Science.gov

Sample records for oryzae fermentation extract

  1. Response to various amounts of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on ruminal metabolism in cattle.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Kreikemeier, K K

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract stimulated or inhibited ruminal fermentation when fed at higher than recommended doses (3 g/d). Four dietary treatments of A. oryzae fermentation extract were fed daily to six cows fitted with ruminal cannulas. For each of four periods, bromegrass hay (6% CP) with and without extract was fed for 28 d. Dacron bags containing bromegrass cell walls were ruminally incubated to determine ruminal fiber degradation. The A. oryzae fermentation extract did not affect degradation of cell walls, cellulose, or hemicellulose. Total ruminal anaerobic or cellulolytic bacteria were not different among treatments; neither were the proportions of cellulolytic species, Butyrivibrio sp., Ruminococcus albus, or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Ruminal ammonia was not different; however, total VFA were higher, and pH tended to be lower, when 27 g/d of A. oryzae fermentation extract was fed. The proportion of VFA was not different among treatments. The A. oryzae fermentation extract fed at nine times the recommended dosage did not produce any stimulatory effects, except for total VFA, and was not inhibitory or toxic to ruminal metabolism and forage fiber degradation.

  2. Influence of tallow and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract in dairy cattle rations.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J A; Grimes, L W

    1997-06-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of adding 3 g/d of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract to diets with or without 5.6% added tallow. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (mean = 98 d of lactation) were assigned to a randomized block experiment in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were the basal diet 1) without tallow or extract, 2) with extract but no tallow, 3) with tallow but no extract, and 4) with tallow and extract. Milk production, dry matter intake, 3.5% fat corrected milk, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in the total tract were depressed for cows fed tallow. Addition of fermentation extract did not stimulate fiber digestion or milk production of cows fed diets with or without fat. Addition of extract did not overcome depression of fiber digestibility by cows fed tallow.

  3. Removal of off-flavors from sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yong-Soo; Bae, Hyang-Nam; Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Keun-Sick; Yun, In-Hye; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Myung-Suk; Lee, Yang-Bong; Kim, Young-Mog

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to reduce off-flavors from sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) extract since the typical odor of seaweed is an impediment to consumption of seaweed products. Fifty-six odor compounds emitted from the extract were identified using a thermal desorbor and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On the basis of expected odor intensity (EOI), isovaleric acid (41.2%), allyl isothiocyanate (22.6%), octanal (11.1%) and acetaldehyde (10.6%) were responsible for about 85.5% of total odor strength in the extract, suggesting that the odor of the extract might mainly be attributed to these compounds. The EOIs of odor compounds were dramatically reduced or disappeared during fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae. Total EOI of the odor compounds decreased about four-fold, compared with that of the raw extract (control) after the four days of fermentation at 30°C with agitation at 120 rpm. These results indicate that microbial fermentation may be a good strategy to reduce off-flavors of seaweeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vitro Stimulation of Forage Fiber Degradation by Ruminal Microorganisms with Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract

    PubMed Central

    Varel, Vincent H.; Kreikemeier, Kelly K.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Hatfield, Ronald D.

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (Amaferm) was evaluated for its ability to influence degradation of brome grass and switchgrass fiber fractions by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. Addition of Amaferm at a concentration of 0.067 mg/ml, which is approximately the concentration found in the rumen ecosystem (0.06 mg/ml), increased the degradation of brome grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) by 28% after fermentation for 12 h (P < 0.01), but had no effect after fermentation for 24 or 48 h. The levels of degradation of both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions were increased after fermentation for 12 h (P < 0.01). Additions of 0.08 and 8% (vol/vol) Amaferm filtrate (12.5 g/100 ml) stimulated degradation of switchgrass NDF by 12 and 24% (P < 0.01), respectively, after fermentation for 12 h; when 80% filtrate was added, degradation was decreased by 38%. The concentrations of total anaerobes in culture tubes containing 80% filtrate were 5 times greater than the concentrations in the controls; however, the concentrations of cellulolytic organisms were 3.5 times lower than the concentrations in the controls (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the filtrate contained high concentrations of soluble substrate which did not allow the cellulolytic organisms to compete well with other populations. The remaining concentrations of esterified p-coumaric and ferulic acids were lower at 12 h in NDF residues obtained from fermentation mixtures supplemented with Amaferm. Because the total anaerobes were not inhibited in fermentation mixtures containing Amaferm, antibiotics are unlikely to be involved as a mode of action for increasing NDF degradation. The possibility that Amaferm contains enzymes (possibly esterases) that may play a role in stimulating the rate of fiber degradation by mixed ruminal microorganisms by removal of plant cell wall phenolic acid esters is discussed. PMID:16349057

  5. Effect of Canavalia gladiata Extract Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Chang, Jee-Yun; Nam, Da-Eun; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Canavalia gladiata has been used as a Chinese traditional folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the use of C. gladiata is limited because it contains antinutritional and allergy-causing proteins. We fermented C. gladiata with Aspergillus oryzae and investigated the effects of fermented C. gladiata (FCG) on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. The mice were divided into five groups: untreated Balb/c mice; AD control (NC/Nga mice); FCGH (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg fermented C. gladiata water extract); FCG30 (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg of fermented C. gladiata 30% ethanol extract), and FCG80 (NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg of fermented C. gladiata 80% ethanol extract). We found increases in the nonessential amino acids and essential amino acid in the FCG compared with the non-FCG. FCG attenuated macroscopic and histopathological changes in dorsal skin of mice when compared with the AD control group. The FCG30 and FCG80 groups, in particular, showed significant decreases in scratching episodes when compared with the AD control group. FCG improved immune responses, including increases in IgE and histamine for AD, through attenuation of Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We suggest that FCG may have benefits for improvement of AD function by improving the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and by producing anti-inflammatory effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 inhibits fat accumulation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    So, Kyoung-Ha; Suzuki, Yasuki; Yonekura, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lee, Chan Ho; Kim, Sung Woo; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured. Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 µg/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes.

  7. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Wheat Germ and Wheat Germ Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Park, Euna; Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo-Nam; Song, Ji-Hye

    2015-03-01

    Most of the wheat germ in cereal grains is removed during the milling process. Various physiological effects have been reported for bioactive substances in wheat germ such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of ethanol extracts from wheat germ (WGE) and wheat germ fermented with Aspergillus oryzae (F-WGE) were investigated in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. The anti-oxidant activity of F-WGE was demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in the enhanced scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals and Cu(2+)-chelating activity compared to WGE. WGE and F-WGE treatment at doses between 10 and 400 μg/mL did not affect the viability of HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Intracellular ROS levels from Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress were significantly decreased by F-WGE treatment in HepG2 cells compared to WGE. Lipid accumulation was increased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by 100 μM Fe(2+) treatment, but the accumulation was strongly inhibited by 100 μg/mL of WGE and F-WGE treatment. These results suggest that changes in bioactive substances during the fermentation of wheat germ can potentiate scavenging activities against transition metal-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, we propose that F-WGE is a novel food materials and provided scientific evidences for its efficacy in the development of functional foods.

  8. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  9. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae extract alone or in combination with antimicrobial compounds on ruminal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beharka, A A; Nagaraja, T G

    1998-06-01

    The effect of an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on the growth rates of pure cultures of ruminal bacteria was determined. Bacteria were grown in an anaerobic ruminal fluid and carbohydrate medium. A sterile filtrate made with 10% A. oryzae was added to the medium at 2 or 5% (vol/vol) to provide a final A. oryzae concentration of 2 or 5 mg/ml, respectively. The filtrate had no effect on the growth rates of 10 of the 19 ruminal bacteria tested; however, the filtrate increased the growth rates of the bacteria that digest fiber, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes, and the bacteria that utilize lactate, Megasphaera elsdenii, Selenomonas lactilytica, and Selenomonas ruminantium. No differences in growth rate were detected between the two concentrations of A. oryzae filtrate. We also investigated the interactions between A. oryzae and antimicrobial compounds on the growth rates of six species of ruminal bacteria that had shown positive responses or no response to the filtrate. The addition of A. oryzae filtrate to medium containing chlortetracycline or neomycin tended to diminish the negative effects of those compounds on the growth rates of some ruminal bacteria, although the bacteria had no positive growth response to the filtrate alone. In contrast, the combination of A. oryzae filtrate and tylosin decreased the growth rate of Sel. ruminantium D. These results indicated that A. oryzae stimulates growth of some bacteria that digest fiber and ferment lactate in the rumen and interacts positively or negatively with certain antimicrobial feed additives.

  10. Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition of phenolic acids from fermented rice bran with fungus Rizhopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cristiano G; Gonçalves, Letícia M; Prietto, Luciana; Hackbart, Helen S; Furlong, Eliana B

    2014-03-01

    The solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been employed as a form making available a higher content of functional compounds from agroindustrial wastes. In this work, the effect of SSF with the Rhizopus oryzae fungus on the phenolic acid content of rice bran was studied. Phenolic extracts derived from rice bran and fermented rice bran were evaluated for their ability to reduce free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH) and for the ability to inhibit the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The phenolic compound content increased by more than two times with fermentation. A change in the content of phenolic acids was observed, with ferulic acid presenting the greatest increase with the fermentation, starting from 33μg/g in rice bran and reaching 765μg/g in the fermented bran. [corrected]. The phenolic extracts showed an inhibition potential for DPPH and for the peroxidase enzyme, however did not inhibit the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Goma, G

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction, The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-1 pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to (1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, (2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical process- completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  12. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  13. Production of L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae using semicontinuous fermentation in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Shaotong; Liu, Mo; Pan, Lijun; Zheng, Zhi; Luo, Shuizhong

    2011-04-01

    Semicontinuous fermentation using pellets of Rhizopus oryzae has been recognized as a promising technology for L-lactic acid production. In this work, semicontinuous fermentation of R. oryzae AS 3.819 for L-lactic acid production has been developed with high L-lactic acid yield and volumetric productivity. The effects of factors such as inoculations, CaCO₃ addition time, and temperature on L-lactic acid yield and R. oryzae morphology were researched in detail. The results showed that optimal fermentation conditions for the first cycle were: inoculation with 4% spore suspension, CaCO₃ added to the culture medium at the beginning of culture, and culture temperature of 32-34 °C. In orthogonal experiments, high L-lactic acid yield was achieved when the feeding medium was (g/l): glucose, 100; (NH₄)₂SO₄, 2; KH₂PO₄, 0.1; ZnSO₄·7H₂O, 0.33; MgSO₄·7H₂O, 0.15; CaCO₃, 50. Twenty cycles of semicontinuous fermentation were carried out in flask culture. L: -lactic acid yield was 78.75% for the first cycle and 80-90% for the repeated cycles; the activities of lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) were 7.2-9.2 U/mg; fermentation was completed in 24 h for each repeated cycle. In a 7-l magnetically stirred fermentor, semicontinuous fermentation lasted for 25 cycles using pellets of R. oryzae AS 3.819 under the optimal conditions determined from flask cultures. The final L-lactic acid concentration (LLAC) reached 103.7 g/l, and the volumetric productivity was 2.16 g/(l·h) for the first cycle; in the following 19 repeated cycles, the final LLAC reached 81-95 g/l, and the volumetric productivities were 3.40-3.85 g/(l·h).

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of Aspergillus oryzae strains 3.042 and RIB40 for soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong

    2013-06-17

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 (Chinese strain) is a close relative of A. oryzae RIB40 (Japanese strain), which is the important agent used for soy sauce fermentation. The genome of A. oryzae 3.042 was sequenced and compared with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different soy sauce flavors are produced by these strains. The A. oryzae 3.042 chromosome is 36,547,279bp and contains 11,399 protein-encoding genes. MUMmer analysis revealed that the genomes of A. oryzae 3.042 and RIB40 are mostly collinear. Genome sequence data and comparative analysis of the two strains identified several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in cell growth, salt tolerance, environmental resistance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to salt tolerance, especially genes for K(+) transport, while others were associated with ester formation and amino acid metabolism, which likely contribute to flavor formation. In conclusion, comparative genome analysis provided insights into the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains. The unique genes that we found in A. oryzae would make sense to the soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-efficiency l-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae using a novel modified one-step fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using the two different fermentation strategies of one-step fermentation (OSF) and conventional fermentation (CF). Compared to CF, OSF reduced the demurrage of the production process and increased the production of lactic acid. However, the qp was significantly lower than during CF. Based on analysis of μ, qs and qp, a novel modified OSF strategy was proposed. This strategy aimed to achieve a high final concentration of lactic acid, and a high qp by R. oryzae. In this strategy, the maximum lactic acid concentration and productivity of the lactic acid production stage reached 158g/l and 5.45g/(lh), which were 177% and 366% higher, respectively, than the best results from CF. Importantly, the qp and yield did not decrease. This strategy is a convenient and economical method for l-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae.

  16. Role of the pectinolytic enzyme in the lactic acid fermentation of potato pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kawamura, Y; Oda, Y

    2003-07-01

    Rhizopus oryzae strain NBRC 4707 produced lactic acid and ethanol more efficiently than strain NRRL 395 in potato pulp, an agricultural by-product of the starch industry. The two strains developed comparable activities of xylanase, cellulase, alpha-amylase, and glucoamylase, while the polygalacturonase activity of strain NBRC 4707 was double that of strain NRRL 395. The addition of commercial pectinase enhanced the formation of metabolites, suggesting that the degradation of pectic substances determines the fermentation of potato pulp by R. oryzae. Orange and apple peel were more effective in the induction of polygalacturonase activity than potato pulp, sugarbeet pulp, or wheat bran when used as a principal carbon source for fungal growth in a solid-state culture. The fungal cells in both types of fruit peel stimulated the fermentation of potato pulp and increased the quantity of lactic acid and ethanol to higher levels than those in other agricultural by-products.

  17. Phytase production by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation and its applicability in dephytinization of wheat bran [corrected].

    PubMed

    Sapna; Singh, Bijender

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 secreted a high titre of phytase in solid-state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran at 30 °C after 96 h at the initial substrate to moisture ratio of 1:2 and a water activity of 0.95. The production of phytase increased when wheat bran was supplemented with sucrose and beef extract. Further enhancement in enzyme production was recorded when the substrate was supplemented with the surfactant Triton X-100 (145 U/g of DMB). An overall 29-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved owing to optimization. Under optimized conditions, the mould secreted 9.3-fold higher phytase in SSF as compared to submerged fermentation (SmF). The mesophilic mould also secreted amylase, cellulase (CMCase), pectinase and xylanase along with phytase in SSF. Scanning electron microscopy revealed luxuriant growth of A. oryzae on wheat bran with abundant spores. The enzyme dephytinized wheat bran with concomitant liberation of inorganic phosphate.

  18. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  19. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation.

  20. L-lactic acid production from starch by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in a genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae pure culture.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Satoshi; Yoshie, Toshihide; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid is a commodity chemical that can be produced biologically. Lactic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strains were constructed by genetic engineering. The A. oryzae LDH strain with the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase gene produced 38 g/L of lactate from 100g/L of glucose. Disruption of the wild-type lactate dehydrogenase gene in A. oryzae LDH improved lactate production. The resulting strain A. oryzae LDHΔ871 produced 49 g/L of lactate from 100g/L of glucose. Because A. oryzae strains innately secrete amylases, A. oryzae LDHΔ871 produced approximately 30 g/L of lactate from various starches, dextrin, or maltose (all at 100 g/L). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lactate from starch using a pure culture of transgenic A. oryzae. Our results indicate that A. oryzae could be a promising host for the bioproduction of useful compounds such as lactic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce. PMID:25945335

  2. Supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae-fermented kochujang lowers serum cholesterol in subjects with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hee; Jung, Eun-Soo; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Do-Yeoun; Jo, Seung-Wha; Jin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2015-06-01

    Kochujang, a traditional fermented red pepper paste, is known for its hypocholesterolemic effect; however, these studies used non-commercial preparations of kochujang. In this study, we examined whether commercially-made kochujang in which Aspergillus oryzae (also known as koji) was used as a microorganism for fermentation has the same cholesterol-lowering effects. Hyperlipidemic subjects (based upon criteria of 110 ∼ 190 mg/dL LDL cholesterol or 200 ∼ 260 mg/dL total cholesterol) who had not been diagnosed with any disease and met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into either the kochujang (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) group. All subjects ingested either the kochujang pill (34.5 g/d) or a placebo three times daily during meals for 12 weeks. Outcomes included measurements of efficacy (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride) and safety (adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and vital signs). In the kochujang-supplemented group, subjects' total cholesterol level significantly decreased (from 215.5 ± 16.1 mg/dL to 194.5 ± 25.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001). LDL-C cholesterol levels were also decreased by kochujang supplementation (from 133.6 ± 14.8 mg/dL to 113.5 ± 23.1 mg/dL); however no significant difference was seen between groups (p = 0.074). There were no statistically significant differences in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups. None of the subjects complained of any adverse effects. These results indicate that A. oryzae-fermented kochujang elicits a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and might be useful for improving blood cholesterol levels in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. NCT01865370. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilong; Dai, Zewen

    2010-05-05

    Extractive microbial fermentation of organic compounds in liquid-liquid two-phase systems is a potential strategy to overcome the limitations of microbial fermentation in an aqueous solution, such as low substrate solubility, substrate/product inhibition and product further degradation. A conventional aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system is inaccessible to extractive fermentation of a relatively high polar bioproduct as the confliction between the biocompatibility and the extraction ability of the corresponding organic solvent. An exploitation of cloud point system as a novel medium engineering method for extractive microbial fermentation is reviewed in present work. The relationship between phase separation of nonionic surfactant aqueous solution forming cloud point system and its corresponding biocompatibility to microorganisms, and the relationship between solubilization and bioavailability of organic compounds in a cloud point system are discussed. Paradigms of extractive microbial fermentation in cloud point system are highlighted with some cases in our lab. The downstream processing for nonionic surfactant recovery and product separation with microemulsion extraction is also presented.

  4. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  5. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  6. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  7. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  8. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  9. Highly accumulative production of L(+)-lactate from glucose by crystallization fermentation with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryohsuke

    2013-01-01

    In order to produce microbiologically large amount of l(+)-lactic acid (LA) from glucose, batch and fed-batch (intermittent addition of sterilized glucose powder aseptically) cultures of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) whose mycelia were immobilized in situ within sponge-like cubic particles (3.5 mm edge long) were carried out at 37°C in a three baffled shake flask. Appropriately calculated amount of fine powdery calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was added initially or intermittently to control pH of the culture liquids. High accumulations of LA (145 g/L and 231 g/L, in reality 176 g/L and 280 g/L as anhydrous calcium lactate) were achieved by a batch (glucose concentration = 150 g/L) and a fed-batch cultures (the initial glucose concentration = 150 g/L and the intermittent addition of glucose equivalent to 100 g/L). In these cultures the yields and productivities of LA were, 95.0%, 1.42 g/L·h and 92.5%, 1.83 g/L·h, respectively. Existence of considerable amounts of calcium lactate (Ca(LA)(2)) as crystals in the culture broth was experimentally proved by two evidences: (i) heating up (70°C) followed by quick low centrifugal force to remove remaining CaCO(3) solids from culture broth and then cooling down (37°C) followed by incubation of the culture supernatant at 37°C to observe recrystallization of Ca(LA)(2), and (ii) the measurement of solubility of Ca(LA)(2) in the culture media. It was conceptually discussed to be able to avoid the product inhibition by means of crystallization fermentation for the high accumulation of LA by R. oryzae.

  10. Inhibition kinetics of lipid oxidation of model foods by using antioxidant extract of fermented soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wardhani, Dyah H; Fuciños, Pablo; Vázquez, José A; Pandiella, Severino S

    2013-08-15

    Fermentation by using Aspergillus oryzae has been reported to increase antioxidant activity of soybeans significantly. The effectiveness of the extract from fermented soybeans was studied in 3 model foods with different complexities, i.e., linoleic acid emulsion, sunflower oil emulsions and bulk sunflower oil. For the emulsion systems, oxidation at two different pH values (4.5 and 7) was also compared. A reparameterised logistic equation was used to describe and to predict the experimental data. In general, a good agreement between experimental trends and simulated data from the model was found. A crude antioxidant extract (5 mg/g) showed a comparable antioxidant activity to 0.26 mg/g of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the linoleic acid emulsions. The extract exhibited a better capability to retard primary products in the linoleic acid systems than the secondary products. The opposite effect was observed in the bulk sunflower oil and its emulsion systems.

  11. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product.

  12. [Effects of pellet characteristics on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huating; Huang, Ying; Fu, Yongqian

    2015-03-04

    Effects of pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae were characterized for different inoculum sizes and concentrations of peptone and CaCO3. Different initial spore concentrations were inoculated in the preculture medium with different peptone and CaCO3 concentrations, and cultivated at 30 degrees C for 36 h. Representative pellets were chosen for interior structure analysis and L-lactic acid production. Inoculum size was the most important factor determining pellet formation and diameter. Peptone concentration had the greatest effect on pellet density. L-lactic acid production depended heavily on pellet density but not on pellet diameter. Low-density pellets formed easily under conditions of low peptone concentration and often had a relatively hollow structure. This structure greatly decreased production. The production of L-lactic acid increased until the density reached a certain level (50 - 60 kg/m3) , which the compact part distributed homogeneously in the thick outer layer of the pellet, and loose in the central layer. Homogeneously structured, denser pellets limited mass transfer. CaCO, concentration only had a slight influence on pellet diameter and density. This work provides the insight into pellet structure and its relationship with productivity.

