et al. demonstrated Asp76 of aspergillopepsin I as the binding site for the basic substrate, trypsinogen. The new oligosaccharide moieties Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2 were identified with α-1,2-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) from A. tubingensis. A yeast mutant compatible of producing Man5GlcNAc2 human compatible sugar chains on glycoproteins was constructed. The acid activation of protyrosinase from A. oryzae at pH 3.0 was resolved. The hyper-protein production system of glucoamylase was established in a submerged culture. PMID:27151561

  1. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield.

  2. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

  3. Proteolysis in dry fermented sausages: The effect of selected exogenous proteases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, O; Fernandez, M; De Fernando, G D; de la Hoz, L; Ordoñez, J A

    1997-05-01

    The effect of three commercial proteases (pronase E from Streptomyces griseus, aspartyl proteinase from Aspergillus oryzae and papain) on protein breakdown and the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water soluble, non-protein, 5% phosphotungstic acid soluble, 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble and total volatile basic nitrogen contents increased during fermentation, stabilizing later until the end of ripening (26th day). Nitrogen values were always greater in the aspartyl proteinase added batch in comparison with the other protease added batches. Total free amino acid changes showed a similar pattern to those observed for the 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble nitrogen. The electrophoretic studies demonstrated that proteolysis of high molecular weight myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins was more prominent in protease added batches. It was especially intensive in papain one. The dominant amino acids at the end of ripening were similar in all batches. Tyramine and histamine increased throughout ripening. No significant differences in sensory properties were found between control and pronase E and papain added batches, but they were significantly different (p < 0.01) from the sausages containing aspartyl proteinase, due to an excessive softening. The effect of exogenous enzyme addition on the flavour potentiation of dry fermented sausage is discussed. PMID:22061850

  4. Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azizi, P; Rafii, M Y; Abdullah, S N A; Nejat, N; Maziah, M; Hanafi, M M; Latif, M A; Sahebi, M

    2016-01-01

    The blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat and barley. The recognition of pathogens is an amazing ability of plants including strategies for displacing virulence effectors through the adaption of both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were reported as two main innate immune responses in plants, where PTI gives basal resistance and ETI confers durable resistance. The PTI consists of extracellular surface receptors that are able to recognize PAMPs. PAMPs detect microbial features such as fungal chitin that complete a vital function during the organism's life. In contrast, ETI is mediated by intracellular receptor molecules containing nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains that specifically recognize effector proteins produced by the pathogen. To enhance crop resistance, understanding the host resistance mechanisms against pathogen infection strategies and having a deeper knowledge of innate immunity system are essential. This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant-pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

  5. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  6. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, H; Nielsen, J

    2000-03-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate was shown to be inferior to ammonia as a nitrogen source. A mixture of ammonia and complex nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract or casein hydrolysate, was better than with ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Even a low concentration of casein hydrolysate (0.05 g l(-1)) resulted in a 35% increase in the alpha-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass.

  7. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzai, Masaki; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kaori; Miyaoka, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process.

  8. Efficient expression of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase gene in Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Whitwam, R.E.; Tien, Ming

    1996-03-01

    A manganese peroxidase (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was efficiently expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression was achieved by fusing the mature cDNA of mnp1 with the A. oryzae Taka amylase promoter and secretion signal. The 3{prime} untranslated region of the glucoamylase gene of Asperigillus awamori provided the terminator. The recombinant protein (rMnP) was secreted in an active form, permitting rapid detection and purification. Physical and kinetic properties of rMnP were similar to those of the native protein. The A. oryzae expression system is well suited for both mechanistic and site-directed mutagenesis studies. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Efficient expression of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase gene in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P; Whitwam, R E; Kersten, P J; Cullen, D; Tien, M

    1996-01-01

    A manganese peroxidase gene (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was efficiently expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression was achieved by fusing the mature cDNA of mnp1 with the A. oryzae Taka amylase promoter and secretion signal. The 3' untranslated region of the glucoamylase gene of Aspergillus awamori provided the terminator. The recombinant protein (rMnP) was secreted in an active form, permitting rapid detection and purification. Physical and kinetic properties of rMnP were similar to those of the native protein. The A. oryzae expression system is well suited for both mechanistic and site-directed mutagenesis studies. PMID:8975615