  13. Lignin degradation in corn stalk by combined method of H2O2 hydrolysis and Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC5992 liquid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicai; Xia, Lili; Wang, Feng; Lv, Peng; Zhu, Maxiaoqi; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase (LiP) is the primary enzyme responsible for lignin degradation. In our previous work, in order to shorten the pretreatment time and increase the lignin degradation, we have pretreated the corn stalk (CS) using a combination of Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC 5992 solid-state fermentation and H2O2 treatment. In the present study, one-factor-at-a-time design and response surface design were applied to optimize the nutritional constituents for LiP production in liquid-state fermentation by A. oryzae CGMCC 5992 and the conditions for CS degradation by A. oryzae CGMCC 5992. The optimal medium included CS of 30 g/L, glucose of 4.6 g/L, sodium nitrate of 1.2 g/L, corn steep liquor of 1 g/L, yeast extract of 1.2 g/L, and vitamin B1 of 0.15 g/L. Under these optimal conditions, the LiP production reached its maximum of 652.34 U/L. The optimal condition for CS degradation included CS of 20 g, A. oryzae CGMCC 5992 broth of 50 mL, 1.5 % H2O2 solution of 80 mL, H2O2 flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, water volume of 240 mL (water/material ratio of 12:1), hydrolysis temperature of 39 °C, and hydrolysis time of 8 h. Before hydrolysis, CS and water were pretreated at 113 °C for 11 min. Under these optimal conditions, the sugar yield reached its maximum of 46.28 %. Our newly developed method had great advantages in pretreatment of CS due to its quickness, convenience, safety, no special equipment and high sugar yield.Graphical abstractThe schematic diagram of corn straw hydrolysis.

  14. [Determination of enantiomeric purity for lactic acid in fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Bai, D M; Zhao, X M; Hu, Z D

    2001-01-01

    A procedure for the resolution of DL-lactic acid and the determination of D-isomer ratio in L-lactic acid fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae is described. The effects of pH of mobile phase and concentration of chiral mobile phase additives on resolution of DL-lactic acid were investigated. The optical isomers of lactic acid were resolved by RP-HPLC with 2,3,6-tri-O-beta-cyclodextrin(TM-beta-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive, and C18 column as stationary phase, and detected at wavelength 210 nm. The results showed that a correction factor should be introduced into the equation for calculation of the percentage of D-lactic acid, because the UV absorption of D-lactic acid and L-lactic acid might not be the same when TM-beta-CD was present. Quantitation was achieved with external standard method, the average recovery was 100.4%, and the relative standard deviation was 0.82%. This method can be used for the determination of the percentage of D-isomer in L-lactic acid fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae, and it is simple, rapid and accurate. The results showed that the mass fraction of D-isomer in the fermented broth increased during the period of storage.

  15. Modeling and verification of process parameters for the production of tannase by Aspergillus oryzae under submerged fermentation using agro-wastes.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Venkatramanan; Vadivel, Sudhan Shanmuga; Ramaswamy, Arulvel; Sundharamurthy, Venkatesaprabhu; Chandrasekar, Priyadharshini

    2017-01-01

    Tannase production by Aspergillus oryzae using various agro-wastes as substrates by submerged fermentation was studied in this research. The microbe was isolated from degrading corn kernel obtained from the corn fields at Tiruchengode, India. The microbial identification was done using 18S rRNA gene analysis. The agro-wastes chosen for the study were pomegranate rind, Cassia auriculata flower, black gram husk, and tea dust. The process parameters chosen for optimization study were substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and incubation period. During one variable at a time optimization, the pomegranate rind extract produced maximum tannase activity of 138.12 IU/mL and it was chosen as the best substrate for further experiments. The quadratic model was found to be the effective model for prediction of tannase production by A. oryzae. The optimized conditions predicted by response surface methodology (RSM) with genetic algorithm (GA) were 1.996% substrate concentration, pH of 4.89, temperature of 34.91 °C, and an incubation time of 70.65 H with maximum tannase activity of 138.363 IU/mL. The confirmatory experiment under optimized conditions showed tannase activity of 139.22 IU/mL. Hence, RSM-GA pair was successfully used in this study to optimize the process parameters required for the production of tannase using pomegranate rind. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  17. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  18. Characterization of the Production of Biogenic Amines and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in the Soybean Pastes Fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Yeun; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-04-01

    The production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been considered to be an attractive strategy. However, some LAB may produce biogenic amines (BA), which may be of concern from the safety viewpoint. The aim of the present study was to characterize the production of GABA and BA in the soybean pastes fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) FMB S46471 and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) GABA 100. After a ripening period of 90 days, the levels of BA (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine) and GABA in the fermented soybean were assessed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae and L. brevis showed a range of 7,130-11,592 mg/kg for GABA, 178-305 mg/kg for tyramine, 139-163 mg/kg for putrescine, 7.4-10.8 mg/kg for histamine, and 7.1-7.9 mg/kg for cadaverine, whereas the soybean pastes fermented by A. oryzae only showed a range of 30-1,671 mg/kg for GABA, 0.8-189 mg/kg for tyramine, 1.3-85 mg/kg for putrescine, up to 3.6 mg/kg for histamine, and 0.2-2.4 mg/kg for cadaverine. The results showed that the production of GABA was accompanied by the increase in the production of BA, even though the production levels of histamine and cadaverine were very low. This is the first study to simultaneously characterize the production of BA and GABA in GABA-enriched fermented soybean pastes, and warrants further study to minimize the production of BA while optimizing the production of GABA.

  19. Strain development and optimized fermentation conditions for blood meal using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Deben; Gao, Pengfei; Shan, Anshan

    2014-06-01

    To hydrolyze blood meal (BM) effectively, two mutants were generated using ultra-violet mutagenesis. Single-factor experiments, the Plackett-Burman technique and response surface methodology were used to optimize the fermentation conditions. This study successfully generated a mutant and innovatively provided important parameters for utilizing BM by fermentation, which could be of industrial value.

  20. Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cristiano Gautério; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2012-11-01

    The effects of rice bran particle size (0.18-0.39mm) and ammonium sulfate concentration in the nutrient solution (2-8g/L) on biomass production, protein and phenolic content generated by solid state fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (CCT 1217) were studied. Particle size had a positive effect on biomass production and a negative effect (p⩽0.05) on protein and phenolic contents. Ammonium sulfate concentration had a positive effect (p⩽0.05) on biomass and phenolic content gain. Cultivation of fungus in rice bran with particle size of 0.18mm and in the presence of 8g/L ammonium sulfate, resulted in protein levels of 20g/100g dry wt and phenolics content of 4mg/g dry wt. These values were 53 and 65% higher than those achieved with unfermented rice bran. The results demonstrate that the fermentation process increased the value of compounds recovered for potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential Transcript Levels of Genes Associated with Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, M.; Uchimiya, H.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in specialized metabolic pathways is assumed to be regulated coordinately to maintain homeostasis in plant cells. We analyzed transcript levels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes associated with glycolysis and alcohol fermentation under submergence stress. When each transcript was quantified at several times, two types (I and II) of mRNA accumulation were observed in response to submergence stress. Transcripts of type I genes reached a maximum after 24 h of submergence and were reduced by transfer to aerobic conditions or by partial exposure of shoot tips to air. In a submergence-tolerant rice cultivar, transcript amounts of several type I genes, such as glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, increased significantly compared to an intolerant cultivar after 24 h of submergence. This suggests that the mRNA accumulation of type I genes increases in response to anaerobic stress. mRNA accumulation of type II genes, such as aldolase and pyruvate kinase, reached a maximum after 10 h of submergence. Following transfer to aerobic conditions, their transcript levels were not so rapidly decreased as were type I genes. These results suggest that the mRNA levels of genes engaged in glycolysis and alcohol fermentation may be regulated differentially under submergence stress. PMID:12232382

  2. Differential Transcript Levels of Genes Associated with Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M.; Uchimiya, H.

    1994-11-01

    Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in specialized metabolic pathways is assumed to be regulated coordinately to maintain homeostasis in plant cells. We analyzed transcript levels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes associated with glycolysis and alcohol fermentation under submergence stress. When each transcript was quantified at several times, two types (I and II) of mRNA accumulation were observed in response to submergence stress. Transcripts of type I genes reached a maximum after 24 h of submergence and were reduced by transfer to aerobic conditions or by partial exposure of shoot tips to air. In a submergence-tolerant rice cultivar, transcript amounts of several type I genes, such as glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, increased significantly compared to an intolerant cultivar after 24 h of submergence. This suggests that the mRNA accumulation of type I genes increases in response to anaerobic stress. mRNA accumulation of type II genes, such as aldolase and pyruvate kinase, reached a maximum after 10 h of submergence. Following transfer to aerobic conditions, their transcript levels were not so rapidly decreased as were type I genes. These results suggest that the mRNA levels of genes engaged in glycolysis and alcohol fermentation may be regulated differentially under submergence stress.

  3. Extractive fermentation of aroma with supercritical CO2

    PubMed

    Fabre; Condoret; Marty

    1999-08-20

    This work deals with the feasibility of achieving an extractive fermentation of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, the rose aroma, coupling fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction. The extractive process is, in this case, of special interest due to the strong yeast inhibition by 2-phenylethyl alcohol. First results confirmed that direct SCCO2 extraction is not possible, due to a drastic CO2 effect on cell viability. It is therefore necessary to perform cell separation prior to the extraction. Aroma extraction conditions from a synthetic mixture were then optimized, a pressure of 200 bar and a temperature in the range 35-45 degrees C being chosen. Under these conditions, the distribution coefficient Kd is 2 times higher than during the extraction using a conventional organic solvent, n-hexane. Using a simple model of aroma partition between aqueous and SCCO2 phases, the parameters of a continuous extraction from a synthetic broth were defined. The two substrates, glucose and phenylalanine, are not extracted whatever the conditions. As predicted by the model, more than 90% of 2-phenylethyl alcohol can be extracted, while the extraction of ethanol, the second main product, can be easily tuned with respect to operating conditions, as a function of its influence on the fermentation. Finally, the feasibility of the aroma recovery using two depressurization steps at the outflow of the extraction vessel was demonstrated; 97% of the extracted aroma was recovered, and a mass purity of 91% was achieved. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  5. Fuzzy logic control of rotating drum bioreactor for improved production of amylase and protease enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sukumprasertsri, Monton; Unrean, Pornkamol; Pimsamarn, Jindarat; Kitsubun, Panit; Tongta, Anan

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we compared the performance of two control systems, fuzzy logic control (FLC) and conventional control (CC). The control systems were applied for controlling temperature and substrate moisture content in a solidstate fermentation for the biosynthesis of amylase and protease enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae. The fermentation process was achieved in a 200 L rotating drum bioreactor. Three factors affecting temperature and moisture content in the solid-state fermentation were considered. They were inlet air velocity, speed of the rotating drum bioreactor, and spray water addition. The fuzzy logic control system was designed using four input variables: air velocity, substrate temperature, fermentation time, and rotation speed. The temperature was controlled by two variables, inlet air velocity and rotational speed of bioreactor, while the moisture content was controlled by spray water. Experimental results confirmed that the FLC system could effectively control the temperature and moisture content of substrate better than the CC system, resulting in an increased enzyme production by A. oryzae. Thus, the fuzzy logic control is a promising control system that can be applied for enhanced production of enzymes in solidstate fermentation.

  6. Effects of pellet characteristics on L-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae: pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru; Li, Shuang; Xu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    The effects of pellet morphology, diameter, density, and interior structure on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae were characterized for different inoculum sizes and concentrations of peptone and CaCO3. Inoculum size was the most important factor determining pellet formation and diameter. The diameter decreased with increasing inoculum size, and larger pellets were observed for lower inoculum sizes. Peptone concentration had the greatest effect on pellet density, which increased with increasing peptone concentration. L-lactic acid production depended heavily on pellet density but not on pellet diameter. Low-density pellets formed easily under conditions of low peptone concentration and often had a relatively hollow structure, with a thin condensed layer surrounding the pellet and an extraordinarily loose biomass or hollow center. As expected, this structure greatly decreased production. The production of L-lactic acid increased until the density reached a certain level (50-60 kg/m(3)), in which the compact part was distributed homogeneously in the thick outer layer of the pellet and loose in the central layer. Homogeneously structured, denser pellets had limited mass transfer, causing a lower overall turnover rate. However, the interior structure remained nearly constant throughout all fermentation phases for pellets with the same density. CaCO3 concentration only had a slight influence on pellet diameter and density, probably because it increases spore germination and filamentous hypha extension. This work also provides a new analysis method to quantify the interior structure of pellets, thus giving insight into pellet structure and its relationship with productivity.

  7. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  8. Production of 8-hydroxydaidzein from soybean extract by Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Ho; Kim, Bi-Na; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247 was selected from among 60 fungal strains as an effective 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (8-hydroxydaidzein)-producing fungus. The optimal culture conditions for production by this strain in a 7-L fermentor were found to be 30 °C, pH 6, and 300 rpm. Under these conditions, A. oryzae KACC 40247 produced 62 mg/L of 8-hydroxydaidzein from soybean extract in 30 h, with a productivity of 2.1 mg/L/h. These are the highest production and productivity for 8-hydroxydaidzein ever reported. To increase production, several concentrations of daidzin and of daidzein as precursor were added at several culture times. The optimal addition time and concentration for daidzin were 12 h and 1,248 mg/L, and those for daidzein were 12 h and 254 mg/L respectively. Maximum production and productivity for 8-hydroxydaidzein with the addition of daidzein were 95 mg/L and 3.2 mg/L/h respectively, and those with the addition of daidzin were 160 mg/L and 4.4 mg/L/h respectively.

  9. Simulation and optimization of continuous extractive fermentation with recycle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Rofiqah, Umi; Airlangga, Bramantyo

    2017-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is continuous fermentation method which is believed to be able to substitute conventional fermentation method (batch). The recovery system and ethanol refinery will be easier. Continuous process of fermentation will make the productivity increase although the unconverted sugar in continuous fermentation is still in high concentration. In order to make this process more efficient, the recycle process was used. Increasing recycle flow will enhance the probability of sugar to be re-fermented. However, this will make ethanol enter fermentation column. As a result, the accumulated ethanol will inhibit the growth of microorganism. This research aims to find optimum conditions of solvent to broth ratio (S:B) and recycle flow to fresh feed ratio in order to produce the best yield and productivity. This study employed optimization by Hooke Jeeves method using Matlab 7.8 software. The result indicated that optimum condition occured in S: B=2.615 and R: F=1.495 with yield = 50.2439 %.

  10. Simulated dynamics and control of an extractive alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Costa, A C; Dechechi, E C; Silva, F L; Maugeri, F; Maciel, R

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of a computer simulation of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process combined with a flash column under vacuum. The alcohol was partially extracted in order to maintain its concentration at about 40 kg/m3 in the fermentor. The mathematical model of the fermentation was developed for industrial conditions and considers the effect of the temperature on the kinetic parameters. The performance of the dynamic matrix control algorithm, single input single output and multiple input multiple output, for the control of the extractive process was studied. The concepts of factorial design were used in a simulation study to determine the best control structures for the process.

  11. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  12. Genomics of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Gomi, Katsuya; Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Kato, Masashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Michio; Machida, Masayuki

    2007-03-01

    The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus used in the production of the traditional Japanese fermentation foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste), has revealed prominent features in its gene composition as compared to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The A. oryzae genome is extremely enriched with genes involved in biomass degradation, primary and secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and cell signaling. Even compared to the related species A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, an abundance of metabolic genes is apparent, with acquisition of more than 6 Mb of sequence in the A. oryzae lineage, interspersed throughout the A. oryzae genome. Besides the various already established merits of A. oryzae for industrial uses, the genome sequence and the abundance of metabolic genes should significantly accelerate the biotechnological use of A. oryzae in industry.

  13. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  14. Enhancement of fructosyltransferase and fructooligosaccharides production by A. oryzae DIA-MF in Solid-State Fermentation using aguamiel as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Márquez, Diana B; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Mussatto, Solange I; Teixeira, José A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the production of fructosyltransferase (FTase) by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) using aguamiel (agave sap) as culture medium and Aspergillus oryzae DIA-MF as producer strain. SSF was carried out evaluating the following parameters: inoculum rate, incubation temperature, initial pH and packing density to determine the most significant factors through Box-Hunter and Hunter design. The significant factors were then further optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The maximum FTase activity (1347U/L) was obtained at 32°C, using packing density of 0.7g/cm(3). Inoculum rate and initial pH had no significant influence on the response. FOS synthesis applying the enzyme produced by A. oryzae DIA-MF was also studied using aguamiel as substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively.

  16. Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

  17. Meju, unsalted soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergilus oryzae, potentiates insulinotropic actions and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although soybeans have the ability to attenuate insulin resistance, it is insufficient to alleviate type 2 diabetic symptoms and different types of fermented soybeans may have even better anti-diabetic effects. Meju, unsalted fermented soybeans exhibited better insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic actions than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). We investigated whether meju fermented in the traditional (TMS) manner for 60 days and meju fermented in the standardized (MMS) method inoculating Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae for 6 days modulated insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and pancreatic β-cell growth and survival in 90% pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, a moderate and non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Methods Diabetic rats were divided into 3 groups: 1) TMS (n = 20), 2) MMS (n = 20) or 3) casein (control; n = 20). Rats were provided with a high fat diet (40 energy % fat) containing assigned 10% meju for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment insulin resistance and insulin secretion capacity were measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and by hyperglycemic clamp, respectively. Additionally, β-cell mass and islet morphohometry were determined by immunohistochemistry and insulin signaling in the liver was measured by western blot. Results TMS and MMS increased isoflavonoid aglycones much more than CSB. CSB and TMS/MMS improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats but the mechanism was different between treatments (P < 0.05). CSB enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity including hepatic insulin sensitivity better than the control but TMS and MMS enhanced only hepatic insulin sensitivity through activating insulin signaling in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). However, TMS and MMS, but not CSB, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and β-cell mass (P < 0.05). MMS had better insulinotropic actions than the control (P < 0.05). Conclusions The anti-diabetic action of MMS, especially when fermented with Bacillus subtilis and

  18. Evaluation of enzyme mixtures in releasing fermentable sugars from pre-pulping extracts of mixed northeast hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-05-01

    One near-term option to developing a forest product biorefinery is to derive pre-pulping extract from incoming wood chips before the main pulping step. The release of monomer sugars from a xylan-rich extract, creating a fermentable substrate is a prerequisite for utilization of pre-pulping extract for production of ethanol or other value-added products. This study examined the individual and mixture efficiencies of two hemicellulolytic microbial enzymes and two xylanase preparations in catalyzing degradation of green liquor (GL) and hot water (HW) pre-pulping extracts. The effects of four commercial enzyme preparations were determined by assessing yields of xylose + galactose + mannose (xmg) obtained under different reaction conditions. Of the individual enzyme preparations tested, a sample NS 50012 was superior to the other enzyme preparations in releasing xmg under conditions optimized for separate hydrolysis and fermentation and for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In comparison to pre-pulping extracts treated with HW, extract treated with GL was found to inhibit the action of all tested enzymes. This inhibition may be related to higher salt and lignin phenol in the GL extract. On both types of extracts, the mixture constituted by NS 50012 and NS 50030 provided the highest yield of hemicellulose conversion at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5. The generated digestibility thus signified that the synergistic effectiveness in xylan + galactan + mannan (XMG) hydrolysis between NS 50012 (from Aspergillus aculeatus) and NS 50030 (from Aspergillus oryzae) is the result of an interaction mechanism involving different XMG-degrading enzyme activities in the two enzyme preparations.

  19. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  20. Integration of chemical catalysis with extractive fermentation to produce fuels.

    PubMed

    Anbarasan, Pazhamalai; Baer, Zachary C; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gross, Elad; Binder, Joseph B; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2012-11-08

    Nearly one hundred years ago, the fermentative production of acetone by Clostridium acetobutylicum provided a crucial alternative source of this solvent for manufacture of the explosive cordite. Today there is a resurgence of interest in solventogenic Clostridium species to produce n-butanol and ethanol for use as renewable alternative transportation fuels. Acetone, a product of acetone-n-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, harbours a nucleophilic α-carbon, which is amenable to C-C bond formation with the electrophilic alcohols produced in ABE fermentation. This functionality can be used to form higher-molecular-mass hydrocarbons similar to those found in current jet and diesel fuels. Here we describe the integration of biological and chemocatalytic routes to convert ABE fermentation products efficiently into ketones by a palladium-catalysed alkylation. Tuning of the reaction conditions permits the production of either petrol or jet and diesel precursors. Glyceryl tributyrate was used for the in situ selective extraction of both acetone and alcohols to enable the simple integration of ABE fermentation and chemical catalysis, while reducing the energy demand of the overall process. This process provides a means to selectively produce petrol, jet and diesel blend stocks from lignocellulosic and cane sugars at yields near their theoretical maxima.

  1. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  2. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Chang-Won; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h. Oil was extracted from the fermented ginseng seeds using compression extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  3. Strategies for reducing solvent toxicity in extractive ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, H; Mehmetoğlu, U

    1998-01-01

    Extractive fermentation is a widely preferred technique in which the products of fermentation are removed from the fermentation medium by a proper solvent, in order to avoid the inhibitory effects of the products. In this work, decanol, which has a high distribution coefficient with respect to the biocompatible solvents, was used in extractive ethanol fermentation. In order to reduce decanol toxicity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate gel. Further, sunflower oil and Al2O3 were added to the immobilization media. Experiments were performed in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks that were placed in the constant-temperature bath of a constant stirring-rate shaker. Ethanol concentrations were measured to observe the effect of various parameters on ethanol production. Immobilization media included 10, 20, and 30% sunflower oil, or 5, 10, and 20% Al2O3, or Al2O3 and sunflower oil together. The ratio of the volume of aqueous phase to that of decanol phase ranged from 2:1 to 6:1. It was observed that protection depends on the oil, Al2O3, and decanol amounts. Utilization of sunflower oil (30%) and Al2O3 (5%) together yielded best results.