  10. Encapsulation of brewing yeast in alginate/chitosan matrix: lab-scale optimization of lager beer fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Naydenova, Vessela; Badova, Mariyana; Vassilev, Stoyan; Iliev, Vasil; Kaneva, Maria; Kostov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Two mathematical models were developed for studying the effect of main fermentation temperature (T MF), immobilized cell mass (M IC) and original wort extract (OE) on beer fermentation with alginate-chitosan microcapsules with a liquid core. During the experiments, the investigated parameters were varied in order to find the optimal conditions for beer fermentation with immobilized cells. The basic beer characteristics, i.e. extract, ethanol, biomass concentration, pH and colour, as well as the concentration of aldehydes and vicinal diketones, were measured. The results suggested that the process parameters represented a powerful tool in controlling the fermentation time. Subsequently, the optimized process parameters were used to produce beer in laboratory batch fermentation. The system productivity was also investigated and the data were used for the development of another mathematical model. PMID:26019512

  11. Identification and characterization of chloroplast casein kinase II from Oryza sativa (rice).

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingtao; Ding, Shunhua; Reiland, Sonja; Rödiger, Anja; Roschitzki, Bernd; Xue, Peng; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Lu, Congming; Baginsky, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Plastid casein kinase II is an important regulator of transcription, posttranscriptional processes, and, most likely, different metabolic functions in dicotyledonous species. Here we report the identification and characterization of pCKII from the monocotyledonous species Oryza sativa. OspCKII activity was enriched from isolated rice chloroplasts using heparin-Sepharose chromatography, in which it co-elutes with the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC) and several ribosomal proteins. Inclusion mass scanning of the kinase-active fraction identified the gene model for OspCKII. Transient expression of GFP fused to the 184 N-terminal amino acids of the OspCKII sequence in rice confirmed the chloroplastic localization of the kinase. OspCKII activity shows the characteristic features of casein kinase II, such as the utilization of GTP as phosphate donor, inhibition by low concentrations of heparin and poly-lysine, and utilization of the canonical pCKII motif E-S-E-G-E in the model substrate RNP29. Phosphoproteome analysis of a protein extract from rice leaves combined with a meta-analysis with published phosphoproteomics data revealed differences in the target protein spectrum between rice and Arabidopsis. Consistently, several pCKII phosphorylation sites in dicotyledonous plants are not conserved in monocots and algae, suggesting that details of pCKII regulation in plastids have changed during evolution. PMID:25316064

  12. Oryzamides A-E, Cyclodepsipeptides from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Nigrospora oryzae PF18.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Jian; Yuan, Wei; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Han, Bing-Nan; Wang, Shu-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2016-08-26

    Three new cyclohexadepsipeptides, oryzamides A-C (1-3), two isolation artifacts, oryzamides D (4) and E (5), and the known congener scopularide A (6), all possessing a rare 3-hydroxy-4-methyldecanoic acid (HMDA) substructure, were isolated from the mycelial extract of the sponge-derived fungus Nigrospora oryzae PF18. Their planar structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature data. The absolute configurations were determined using the advanced Marfey's method and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Among them, oryzamides D (4) and E (5) were a pair of diastereomers at the sulfur atom of the l-methionine sulfoxide residue, which showcased the possible separation of a pair of methionine sulfoxide diastereomers. The X-ray crystal structure of scopularide A (6) was obtained for the first time, thereby establishing its relative and absolute configuration at C-4 of the HMDA residue. Oryzamides A-C (1-3) did not display cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and NF-κB inhibitory activities. PMID:27489998

  13. Confirmation of potential herbicidal agents in hulls of rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Hahn, Sang-Joon; Ahmad, Ateeque

    2005-06-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Oryza sativa (rice) hulls yielded seven compounds: hentriacontane, 1-tetratriacontanol, beta-sitosterol, momilactone A, momilactone B, tricin (a flavonoid), and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside. The structures of these compounds were elucidated with 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using 1D and 2D spectral methods, aided by electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. The complete 1H NMR assignments for momilactone A and B and 13C NMR assignments for tricin are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, hentriacontane, 1-tetratriacontanol, and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside were identified for the first time in rice hulls. In biological activity tests using these identified compounds, momilactone A and B showed potent inhibitory activity against duckweed (Lemna paucicostata). 1-Tetratriacontanol and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside also showed about 13-20% inhibitory activity based on chlorophyll reduction. Hentriacontane and beta-sitosterol did not show any herbicidal activity. In a germination assay of three weed species (Leptochloa chinenesis L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Cyperus difformis L.) in culture tubes both momilactones A and B had high inhibitory effects. Momilactone B completely inhibited germination of all three weed species at 20 ppm. Germination of L. chinensis L. was completely inhibited by a 4 ppm solution of momilactone B.

  14. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deshui; Nandi, Somen; Bryan, Paula; Pettit, Steve; Nguyen, Diane; Santos, Mary Ann; Huang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin is an essential ingredient used in cell culture media due to its crucial role in regulating cellular iron uptake, transport, and utilization. It is also a promising drug carrier used to increase a drug’s therapeutic index via the unique transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Due to the high risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens from the use of human- or animal plasma-derived transferrin, recombinant transferrin is preferred for use as a replacement for native transferrin. We expressed recombinant human transferrin in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at a high level of 1% seed dry weight (10 g/kg). The recombinant human transferrin was able to be extracted with saline buffers and then purified by a one step anion exchange chromatographic process to greater than 95% purity. The rice-derived recombinant human transferrin was shown to be not only structurally similar to the native human transferrin, but also functionally the same as native transferrin in terms of reversible iron binding and promoting cell growth and productivity. These results indicate that rice-derived recombinant human transferrin should be a safe and low cost alternative to human or animal plasma-derived transferrin for use in cell culture-based biopharmaceutical production of protein therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:20447458

  15. Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Induced Rice Innate Immune Responses Are Suppressed by the Type 3 Secretion System Effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN- mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN- xopX- double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN- xopQ- xopX- xopZ- quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S- mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses. PMID:24086651

  16. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  17. Comparative transcriptome profiling reveals different expression patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains with putative virulence-relevant genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence.

  18. Molecular and pathogenic characterization of new Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains from the coastline region of Fangchenggang city in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Qing; Liu, Shu-Yan; Zhao, Shuai; Yu, Yan-Hua; Li, Rong-Bai; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2013-04-01

    Virulence assays and DNA polymorphism analyses were used to characterize 33 Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strains collected from the coastline region of Fangchenggang city in China. Two new pathogenic races (FXP1 and FXP2), were determined by leaf-clipping inoculation of 12 near-isogenic International Rice-Bacterial Blight (IRBB) rice lines, each containing a single resistance gene. Race FXP1 consisted of twenty-eight strains that were incompatible on IRBB5 and IRBB7, while race FXP2 included five strains that were incompatible on IRBB5 and IRBB7 and moderately virulent on IRBB8 containing the xa8 gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that each probe of avrXa10 and IS1112 resolved two haplotypes. In a dendrogram generated from the combined RFLP data, the 33 Xoo strains were resolved into two clusters. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.53) between race and haplotype. All of the rice cultivars planted in the coastline region of Fangchenggang city were susceptible to the representative Xoo strains tested above. However, we found that four rice cultivars used as breeding materials in the laboratory could fully resist infection by the Xoo strains, suggesting that the isolated Xoo strains could be used to detect resistant rice cultivars suitable for planting in the local rice field.

  19. The Fd-GOGAT1 mutant gene lc7 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Li, Chunrong; Liu, Liping; Zhao, Jiying; Cheng, Xuzhen; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Disease resistance is an important goal of crop improvement. The molecular mechanism of resistance requires further study. Here, we report the identification of a rice leaf color mutant, lc7, which is defective in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis but confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo). Map-based cloning revealed that lc7 encodes a mutant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase1 (Fd-GOGAT1). Fd-GOGAT1 has been proposed to have great potential for improving nitrogen-use efficiency, but its function in bacterial resistance has not been reported. The lc7 mutant accumulates excessive levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in the leaves, causing the leaf color to become yellow after the four-leaf stage. Compared to the wild type, lc7 mutants have a broad-spectrum high resistance to seven Xoo strains. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that many defense pathways that are involved in this broad-spectrum resistance are activated in the lc7 mutant. These results suggest that Fd-GOGAT1 plays an important role in broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance, in addition to modulating nitrogen assimilation and chloroplast development. PMID:27211925

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Different Expression Patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains with Putative Virulence-Relevant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

  1. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae RpfE Regulates Virulence and Carbon Source Utilization without Change of the DSF Production