  4. Protective Effects of the Fermented Laminaria japonica Extract on Oxidative Damage in LLC-PK1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Jung; Han, Ji-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of the butanol (BuOH) fraction from fermented Laminaria japonica extract (BFLJ) on AAPH-induced oxidative stress in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 cells). L. japonica was fermented by Aspergillus oryzae at 35±1°C for 72 h. Freeze-dried fermented L. japonica was extracted with distilled water, and the extracted solution was mixed with ethanol and then centrifuged. The supernatant was subjected to sequential fractionation with various solvents. The BuOH fraction was used in this study because it possessed the strongest antioxidant activity among the various solvent fractions. The BuOH fraction of fermented L. japonica had a protective effect against the AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cells damage and increased cell viability while reducing lipid peroxidation formation and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The inhibitory effect of BFLJ on lipid peroxidation formation had a higher value of 0.11±0.01 nmol MDA at 100 μg/mL concentration in comparison with intact BuOH fraction showing 0.22±0.08 nmol MDA at the same concentration. Furthermore, BFLJ treatment increased glutathione concentration. GSH concentration in the cell treated with BFLJ of 100 μg/mL was 1.80 pmol/L×105 cells. These results indicate that BFLJ protects the LLC-PK1 cells against AAPH-induced cell damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation formation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione concentration. PMID:24551823

  5. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer.

  6. Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR) to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun-Hyuk; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is an important enzyme for ascorbate recycling. To examine whether heterologous expression of MDHAR from Oryza sativa (OsMDHAR) can prevent the deleterious effects of unfavorable growth conditions, we constructed a transgenic yeast strain harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying OsMDHAR (p426GPD::OsMDHAR). OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells displayed enhanced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide by maintaining redox homoeostasis, proteostasis, and the ascorbate (AsA)-like pool following the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes and molecules, metabolic enzymes, and molecular chaperones and their cofactors, compared to wild-type (WT) cells carrying vector alone. The addition of exogenous AsA or its analogue isoascorbic acid increased the viability of WT and ara2Δ cells under oxidative stress. Furthermore, the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing cells was greater than that of WT cells when cells at mid-log growth phase were exposed to high concentrations of ethanol. High OsMDHAR expression also improved the fermentative capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a standard cultivation temperature (30°C). The alcohol yield of OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast during fermentation was approximately 25% (0.18 g·g-1) higher than that of WT yeast. Accordingly, OsMDHAR-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These results suggest that heterologous OsMDHAR expression increases tolerance to reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress by improving cellular redox homeostasis and improves survival during fermentation, which enhances fermentative capacity. PMID:27392090

  7. Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Nagarathnamma, R; Bajpai, P

    1999-03-01

    Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.

  8. Decolorization and Detoxification of Extraction-Stage Effluent from Chlorine Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Nagarathnamma, R.; Bajpai, Pratima

    1999-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45°C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium. PMID:10049866

  9. Using Network Extracted Ontologies to Identify Novel Genes with Roles in Appressorium Development in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, the most important infection of rice worldwide. Half the world’s population depends on rice for its primary caloric intake and, as such, rice blast poses a serious threat to food security. The stages of M. oryzae infection are well defined, with the formation of an appressorium, a cell type that allows penetration of the plant cuticle, particularly well studied. However, many of the key pathways and genes involved in this disease stage are yet to be identified. In this study, I have used network-extracted ontologies (NeXOs), hierarchical structures inferred from RNA-Seq data, to identify pathways involved in appressorium development, which in turn highlights novel genes with potential roles in this process. This study illustrates the use of NeXOs for pathway identification from large-scale genomics data and also identifies novel genes with potential roles in disease. The methods presented here will be useful to study disease processes in other pathogenic species and these data represent predictions of novel targets for intervention in M. oryzae. PMID:28106722

  10. Physico-chemical properties of cationic niosomes loaded with fraction of rice (Oryza sativa) bran extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Ruksiriwanich, Warintorn; Abe, Masahiko; Sakai, Hideki; Aburai, Kenichi; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical properties of cationic niosomes (Tween61/cholesterol/CTAB) loaded with fraction No. 3 of Oryza sativa bran extract (OSF3) at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/v), respectively, before and after ultra-centrifugation. More white milky translucent appearance of the niosomes was observed at the higher loaded amount of OSF3. The entrapment efficiency of 0.5% OSF3 in niosomes was 86.22 +/- 1.43%. The sizes of the niosomes were slightly increased (120-220 nm) and the zeta potential values were decreased from 80 to the range of 40-60 mV after loaded with OSF3. All niosomes both blank and loaded with OSF3 were in the uni-lamellar structures determined by FF-TEM and SAXS. The transitions temperature (T(c)) of niosomes significant increased from 75 to 80 degrees C when loaded with OSF3 at 0.1 and 0.5%. Moreover, blank niosomes showed the highest microviscosity with the most rigid membrane at 25 degrees C, followed by the niosomes loaded with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% of OSF3, respectively. The fluorescence polarizations of all niosomal formulations indicated the sharp descending phases at about 40 and 70 degrees C. After ultra-centrifugation to eliminate the non-loaded negatively charged OSF3, the increased vesicular sizes and zeta potential values of the blank, loaded niosomes with 0.1 and 0.5% OSF3 were observed. All niosomal formulations gave the same transition temperatures at about 71 degrees C and the same microviscosities at 25 degrees C. The results from this study can be applied for the niosomal formulation development of the rice bran semi-purified fraction for anti-hair loss products.

  11. Antioxidant properties of extracts from fermented and cooked seeds of Polish cultivars of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Jamróz, Małgorzata

    2008-07-15

    Antiradical and total antioxidant activities of extracts from raw, prepared for inoculation, fermented (tempeh) and cooked seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus Krab and Derek cultivars) were measured. Tempeh fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals which correlated well with the content of total phenols. In Derek cultivar, fermentation caused a significant inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by methanol extracts. In buffer extracts the highest TAA values were observed in raw seeds. Cooking of seeds lowered RSA values as compared to fermentation, especially for the DPPH assay. Methanol and buffer extracts from cooked seeds showed prooxidant activity towards linoleic acid.

  12. Extractive acetonobutylic fermentation by coupling ultrafiltration and distillation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Grateloup, R; Blanc-Ferras, E; Goma, G

    1990-04-15

    An extractive acetonobutylic fermentation process is developed by integrating bioproduction, Ultrafiltration, and distillation, providing simultaneous retention of biomass, selective removal of inhibitors from the permeate, as well as separation and purification of acetone-butanol-ethanol solvents. Successive batch fermentations were performed with normal pressure distillation (98 degrees C), which permitted prolonging and enhancing (by a factor of 3) solvent production, with very few volume exchanges of medium (average dilution rate ws 0.002 h(-1)), and recovering on-line concentrated solvents. Different operating conditions were also tested in order to study the presence of extracellular autolytic enzymes as inhibition factors: It was shown that, (1) extracellular autolytic activity remains low during the larger part of fermentations, even without enzyme-inactivating thermotreatment in the distillation boiler, and (2) high-temperature distillation causes deleterious effects to the culture medium for long duration treatments. Progressive improvements of the process were achieved, first, by managing continuous runs, providing a minimum renewal of the culture medium and, mainly, by decreasing temperature and pressure of distilation. Solvent productivity then reached 2.6 g/L h for a 0.036 h(-1) average dilution rate, corresponding to a feed concentration of 156 g/L glucose actually consumed.

  13. [Determination of lactic acid in fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Bai, D M; Ban, R; Zhao, X M; Hu, Z D

    2000-11-01

    A method for determining lactic acid in fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae by RP-HPLC is described. The operating conditions were Wakosil-II 5 C18 RS column(4.6 mm i.d. x 150 mm, 5 microns) at room temperature, 0.01 mol/L phosphoric acid solution (pH 2.5) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm. The retention time of lactic acid was 3.820 min. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The results will not be affected by other components in the broth. The relative standard deviation was 0.22% (n = 5), and the recovery was over 99%.

  14. Production of phytase under solid-state fermentation using Rhizopus oryzae: novel strain improvement approach and studies on purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rani, Richa; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2011-11-01

    Present study introduces linseed oil cake as a novel substrate for phytase production by Rhizopus oryzae. Statistical approach was employed to optimize various medium components under solid state fermentation (SSF). An overall 8.41-fold increase in phytase production was achieved at the optimum concentrations (w/w, mannitol, 2.05%; ammonium sulfate, 2.84% and phosphate, 0.38%). Further enhancement by 59% was observed due to a novel strain improvement approach. Purified phytase (∼34 kDa) showed optimal temperature of 45 °C, dual pH optima at 1.5 and 5.5 and possesses high catalytic efficiency (2.38×10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Characterization study demonstrates the phytase as highly thermostable and resistant to proteolysis, heavy metal ions, etc. Furthermore, an improved HPLC method was introduced to confirm the ability of phytase to degrade phytic acid completely and was found to be an efficient method.

  15. In situ recovery of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Masumeh; Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Khayati, Gholam

    2009-02-01

    End-product conversion, low product concentration and large volumes of fermentation broth, the requirements for large bioreactors, in addition to the high cost involved in generating the steam required to distil fermentation products from the broth largely contributed to the decline in fermentative products. These considerations have motivated the study of organic extractants as a means to remove the product during fermentation and minimize downstream recovery. The aim of this study is to assess the practical applicability of liquid-liquid extraction in 2,3-butanediol fermentations. Eighteen organic solvents were screened to determine their biocompatibility, and bioavailability for their effects on Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. Candidate solvents at first were screened in shake flasks for toxicity to K. pneumoniae. Cell density and substrate consumption were used as measures of cell toxicity. The possibility of employing oleyl alcohol as an extraction solvent to enhance end product in 2,3-butanediol fermentation was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 80 g/l. Oleyl alcohol did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. 2,3-Butanediol production increased from 17.9 g/l (in conventional fermentation) to 23.01 g/l (in extractive fermentation). Applying oleyl alcohol as the extraction solvent, about 68% of the total 2,3-butanediol produced was extracted.

  16. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  17. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E.

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  18. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  19. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  20. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  1. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  2. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  3. Study of butanol extraction through pervaporation in acetobutylic fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Larrayoz, M.A.; Puigjaner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Substrates conversion during acetobutylic fermentation is essentially limited by the concentration of butanol in the fermentation medium, since butanol itself a by-product of this process. Butanol concentrations of 14-16 g/L inhibit bacterial growth, thereby limiting glucose consumption between 60 and 70 g/L. Thus, there is a limit to the amount of usable substrate beyond which the inhibiting level of butanol is reached, leaving unconverted substrate in the fermentaion medium. One way to reduce this effect would be by in situ extraction of the inhibiting product, thus increasing substrate conversion into products once the inhibiting effect in the bacteria has been removed. Different alternatives such as liquid-liquid extraction in anaerobic systems have been proposed. However, these methods have not been sufficiently developed since most of the solvents utilized for extraction are toxic to bacteria, and those which are not present the inconvenience of a very low solvent-butanol distribution coefficient. In most cases, the separation of organic compounds is carried out at the industrial level using distillation, which is very expensive in terms of energy consumption. On the other hand, membrane separation systems are rather promising processes due to their low energetic cost and to the fact that they have been widely developed in several industrial areas, such as salt water desalinitation, oxygen-rich air production etc. Nevertheless, separation of neutral organic compounds cannot be achieved using the techniques, since they are based on properties such as ionization indices which are not present in neutral moleules. Pervaporation makes possible the separation of different organic compounds. Pervaporation is a process in which organic compounds diffuse through a membrane. Therefore, this technique may be used if the components of a mixture show different membrane diffusion rates.

  4. Expression of salt-induced 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Oryza sativa increases stress tolerance and fermentation capacity in genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), also termed thioredoxin peroxidases (TPXs), are a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that are critically involved in cell defense and protect cells from oxidative damage. In this study, a putative chloroplastic 2-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase (OsTPX) was identified by proteome analysis from leaf tissue samples of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings exposed to 0.1 M NaCl for 3 days. To investigate the relationship between the OsTPX gene and the stress response, OsTPX was cloned into the yeast expression vector p426GPD under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) promoter, and the construct was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. OsTPX expression was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. OsTPX contained two highly conserved cysteine residues (Cys114 and Cys236) and an active site region (FTFVCPT), and it is structurally very similar to human 2-Cys Prx. Heterologous OsTPX expression increased the ability of the transgenic yeast cells to adapt and recover from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stresses, such as a reduction of cellular hydroperoxide levels in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and menadione, by improving redox homeostasis. OsTPX expression also conferred enhanced tolerance to tert-butylhydroperoxide, heat shock, and high ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, high OsTPX expression improved the fermentation capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a high temperature (40 °C) and at the general cultivation temperature (30 °C). The alcohol yield in OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast increased by approximately 29 % (0.14 g g(-1)) and 21 % (0.12 g g(-1)) during fermentation at 40 and 30 °C, respectively, compared to the wild-type yeast. Accordingly, OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged cell survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These

  5. Properties of cellulose-degrading enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae and their contribution to material utilization and alcohol yield in sake mash fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Yu-Ichi; Fujita, Jin; Izuwa, Shinya; Fukuchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Ryu-Ichi; Hiyoshi, Akira; Fukuda, Hisashi; Mikami, Shigeaki; Kizaki, Yasuzo; Wakabayashi, Saburo

    2002-01-01

    Four cellulose-degrading enzymes were identified in a solid-state culture of Aspergillus oryzae. The three major enzymes were purified and named Cel-1, Cel-2, and Cel-3, respectively. The molecular weights were determined to be 62, 120, and 34 kDa, respectively. The optimum temperature of Cel-3 activity was higher than that of the other enzymes. An acidic pH was found to be more suitable for Cel-1 activity than for the other enzymes, and Cel-3 was more stable under acidic conditions than the other two. These properties and the results of a protein homology search for N-terminal amino acid sequences suggest that Cel-1 and Cel-3 correspond to the previously isolated endo-1,4-beta-glucanase CelB and CelA, respectively. The analysis of substrate specificity suggested that Cel-2 is likely to be beta-glucosidase. The effect of Cel-1, Cel-2, and Cel-3 on the sake mash fermentation was determined and it was found that Cel-2 markedly improved material utilization and alcohol yield in sake mash fermentation.

  6. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  7. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Stimulates BDNF Gene Transcription in C6 Glioma Cells: Possible Connection with HO-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoji; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Kishibuchi, Reina; Itoh, Mari; Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki

    2017-03-04

    Fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, is known to be commercially available dietary fiber-rich food, which is appreciated as prebiotics to improve intestinal microflora, and also shown to contain various biologically active substances including polyphenolic compounds. On the other hand, polyphenolic compounds have been suggested to stimulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in connection with the expression of heme oxidase-1 (HO-1) gene in glial cells, thus resulting in the augmentation of BDNF production in the brain, thereby being anticipated to have a putative effect on the brain function. Then, the effect of FBRA extract on HO-1 and BDNF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in C6 glioma cells was examined, and the extract was shown to stimulate both HO-1 and BDNF gene transcription in the glioma cells. Further studies showed that the stimulatory effect of FBRA extract on BDNF gene transcription was almost completely suppressed by silencing HO-1 gene expression with an HO-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and also inhibiting HO-1 activity with an inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin, thus suggesting that FBRA might have a potential ability to induce BDNF gene expression through HO-1 activity in glial cells.

  8. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  9. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  10. A Mathematical model for ethanol production by extractive fermentation in a continuous stirred tank fermentor.

    PubMed

    Kollerup, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-09-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase that removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique together with other key parameters such as extraction efficiency and residual glucose concentration. The model accommodates variable liquid flowrates entering and leaving the system, since it was found that the aqueous outlet flowrate could be up to 35% lower than the inlet flowrate during extractive fermentation of concentrated glucose feeds due to the continuous removal of ethanol from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The model predicts a total ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a solvent dilution rate of 5.0 h(-1). This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. The model has furthermore illustrated the possible trade-offs that exist between obtaining a high extraction efficiency and a low residual glucose concentration.

  11. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise. PMID:25866748

  12. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  13. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  15. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  16. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-12-08

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body-gelatin sponge-convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions.

  17. Improvement of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 by mutagenesis and optimization of culture conditions in solid-state fermentation for the hyper-production of extracellular cellulase.

    PubMed

    El-Ghonemy, Dina Helmy; Ali, Thanaa Hamed; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed; Moharam, Maysa El-Sayed; Talkhan, Fatma Nabeeh

    2014-11-01

    Spore suspensions of Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 3484 were subjected to mutagenesis using ultraviolet-irradiation followed by chemical treatments to improve the biosynthesis of cellulase. Ten mutant strains namely UEAC7, UEAR5, UNAC4, UNAC16, UNAR19, UNBC7, UNBR3, UNBR10, UNBR23 and UNBR25 were selected and their extracellular cellulase activities were assayed. Mutant UNAC4 gave the highest cellulase production [2,455 ± 28 U/g-dry substrate (ds) for filter paper-ase (FP-ase)] in a yield 4-fold exceeding that of the wild type strain (578 ± 5.0 U/g-ds for FP-ase). Rice straw (RS) was used as a sole carbon source for the enzyme production at a concentration of 10 % (w/v). Maximum cellulase production was achieved at initial medium pH 5.5, initial moisture content 77 % and an incubation temperature 28 °C on the fifth day of growth. NH4Cl proved to be the suitable added nitrogen source for maximum enzyme production followed by peptone. These results clearly indicate the cost-effectiveness of solid state fermentation technology in the economic production of extracellular cellulase. The hyper-production of cellulase by mutant strain UNAC4 has potential for industrial processes that convert lignocellulosic material (e.g. RS) into products of commercial value such as glucose and biofuels.

  18. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. PMID:26670250

  19. Extractive fermentation for enhanced propionic acid production from lactose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-05-01

    An extractive fermentation process using an amine extractant and a hollow-fiber membrane extractor to selectively remove propionic acid from the fermentation broth was developed to produce propionate from lactose. Compared to the conventional batch fermentation, the extractive fermentation had a much higher productivity ({approximately}1 g/(L{center_dot}h) or 5-fold increase), higher propionate yield (up to 0.66 g/g or more than 20% increase), higher final product concentration (75 g/L or higher), and higher product purity ({approximately}90%). Meanwhile, acetate and succinate productions in the extractive fermentation were significantly reduced. The improved fermentation performance can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition and a possible metabolic pathway shift to favor more propionic but less acetic and succinic acid production. The process was stable and gave consistent long-term performance over the 1.5-month period studied. The effects of propionate concentration, pH, and amine content in the solvent on the extractive fermentation were also studied and are discussed in this paper.

  20. A comparative study of extraction techniques for maximum recovery of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) from Aspergillus oryzae NSK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system that plays a vital role in regulating vital neurological functions. The enzyme responsible for producing GABA is glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an intracellular enzyme that both food and pharmaceutical industries are currently using as the major catalyst in trial biotransformation process of GABA. We have successfully isolated a novel strain of Aspergillus oryzae NSK that possesses a relatively high GABA biosynthesizing capability compared to other reported GABA-producing fungal strains, indicating the presence of an active GAD. This finding has prompted us to explore an effective method to recover maximum amount of GAD for further studies on the GAD’s biochemical and kinetic properties. The extraction techniques examined were enzymatic lysis, chemical permeabilization, and mechanical disruption. Under the GAD activity assay used, one unit of GAD activity is expressed as 1 μmol of GABA produced per min per ml enzyme extract (U/ml) while the specific activity was expressed as U/mg protein. Results Mechanical disruption by sonication, which yielded 1.99 U/mg of GAD, was by far the most effective cell disintegration method compared with the other extraction procedures examined. In contrast, the second most effective method, freeze grinding followed by 10% v/v toluene permeabilization at 25°C for 120 min, yielded only 1.17 U/mg of GAD, which is 170% lower than the sonication method. Optimized enzymatic lysis with 3 mg/ml Yatalase® at 60°C for 30 min was the least effective. It yielded only 0.70 U/mg of GAD. Extraction using sonication was further optimized using a one-variable-at-a-time approach (OVAT). Results obtained show that the yield of GAD increased 176% from 1.99 U/mg to 3.50 U/mg. Conclusion Of the techniques used to extract GAD from A. oryzae NSK, sonication was found to be the best. Under optimized conditions, about 176% of GAD

  1. Fermented wheat germ extract (avemar) inhibits adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Telekes, Andras; Resetar, Akos; Balint, Geza; Blazso, Gabor; Falkay, Gyorgy; Lapis, Karoly; Raso, Erzsebet; Szende, Bela; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Hidvegi, Mate

    2007-09-01

    Anti-inflammatory efficacy of the fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE, Avemar) in the rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) model was examined. To Wistar rats with AA, different doses of FWGE and anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, dexamethasone) as monotherapies were administered and FWGE and either diclofenac or dexamethasone were also given in combination. Besides plethysmographies of the paws, histological investigations of synovial tissues were also performed along with detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Gene expressions of COX-1 and 2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). FWGE monotherapy significantly inhibited the development of the secondary (immune-mediated) response in AA, and dexamethasone and indomethacin exerted inhibitory effects in a degree comparable to that of FWGE. Histological analysis of the affected joints confirmed the results. FWGE inhibited COX-1 and -2, while indomethacin enhanced COX-2 gene expressions. FWGE had an additive interaction with diclofenac. It is concluded that FWGE has significant anti-inflammatory efficacy confirmed by plethysmography, histology, and real-time PCR.