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung-Hee; Yoon, Joo-Mi; Lee, Sang-Won; Noh, Young-Hee; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that most regulation of pathogenicity factor (rpf) genes in xanthomonads regulates virulence in response to the diffusible signal factor, DSF. Although many rpf genes have been functionally characterized, the function of rpfE is still unknown. We cloned the rpfE gene from a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) Korean race KACC10859 and generated mutant strains to elucidate the role of RpfE with respect to the rpf system. Through experiments using the rpfE-deficient mutant strain, we found that mutation in rpfE gene in Xoo reduced virulence, swarm motility, and production of virulence factors such as cellulase and extracellular polysaccharide. Disease progress by the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was significantly slowed compared to disease progress by the wild type and the number of the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was lower than that of the wild type in the early phase of infection in the inoculated rice leaf. The rpfE mutant strain was unable to utilize sucrose or xylose as carbon sources efficiently in culture. The mutation in rpfE, however, did not affect DSF synthesis. Our results suggest that the rpfE gene regulates the virulence of Xoo under different nutrient conditions without change of DSF production. PMID:25288965

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yingzi; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Baoping; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2016-11-01

    This present study deals with synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposites. Results indicated that chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite at the ratio of 1:5 showed the strongest inhibition in growth of rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite against Xoo is significantly higher than that of the two individual components under both light and dark conditions. Regardless of the presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances, chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite showed strong antibacterial activity, however, the absence increased the sensitivity of Xoo to chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite. In addition, the surface morphology and physicochemical properties of chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite is different from the two individual components based on scanning electron microscopic observation, fourier transform infrared spectra, and X-ray diffraction pattern, as well as elemental and thermo gravimetric analysis. Overall, this study indicated that this synthesized chitosan/TiO2 nanocomposite is promising to be developed as a new antibacterial material. PMID:27516334

  3. Glucose Fermentation Pathway of Thermoanaerobium brockii

    PubMed Central

    Lamed, R.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoanaerobium brockii was shown to catabolize glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway into ethanol, acetic acid, H2-CO2, and lactic acid. Radioactive tracer studies, employing specifically labeled [14C]glucose, demonstrated significant fermentation of 14CO2 from C-3 and C-4 of the substrate exclusively. All extracts contained sufficient levels of activity (expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein at 40°C) to assign a catabolic role for the following enzymes: glucokinase, 0.40; fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase, 0.23; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.73; pyruvate kinase, 0.36; lactate dehydrogenase (fructose-1,6-diphosphate activated), 0.55; pyruvate dehydrogenase (coenzyme A acetylating), 0.53; hydrogenase, 3.3; phosphotransacetylase, 0.55; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (coenzyme A acetylating), 0.15; ethanol dehydrogenase, 1.57; and acetate kinase, 1.50. All pyridine nucleotide-linked oxidoreductases examined were specific for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, except ethanol dehydrogenase which displayed both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked activities. Fermentation product balances and cell growth yields supported the glucose catabolic pathway described. Representative balanced end product yields (in moles per mole of glucose fermented) were: ethanol, 0.94; l-lactate, 0.84; acetate, 0.20; CO2, 1.31; and H2, 0.50. Growth yields of 16.4 g of cells per mole of glucose were demonstrated. Both growth and end product yields varied significantly in accordance with the specific medium composition and incubation time. PMID:6767705

  4. [Simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Ouyang, Jia; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Cai, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass was developed. A Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column was used at 55 degrees C. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The samples were detected by a refractive index detector (RID). The results showed that six organic acids and three saccharides in fermentation broth were completely separated and determined in 17 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 8 in the range of 0.15-5.19 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the organic acids and saccharides in Rhizopus oryzae fermentation broth at two spiked levels were in the range of 96.91%-103.11% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0.81%-4.61%. This method is fast and accurate for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids and saccharides in microbial fermentation broths.

  5. Expression, purification and identification of a thermolysin-like protease, neutral protease I, from Aspergillus oryzae with the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojian; Liu, Yunyun; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Lu; Yi, Li; Ma, Lixin; Zhai, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Neutral proteases are widely used in the textile, food and medical industries. This study was designed to obtain high expression levels of neutral protease I from Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 by using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain for industrial purposes. The coding sequence of the target gene was modified, synthesized, and then cloned into the expression vector pHBM905BDM, which harbored the d1+2 × 201 AOX1 promoter and the MF4I leader sequence. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant strain was used for high-density fermentation in a 4-L fermenter. The yield of the target protein reached 12.87 mg/mL, and the enzyme activity was approximately 49370 U/mL, which indicated that this enzyme was expressed in Pichia pastoris at a high level. The target protein was purified and characterized. Its optimum temperature and pH were 55 °C and 8.0, respectively. This enzyme was extremely sensitive to EDTA, which is consistent with the previous reports that it is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. Our results indicated that low concentrations of zinc, calcium and magnesium ions stimulated the enzyme activity, whereas high concentrations inhibited its activity. In addition, calcium and magnesium ions increased the thermostability of the enzyme. All of the evidence indicated that this protease is a thermolysin-like peptidase. PMID:27539551

  6. Evolution of an avirulence gene, AVR1-CO39, concomitant with the evolution and differentiation of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tosa, Yukio; Osue, Jun; Eto, Yukiko; Oh, Hong-Sik; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Mayama, Shigeyuki; Leong, Sally A

    2005-11-01

    The significance of AVR1-CO39, an avirulence gene of the blast fungus corresponding to Pi-CO39(t) in rice cultivars, during the evolution and differentiation of the blast fungus was evaluated by studying its function and distribution in Pyricularia spp. When the presence or absence of AVR1-CO39 was plotted on a dendrogram constructed from ribosomal DNA sequences, a perfect parallelism was observed between its distribution and the phylogeny of Pyricularia isolates. AVR1-CO39 homologs were exclusively present in one species, Pyricularia oryzae, suggesting that AVR1-CO39 appeared during the early stage of evolution of P. oryzae. Transformation assays showed that all the cloned homologs tested are functional as an avirulence gene, indicating that selection has maintained their function. Nevertheless, Oryza isolates (isolates virulent on Oryza spp.) in P. oryzae were exceptionally noncarriers of AVR1-CO39. All Oryza isolates suffered from one of the two types of known rearrangements at the Avr1-CO39 locus (i.e., G type and J type). These types were congruous to the two major lineages of Oryza isolates from Japan determined by MGR586 and MAGGY. These results indicate that AVR1-CO39 was lost during the early stage of evolution of the Oryza-specific subgroup of P. oryzae. Interestingly, its corresponding resistance gene, Pi-CO39(t), is not widely distributed in Oryza spp. PMID:16353550

  7. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  8. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  9. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  10. Convergent Loss of Awn in Two Cultivated Rice Species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima Is Caused by Mutations in Different Loci.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Tomoyuki; Komeda, Norio; Asano, Kenji; Uehara, Kanako; Gamuyao, Rico; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Nagai, Keisuke; Doi, Kazuyuki; Wang, Diane R; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Wu, Jianzhong; McCouch, Susan R; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2015-09-02

    A long awn is one of the distinct morphological features of wild rice species. This organ is thought to aid in seed dispersal and prevent predation by animals. Most cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, however, have lost the ability to form long awns. The causal genetic factors responsible for the loss of awn in these two rice species remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated three sets of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) in a common O. sativa genetic background (cv. Koshihikari) that harbor genomic fragments from Oryza nivara, Oryza rufipogon, and Oryza glaberrima donors. Phenotypic analyses of these libraries revealed the existence of three genes, Regulator of Awn Elongation 1 (RAE1), RAE2, and RAE3, involved in the loss of long awns in cultivated rice. Donor segments at two of these genes, RAE1 and RAE2, induced long awn formation in the CSSLs whereas an O. sativa segment at RAE3 induced long awn formation in O. glaberrima. These results suggest that the two cultivated rice species, O. sativa and O. glaberrima, have taken independent paths to become awnless.