  2. Safety studies regarding a standardized extract of fermented wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T; Sebestyen, Gyula; Semjen, Gabor; Kennepohl, Elke

    2007-01-01

    "Avemar pulvis" is a powder consisting of an aqueous extract of fermented wheat germ, with the drying aids maltodextrin and silicon dioxide, standardized to contain approximately 200 microg/g of the natural constituent 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone. The results of toxicological and clinical studies of this product demonstrate its safety for its intended use as a dietary supplement ingredient in the United States. Avemar pulvis has been used in Hungary since 1998 and is approved in that country, as well as in the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and Romania, as a "medical nutriment for cancer patients." Acute and subacute toxicity studies using rodents orally administered Avemar pulvis showed that dose levels (2000 to 3000 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day) exceeding the normal recommended oral dosage (8.5 g/day or 121 mg/kg bw/day for a 70-kg individual) by up to approximately 25-fold caused no adverse effects. The test substance showed no evidence of mutagenicity or genotoxicity in vitro or in vivo. Clinical studies using Avemar pulvis as a supplement to drug therapy in cancer patients at doses of 8.5 g/day not only showed no evidence of toxicity, but also showed a reduction in the side effects of chemotherapy. Overall, it was concluded that Avemar pulvis would not be expected to cause adverse effects under the conditions of its intended use as an ingredient in dietary supplements.

  3. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE.

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction of fermentation inhibiting compounds in lignocellulose hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Zautsen, R R M; Maugeri-Filho, F; Vaz-Rossell, C E; Straathof, A J J; van der Wielen, L A M; de Bont, J A M

    2009-04-01

    Several compounds that are formed or released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass inhibit the fermentation of the hydrolysate. The use of a liquid extractive agent is suggested as a method for removal of these fermentation inhibitors. The method can be applied before or during the fermentation. For a series of alkanes and alcohols, partition coefficients were measured at low concentrations of the inhibiting compounds furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde, acetic acid, as well as for ethanol as the fermentation product. Carbon dioxide production was measured during fermentation in the presence of each organic solvent to indicate its biocompatibility. The feasibility of extractive fermentation of hydrolysate was investigated by ethanolic glucose fermentation in synthetic medium containing several concentrations of furfural and vanillin and in the presence of decanol, oleyl alcohol and oleic acid. Volumetric ethanol productivity with 6 g/L vanillin in the medium increased twofold with 30% volume oleyl alcohol. Decanol showed interesting extractive properties for most fermentation inhibiting compounds, but it is not suitable for in situ application due to its poor biocompatibility.

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food.

  6. Antioxidative and antiaging activities and component analysis of Lespedeza cuneata G. Don extracts fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus.

    PubMed

    Seong, Joon Seob; Xuan, Song Hua; Park, So Hyun; Lee, Keon Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Soo Nam

    2017-09-15

    Lespedeza cuneata G. Don is a traditional herb that has been shown to associate with multiple biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative/antiaging activities and performed an active component analysis of the non-fermented and fermented (using Lactobacillus pentosus) extracts of Lespedeza cuneata G. Don. The antioxidative activities of the fermented extract were higher than those of non-fermented extracts. The elastase inhibitory activity, inhibitory effects on UV-induced MMP-1 expression, and ability to promote type I procollagen synthesis were investigated in Hs68 human fibroblasts cells. These tests also revealed that the fermented extract had increased antiaging activities compared with the non-fermented extract. A component analysis of the ethyl acetate fractions of non-fermented and fermented extracts was performed using TLC, HPLC, and LC/ESI-MS/MS to observe changes in the components before and after fermentation. Six components that were different before and after fermentation were investigated. It was thought that kaempferol and quercetin were converted from kaempferol glucosides and quercetin glucosides, respectively, via bioconversion with the fermentation strain. These results indicate that the fermented extract of L. cuneata G. Don has potential for use as a natural cosmetic material with antioxidant and antiaging effects.

  7. Toward consistent and productive complex media for industrial fermentations: studies on yeast extract for a recombinant yeast fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyou; Reddy, Jayanthi; Buckland, Barry; Greasham, Randolph

    2003-06-20

    Yeast extract (YE) is commonly used as a key component in the complex media for industrial fermentations. However, the lot-to-lot variation of this raw material frequently requires extensive "use testing" of many lots to identify only the few that support desired fermentation performance. Through extensive fermentation studies and chemical analyses, we have identified adenine and two metabolizable carbon sources, trehalose and lactate, as the principle components in YE that affect the production of a recombinant protein antigen by a yeast strain. Adenine is required for culture growth and the relationship between biomass and measured adenine can be expressed by a Michaelis-Menten model, while the slowly metabolized trehalose serves to maintain the energy supply to the continued antigen synthesis. The rapidly utilized lactate exerts an indirect positive effect by sparing some of the accumulated ethanol from being consumed for growth to being utilized in the product formation. The effects of these YE components are mutually dependent. Based on the database generated from 40 lots at laboratory scale, a relatively high level of carbon sources in YE (trehalose plus lactate, >9.5% w/w) and an intermediate level of adenine (0.14-0.24% w/w) appear to be the minimal requirement of a good lot for this recombinant yeast fermentation. Many poor lots were improved in lab fermenters by rational supplementation of trehalose, lactate, or adenine to compensate for their insufficiencies. At the large production scale, predictions based on adenine and trehalose/lactate contents in various YE lots used correlated reasonably well with culture growth and antigen yield, illustrating the feasibility of such a simple chemical/biochemical analysis as a rapid and reliable initial screening tool. Without incurring any compositional change to an established manufacturing medium, this study demonstrates an effective approach to achieve consistency in fermentations employing complex nutrients

  8. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  9. Effects of addition of Aspergillus oryzae culture and 2-hydroxyl-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Chong; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    To investigate effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture (AOC) and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows. Sixty-four multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly allocated into four experimental diets: (i) Control diet; (ii) AOC diet: 5 g AOC/day per head; (iii) HMB diet: 25 g HMB/day; and (iv) AH diet: 5 g AOC plus 25 g HMB/day. Added HMB tended to increase the yield of milk protein (P = 0.06) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (P = 0.08) and milk fat content (P = 0.09). Milk fat yield (P = 0.03) and the contents of milk protein (P = 0.05) were increased by adding HMB. The cows fed on AOC diet had a tendency for higher body weight (BW) gain (P = 0.08). Addition of AOC, HMB and AH increased content of microbial protein (MCP) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid. Populations of rumen fungi, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to total bacterial 16S rDNA (P ≤ 0.03) and activity of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) (P < 0.01) were increased with added AOC or HMB. It is inferred that added AOC or HMB can increase the contents of MCP and total VFA potentially by stimulating rumen microbe populations and CMCase activity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The Effect of Fermentation and Drying on Clicanthus Nutans Lindai Extract Chemical Constituents and Bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Teh, P. S.; Kumaresan, S.; Tiong, C. H.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two processes (fermentation and drying) were conducted on Clicanthus Nutans Lindau, which is well-known for its antioxidant activities. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of these processes towards the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), antioxidant activity and the crude yield of the leaves. For the fermentation process, the fermentation time is varied for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. For drying, oven drying (40, 45 and 50°C, freeze-drying and shade drying are investigated. Blanching was also conducted for oven dried samples (90°C for 1 minute). It was found that 12 hours fermentation produced the highest yield corresponding to Total Phenolic Content at 0.33 while 6 hours fermentation produced the highest Antioxidant Activity and yield at 2.218 x 10-10 mg/mL and 0.64 . On the other hand, 48 hours fermentation produced the highest overall extract yield at 0.64 . Analysis for antioxidant activity was carried out using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau method for Total Phenolic Content. Thermal inactivation kinetics (blanching) has been investigated for oven drying samples. Results showed that 40°C oven drying and 50°C oven drying with blanching has better retention of bioactive constituents. Blanching has no significant effect on phenolic content but has increased the crude extract for higher temperature oven drying. It has no positive effect on antioxidant activity. Drying is also a better processing method compared to fermentation as drying has slightly favorable results in all three aspects. Through comparison with extraction time of 60 minutes for 40°C oven drying and 6 hour fermented samples, yield of total phenolic content and overall yield of oven dried sample is higher than fermented sample by 4.14 and 0.39 respectively as well as showing better antioxidant activity.

  11. An integrated biohydrogen refinery: synergy of photofermentation, extractive fermentation and hydrothermal hydrolysis of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% biowaste destruction. The selective separation of organic acids from waste-fed fermentations provided suitable substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production, which enhanced the gross energy generation up to 11-fold. Therefore, electrodialysis provides the key link in an IBHR for 'waste to energy'. The IBHR compares favourably to 'renewables' (photovoltaics, on-shore wind, crop-derived biofuels) and also emerging biotechnological options (microbial electrolysis) and anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  13. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation...

  14. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.500 Condensed, extracted glutamic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation...

  15. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  16. [Fermented wheat germ extract in the supportive therapy of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Farkas, Elek

    2005-09-11

    The role of the product in the treatment of colorectal cancer is reviewed in the light of experimental and clinical results to date. The fermented wheat germ extract (code name: MSC, trade name: Avemar) registered as a dietary food for special medical purposes for cancer patients to complement the active oncotherapy, exerted a growth inhibitory effect in HCR-25 human colon carcinoma xenograft, and had a synergistic effect with 5-FU in mouse C-38 colorectal carcinoma. The product is capable of chemoprevention of colon carcinoma in F-344 rats. One of the most significant underlying mechanism is a highly cancer cell specific induction of caspase-3 mediated cleavage of PARP. In the frame of supportive therapy, fermented wheat germ extract proved to be efficient in the treatment of colorectal cancer in humans. 30 patients following radical operation were treated with standard postoperative therapy, 12 of them were given fermented wheat germ extract as additive treatment: following a 9 month long administration, no new distant metastases were detected, in contrast to 4 out 18 treated with standard therapy alone. Out of 34 patients following radical surgery and treated with chemotherapy, 17 who were given fermented wheat germ extract, achieved an improved survival rate. In the frame of a controlled multicenter open label cohort study, 170 colorectal cancer patients received anticancer therapies (chemo/radiotherapy) completed with fermented wheat germ extract in 66 of them. Results (fermented wheat germ extract vs. control): new recurrences: 3.0% vs. 17.3% (p < 0.01); new metastases: 7.6% vs. 23.1% (p < 0.01); deaths: 12.1% vs. 31.7% (p < 0.01), progression-related events in total: 16.7% vs. 42.3% (p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed significant improvements in the fermented wheat germ extract group, regarding progression-free (p = 0.0184) and overall survival probabilities (p = 0.0278). Strong predictors of survival determined by Cox's proportional hazards were UICC

  17. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts. PMID:23091343

  18. Antihyperglycemic effects of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts on alloxan-induced-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts.

  19. Protective effect of aqueous extracts from Rhizopus oryzae on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehito; Fukuoka, Hideo; Ushikoshi, Setsuo; Sato, Reiichiro; Morita, Hidetoshi; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Hepatoprotective effects of Rhizopus oryzae/ U-1 aqueous extract (RU) were demonstrated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver-injured rats. In order to investigate the RU effects, the rats were administered RU at a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days before induction of the liver injury by oral administration of CCl4 (125 mg/kg body weight). (i) Pretreatment with RU caused a significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities that were increased by the administration of CCl4 . (ii) RU pretreatment (100 mg/kg) increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation at 48 h after CCl4 treatment in hepatocytes. (iii) Histological hematoxylin and eosin staining of the liver showed that RU pretreatment reduced the damage induced by CCl4 administration. (iv) Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed RU retreatment caused a transient but significant increase in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and a sustained and significant increase in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in hepatocytes injured by CCl4 treatment. From these results, we conclude that oral pre-administration of RU was effective to suppress liver injury induced by the subsequent oral CCl4 administration, and RU-induced increase in IGF-I and HGF gene expression may be, even in part, involved in biological actions of RU in rats.

  20. Inhibition of ruminal cellulose fermentation by extracts of the perennial legume cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer).

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, P J; Hatfield, R D; Buxton, D R

    1993-01-01

    Cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.) is a perennial legume used as a pasture or rangeland plant for ruminants. A study was undertaken to determine whether reported variations in its ruminal digestibility may be related to the presence of an antinutritive material. In vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of cicer milkvetch by mixed rumen microflora was poorer than was the fermentation of NDF in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Fermentation of cicer milkvetch NDF was improved by preextraction of the ground herbage with water for 3 h at 39 degrees C. Such water extracts selectively inhibited in vitro fermentation of pure cellulose by mixed ruminal microflora and by pure cultures of the ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Inhibition of the cellulose fermentation by mixed ruminal microflora was dependent upon the concentration of cicer milkvetch extract and was overcome upon prolonged incubation. Pure cultures exposed to the extract did not recover from inhibition, even after long incubation times, unless the inhibitory agent was removed (viz., by dilution of inhibited cultures into fresh medium). The extract did not affect the fermentation of cellobiose by R. flavefaciens but did cause some inhibition of cellobiose fermentation by F. succinogenes. Moreover, the extracts did not inhibit hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, or p-nitrophenylcellobioside by supernatants of these pure cultures of cellulolytic bacteria or by a commercial cellulase preparation from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The agent caused cellulose-adherent cells to detach from cellulose fibers, suggesting that the agent may act, at least in part, by disrupting the glycocalyx necessary for adherence to, and rapid digestion of, cellulose. Images PMID:8434909

  1. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-06

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  2. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  3. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  4. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  5. Extractive fermentation in cloud point system for lipase production by Serratia marcescens ECU1010.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Wu, Zhenqiang; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-02-01

    Extractive microbial fermentation for production of lipase by Serratia marcescens ECU1010 has been carried out in cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of mixture nonionic surfactants with a ratio of Triton X-114 to Triton X-45 4:1 in aqueous solution. The lipase prefers to partition into the surfactant rich phase (coacervate phase) whereas the cells and other hydrophilic proteins retain in the dilute phase of cloud point system. Thus, a concentration factor 4.2-fold and a purification factor 1.3-fold of the lipase have been achieved in the extractive fermentation process. This is the first report about extractive fermentation of proteins in cloud point system.

  6. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Rocio I; Peñas, Elena; Torino, M Inés; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Dueñas, Montserrat; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of solid (SSF) or liquid state fermentation (LSF) for 48 and 96 h on the production of water soluble extracts from kidney beans was investigated. SSF was carried out by Bacillus subtilis, whilst LSF was performed either by natural fermentation (NF) or by Lactobacillus plantarum strain (LPF). SSF extracts showed high soluble phenolic compound content (31-36 mg/g) and antioxidant activity (508-541 μg trolox equivalents/g), whilst LSF extracts exhibited potential antihypertensive activity due to their large γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content (6.8-10.6 mg/g) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity (>90%). Therefore, fermentation can be considered as a valuable process to obtain bioactive ingredients from kidney beans, which could encourage their utilisation in the formulation of added-value functional foods.

  7. Solvent screening study and conceptual extractive distillation process to produce anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F-M.; Pahl, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This solvent screening study indicates that glycols are very selective solvents for producing anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth by extractive distillation. The promising solvents are glycerin, ethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol. An improved extractive distillation process for producing anhydrous ethanol was conceptually developed which was based on the analysis of the experimental solvent screening data. The basic idea of this process is to add an extractive solvent only to the ethanol-rich portion of the fractionator to eliminate the ethanol-water azeotrope and to change the undesirable shape of the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve to one more favorable for distillation. With a suitable solvent, such as ethylene glycol, anhydrous ethanol could be produced from the fermentation broth in a column with only 18 theoretical trays. A low reflux ratio of 1.5 and a low solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.27 (based on fermentation broth) would be needed for the separation.

  8. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth.

  9. [Obtaining a fermented chickpea extract (Cicer arietinum L.) and its use as a milk extensor].

    PubMed

    Morales de León, J; Cassís Nosthas, M L; Cecin Salomón, P

    2000-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is cultivated in the North part of México and it is considered a good source of vegetal protein of low cost (20% average), nevertheless, the 80% used for the exportation and only the 20% less was used for animal feeding. The main objective in this study is to obtain a fermented chickpea extract for using in dairy extensor. Chickpea water absorbtion kinetics were carried out in e temperature conditions:while the conditions were established, chickpea was grounded and fermented in different amounts with its natural flora, L. casei, L. plantarum and a mixture culture of both microorganism in logarithmic phase. The results showed that the presence of microorganism of chickpea natural flora interferes during the fermentation, so before the inoculation it was necessary treat the chickpea extract (CE) terminally in a dilution 1:4 during 20 min at 7.7 kg/cm2 of pressure. The use of a mixture culture of 5% of L. casei and 5% L. plantarum inoculated in MRS broth was used to decrease fermentation time. Its addition in logarithmic phase to the sterile chickpea extract increased the lactic acid production and decreased the pH value in 6 h which was less time that one obtained with each of lactobacillus. The fermented extract obtained finally, presented similar sensory characteristics to the ones of dairy products. Therefore, chickpea is a good alternative as a extensor for this kind of products.

  10. Radical Scavenging Activities of Undaria pinnatifida Extracts Fermented with Cordyceps militaris Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the various radical scavenging activities of fermented Undaria pinnatifida by the mycelia fermentation method. U. pinnatifida was fermented with Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mycelia using solid culture and compared with unfermentated U. pinnatifida and C. militaris mycelia for antioxidant activities. The various radical scavenging activities of extracts from U. pinnatifida fermented with C. militaris mycelia (FUCM) were evaluated by electron spin resonance. The antioxidant activities of the FUCM extracts were assayed for ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethybenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, and oxygen radical absorption capacity. The free radical scavenging activity of FUCM extracts was higher than that of C. militaris mycelia or U. pinnatifida alone. FUCM extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) increased up to 35 times, 10 times, and 16 times that of U. pinnatifida extracts on DPPH, alkyl, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, respectively. These results indicate that FUCM extracts have different chemical ingredients from U. pinnatifida and could provide beneficial antioxidant activity.

  11. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.

    PubMed

    Webber, Daniel M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Theivendran, Sivarooban

    2014-11-01

    Heat-stabilized, defatted rice bran (HDRB) serves as a potential source of phenolic compounds which have numerous purported health benefits. An estimated 70% of phenolics present in rice bran are esterified to the arabinoxylan residues of the cell walls. Release of such compounds could provide a value-added application for HDRB. The objective of this study was to extract and quantify phenolics from HDRB using fermentation technology. Out of 8 organisms selected for rice bran fermentation, Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis had the maximum phenolic release of 26.8 mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram HDRB. Response surface methodology was used to further optimize the release of rice bran phenolics. An optimum of 28.6 mg FAE/g rice bran was predicted at 168 h, 0.01% inoculation level, and 100 mg HDRB/mL. Fermentation of HDRB for 96 h with B. subtilis subspecies subtilis resulted in a significant increase in phenolic yield, phenolic concentration, and radical scavenging capacity. Fermented rice bran had 4.86 mg gentistic acid, 1.38 mg caffeic acid, 6.03 mg syringic acid, 19.02 mg (-)-epicatechin, 4.08 mg p-courmaric acid, 4.64 mg ferulic acid, 10.04 mg sinapic acid, and 17.59 mg benzoic acid per 100 g fermented extract compared to 0.65 mg p-courmaric acid and 0.36 mg ferulic acid per 100 g nonfermented extract. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented HDRB extract indicates that rice bran fermentation under optimized condition is a potential means of meeting the demand for an effective and affordable antioxidant. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Modulation of platelet functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Teng; Ismail, Maznah; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-07-28

    Rice bran is bioactive-rich and has proven health benefits for humans. Moreover, its source, the brown rice has antioxidant, hypolipidemic and other functional properties that are increasingly making it a nutritional staple especially in Asian countries. This study investigated the antiplatelet aggregation mechanisms of crude hexane/methanolic rice bran extract, in which policosanol was the targeted bioactive. Platelets play a vital role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and their increased activities could potentially cause arterial thrombus formation or severe bleeding disorders. Thus, in this study, platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to major components of basal lamina were examined in vitro. In addition, cellular protein secretion was quantified as a measurement of platelet activation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation were studied using the microtiter technique. Rat platelets were pre-treated with various concentrations of policosanol extract, and the adhesion of platelets onto collagen- and laminin-coated surface (extracellular matrix) was studied using the acid phosphatase assay. The effect of crude policosanol extract on released proteins from activated platelets was measured using modified Lowry determination method. Rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation induced by different agonists in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 of ADP-, collagen-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were 533.37 ± 112.16, 635.94 ± 78.45 and 693.86 ± 70.57 μg/mL, respectively. The present study showed that crude rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen in a dose dependent manner. Conversely, at a low concentration of 15.625 μg/mL, the extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to laminin stimulated by different platelet agonists. In addition to the alteration of cell adhesive

  13. Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture.

  14. Removal and upgrading of lignocellulosic fermentation inhibitors by in situ biocatalysis and liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Tomek, Kyle J; Saldarriaga, Carlos Rafael Castillo; Velasquez, Fernando Peregrino Cordoba; Liu, Tongjun; Hodge, David B; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are known to inhibit microbial growth during fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates, and the ability to diminish hydroxycinnamic acid toxicity would allow for more effective biological conversion of biomass to fuels and other value-added products. In this work, we provide a proof-of-concept of an in situ approach to remove these fermentation inhibitors through constituent expression of a phenolic acid decarboxylase combined with liquid-liquid extraction of the vinyl phenol products. As a first step, we confirmed using simulated fermentation conditions in two model organisms, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that the product 4-vinyl guaiacol is more inhibitory to growth than ferulic acid. Partition coefficients of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-vinyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol were measured for long-chain primary alcohols and alkanes, and tetradecane was identified as a co-solvent that can preferentially extract vinyl phenols relative to the acid parent and additionally had no effect on microbial growth rates or ethanol yields. Finally, E. coli expressing an active phenolic acid decarboxylase retained near maximum anaerobic growth rates in the presence of ferulic acid if and only if tetradecane was added to the fermentation broth. This work confirms the feasibility of donating catabolic pathways into fermentative microorganisms in order to ameliorate the effects of hydroxycinnamic acids on growth rates, and suggests a general strategy of detoxification by simultaneous biological conversion and extraction.

  15. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and antioxidative activities of fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  16. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Panprivech, Siriwan; Lerno, Larry A; Brenneman, Charles A; Block, David E; Oberholster, Anita

    2015-05-04

    The impact of increasing cold soak (CS) duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C) on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months' bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  17. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  18. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations.

  19. Simultaneous control of apparent extract and volatile compounds concentrations in low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds cause undesirable flavor when their concentrations exceed threshold values in beer fermentation. The objective of this study is to develop a system for controlling apparent extract concentration, which indicates the fermentation degree and which should be decreased below a targeted value at a fixed time under a constraint of tolerable amounts of volatile compounds. In beer fermentation, even though the production of volatile compounds is suppressed by maintaining a low fermentation temperature, a low temperature causes a delay in the control of apparent extract concentration. Volatile compound concentration was estimated on-line, and the simulation of apparent extract consumption and volatile compound production was performed. To formulate various beer tastes and conserve energy for attemperation, optimal temperature profiles were determined using a genetic algorithm (GA). The developed feedback control of the brewing temperature profile was successfully applied, and apparent extract and volatile compound concentrations at a fixed time reached their target concentrations. Additionally, the control technique developed in this study enables us to brew a wide variety of beers with different tastes.

  20. Effects of cooked molasses blocks and fermentation extract or brown seaweed meal inclusion on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency in steers fed low-quality hay.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Caton, J S; Soto-Navarro, S A; Lardy, G P

    2005-12-01

    Five ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated steers (376 +/- 8.1 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of cooked molasses block supplementation and inclusion of fermentation extract (Aspergillus oryzae) or brown seaweed meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) on intake, site of digestion, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of switchgrass hay (6.0% CP; DM basis) offered ad libitum, free access to water, and one of three molasses blocks (0.341 kg of DM/d; one-half at 0600 and one-half at 1800). Treatments were no block (control), block with no additive (40.5% CP; POS), block plus fermentation extract bolused directly into the rumen via gelatin capsules (2.0 g/d; FS), fermentation extract included in the block (2.0 g/d; FB), and seaweed meal included in the block (10 g/d; SB). Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Overall treatment effect on hay OM intake tended (8.1 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.14) to increase with block supplementation. Total OM intake (8.4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.01) increased in steers consuming block compared with control. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibility increased (P = 0.05) with block consumption. Steers fed SB had greater (P = 0.10) true ruminal OM digestibility compared with steers fed POS (61.0 vs. 57.9 +/- 1.6%). True ruminal CP digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation compared with control (37.5 vs. 23.6 +/- 3.7%). Addition of fermentation extract did not affect intake or digestion. Treatments did not alter ruminal pH, total VFA, or individual VFA proportions; however, ruminal ammonia increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation. In situ disappearance rates of hay DM (3.14 +/- 0.44 %/h), NDF (3.18 +/- 0.47 %/h), and ADF (3.02 +/- 0.57 %/h) were not altered by treatment. Seaweed block increased (P = 0.01) slowly degraded CP fraction compared with POS (39.5 vs. 34.0 +/- 2.07%). Similarly, SB increased (P = 0.01) the extent of CP

  1. Membrane-assisted extractive butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 with 1-dodecanol as the extractant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Genta; Ikegami, Toru; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was used in membrane-assisted extractive (MAE) fermentation of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The growth inhibition effects of 1-dodecanol, which has a high partition coefficient for butanol, can be prevented by employing 1-dodecanol as an extractant when using a PTFE membrane. Compared to conventional fermentation, MAE-ABE fermentation with 1-dodecanol decreased butanol inhibition and increased glucose consumption from 59.4 to 86.0 g/L, and total butanol production increased from 16.0 to 20.1g/L. The maximum butanol production rate increased from 0.817 to 0.979 g/L/h. The butanol productivity per membrane area was remarkably high with this system, i.e., 78.6g/L/h/m(2). Therefore, it is expected that this MAE fermentation system can achieve footprint downsizing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  3. Investigation of relationship between lipid and Monascus pigment accumulation by extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-10-20

    Fermented Monascus pigments have been utilized as traditional Chinese medicine and food colorant for thousands of years. Under the limited nitrogen concentration and/or low initial pH 2.5 conditions, it was observed that production of intracellular pigments and accumulation of microbial lipids (high content reaching to approximately 50% in dry cell weight) by edible Monascus anka exhibited a positive correlated relationship. Extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution selectively exported the intracellular Monascus pigments into its extracellular broth, in which the concentration of intracellular pigments was negligible while the extracellular one was enhanced. The extractive fermentation provides a novel strategy for shifting of the metabolic channeling from intracellular lipid accumulation to Monascus pigment production. High pigment concentration, i.e., approximately 40 AU of extracellular Monascus pigments, was achieved by extractive fermentation at a relatively high nonionic surfactant concentration 10 g/l. This phenomenon might be attributed to the nonionic surfactant micelles acting as pigment reservoirs by biomimetic of intracellular lipids.

  4. Butanol fermentation from microalgae-derived carbohydrates after ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Orr, Valerie; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Lipid extracted algae (LEA) is an attractive feedstock for alcohol fuel production as it is a non-food crop which is largely composed of readily fermented carbohydrates like starch rather than the more recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials currently under intense development. This study compares the suitability of ionic liquid extracted algae (ILEA) and hexane extracted algae (HEA) for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The highest butanol titers (8.05 g L(-1)) were achieved with the fermentation of the acid hydrolysates of HEA, however, they required detoxification to support product formation after acid hydrolysis while ILEA did not. Direct ABE fermentation of ILEA and HEA (without detoxification) starches resulted in a butanol titer of 4.99 and 6.63 g L(-1), respectively, which significantly simplified the LEA to butanol process. The study demonstrated the compatibility of producing biodiesel and butanol from a single feedstock which may help reduce the feedstock costs of each individual process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extractive fermentation of gibberellic acid with free and immobilized Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Gökdere, Müge; Ateş, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Gibberelic acid fermentation using extractive methods was carried out in the presence of corn oil and Alamine 336. Gibberella fujikuroi fungus (NRRL 2278) was used to produce gibberellic acid. Oleyl alcohol was a diluting agent for Alamine 336. The effects of oleyl alcohol (100%, v/v), corn oil (5-25%, v/v), the concentration of Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol, and feeding air were examined in this study. According to the results, oleyl alcohol was not effective on the production. On the other hand, oleyl alcohol solutions containing 15-30% (v/v) Alamine 336 showed effects as a toxic substance. In order to reduce solvent toxicity, corn oil was used. Addition of corn oil increased the concentration of gibberellic acid 1.3-fold compared to the control. Then the effects of immobilization and co-immobilization on extractive gibberelic acid fermentation were investigated. The highest total gibberellic acid concentration of 158.9 mg/L was produced with immobilized cells and feeding air by using extractive fermentation. The yield of gibberellic acid increased about 2.6-fold compared with the shake-flask fermentation (60.5 mg/L) without organic solutions.

  6. Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Activities of 70% Ethanolic Extracts from Four Fungal Mycelia-Fermented Specialty Rices

    PubMed Central

    Ra Yoon, Mi; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi

    2008-01-01

    The health-promoting potential of 70% ethanolic extracts of 4 rice varieties fermented with Monascus ruber, Phellinus linteus, Cordyceps sinensis and Agaricus blazei was evaluated mainly focusing on their antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities based on the following parameters: phenolic compound and phytic acid content; inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation; scavenging activity on DPPH radical; suppressing ability on mitomycin C-induced mutagenesis in E. coli cells; and protective effect on 4-nitroquinoline oxide-triggered DNA lesion in V79 hamster cells. The fermented rice extracts were superior in overall health-promoting parameters compared to the source material. The higher antimutagenic activity of the fermented rice extracts might be in part caused by a larger amount of antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds or phytic acid. Of the fungal species, Monascus ruber was found to impart a marked increase in both the antioxidative and antimutagenic abilities to the source material. The current study suggests a possibility that such fermented rice may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer through a daily intake of rice-based diets. PMID:18818745

  7. On-line extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths using hydrophobic adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lencki, R.W.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of removing ethanol during fermentation on the batch kinetics of glucose utilization by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined using several hydrophobic adsorbents. The addition of the molecular sieve, silicalite, to fermentation broths greatly reduced the concentration of ethanol present, but did not increase the glucose utilization rate to the extent predicted by product-inhibition kinetic models obtained from adsorbent-free continuous culture experiments. Addition of two polymeric adsorbents (XAD-4 and XAD-7) greatly inhibited cell growth. This was due to nutrient and cell adsorption by the resin. Adsorption systems were compared to other on-line schemes (vacuferm, solvent extraction) and it was concluded that all of these currently proposed systems would not appear to confer any added advantage if integrated into a high biomass concentration fermenter system. 19 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  8. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  9. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  10. Effects of extracts of spices on rumen methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feeds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of boiling water, methanol and ethanol extracts (0, 0.25 and 0.50 mL) of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), bulbs of Allium sativum (garlic), bulbs of Allium cepa (onion) and roots of Zingiber officinalis (ginger) on rumen methanogenesis, fibrolytic enzyme activities and fermentation characteristics in vitro. Ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel, clove and garlic at 0.50 mL and clove at 0.25 mL inhibited (P < 0.05) methane production. Carboxymethylcellulase activity was reduced (P < 0.05) by ethanol and methanol extracts (0.50 mL) of fennel and clove (0.25 and 0.50 mL). The extracts of clove reduced (0.25 and 0.50 mL) xylanase and acetylesterase activities, and the fennel extract (0.50 mL) reduced (P < 0.05) xylanase activity. However, the extracts of garlic (0.50 mL) increased (P < 0.05) acetylesterase activity. Concentrations of volatile fatty acids were reduced (P < 0.05) by the extracts of garlic and onion. The extracts of garlic caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in acetate:propionate ratio (A:P) at 0.50 mL, whereas A:P was increased (P < 0.05) by the inclusion of 0.50 mL extracts of clove. Methanol and ethanol extracts of clove decreased (P < 0.05) in vitro organic matter degradability. Extracts (0.50 mL) of clove decreased (P < 0.05) the numbers of total protozoa, small entodiniomorphs and holotrichs, whereas extracts of onion, ginger and garlic enhanced (P < 0.05) protozoal numbers (both entodiniomorphs and holotrichs). Ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel and garlic have potential to inhibit rumen methanogenesis without adversely affecting rumen fermentation.

  11. Ethanol extract of fermented soybean, Chungkookjang, inhibits the apoptosis of mouse spleen, and thymus cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Bok; Lee, Hye Sung; Kim, Sook Jin; Yoo, Hyung Jae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Chen, Gang; Youn, Hyun Joo

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis is a step of the cell cycle which is important in the regulation of immune cell populations. Chungkookjang is a Korean traditional fermented soybean containing microorganisms, enzymes, and bioactive compounds which was used in the treatment of mouse spleen as well as thymus cells (CH1-fermented soybean containing barley, wormwood, and sea tangle; CH2-fermented soybean) and was found to exhibit substantially reduced small DNA fragmentation. An MTT assay showed that the treatment of CH1 and CH2 into the mouse splenocytes and thymocytes sharply increased their survival. Moreover, a FACS analysis also showed that CH1 and CH2 are effective at suppressing the apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes. The fermented soybean isoflavone concentrations, which are implicated in lowering breast and prostate cancers, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and improving bone health, were determined using Capillary Electrophoresis-Electrochemical Detection (CE-ED). The amount of Daidzein in fermented soybean significantly increased by 44-fold dramatically, compared with those in unfermented soybean. In this study, we demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Chungkookjang promote the survival of the mouse spleen and thymus cells in culture by suppressing their apoptotic death. Future studies should investigate which genes are related to apoptosis of the immune cells.

  12. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    PubMed

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products.

  13. Green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum attenuates alcohol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2012-01-01

    Here, the impact of an extract derived from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and fermentation with Lactobacilli fermentum strain OCS19 was explored with acute alcohol-induced liver damage. The study employed the HepG2 hepatic cell line and an in vivo murine model of liver damage. L. fermentum-fermented green tea extract (FGTE) was found to possess pronounced alcohol metabolizing enzyme activity. It significantly enhanced the cell viability of HepG2 cells following of them exposure, to ethanol (p<0.05) as compared with an extract derived from Hovenia dulcis, a positive control that is known for its action as an alcohol antagonist. Our in vivo studies indicated that prior administration of FGTE to alcohol-exposed mice significantly prevented subsequent increases in blood alcohol concentration (p<0.05), in addition to the induction of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Furthermore, the activity of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its mRNA expression level both increased in the livers of mice treated with FGTE, similarly to the H. dulcis-treated group. Taken together, these results may suggest that green tea extract coupled with L. fermentum fermentation attenuates the risk of ethanol-induced liver damage.

  14. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  15. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fermentation as a bio-process to obtain functional soybean flours.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Frias, Juana; Muñoz, Rosario; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K; Kozlowska, Halina; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2007-10-31

    The effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds [vitamins C and E, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and reduced glutathione (GSH)], and antioxidant capacity [superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), inhibition of phosphatidylcholine (PC) peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)] of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) was studied. Fermentation was carried out in solid state in cracked seeds inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus plantarum and in liquid state either in cracked seeds or milled soybean flours fermented naturally by only the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with L. plantarum. Vitamin C was not detected in the studied samples. Fermentation caused a decrease in vitamin E activity, except when cracked seed was fermented with A. oryzae, R. oryzae, or B. subtilis that increased 31, 30, and 89%, respectively. Fermentation produced an increase in TPC content and did not affect or reduce the GSH content. Fermentation decreased SOD-like activity drastically, while PRTC increased except when it was carried out naturally in cracked seed. TEAC values rose sharply when soybeans were fermented with B. subtilis. Processed soybean extracts inhibited PC peroxidation in comparison with the control assay. On the basis of the results obtained, the relative contributions of vitamin E, TPC, and GSH to antioxidant capacity were calculated and results showed a very high TPC contribution and a low contribution of GSH and vitamin E activity. Optimum results for functional soybean flours were achieved when fermentation was carried out with B. subtilis inoculum.

  17. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  18. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed extract on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2003-02-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot blot assay able to directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples was used to quantify protein degradation. For complex substrates the interpretation of protein degradation profiles was amended by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the samples. When incubated with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg ml(-1), the extract reduced microbial degradation of the model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), such that its concentration was at least 40% above the control after 12 h of incubation. Total protein degradation was thus delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein (Rubisco) was almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins was retarded by at least 4-6 h, depending on the protein band. There were strong side effects on the fermentation of pure cellulose (SCFA yield-60% after 12 h), whereas cellobiose and starch fermentation were less affected (-18 and -8%, respectively). When the complex substrates were fermented, SCFA yield was reduced by approximately 30% after 12 h. In our work we clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, in an in vitro system, using pure as well as complex substrates. The properties shown in vitro for the crude extract suggest that it could have a positive effect on the protein metabolism of ruminants under intensive management and that negative side effects can be overcome by an optimized dosage. If the chemical nature of the active substance and its mechanism of action can be

  19. Detection of soybean proteins in fermented soybean products by using heating extraction.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Toyoda, Masatake

    2014-05-01

    Soybean is used in processed foods worldwide. Because soybean can cause adverse reactions in some atopic patients, appropriate labeling regarding its content in processed foods is needed to better protect consumers. In the previous study, we developed a reliable sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting soybean proteins by using antibody to Gly m Bd 30K, which was originally characterized as a vacuolar protein with a molecular mass of 34 kDa in soybean. The ELISA displayed satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility in an interlaboratory evaluation. However, it could not detect soybean protein in fermented soybean products. We therefore developed an extraction method combined with a heating process to inhibit soybean protein degradation by microbial proteolytic enzymes in fermented soybean products. This extraction method enables the sensitive detection of soybean protein in fermented soybean products such as natto and miso. It was able to detect with high-sensitivity soybean protein present at 10 μg/g levels in model processed foods. This method is suitable for quantifying soybean protein in processed foods without the degrading effects of microbial proteolytic enzymes. The present extraction method can be used sensitively to monitor labeling systems in a reliable manner and should be useful for the mandatory inspections required under Japanese regulations. The extraction and ELISA methods that we developed enable sensitive detection of soybean protein in soybean products, including fermented foods. These methods should be useful for reliable and sensitive monitoring of product labeling systems and should help to solve the problem of insensitive in soybean labeling of processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Red Dyeing Silk in Room Temperature Using Fermented Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Yam Tuber (Pachyrhizus erosus) by Monascus purpureus as an Alternatives of an Eco-friendly Textile Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauliza, I. N.; Mardiyati; Sunendar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Potential dyes to be developed derived from fermentation by Monascus purpureus. As a staple food, rice can be replace to the yam tuber lees as a substrates. The purpose of this study was to compare the dyeability between fermented rice and yam tuber by Monascus purpureus on silk fabrics at the room temperature in any different pH of dyebath. Monascus purpureus first cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for 7 days. Yam tuber peeled, grated and squeezed. The material is taken from yam tuber lees, then inoculated with Monascus purpureus for 14 days until an uniform red color obtained. The substrate is dried and then characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Dyes obtained from fermented rice and yam tuber then extracted and used for dyeing silk at room temperature with various pH of the dyebath. Results showed that dyeing silk with fermented yam tuber having the same color characteristics as fermented rice. The optimum color absorption at a wavelength of 520 nm for both, except on the results of dyeing using fermented yam tuber extract with pH 6 and pH 7. The maximum absorption is achieved at pH 3 with values dyeing K/S 5.840. Color fastness to rubbing are excellent (5 point) in dry rub, while the wet rub still good at the range of 4 to 4/5.

  1. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  2. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Accumulation of yellow Monascus pigments by extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xu; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-02-01

    Monascus species can produce various secondary metabolites of polyketide structure. In the current study, it is found that an interesting phenomenon, i.e., submerged culture of Monascus species in an aqueous solution majorly accumulated intracellular orange Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 470 nm with absorbance of 32 OD while extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution produced extracellular and intracellular yellow Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 410 nm with absorbance 30 OD and 12 OD, respectively. The spectrum profiles of both intracellular and extracellular Monascus pigments were affected by surfactant loading, extractive fermentation time, and surfactant adding time. Meanwhile, the instability of orange Monascus pigments in the extracellular nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was also confirmed experimentally. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is attributed to the export of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth by extractive fermentation. The transferring of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth blocks yellow Monascus pigments from further enzymatic conversion or eliminates the feedback inhibition of yellow Monascus pigments based on the biosynthetic pathway of Monascus pigments.

  5. An optimization study of solid-state fermentation: xanthophylls extraction from marigold flowers.

    PubMed

    Luis, Navarrete-Bolaños José; Hugo, Jiménez-Islas; Enrique, Botello-Alvarez; Ramiro, Rico-Martínez; Octavio, Paredes-López

    2004-09-01

    Marigold flowers are the main natural source of xanthophylls, and marigold saponified extract is used as an additive in several food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the use of a solid-state fermentation (ensilage) process for increasing the yield of xanthophylls extracted from fermented marigold flowers was examined. The process consisted of a mixed culture of three microorganisms (Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans), part of the normal microbiota associated with the marigold flower. These microorganisms had been previously isolated, and were identified as relevant for the ensilage process due to their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes. Based on experimental design strategies, optimum operation values were determined for aeration, moisture, agitation, and marigold-to-inoculum ratio in the proposed solid-state fermentation equipment, leading to a xanthophylls yield of 17.8-g/kg dry weight. The optimum achieved represents a 65% increase with respect to the control. HPLC analysis indicated conservation of extracted oleoresin. Based on the experimental results, interactions were identified that could be associated with the heat and mass-transfer reactions taking place within the bioreactor. The insight gained allows conditions that limit growth and metabolic activity to be avoided.

  6. Fermented Mistletoe Extract as a Multimodal Antitumoral Agent in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Podlech, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N.; Mittelbronn, Michel; Pöschel, Simone; Naumann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, commercially available extracts from the white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L.) are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins have been identified as main active components and exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activity. Since it is still not elucidated in detail how mistle toe extracts such as ISCADOR communicate their effects, we analyzed the mechanisms that might be responsible for their antitumoral function on a molecular and functional level. ISCADOR-treated glioblastoma (GBM) cells down-regulate central genes involved in glioblastoma progression and malignancy such as the cytokine TGF-β and matrix-metalloproteinases. Using in vitro glioblastoma/immune cell co-cultivation assays as well as measurement of cell migration and invasion, we could demonstrate that in glioblastoma cells, lectin-rich ISCADOR M and ISCADOR Q significantly enforce NK-cell-mediated GBM cell lysis. Beside its immune stimulatory effect, ISCADOR reduces the migratory and invasive potential of glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic as well as in a xenograft glioblastoma mouse model, both pretreatment of tumor cells and intratumoral therapy of subcutaneously growing glioblastoma cells with ISCADOR Q showed delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, ISCADOR Q, showing multiple positive effects in the treatment of glioblastoma, may be a candidate for concomitant treatment of this cancer. PMID:23133496

  7. Fermented mistletoe extract as a multimodal antitumoral agent in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Podlech, Oliver; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Pöschel, Simone; Naumann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, commercially available extracts from the white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L.) are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins have been identified as main active components and exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activity. Since it is still not elucidated in detail how mistle toe extracts such as ISCADOR communicate their effects, we analyzed the mechanisms that might be responsible for their antitumoral function on a molecular and functional level. ISCADOR-treated glioblastoma (GBM) cells down-regulate central genes involved in glioblastoma progression and malignancy such as the cytokine TGF-β and matrix-metalloproteinases. Using in vitro glioblastoma/immune cell co-cultivation assays as well as measurement of cell migration and invasion, we could demonstrate that in glioblastoma cells, lectin-rich ISCADOR M and ISCADOR Q significantly enforce NK-cell-mediated GBM cell lysis. Beside its immune stimulatory effect, ISCADOR reduces the migratory and invasive potential of glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic as well as in a xenograft glioblastoma mouse model, both pretreatment of tumor cells and intratumoral therapy of subcutaneously growing glioblastoma cells with ISCADOR Q showed delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, ISCADOR Q, showing multiple positive effects in the treatment of glioblastoma, may be a candidate for concomitant treatment of this cancer.