  11. Bacterial cellulose fermentation. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vore, R.

    1982-01-01

    Physical parameters of growth were determined for Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 10988. The pH range was 4.5 to 7.0. Temperature range was 25/sup 0/ to 32/sup 0/C with 30/sup 0/C being optimum. Viability is lost between fourteen and twenty days in broths at 30/sup 0/C. Semisolid media at 23/sup 0/C maintained viability up to six weeks. Age of seed culture affects length of lag phase and a reduction in viability is noted. The organism is anaerobic. Chemical parameters of growth were studied. Only glucose, fructose and sucrose can be fermented. Only glucose fermentation kinetics were quantified and levels above 100 g/L glucose showed inhibition of growth. Pantothenate is obligately required. High ammonium levels reduced ethanol production. Complex media with yeast extract had higher ethanol production and growth rates. Four liter pilot studies on complex media produced up to 47.5 g/L ethanol from 100 g/L glucose in 20 hours and had a 99.9% theoretical yield. Maximum production rate noted was 2.38 g/L/h. Minimal media had lower yields and rates. Scaleup to 55 gallons proved difficult and was not fully achieved. Mechanical optimization of the vessel was not achieved. Cellulosic hydolysis studies were not attempted and not reported herein. Scale-up and associated problems required much more time than originally anticipated and were still not fully developed.

  12. Effect of hydrothermal processing on antioxidant contents and capacities in pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple and red bran rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) are rich sources of antioxidants including lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologues and '-oryzanol), soluble phenolics (including anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins), and cell-wall-bound phenolics. This study investigated impacts of hydroth...

  13. The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ge, Song

    2016-01-01

    The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis) is characterized in this study. The genome size is 135,224  bp, exhibiting a typical circular structure including a pair of 25,776  bp inverted repeats (IRa,b) separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) of 82,212  bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 12,470  bp. The overall GC content of the genome is 38.95%. 110 unique genes were annotated, including 76 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30t RNA genes. Among these, 18 are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 13 genes contain one intron, and 2 genes (rps12 and ycf3) have two introns.

  14. Cloning and characterization of two flavohemoglobins from Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shengmin; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2009-03-27

    Two flavohemoglobin (FHb) genes, fhb1 and fhb2, were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The amino acid sequences of the deduced FHb1 and FHb2 showed high identity to other FHbs except for the predicted mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminus of FHb2. The recombinant proteins displayed absorption spectra similar to those of other FHbs. FHb1 and FHb2 were estimated to be a monomer and a dimer in solution, respectively. Both of the isozymes exhibit high NO dioxygenase (NOD) activity. FHb1 utilizes either NADH or NADPH as an electron donor, whereas FHb2 can only use NADH. These results suggest that FHb1 and FHb2 are fungal counterparts of bacterial FHbs and act as NO detoxification enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. This study is the first to show that a microorganism contains two isozymes of FHb and that intracellular localization of the isozymes could differ.

  15. Detoxification and anti-nutrients reduction of Jatropha curcas seed cake by Bacillus fermentation.

    PubMed

    Phengnuam, Thanyarat; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2013-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from oil extraction of J. curcas seed. Although it contains a high amount of protein, it has phorbol esters and anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and saponin. It cannot be applied directly in the food or animal feed industries. This investigation was aimed at detoxifying the toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation with Bacillus spp. Two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Bacillus strains used in the study were Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with solid-state and submerged fermentations. Solid-state fermentation was done on 10 g of seed cake with a moisture content of 70% for 7 days, while submerged fermentation was carried out on 10 g of seed cake in 100 ml distilled water for 5 days. The fermentations were incubated at the optimum condition of each strain. After fermentation, bacterial growth, pH, toxic and anti-nutritional compounds were determined. Results showed that B. licheniformis with submerged fermentation were the most effective method to degrade toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the seed cake. After fermentation, phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 62%, 42% and 75%, respectively, while lectin could not be eliminated. The reduction of phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor was related to esterase, phytase and protease activities, respectively. J. curcas seed cake could be mainly detoxified by bacterial fermentation and the high-protein fermented seed cake could be potentially applied to animal feed.

  16. Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun-Jie; Zhu, Ting; Xia, En-Hua; Shi, Chao; Liu, Yun-Long; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Wen-Kai; Zhao, You-Jie; Mao, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Huang, Hui; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Xu, Ping-Zhen; Yao, Qiu-Yang; Zeng, Fan-Chun; Yang, Li-Li; Gao, Ju; Tao, Da-Yun; Wang, Yue-Ju; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2014-11-18