  8. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Moumita; Ray, Rina Rani

    2011-01-01

    The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source. PMID:21687577

  9. Fermentation-Assisted Extraction of Isothiocyanates from Brassica Vegetable Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Amit K.; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc. Due to their widespread application in food and pharmaceuticals, the present study was designed to extract ITCs from York cabbage. In order to optimise the fermentation-assisted extraction process for maximum yield of ITCs from York cabbage, Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. Additionally, the GLS content of York cabbage was quantified and the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on GLS was evaluated. A range of GLS such as glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, gluconapin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were identified and quantified in fresh York cabbage. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis, and also examined by appropriate statistical methods. LAB facilitated the degradation of GLS, and the consequent formation of breakdown products such as ITCs. Results showed that the solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio, fermentation time and agitation rate had a significant effect on the yield of ITCs (2.2 times increment). The optimum fermentation conditions to achieve a higher ITCs extraction yield were: S/L ratio of 0.25 w/v, fermentation time of 36 h, and agitation rate of 200 rpm. The obtained yields of ITCs (45.62 ± 2.13 μM sulforaphane equivalent (SFE)/mL) were comparable to the optimised conditions, indicating the accuracy of the model for the

  10. Impact of Extraction Parameters on the Recovery of Lipolytic Activity from Fermented Babassu Cake

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jaqueline N.; Godoy, Mateus G.; Gutarra, Melissa L. E.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  11. Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia (Magnolia denudata) Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eom, Su Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the effects of magnolia (Magnolia (M.) denudata) extract fermentation in increasing the extract's antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu's method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia's antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented) control. Fermentation (48 h) increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal) cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

  12. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  13. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  14. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  17. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  18. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ esterification and extractive fermentation for butyl butyrate production with Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Tian; Taylor, Steven; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-15

    Butyl butyrate (BB) is a valuable chemical that can be used as flavor, fragrance, extractant, etc. in various industries. Meanwhile, BB can also be used as a fuel source with excellent compatibility as gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel components. The conventional industrial production of BB is highly energy-consuming and generates various environmental pollutants. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in producing BB from renewable resources through biological routes. In this study, based on the fermentation using the hyper-butyrate producing strain Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, efficient BB production through in situ esterification was achieved by supplementation of lipase and butanol into the fermentation. Three commercially available lipases were assessed and the one from Candida sp. (recombinant, expressed in Aspergillus niger) was identified with highest catalytic activity for BB production. Various conditions that might affect BB production in the fermentation have been further evaluated, including the extractant type, enzyme loading, agitation, pH, and butanol supplementation strategy. Under the optimized conditions (5.0 g L(-1) of enzyme loading, pH at 5.5, butanol kept at 10.0 g/L), 34.7 g L(-1) BB was obtained with complete consumption of 50 g L(-1) glucose as the starting substrate. To our best knowledge, the BB production achieved in this study is the highest among the ever reported from the batch fermentation process. Our results demonstrated an excellent biological platform for renewable BB production from low-value carbon sources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Chae, In-Gyeong; Kim, Mi-Jin; Im, Nam-Kyung; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, In-Seon

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of fermented red ginseng (FRG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoid in FRG extracts were 17.01±2.00 μg/mg and 18.42±3.97 μg/mg, respectively. These extracts were capable of directly scavenging α, α-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. The antioxidative effects of the FRG extracts in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were also investigated. The activities of plasma alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by extract administration as compared to an STZ control group. Hepatic glutathione content depleted by STZ treatment was significantly increased by treatment of the FRG extracts, but the elevation of lipid peroxide content induced by STZ was significantly decreased by the extracts. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase decreased after STZ-treatment were recovered by the treatment of the FRG extracts. These results indicate that FRG extracts have antioxidative effets in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23717054

  1. Monitoring volatile compounds production throughout fermentation by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains using headspace sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Morales, M L; Fierro-Risco, J; Callejón, R M; Paneque, P

    2017-02-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in the use of non-Saccharomyces yeast to enhance the aromatic quality of wine, with pure or mixed cultures, as well as sequential inoculation. Volatile components of wines were closely related to their sensory quality. Hence, to study the evolution of volatile compounds during fermentation was of great interest. For this, sampling methods that did not alter the volume of fermentation media were the most suitable. This work reports the usefulness of headspace sorptive extraction as non-invasive method to monitor the changes in volatile compounds during fermentation. This method allowed monitoring of 141 compounds throughout the process of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lachancea thermotolerans strains. Both strains showed a similar ability to ferment a must with high sugar content. The S. cerevisiae strain produced higher amount of volatile compounds especially esters that constitutes fruity aroma than L. thermotorelans.

  2. Low-energy process to extract anhydrous ethanol from fermentation beers. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, L.D.; Allen, M.B.; Cekala, C.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of an energy efficient technique was demonstrated utilizing patented POROPLASTIC ultramicroporous membranes for the separation of ethanol from fermentation beers. Initial research focused on the selection of the best solvent for extracting ethanol from aqueous ethanol feed streams. The most promising solvents were selected on the basis of physical properties, distribution coefficients, water rejection capabilities and cost. Several of the best strip solvents were then employed in actual membrane extractions. A single-membrane extraction module was constructed, in which a strip solvent stream and an aqueous ethanol stream encountered a Poroplastic membrane. The membrane established the interface where ethanol transfer occurred. Membrane extraction systems with good ethanol extraction characteristics were successfully designed. A 33% ethanol solution was reduced to 26% in a long-term extraction experiment with a net transport rate of 476 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2//min. Even though the rates of ethanol recovery appeared very promising the rates of water transfer were also significant. The co-extraction of water and ethanol prevented the production of an anhydrous ethanol product stream.

  3. Genome-wide analysis and evolutionary study of sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) gene family members in Arabidopsis and Oryza.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jayita; Chatterjee, Chitrita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2014-04-01

    The over-expression of plant specific SnRK2 gene family members by hyperosmotic stress and some by abscisic acid is well established. In this report, we have analyzed the evolution of SnRK2 gene family in different plant lineages including green algae, moss, lycophyte, dicot and monocot. Our results provide some evidences to indicate that the natural selection pressure had considerable influence on cis-regulatory promoter region and coding region of SnRK2 members in Arabidopsis and Oryza independently through time. Observed degree of sequence/motif conservation amongst SnRK2 homolog in all the analyzed plant lineages strongly supported their inclusion as members of this family. The chromosomal distributions of duplicated SnRK2 members have also been analyzed in Arabidopsis and Oryza. Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) database derived expression data and the presence of abiotic stress related promoter elements within the 1 kb upstream promoter region of these SnRK2 family members further strengthen the observations of previous workers. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships of SnRK2 have been studied in all plant lineages along with their respective exon-intron structural patterns. Our results indicate that the ancestral SnRK2 gene of land plants gradually evolved by duplication and diversification and modified itself through exon-intron loss events to survive under environmental stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical, microbiological and phytochemical studies on aqueous-fermented extracts from Atropa belladonna L. Part 2--Phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberger, M; Stintzing, F; Meyer, U; Lindequist, U

    2012-05-01

    Extraction methods of fresh plants into aqueous-fermented extracts according to German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB), regulation nos. 33 and 34 were evaluated. In the course of production, the extraction is accompanied by fermentation and the resulting preparation is stored for at least 6 months until further processing. In part 1 of the work, the biochemical reactions proceeding in aqueous-fermented extracts from the fresh flowering herb of Atropa belladonna var. belladonna (L.) were studied and the responsible microorganisms were identified. This second part aimed at shedding light on the phytochemical changes upon manufacture and storage. Additionally, questions were addressed at the robustness of the method by varying production conditions, its reproducibility and the comparison with ethanolic extraction. Studying 110 extracts produced from 2006 to 2009 as well as model experiments on isolated lactic acid bacteria in atropine solutions proved that the active substance atropine was stable under regular pH conditions. Interestingly, no difference between aqueous-fermented and ethanolic extracts could be found with respect to atropine concentration. In contrast, the amounts of scopoletin and kaempferol glycosides from Atropa belladonna differed depending on the extraction procedure.

  5. Extraction of antioxidant and ACE inhibitory peptides from Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Harnedy, Pádraigín A; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey A; CunhaNeves, Adriana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were extracted and isolated from two different types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes, Kapi Ta Dam (Kp-B6) and Kapi Ta Deang (Kp-R6). Compounds with masses less than 500Da were found to be predominantly presented in both extracts. Following fractionation with sequential anion exchange chromatography and solid phase extraction (C18 matrix), three dipeptides were identified. Ser-Val and Ile-Phe were shown to exhibit ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 60.68±1.06 and 70.03±1.45μM, respectively. Trp-Pro was shown to have high 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity (EC50 17.52±0.46μM). These results indicate that Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes are potential sources of bioactive peptides possessing ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  6. Persistence of Anticancer Activity in Berry Extracts after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emma M.; McDougall, Gordon J.; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I. R.

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0–50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer. PMID:23185422

  7. Different concentrations of grape seed extract affect in vitro starch fermentation by porcine small and large intestinal inocula.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongjie; Williams, Barbara A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; D'Arcy, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) phenolics have potential health-promoting properties, either from compounds present within the extract, or metabolites resulting from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) fermentation of these compounds. This study describes how GSE affected the kinetics and end-products of starch fermentation in vitro using pig intestinal and fecal inocula. Six GSE concentrations (0, 60, 125, 250, 500, and 750 µg ml⁻¹ were fermented in vitro by porcine ileal and fecal microbiota using starch as the energy source. Cumulative gas production, and end-point short chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. GSE phenolics altered the pattern (gas kinetics, and end-products such as SCFA and NH₄⁺) of starch fermentation by both inocula, at concentrations above 250 µg ml⁻¹ . Below this level, neither inoculum showed any significant (P > 0.05) effect of the GSE. The results show that GSE phenolics at a concentration over 250 µg ml⁻¹ can have measurable effects on microbial activity in an in vitro fermentation system, as evidenced by the changes in kinetics and end-products from starch fermentation. This suggests that fermentation patterns could be conceivably shifted in the actual GIT, though further evidence will be required from in vivo studies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Purification and structure determination of gelatinase and collagenase inhibitors from Viola patrinii fermentation extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Kwak, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Hai Yang; Kang, Byoung-Won; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Jung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2010-12-01

    Investigation of collagenase and gelatinase inhibitory natural components afforded two isoflavonoids. Two isoflavonoids, tectorigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Viola patrinii fermentation extracts (VPFE). Of these, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited collagenase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at a concentration of less than 1.5 μM, and compound 2 showed gelatinases A and B inhibitory activity (IC(50)) at 0.3 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively.

  9. Fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Boros, Laszlo G; Nichelatti, Michele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-06-01

    Avemar, the product of industrial fermentation of wheat germ, possesses unique cancer-fighting characteristics. Taken orally, Avemar can inhibit metastatic tumor dissemination and proliferation during and after chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. Benefits of Avemar treatment have been shown in various human cancers, in cultures of in vitro grown cancer cells, in the prevention of chemical carcinogenesis, and also in some autoimmune conditions. This document reviews the clinical and experimental results obtained with this extract so far. Special references are made for its safety, including its coadministration with anticancer drugs, as well as for its immunomodulatory activity, its molecular targets, and its use in cancer clinical trials.

  10. Bioconversion of flavones during fermentation in milk containing Scutellaria baicalensis extract by Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Ji, Geun-Eog

    2013-10-28

    Scutellaria baicalensis (SB), a traditional herb with high pharmacological value, contains more than 10% flavone by weight. To improve the biological activity of flavones in SB, we aimed to enhance the bioconversion of baicalin (BG) to baicalein (B) and wogonoside (WG) to wogonin (W) in SB during fermentation using beta-glucuronidase produced from Lactobacillus brevis RO1. After activation, L. brevis RO1 was cultured in milk containing SB root extract with various carbon or nitrogen sources at 37°C for 72 h. During fermentation, the growth patterns of L. brevis RO1 and changes in the flavone content were assessed using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. After 72 h of fermentation, the concentrations of B and W in the control group increased by only 0.15 and 0.12 mM, respectively, whereas they increased by 0.57 and 0.24 mM in the fish peptone group. The production of B and W was enhanced by the addition of 0.4% fish peptone, which not only improved the growth of L. brevis RO1 (p < 0.001) but also enhanced the bioconversion of flavones. In conclusion, the bioconversion of flavones in SB may provide a potential application for the enhancement of the functional components in SB.

  11. Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2015-06-10

    Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation.

  12. Rapid and high-throughput determination of endogenous cytokinins in Oryza sativa by bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles-based magnetic solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Jiu-Xia; Gao, Qiang; Luo, Dan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-05-02

    A rapid method was developed for determination of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). We illustrated the hydrophilic character of bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were directly used as a MSPE sorbent for rapid enrichment of endogenous CKs from complex plant extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bare Fe3O4 directly used as efficient extraction sorbent to enrich target CKs based on hydrophilic interaction. Under the optimized conditions, a rapid, sensitive and high-throughput method for the determination of 16 CKs was established by combination of MSPE with UPLC-MS/MS. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients (r) from 0.9902 to 0.9998. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 pg mL(-1) to 391.3 pg mL(-1) and 4.1 pg mL(-1) to 1304.3 pg mL(-1), respectively. 16 CKs could be successfully determined in spiked sample with 80.6-117.3% recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 16.6%. Finally, 10 endogenous CKs were successfully quantified in 50mg Oryza sativa sample using the developed MSPE-UPLC-MS/MS method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Hou, C W; Jeng, K C; Chen, Y S

    2010-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is known as a fermented tea and longer storage enhances its flavor and taste. Recently, Aspergillus, Blastobotrys, and Streptomyces are found to play important roles in nutritional enhancement of Pu-erh tea by fermentation. Since water and temperature affect the microbial growth, we therefore explored the factors that might enhance the Pu-erh tea fermentation. The results showed that the addition of fresh tea-leaf extract (TLE) enhanced the withered tea fermentation (at 37 degrees C, 80 to 85% RH) as compared with the water only. Contents of statin, GABA, gallic acid, DPPH scavenging and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased, whereas polyphenols and caffeine were decreased over 6 mo. TLE dose-dependently enhanced some of the qualities (that is, statin, PPO) of Pu-erh tea significantly as compared with the water only. The effect was related to the increase population of A. niger and A. carbonarius at 6 mo (from 7.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(1) and 3.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(1) to 3.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 2.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units [CFU]/g, respectively). After drying process (90 degrees C, 30 min), the total microbial count from these samples returned to background level (3 +/- 0.5 x 10(2) CFU/g). None of ochratoxin and fumonisin, toxins from Aspergillus, was detected in the final products. The flavor and taste were also enhanced by treatment with TLE. The inoculation with S. cinereus Y11 with 2% TLE further enhanced these functional contents (about 2-fold increase of statin level) in the experimental Pu-erh tea. Therefore, this result may add a new process for Pu-erh tea manufacture.

  14. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  15. Improvement of growth, fermentative efficiency and ethanol tolerance of Kloeckera africana during the fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by addition of yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Córdova, Jesus

    2010-01-30

    The aim of this work was to improve the productivity and yield of tequila fermentation and to propose the use of a recently isolated non-Saccharomyces yeast in order to obtain a greater diversity of flavour and aroma of the beverage. For that, the effects of the addition of different nitrogen (N) sources to Agave tequilana juice on the growth, fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance of Kloeckera africana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied and compared. Kloeckera africana K1 and S. cerevisiae S1 were cultured in A. tequilana juice supplemented with ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate or yeast extract. Kloeckera africana did not assimilate inorganic N sources, while S. cerevisiae utilised any N source. Yeast extract stimulated the growth, fermentative capacity and alcohol tolerance of K. africana, giving kinetic parameter values similar to those calculated for S. cerevisiae. This study revealed the importance of supplementing A. tequilana juice with a convenient N source to achieve fast and complete conversion of sugars in ethanol, particularly in the case of K. africana. This yeast exhibited similar growth and fermentative capacity to S. cerevisiae. The utilisation of K. africana in the tequila industry is promising because of its variety of synthesised aromatic compounds, which would enrich the attributes of this beverage. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Tao; Yang, Yingge; Liu, Dan; Fan, Yonghong; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Qian; Yao, Jianming; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  17. Identification of sugar-tolerant yeasts isolated from high-sugar fermented vegetable extracts.

    PubMed

    Ok, Taing; Hashinaga, Fumio

    1997-02-01

    In Japan, high-sugar fermented vegetable extracts are novel functional food products for which sugar-tolerant yeasts are employed during processing. In order to understand the yeast distribution in these foods and their role in the functionality of such foods, we isolated sugar-tolerant yeasts from nine sample products, together with one sample each of fermented extract of ume (Japanese apricot) and honey. Twenty-three strains were identified as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii; one strain as Z. bailii; one strain as Torulaspora delbrueckii; and one strain as Candida bombicola. Nearly 90% of the identified strains belonged to Z. rouxii with variations in fermentation and assimilation properties. All strains grew well on 50% w/w glucose medium, and all but two strains grew on 60% w/w glucose medium. Sixteen strains belonged to the strong sugar tolerance type (poor or no growth at 1% and maximum growth at 30 or 40% w/w glucose); four strains to the moderate type (grew well at 1% and maximum growth at 10 or 20% w/w glucose); and seven strains to the weak type (maximum growth only at 1% w/w glucose). One strain of Z. rouxii, V19, grew up to 80% (w/w) glucose in liquid medium. In view of salt tolerance, only two strains belonged to the moderate type (maximum growth at 0.5 or 1 m NaCl); the remaining strains all belonged to the weak type (maximum growth only at 0 m NaCl). This suggests that sugar tolerance and salt tolerance of yeasts have different aspects.

  18. Assessment of morphological changes of Clostridium acetobutylicum by flow cytometry during acetone/butanol/ethanol extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    González-Peñas, Helena; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated in extractive fed-batch experiments. In conventional fermentations, metabolic activity ceases when a critical threshold products concentration is reached (~21.6 g solvents l(-1)). Solvents production was increased up to 36.6 and 37.2 g l(-1), respectively, using 2-butyl-1-octanol (aqueous to organic ratio: 1:0.25 v/v) and pomace olive oil (1:1 v/v) as extraction solvents. The morphological changes of different cell types were monitored and quantified using flow cytometry. Butanol production in extractive fermentations with pomace olive oil was achieved mainly by vegetative cells, whereas the percentage of sporulating cells was lower than 10%.

  19. The effect of yeast extract addition on quality of fermented sausages at low NaCl content.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Wagner, Roger; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Fermented sausages with 25% or 50% of their NaCl replaced by KCl and supplemented with 1% or 2% concentrations of yeast extract were produced. The sausage production process was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. After production, the sausage samples were submitted to a consumer study and their volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The replacement of NaCl by KCl did not significantly influence the physical, chemical or microbiological characteristics. The sensory quality of the fermented sausages with a 50% replacement was poor compared with the full-salt control samples. The use of yeast extract at a 2% concentration increased volatile compounds that arose from amino acids and carbohydrate catabolism. These compounds contributed to the suppression of the sensory-quality defects caused by the KCl introduction, thus enabling the production of safe fermented sausages that have acceptable sensory qualities with half as much sodium content.

  20. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r(2)= 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  1. Fed-batch fermentation with and without on-line extraction for propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Ozadali, F; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1996-02-01

    Fed-batch propionic and acetic acid fermentations were performed in semi-defined laboratory medium and in corn steep liquor with Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P9. On average, over four experiments, 34.5 milligrams propionic acid and 12.8 milligrams acetic acid were obtained in about 146 h in laboratory medium with 79 milligrams glucose added over five feeding periods. The highest concentration of propionic acid, 45 milligrams, was obtained when the glucose concentration was not allowed to drop to zero. In corn steep liquor 35 milligrams propionic acid and 11 milligrams acetic acid were produced in 108 h from 59.4 milligrams total lactic acid provided as seven feedings of corn steep liquor. Extractive fed-batch fermentations were conducted in semi-defined medium using either flat-sheet-supported liquid membranes or hollow-fiber membrane extraction to remove organic acids from the culture medium. As operated during the course of the fermentation, these systems extracted 25% and 22% of the acetic acid and 36.5% and 44.5% of the propionic acid, respectively, produced in the fermentation. Total amounts of acids produced were about the same as in comparable nonextractive fermentations: 30-37 milligrams propionic acid and 13 milligrams acetic acid were produced in 150 h. Limitations on acid production can be attributed to limited substrate feed, not to failure of the extraction system.

  2. Study on the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production: process analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Li, Yan; Mu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The transfer process of the in-situ coupling process of fermentation, extraction and distillation for biobutanol production was discussed from a theoretical point of view. The existence of temperature gradient in the extraction section was proved. The force of solute in the extracted liquid was discussed. And the mass transfer mechanism and impetus of the FEDIC process was analyzed. The theoretical analysis could provide a foundation for the following research.

  3. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of phytohormones in fermentation extracts of Botryodiplodia theobromae by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Grolamys; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Nogueiras, Clara; Michelena, Georgina; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Fermentation broth and biomass from three strains of Botryodiplodia theobromae were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method, in order to quantify different phytohormones and to identify amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid (JA) present in fermentation broths. A liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used as sample preparation. The separation was carried out on a C18 reversed-phase HPLC column followed by analysis via ESI-MS/MS. The multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantitative measurement. For the first time, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and JA were identified and quantified in the ethyl acetate extracts from the biomass, after the separation of mycelium from supernatant. The fermentation broths showed significantly higher levels of JA in relation to the other phytohormones. This is the first report of the presence of gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and the cytokinins zeatin, and zeatin riboside in fermentation broths of Botryodiplodia sp. The presence of JA-serine and JA-threonine conjugates in fermentation broth was confirmed using HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode, while the occurrence of JA-glycine and JA-isoleucine conjugates was evidenced with the same technique but with positive ionization. The results demonstrated that the used HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was effective for analysing phytohormones in fermentation samples.

  5. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    PubMed

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers.

  6. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-07-01

    In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu.

  7. Production of carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis MT-5 in submerged fermentation using the extract from waste loquat kernels as substrate.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mesut; Erdal, Serkan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the feasibility of the hydrolysate extracts from waste loquat kernels as substrate in submerged culture of yeast Rhodotorula glutinis MT-5 for carotenoid production. Loquat kernel was found to have high protein (22.5%) and total carbohydrate (71.2%) contents. Dried and powdered loquat kernels were subjected to acid hydrolysis with 2 mol L⁻¹ HCl. The hydrolysate obtained was used for the preparation of loquat kernel extract and detoxified loquat kernel extract. The detoxification of hydrolysate was performed with Ca(OH)₂. Among the 10 R. glutinis isolates, the MT-5 was found to be best in order to produce carotenoid using the extract as substrate. Production media prepared with detoxified loquat kernel extract or loquat kernel extract gave maximum biomass concentrations of 12.64 and 11.37 g L⁻¹, and maximum carotenoid concentrations of 72.36 and 62.73 mg L⁻¹, respectively. This study has provided effective processes for the conversion of waste material of plant origin to the extracts which are very rich in term of total fermentable sugar. The practicability of the extracts as fermentation substrate was proven in carotenoid production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on use of this waste material as a substrate in yeast fermentations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical, microbiological and phytochemical studies on aqueous-fermented extracts from Atropa belladonna L. Part 1--biochemistry and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberger, M; Stintzing, F; Meyer, U; Lindequist, U

    2012-04-01

    Extraction methods of fresh plants into aqueous-fermented extracts according to German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB), regulation nos. 33 and 34 were evaluated. In the course of production, the extraction is accompanied by fermentation and the resulting preparation is stored for at least 6 months until further processing. The present work aimed at revealing the underlying biochemical reactions during manufacture and storage. In addition, the responsible microorganisms were isolated and identified. To study the robustness of the preparation method, formulation components as well as production conditions were varied. Additionally, questions were addressed at the reproducibility of the method and a comparison with an ethanolic extract was also performed. From 2006 to 2009, 110 extracts from the fresh flowering herb of Atropa belladonna var. belladonna (L.) were produced and analyzed. The results show that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are primarily involved in the fermentation process, mainly producing lactic acid besides acetic acid and ethanol. The homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and the heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis were identified as predominant lactic acid bacteria. Finally, factors for a successful fermentation are proposed.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Orsolya Erzsebet; Csiszar, Emilia; Toth, Karolina; Szakacs, George; Koczka, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic and hydrolytic enzymes were produced with six selected fungi on flax substrate by solid state fermentation (SSF). The extracellular enzyme production of the organisms in two SSF media was evaluated by measuring the soluble protein concentration and the filter paper, endoxylanase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, 1,4-β-d-endoglucanase, polygalacturonase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase activities of the clear culture solutions produced by conventional extraction from the SSF materials. The SSF material of the best enzyme producer (Trichoderma virens TUB F-498) was further investigated to enhance the enzyme recovery by low frequency ultrasound treatment. Performance of both the original and ultrasound macerated crude enzyme mixtures was evaluated in degradation of the colored lignin-containing and waxy materials of raw linen fabric. Results proved that sonication (at 40%, 60% and 80% amplitudes, for 60min) did not result in reduction in the filter paper, lignin peroxidase and laccase activities of the crude enzyme solution, but has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of enzyme extraction from the SSF material. Depending on the parameters of sonication, the enzyme activities in the extracts obtained can be increased up to 129-413% of the original activities measured in the control extracts recovered by a common magnetic stirrer. Sonication also has an effect on both the enzymatic removal of the lignin-containing color materials and hydrophobic surface layer from the raw linen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fermented wheat germ extract (avemar) in the treatment of cardiac remodeling and metabolic symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Abishek; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Avemar, a product of industrial fermentation of wheat germ with a standardized content of benzoquinone and plant flavonoids, has been tested as an anti-cancer and immunomodulatory dietary supplement. Proposed mechanisms include anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. This study has determined whether these actions of Avemar may also be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Two experimental rat models of cardiovascular remodeling were used in this project: the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced model of chronic hypertension (study I) and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced model producing chronic symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular complications (study II). Our results in these rat models of hypertension and diet-induced obesity show that treatment with Avemar improved cardiac function, decreased macrophage infiltration resulting in decreased collagen deposition in the ventricular myocardium, reversed an increased stiffness of the left ventricle in the diseased hearts and attenuated increased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations. In addition to the changes in the heart, Avemar reversed glucose intolerance, normalized systolic blood pressure and decreased visceral fat deposition in rats fed a high-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar has a potential role in attenuating chronic hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular symptoms along with metabolic abnormalities such as glucose tolerance and obesity.

  12. Acute and subchronic (13-week) toxicity of fermented Acanthopanax koreanum extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, MyoungLae; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Ha; Park, Sun-Ok; Lee, Sang-Jong; Shin, HyunMu; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kang, Il-Jun; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The biological fermentation of plants is usually used to improve their product properties, including their biological activity. Acanthopanax koreanum is a plant indigenous to Jeju, Korea; however, fermented A. koreanum (FAK) has not been guaranteed to be safe. Therefore, in this study, a safety evaluation of aqueous extracts of FAK was performed using Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity of FAK did not influence animal mortality, body weight changes or the animals' clinical appearance at a concentration of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Using doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a subchronic (13-week) toxicity study, the administration of FAK in male rats increased their body weight, food consumption, absolute liver weight, liver-associated enzymes and total cholesterol content. However, these effects of FAK were not considered toxic because the changes were not accompanied by any evidence of clinical signs or any change in the histopathological examination. On the other hand, the FAK-treated female rats did not exhibit significant changes in their body weight, food consumption, absolute and relative organ weights or liver enzymes. These results suggest that the acute oral administration of FAK is non-toxic to rats, and 13 weeks of repeated dosing demonstrated no FAK-related toxicity at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of FAK was determined to be 2000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats.

  13. Fermented guava leaf extract inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in Mouse macrophage cells by inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho; Park, Soo-Young; Jin, Yeong-Jun; Ko, Hee-Chul; Moon, Sang-Wook; Kim, Se-Jae

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the antiinflammatory activities of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaf. To improve the functionality of guava leaf, it was fermented with Phellinus linteus mycelia, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol extract from fermented guava leaf inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. Western blot analysis showed that fermented guava leaf extract decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the mechanism involved, the study examined the effect of fermented guava leaf extract on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Fermented guava leaf extract significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Immunochemical analysis revealed that fermented guava leaf extract suppressed LPS-induced degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Taken together, the data indicate that fermented guava leaf extract is involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB pathway, revealing a partial molecular basis for the antiinflammatory properties of fermented guava leaf extract.

  14. Extraction of inulinase obtained by solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571.

    PubMed

    Bender, João Paulo; Mazutti, Marcio Antônio; Di Luccio, Marco; Treichel, Helen

    2008-06-01

    Production of inulinase by solid state fermentation always involves an extraction step, which dictates enzyme recovery yield and is related to cultivation conditions and control of process parameters. This work is focused on the study of extraction conditions aiming to maximize yield of an inulinase obtained by solid state fermentation of sugar cane bagasse and Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Kinetics of extraction was followed varying the kind of solvent used. After determining the best solvent, an experimental design was carried out to study the effect of the solid/liquid ratio (1:10-1:20), extraction temperature (20-53 degrees C), and stirring rate (50-177 rpm). Results showed that maximum yield was obtained when sodium acetate buffer 0.1 M pH 4.8 was used, using a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, at 53 degrees C and 150 rpm for 40 min.

  15. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  16. Beneficial Effects of Fermented Green Tea Extract in a Rat Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Hidaka, Yuki; Egashira, Toru; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently considered as a central mechanism of hepatocellular injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermented green tea extracts (FGTE) on NASH. Rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet for 4 weeks to nutritionally generate fatty livers. NASH was induced chemically by oxidative stress using repeated intraperitoneal injections of nitrite. Rats with NASH developed steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis after 6-week of such treatment. At 10 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected from anesthetized animals and assessed for extent of OS injury and effects of FGTE, by biochemical, histological and histochemical analyses. FGTE reduced serum levels of liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. In addition, FGTE showed inhibition of progressions of cirrhosis. Our findings suggest that our FGTE have strong radical scavenging activity and may be beneficial in the prevention of NASH progression.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Fermented Green Tea Extract in a Rat Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Hidaka, Yuki; Egashira, Toru; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently considered as a central mechanism of hepatocellular injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fermented green tea extracts (FGTE) on NASH. Rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet for 4 weeks to nutritionally generate fatty livers. NASH was induced chemically by oxidative stress using repeated intraperitoneal injections of nitrite. Rats with NASH developed steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis after 6-week of such treatment. At 10 weeks, blood and liver samples were collected from anesthetized animals and assessed for extent of OS injury and effects of FGTE, by biochemical, histological and histochemical analyses. FGTE reduced serum levels of liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. In addition, FGTE showed inhibition of progressions of cirrhosis. Our findings suggest that our FGTE have strong radical scavenging activity and may be beneficial in the prevention of NASH progression. PMID:19430612

  18. In situ extractive fermentation for the production of hexanoic acid from galactitol by Clostridium sp. BS-1.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byoung Seung; Moon, Chuloo; Kim, Byung-Chun; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-08-15

    Clostridium sp. BS-1 produces hexanoic acid as a metabolite using galactitol and enhanced hexanoic acid production was obtained by in situ extractive fermentation with Clostridium sp. BS-1 under an optimized medium composition. For medium optimization, five ingredients were selected as variables, and among them yeast extract, tryptone, and sodium butyrate were selected as significant variables according to a fractional factorial experimental design, a steepest ascent experimental design, and a Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimized medium had the following compositions in modified Clostridium acetobutyricum (mCAB) medium: 15.5gL(-1) of yeast extract, 10.13gL(-1) of tryptone, 0.04gL(-1) of FeSO4·7H2O, 0.85gL(-1) of sodium acetate, and 6.47gL(-1) of sodium butyrate. The predicted concentration of hexanoic acid with the optimized medium was 6.98gL(-1), and this was validated experimentally by producing 6.96gL(-1) of hexanoic acid with Clostridium sp. BS-1 under the optimized conditions. In situ extractive fermentation for hexanoic acid removal was then applied in a batch culture system with the optimized medium and 10% (v/v) alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as an extractive solvent. The pH of the culture in the extractive fermentation was maintained at 5.4-5.6 by an acid balance between production and retrieval by extraction. During a 16 day culture, the hexanoic acid concentration in the solvent increased to 32gL(-1) while it was maintained in a range of 1-2gL(-1) in the medium. The maximum rate of hexanoic acid production was 0.34gL(-1)h(-1) in in situ extractive fermentation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Long, Kamariah; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  20. Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Wei-Chih; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Li, Shun-Lai; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chang, Liang-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Hwang, Jyh-Chang; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Li-Hsueh; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS). We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed by the administration of CS or rosiglitazone for 4 consecutive weeks. Several parameters were evaluated, including changes in body weight, plasma lipid profiles, oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that the CS extract significantly elevated HDL/LDL ratios at 4 weeks and decreased body weight gain at 8 weeks. Interestingly, CS treatment did not lead to obvious improvements in hyperglycemia or resistance to insulin, while in vitro MTT assays indicated that CS protects pancreatic beta cells against the toxic effects of STZ. CS also enhanced renal NKA activity and reduced the accumulation of mesangial matrix and collagen deposition. In conclusion, CS extract can potentially preserve β-cell function and offer renoprotection, which may afford a promising therapy for DM. PMID:22474523

  1. Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kan, Wei-Chih; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Li, Shun-Lai; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chang, Liang-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Hwang, Jyh-Chang; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Li-Hsueh; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS). We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed by the administration of CS or rosiglitazone for 4 consecutive weeks. Several parameters were evaluated, including changes in body weight, plasma lipid profiles, oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that the CS extract significantly elevated HDL/LDL ratios at 4 weeks and decreased body weight gain at 8 weeks. Interestingly, CS treatment did not lead to obvious improvements in hyperglycemia or resistance to insulin, while in vitro MTT assays indicated that CS protects pancreatic beta cells against the toxic effects of STZ. CS also enhanced renal NKA activity and reduced the accumulation of mesangial matrix and collagen deposition. In conclusion, CS extract can potentially preserve β-cell function and offer renoprotection, which may afford a promising therapy for DM.

  2. Reverse micellar extraction of fungal glucoamylase produced in solid-state fermentation culture.

    PubMed

    Paraj, Aliakbar; Khanahmadi, Morteza; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-12-28

    Partial purification of glucoamylase from solid-state fermentation culture was, firstly, investigated by reverse micellar extraction (RME). To avoid back extraction problems, the glucoamylase was kept in the original aqueous phase, while the other undesired proteins/ enzymes were moved to the reverse micellar organic phase. The individual and interaction effects of main factors (i.e., pH and NaCl concentration in the aqueous phase, and concentration of sodium bis-2-ethyl-hexyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT) in the organic phase) were studied using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for the maximum recovery of the enzyme were pH 2.75, 100 mM NaCl, and 200 mM AOT. Furthermore, the optimum organic to aqueous volume ratio (Vorg/Vaq) and appropriate number of sequential extraction stages were 2 and 3, respectively. Finally, 60% of the undesired enzymes including proteases and xylanases were removed from the aqueous phase, while 140% of glucoamylase activity was recovered in the aqueous phase and the purification factor of glucoamylase was found to be 3.0-fold.

  3. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  4. Strain-dependent effects of inoculation of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum on fermentation quality of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) silage.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hisami; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Uegaki, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    Paddy rice has been of particular interest as a forage crop in Japan. In this study, the isolated strains TO1000, TO1001, TO1002, and TO1003 were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic approaches. These strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum by species-specific PCR. Phenotypic characteristics varied among different strains of the same subspecies, and the strains represented unique and diverse phenotypes related to fermentation factors, such as carbohydrate assimilation and range of pH and temperature allowing growth. PCR analysis revealed that the patterns of presence/absence of known plantaricin genes differed in a strain-specific manner. Using these strains as inoculants for preparation of whole crop paddy rice silage, fermentation quality was significantly improved, as shown by lower pH, higher lactic acid content, and inhibition of the growth of undesirable microorganisms such as molds, coliform bacteria, and clostridia, after 30 and 60 days of storage, with effectiveness differing from strain to strain. These observations suggest that suitable candidates for bacterial inoculants in silage preparation should be screened at the strain level. Strain TO1002 may be useful for producing silage inoculants for the production of well-preserved whole crop paddy rice silage.

  5. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus citri Changed the Protein Content of the Nigerian Oryza sativa variety “Igbimo” during Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Boboye, Bolatito E; Adeleke, Mutiat A; Olawale, Anthony O

    2012-01-01

    Effect of mutation on protein production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus citri, the best protein producing yeast and bacterium isolated during a previous natural fermentation of a Nigerian rice (“Igbimo”). The two microorganisms were grown to logarithmic phase and mutagenized separately using ethylmethyl sulphonate (EMS). The wild-types and variants were inoculated individually into sterile “Igbimo” rice. Fermentation was allowed to take place at 27°C for 7 days after which protein released into the rice was quantified using the Biuret reagent method. The data obtained showed that the mutants are different from each other. Some mutants did form the protein at lower concentrations, others at the same and higher concentrations than the mother strains. The parental strains of S. cerevisiae and B. citri synthesized 0.89 mg/mL and 0.36 mg/mL protein respectively. Four groups of the mutants are recognized: classes I, II, III and IV which are the Poor, Average, Good and Super Protein Producers with 0-0.20, 0.21-0.50, 0.51-1.0 and 1.0 mg/mL protein respectively The yeast mutants produced higher amounts of protein than those of the bacterium. PMID:23166568

  6. Tapé Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Djien, Ko Swan

    1972-01-01

    Microorganisms isolated from ragi, originally obtained from Indonesia, were selected for their ability to convert steamed glutinous rice into tapé, an Indonesian fermented food. A mixture of Chlamydomucor oryzae and Endomycopsis fibuliger had good fermentation characteristics. Prepared starters, produced by growing pure cultures on rice and drying them, were as active as pure cultures grown for 4 days on Difco mycological agar slants at 30 C. PMID:16349926

  7. Ethanolic extract of fermented Thunb induces human leukemic HL-60 and Molt-4 cell apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a medicinal plant of the Saururaceae family which features antimutagenic and antiviral properties. For extraction, the whole plants were fermented or non-fermented with yeast and ethanol then the whole plants were dried, ground and extracted with 95% ethanol or water. The aims of this study were to compare cytotoxic effects, apoptosis induction, and mechanism(s) with the ethanolic and water extracts of fermented and non-fermented HCT. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay in human leukemic HL-60, Molt-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Apoptotic death was characterized by staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Peroxide radical production and reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-9 was identified by immunoblotting. The ethanolic extract of fermented HCT was cytotoxic to HL-60 >Molt- 4 > PBMCs, to a greater extent than the non-fermented preparation and the number of apoptotic cells was higher. The alcoholic (fermented) extract produced more radicals than the non-fermented in HL-60 cells but the converse was observed in Molt-4 cells. Reduction of MTP was found in HL-60 and Molt-4 cells treated with the alcoholic (fermented) extract and caspase-9 was cleaved dose-dependently in both cells. In conclusion, the alcoholic extract of fermented HCT was more toxic to human leukemic cells than the non-fermented and both cell lines underwent apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

    2008-11-15

    The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164.

  9. [Expression of endopolygalacturonase A of Aspergillus oryzae in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhao, Qing-Xin; Zhu, Hong; Sun, Jing; Han, Feng-Min; Yuan, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Pectinases are mainly used in the food industry to clarify fruit juices and wine, improve oil extraction, remove the peel from the citrus fruit, increase the firmness of some fruits and degum fibres. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, used for the production of traditional fermented foods, only could produce less pectinases under general conditions. So far only a few of PGs expressed in yeast or E. coli were reported but they did not show higher activity. The cDNA of mature PGA (without signal peptide) was synthesized with specific primers from total RNA of Aspergillus oryzae by RT-PCR. PGA cDNA was ligated into pET-28a( + ) expression vector, creating plasmid pET-28a( + )-pgA. The plasmid pET-28a( + )-pgA was transformed into E. coli Turner (DE3) plac I cells to express PGA heterogeneously. For improving the efficiency of PGA expression in E. coli, the conditions for expression of the PGA in E. coli were optimized. E. coli Turner (DE3) plac I cells with pET-28a( + )-pgA was first cultivated at 37 degrees, 220r/min until OD600nm reached about 0.8. Then, cultivation broth was added with 0.5 mmol/L IPTG and incubated at 15 degrees C, 170r/min for other 24 h for induced-expression of PGA. Our data showed that the activity of recombinant expressed PGA could reach to 70u/mL medium, which is 87.5-fold of the activity of PGA produced in culture of A. oryzae and superior than known recombinant expression amount of PGA reported by other researchers.

  10. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of germinated and fermented mung bean on ethanol-mediated liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean.

  11. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  12. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  13. Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora oryzae from a Medicinal plant Coccinia grandis, a High Yielding New Source of Phenazine-1-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Thanabalasingam, Dharushana; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the leaves of Coccinia grandis, a popular medicinal plant used to control diabetes. Fermentation of the fungus in potato dextrose broth and chromatographic purification of the ethyl acetate extracts of the broth and mycelium yielded two phenazine secondary metabolites, which were identified as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (1) and phenazine-1-carboxamide (2) by comparing their spectral data with those reported in the literature. Compound 2, isolated in high yield (1 g/4 L medium), showed strong antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Cladosporium cladosporioides. This is the first report of the isolation of N. oryzae as an endophytic fungus of C. grandis. These phenazines have never been isolated from any fungal source. Antifungal activity of 2 against C. cladosporioides is reported for the first time.