    Comparative genomic analyses among closely related species can greatly enhance our understanding of plant gene and genome evolution. We report de novo-assembled AA-genome sequences for Oryza nivara, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza glumaepatula, and Oryza meridionalis. Our analyses reveal massive levels of genomic structural variation, including segmental duplication and rapid gene family turnover, with particularly high instability in defense-related genes. We show, on a genomic scale, how lineage-specific expansion or contraction of gene families has led to their morphological and reproductive diversification, thus enlightening the evolutionary process of speciation and adaptation. Despite strong purifying selective pressures on most Oryza genes, we documented a large number of positively selected genes, especially those genes involved in flower development, reproduction, and resistance-related processes. These diversifying genes are expected to have played key roles in adaptations to their ecological niches in Asia, South America, Africa and Australia. Extensive variation in noncoding RNA gene numbers, function enrichment, and rates of sequence divergence might also help account for the different genetic adaptations of these rice species. Collectively, these resources provide new opportunities for evolutionary genomics, numerous insights into recent speciation, a valuable database of functional variation for crop improvement, and tools for efficient conservation of wild rice germplasm.

  17. A comparative study on the degradation of gallic acid by Aspergillus oryzae and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Guo, Danzhao; Zhang, Zhicai; Liu, Dan; Zheng, Huihua; Chen, Hui; Chen, Keping

    2014-01-01

    Recently, as an emerging persistent dissolved organic pollutant (DOP), gallic acid (GA) and its efficient decomposition methods have received global attention. The present work aimed to compare the effect of Aspergillus oryzae 5992 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 40719 on degradation of different concentrations of GA. The A. oryzae grew well and achieved a GA removal rate up to 99% in media containing 1-4% GA, much higher than P. chrysosporium. The activity of laccase and lignin peroxidase excreted by A. oryzae was higher than that by P. chrysosporium in the presence of GA. Based on the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, three relevant intermediate metabolites were determined as progallin A, methyl gallate, and pyrogallic acid, implying that A. oryzae could not degrade GA unless the carboxyl in the molecule was protected or removed. In view of the ability of A. oryzae to accommodate a high concentration of GA and achieve a high removal rate, as well as the significantly different enzyme activities involved in GA degradation and the underlying mechanisms between the two fungal strains, A. oryzae is proven to be a superior strain for the degradation of DOP.

  18. The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PilZ Domain Proteins Function Differentially in Cyclic di-GMP Binding and Regulation of Virulence and Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fenghuan; Tian, Fang; Chen, Huamin; Hutchins, William; Yang, Ching-Hong; He, Chenyang

    2015-07-01

    The PilZ domain proteins have been demonstrated to be one of the major types of receptors mediating cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling pathways in several pathogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the function of PilZ domain proteins in c-di-GMP regulation of virulence in the bacterial blight pathogen of rice Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Here, the roles of PilZ domain proteins PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 in c-di-GMP binding, regulation of virulence and motility, and subcellular localization were characterized in comparison with PXO_02715, identified previously as an interactor with the c-di-GMP receptor Filp to regulate virulence. The c-di-GMP binding motifs in the PilZ domains were conserved in PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 but were less well conserved in PXO_02715. PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 but not PXO_02715 proteins bound to c-di-GMP with high affinity in vitro, and the R(141) and R(10) residues in the PilZ domains of PXO_00049 and PXO_02374, respectively, were crucial for c-di-GMP binding. Gene deletion of PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 resulted in significant increases in virulence and hrp gene transcription, indicating their negative regulation of virulence via type III secretion system expression. All mutants showed significant changes in sliding motility but not exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. In trans expression of the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of each gene in the relevant mutants led to restoration of the phenotype to wild-type levels. Moreover, PXO_00049 and PXO_02374 displayed mainly multisite subcellular localizations, whereas PXO_02715 showed nonpolar distributions in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae cells. Therefore, this study demonstrated the different functions of the PilZ domain proteins in mediation of c-di-GMP regulation of virulence and motility in X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  19. Production of verruculogen by Penicillium estinogenum in stirred fermenters.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G; Shaw, B I

    1980-04-01

    A spectrofluorometric assay for the estimation of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen in crude mycelial extract has been devised and used to determine concentrations as low as 0.2 microgram ml-1. Verruculogen production by Penicillium estinogenum has been extended from surface culture to submerged culture in 60 1 stirred fermenters, in which the maximum cell-associated mycotoxin yield [5 mg (100 ml culture)-1] was obtained within 7 d. It was found necessary to supplement the medium (Czapek Dox broth plus 0.5% yeast extract) with calcium chloride (2%) to induce profuse sporulation (2 X 10(7) conidia ml-1). PMID:7420051

  20. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.