  14. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    PubMed

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  17. Tannin extraction pretreatment and very high gravity fermentation of acorn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Chao, Bin; Liu, Ruiliang; Zhang, Xueling; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    The bioethanol production from a novel non-grain feedstock, acorn starch, was studied in this work. The inhibition of tannin in strain growth was investigated, and the effect of tannin was negligible when the tannin concentration was lower than 1g/L in medium. Therefore, the extraction of tannin was performed using 40% (v/v) ethanol-water solution as the solvent for three times under the conditions of solid/liquid ratio 1:20, 60°C, 3h, by which more than 80% of tannin in acorn was extracted and the content of tannin in acorn decreased from 7.4% (w/w) to 1.5% (w/w). Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation technology was subsequently carried out to achieve a high ethanol concentration at 86.4g/L. A comprehensive process for bioethanol production from acorn starch was designed and a preliminary economic assessment was then performed revealing that this process appeared technically and economically justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of continuous substrate feeding to the ABE fermentation: Relief of product inhibition using extraction, perstraction, stripping, and pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.; Friedl, A.

    1992-09-01

    The technique of continuous substrate feeding has been applied to the batch fermentation process using freely suspended cells, for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production. To avoid the product inhibition which normally restricts ABE production to less than 20 g/L and sugar utilization to 60 g/L, a product removal technique has been integrated into the fermentation process. The techniques investigated were liquid-liquid extraction, perstraction, gas-stripping, and pervaporation. By using a substrate of whey permeate, the reactor productivity has been improved over that observed in a traditional batch fermentation, while equivalent lactose utilization and ABE production values of 180 g and 69 g, respectively, have been achieved in a 1-L culture volume. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of thailandepsin A from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 using polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Hui, Junyuan; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Xuehong

    2012-05-01

    Thailandepsin A is natural product of Burkholderia thailandensis E264 with potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activities and promising anticancer activities. The titer of thailandepsin A is very low (less than 10 mg/l) from limited empirical fermentation. To facilitate preclinical evaluations and potentially clinical development of thailandepsin A, systematic optimization and extractive fermentation of thailandepsin A from B. thailandensis E264 culture in flasks were investigated in this pilot study. The main fermentation parameters--28°C, pH 7.0, inoculum ratio 1% (v/v), incubation duration 60 h, medium volume 26%, shaking speed 170 rpm, and chloroform as extracting solvent--were determined by single factor experiments. Polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20, when added at a concentration of 4% (w/v), was most effective to reduce feedback inhibition of thailandepsin A and to significantly increase the titer of target product. Central composite design was used to further optimize the fermentation medium for B. thailandensis E264. The optimized medium contains glucose 17.89 g/l, tryptone 34.98 g/l, potassium phosphate 24.84 g/l, and sodium citrate 0.01 g/l, which resulted in a large increase of the titer of thailandepsin A to 236.7 mg/l. Finally kinetic models based on the modified logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were developed, delivering a good description of temporal variations of biomass, product, and substrate in the fermentation process, which could be used as references for developing large-scale fermentation.

  20. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL(-1) throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  2. A method for red-violet pigments extraction from fruits of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) with enhanced antioxidant potential under fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sravan Kumar, S; Manoj, P; Giridhar, P

    2015-05-01

    Basella rubra fruit juice with a total soluble solids content of 5 to 9 (0)Brix was fermented using the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An 87.5 % of conversion of fermentable sugar was achieved. The TSS ((0)Brix) reduced from 0.60 (0)Brix to 0.17 (0)Brix (71.67 % decrease in TSS) upon performing fermentation of fruit juice water extract with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2. There was 8 folds reduction in pigment quality as evidenced from fermentation. Besides, the potential increase of phenolics, thanks to a higher content of total betalains in general and betacyanins in particular when fermentation was carried out with S. cerevisiae strain 3. The DPPH (2, 2 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) free radical scavenging potential (IC50) of fermented juice (1.9 mg.ml(-1)) was significant over control (2.4 mg.ml(-1)) extracts of B. rubra. The reducing power of fermented extracts was significantly high compared to control samples. The multiple antioxidant activity of fermented extract was also evident by significant reducing power assay when compared to its control samples.

  3. Efficacy of different methanolic plant extracts on anti-methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sirohi, S.K.; Goel, N.; Pandey, P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of three plants, mehandi (Lawsonia inermis), jaiphal (Myristica fragrans) and green chili (Capsicum annuum) on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and fermentation kinetic parameters by in vitro gas production techniques. Single dose of each plant extract (1 ml / 30 ml buffered rumen fluid) and two sorghum fodder containing diets (high and low fiber diets) were used for evaluating the effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern, while sequential incubations (0, 1, 2, 3, 6 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h) were carried out for gas production kinetics. Results showed that methane production was reduced, ammonia nitrogen was increased significantly, while no significant effect was found on pH and protozoal population following addition of different plant extracts in both diets except mehandi. Green chili significantly reduced digestibility of dry matter, total fatty acid and acetate concentration at incubation with sorghum based high and low fiber diets. Among all treatments, green chili increased potential gas production, while jaiphal decreased the gas production rate constant significantly. The present results demonstrate that methanolic extracts of different plants are promising rumen modifying agents. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, potential gas production, gas production rate constant, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis. PMID:26623296

  4. Improvement of Fermented Fish Flour Quality Using Essential Oil Extracted From Fresh Leaves of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Dègnon, René G; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the introduction of a step of essential oil adjunction during the process. Three different essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μL g(-1)) were investigated. Physicochemical, microbiological and nutritional analyzes were performed in order to evaluate the quality of the fermented fish flour produced. Results obtained revealed that the essential oil of Pimenta racemosa investigated has a chemical composition characterized by the presence of myrcene (25.1%), chavicol (7.5%) and eugenol (51.1%). Fermented fish flour produced have a good nutritional potential. However, on the microbiological level, only samples produced by adjunction of essential oil have a low level of microbial contamination, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms.

  5. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Mulberry leaf extract fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus A4 ameliorates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Lee, J Y; Lee, J M; Lee, K W; Kim, Y

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mulberry leaf extract (ME) fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus A4 (A4) on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were gavaged with A4, ME, fermented mulberry leaf extract FME) or lafutidine (LAF) for 10 days and injected intraperitoneally with 5-FU (150 mg kg(-1) ) or saline (normal control) on day 7 to induce mucositis. After euthanizing the animals, their small and large intestines were removed for evaluation of histopathologic parameters, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mucin content, and mRNA expression of the mucin gene and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. 5-FU induced significant weight loss, shortened villi height, and increased histological severity, IL-1β expression, and MPO activity compared to the normal control group. These pathological changes were markedly ameliorated by treatment with A4, ME and FME. These treatments also stimulated MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expression and mucin production, and reduced IL-1β expression and MPO level. Interestingly, FME had the greatest protective effect on 5-FU-induced mucositis in rats. Our results suggest that fermented mulberry leaf extract (ME) may provide synergistic therapeutic benefits of both probiotics and natural plant extracts in prevention of 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis. These impacts are particularly significant given the induction of MUC2 and MUC5AC gene expressions for production of mucins and the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β in gut environments. Therefore, we proposed that enhanced functionality of ME by fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus A4 can be applied as food-grade adjuncts for mucositis therapy and prevention in food industry. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Laxative effects of fermented rice extract in rats with loperamide-induced constipation

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JAE-SUK; KIM, JOO WAN; CHO, HYUNG-RAE; KIM, KI-YOUNG; LEE, JONG-KWANG; SOHN, JAE HAK; KU, SAE-KWANG

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem in males and females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the laxative effects of fermented rice extract (FRe) on rats with loperamide-induced constipation. FRe (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally once per day for six days following 1 h loperamide treatment. The laxative effects of FRe were compared with those of sodium picosulfate (S. picosulfate). Following the induction of constipation in the rats, a marked decrease was observed in the fecal pellet number and water content discharged over 24 h, the surface mucus thickness in the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness of the colonic mucosa and the number of mucus-producing cells, while an increase was observed in the number of fecal pellets remaining in the colonic lumen and their mean diameter, as compared with the normal vehicle control rats. These conditions were significantly alleviated following the administration of the three doses of FRe when compared with the loperamide control group. However, the alleviating effects were lower than those of S. picosulfate, with the exception of the intestinal charcoal transit ratio. Similar effects on the intestinal charcoal transit ratio were detected for the three doses of FRe when compared with the S. picosulfate-treated rats. In conclusion, the results indicated that FRe exhibits a laxative effect without causing diarrhea, as compared with sodium picosulfate; thus, FRe may be effective as a complementary medicine in patients suffering from lifestyle-induced constipation. PMID:25371743

  8. Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2017-05-05

    Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of fermented field water-dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) extract and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Eun-Ju; Byun, Hae-Jung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2014-05-01

    Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, including hepatitis. We investigated the protective effects of fermented field water-dropwort extract (FDE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Pretreatment with FDE prior to the t-BHP treatment of HepG2 cells inhibited cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in a dose-dependent manner. In addition FDE significantly prevented the increase of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT, AST) in vivo. Moreover, FDE administration for 7 days significantly affected CYP2E1, CYP4A2, and PPARγ gene expressions. CYP2E1 and CYP4A2 gene expression in the liver, increased 2 and 22-fold by CCl4 administration, respectively, was attenuated to normal levels by pretreatment with FDE. PPARγ gene expression, completely blocked by CCl4 treatment, was increased by FDE pretreatment compared to normal control group. Histopathological examination of the livers also revealed that FDE reduced the incidence of liver lesions. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were identified as major constituents of FDE. These results demonstrate the protective effects of FDE against hepatocytotoxicity induced by CCl4 and t-BHP in rats and HepG2 cells, thus indicating the potential of FDE as a therapeutic for acute liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunologic and biochemical effects of the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar.

    PubMed

    Illmer, Christoph; Madlener, Sibylle; Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Saiko, Philipp; Losert, Annemarie; Herbacek, Irene; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to have antitumor effects. Avemar has the potential to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from malignant colon tumors. We studied its effects in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. Avemar had an inhibiting effect on colonies of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 118 microg/ml (7 days of incubation); this value could be decreased to 100 and 75 microg/ml in the presence of vitamin C. In the cell line examined, Avemar induced both necrosis and apoptosis, as demonstrated by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. The incubation of cells with 3200 microg/ml Avemar for 24 hrs caused necrosis in 28% and the induction of apoptosis in 22% of the cells. Avemar inhibited the cell-cycle progression of HT-29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, Avemar inhibited the activity of the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, we determined the effects of Avemar on the activity of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. Both enzymes were significantly inhibited by Avemar with IC50 values of 100 and 300 microg/ml, respectively. We outline new explanations for its antitumor activity, which might serve as the basis for further studies using Avemar.

  12. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising.

  13. Yield improvement of exopolysaccharides by screening of the Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC and optimization of the fermentation and extraction conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Xingjian; Yang, Dengxiang; Si, Tianlei; Pan, Siyi; Yang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysacharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in food processing with its well-recognized antioxidant activity. In this study, a L. acidophilus mutant strain with high-yielding EPS (2.92±0.05 g/L) was screened by chemical mutation (0.2 % diethyl sulfate). Plackett-Burman (PB) design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the EPS fermentation parameters and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the EPS extraction parameters. A strain with high-yielding EPS was screened. It was revealed that three parameters (Tween 80, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and trisodium citrate) had significant influence (P < 0.05) on the EPS yield. The optimal culture conditions for EPS production were: Tween 80 0.6 mL, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 3.6 g and trisodium citrate 4.1 g (with culture volume of 1 L). In these conditions, the maximum EPS yield was 3.96±0.08 g/L. The optimal extraction conditions analyzed by CCD were: alcohol concentration 70 %, the ratio of material to liquid (M/L ratio) 1:3.6 and the extraction time 31 h. In these conditions, the maximum EPS extraction yield was 1.48±0.23 g/L. It was confirmed by the verification experiments that the EPS yield from L. acidophilus mutant strains reached 5.12±0.73 g/L under the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the control (1.05±0.06 g/L). The results indicated that the strain screening with high-yielding EPS was successful and the optimized fermentation and extraction conditions significantly enhanced EPS yield. It was efficient and industrially promising. PMID:27103893

  14. Microbiological characterization and functionality of set-type yogurt fermented with potential prebiotic substrates Cudrania tricuspidata and Morus alba L. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Ji Young; Joung, Jae Yeon; Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Yong Kook; Lee, Kwang-Won; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Sangnam; Kim, Younghoon

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 plant leaf extracts on fermentation mechanisms and health-promoting activities and their potential as a nutraceutical prebiotics ingredient for application in dairy products. The individual active phenolic compounds in the plant extract-supplemented milk and yogurts were also identified. Compared with control fermentation, the plant extracts significantly increased the growth and acidification rate of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. In particular, plant extract components, including monosaccharides, formic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid, such as neo-chlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid, together play a stimulatory role and cause this beneficial effect on the growth of yogurt culture bacteria through fermentation. In addition, supplementation with the plant extracts enhanced antioxidant activities with increased total phenolic contents, especially the highest antioxidant activity was observed in yogurt supplemented with Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of a Mexican traditional fermented starchy food.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, C; Barkla, B J; Wacher, C; Delgado-Olivares, L; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-12-05

    Pozol is a traditional fermented maize dough prepared in southeastern Mexico. Wide varieties of microorganisms have already been isolated from this spontaneously fermented product; and include fungi, yeasts, and lactic- and non-lactic acid bacteria. Pozol presents physicochemical features different from that of other food fermentation products, such as a high starch content, in addition to a low protein content. It is these qualities that make it intractable for protein recovery and characterization. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the recovery of proteins from the pozol dough following fermentation, by reducing the complexity of the mixture prior to 2D-PAGE analysis and sequencing, to allow the characterization of the metaproteome of the dough. The proteome of 15day fermented maize dough was characterized; proteins were separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequent sequence homology database searching, identified numerous bacterial and fungi proteins; with a predominance of lactic acid bacterial proteins, mainly from the Lactobacillus genus. Fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus. For dominant genera, the most prevalent proteins belong to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, which suggest that at 15days of fermentation not only fungi but also bacteria are metabolically active. Several methodologies have been employed to study pozol, with a specific focus toward the identification of the microbiota of this fermented maize dough, using both traditional cultivation techniques and culture independent molecular techniques. However to date, the dynamics of this complex fermentation is not well understood. With the purpose to gain further insight into the nature of the fermentation, we used proteomic technologies to identify the origin of proteins and enzymes that facilitate substrate utilization and ultimately the development of the microbiota and fermentation. In this paper we overcome the first general

  16. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality.

    PubMed

    Neffe-Skocińska, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew; Jachacz-Jówko, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives), sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1), and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2). The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage). The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  17. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Danuta; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew; Jachacz-Jówko, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives), sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1), and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2). The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage). The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage. PMID:25961018

  18. Effects of a dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, J M; Abney, M D; Galyean, M L; Rivera, J D; Hanson, K C; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in

  19. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing the efficacy of fermented wheat germ extract against Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Lapis, K; Hidvégi, M; Kósa, E; Glávits, R; Resetár, A

    2004-11-01

    The effect of fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE, Immunovet-HBM) was studied in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Ninety M. gallisepticum- and M. synoviae-free 3-wk-old chickens were exposed to aerosol infection of M. gallisepticum. One group (30 birds) was treated with FWGE, a second group with tiamulin, and a third group was untreated. The fourth group was exposed to PBS aerosol as a negative control. On d 9, all chickens were slaughtered and examined for the presence of gross and histological lesions, the presence of the challenge strain in the organs and specific antibodies in the serum. Body weight gains and feed conversion rates were recorded. In the groups treated with FWGE and with tiamulin, the chickens remained clinically healthy: their BW gains were 441.7 g and 446.8 g, respectively. Feed conversion ratios were 1.72 and 1.71 for FWGE- and tiamulin-treated birds, respectively. Control birds had BW gain of 480.8 g, and feed conversion ratio of 1.78. The numbers of birds with gross lesions (15 and 11, respectively) and lesion scores (25 and 25, respectively) of the FWGE- and tiamulin-treated groups were significantly lower than in the infected untreated group (25 birds, lesion score of 190). No mycoplasma was reisolated from brain, liver, spleen, heart, or kidneys of the FWGE-treated birds, and the number of mycoplasma isolations from the respiratory tract samples was less frequent (10) than from the infected untreated group (64). In addition, 35 samples from other internal organs were also positive. Twenty percent of the birds treated with FWGE showed serological response with a 5.0% reaction score, whereas in the infected untreated group, 83.3% of birds were reactors, with a 62.5% reaction score.

  1. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  2. Ginkgo fruit extract as an additive to modify rumen microbiota and fermentation and to mitigate methane production.

    PubMed

    Oh, S; Shintani, R; Koike, S; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-03-01

    Ginkgo fruit, an unused byproduct of the ginkgo nut industry, contains antimicrobial compounds known as anacardic acids. Two major cultivars of ginkgo, Kyuju (K) and Tokuro (T), were evaluated for their potential as a feed additive for ruminants. In batch culture, we incubated a mixture of hay and concentrate in diluted rumen fluid with or without 1.6% (fruit equivalent) ginkgo fruit extract. We conducted another series of batch culture studies to determine the dose response of fermentation. We also conducted continuous culture using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) with cultivar K and carried out a pure culture study to monitor the sensitivity of 17 representative rumen bacterial species to ginkgo extract and component phenolics. Although both K and T extracts led to decreased methane and increased propionate production, changes were more apparent with K extract, and were dose-dependent. Total gas production was depressed at doses ≥3.2%, suggesting that 1.6% was the optimal supplementation level. In RUSITEC fermentation supplemented with 1.6% ginkgo K, methane decreased by 53% without affecting total gas or total VFA production, but with decreased acetate and increased propionate. Disappearance of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were not affected by ginkgo, but ammonia levels were decreased. Quantitative PCR indicated that the abundance of protozoa, fungi, methanogens, and bacteria related to hydrogen and formate production decreased, but the abundance of bacteria related to propionate production increased. MiSeq analysis (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) confirmed these bacterial changes and identified archaeal community changes, including a decrease in Methanobrevibacter and Methanomassiliicoccaceae and an increase in Methanoplanus. Pure culture study results supported the findings for the above bacterial community changes. These results demonstrate that ginkgo fruit can modulate rumen fermentation toward methane mitigation

  3. Extraction of natural red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using aqueous two-phase polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Lopes, André Moreni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns related to the increasing and widespread application of synthetic coloring agents have increased the demand for natural colorants. Fungi have been employed in the production of novel and safer colorants. In order to obtain the colorants from fermented broth, suitable extraction systems must be developed. Aqueous two-phase polymer systems (ATPPS) offer a favorable chemical environment and provide a promising alternative for extracting and solubilizing these molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the partitioning of red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using an ATPPS composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). Red colorants partitioned preferentially to the top (PEG-rich phase). In systems composed of PEG 6,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol, optimum colorant partition coefficient (KC ) was obtained in the presence of NaCl 0.1 M (KC  = 10.30) while the PEG 10,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol system in the presence of Na2 SO4 0.5 M showed the highest KC (14.78). For both polymers, the mass balance (%MB) and yield in the PEG phase (%ηTOP ) were close to 100 and 79%, respectively. The protein selectivity in all conditions evaluated ranged from 2.0-3.0, which shows a suitable separation of the red colorants and proteins present in the fermented broth. The results suggest that the partitioning of the red colorants is dependent on both the PEG molecular size and salt type. Furthermore, the results obtained support the potential application of ATPPS as the first step of a purification process to recover colorants from fermented broth of microorganisms. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Chitinolytic and chitosanolytic activities from crude cellulase extract produced by A. niger grown on apple pomace through Koji fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Kaur, Surinder; Valero, Jose R; Verma, Mausam

    2011-12-01

    Enzyme extracts of cellulase [filter paper cellulase (FPase) and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase)], chitinase, and chitosanase produced by Aspergillus niger NRRL-567 were evaluated. The interactive effects of initial moisture and different inducers for FP cellulase and CMCase production were optimized using response surface methodology. Higher enzyme activities [FPase 79.24+/- 4.22 IU/gram fermented substrate (gfs) and CMCase 124.04+/-7.78 IU/gfs] were achieved after 48 h fermentation in solid-state medium containing apple pomace supplemented with rice husk [1% (w/w)] under optimized conditions [pH 4.5, moisture 55% (v/w), and inducers veratryl alcohol (2 mM/kg), copper sulfate (1.5 mM/kg), and lactose 2% (w/w)] (p<0.05). Koji fermentation in trays was carried out and higher enzyme activities (FPase 96.67+/-4.18 IU/gfs and CMCase 146.50+/-11.92 IU/gfs) were achieved. The nonspecific chitinase and chitosanase activities of cellulase enzyme extract were analyzed using chitin and chitosan substrates with different physicochemical characteristics, such as degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, and viscosity. Higher chitinase and chitosanase activities of 70.28+/-3.34 IU/gfs and 60.18+/-3.82 to 64.20+/-4.12 IU/gfs, respectively, were achieved. Moreover, the enzyme was stable and retained 92-94% activity even after one month. Cellulase enzyme extract obtained from A. niger with chitinolytic and chitosanolytic activities could be potentially used for making low-molecular-weight chitin and chitosan oligomers, having promising applications in biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, and agricultural industries, and in biocontrol formulations.

  5. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro screening of natural feed additives from crustaceans, diatoms, seaweeds and plant extracts to manipulate rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Newbold, C Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Eight natural products from animal, unicellular algae, brown seaweed and plant origins were chosen according to their theoretical antimicrobial activity: Diatomaceous earths (DE), insoluble chitosan (ICHI), soluble chitosan (CHI), seaweed meal (SWM), Ascophyllum nodosum (ASC), Laminaria digitata (LAM), neem oil (NOIL) and an ivy fruit extract rich in saponins (IVY). Dose-response incubations were conducted to determine their effect on rumen fermentation pattern and gas production, while their anti-protozoal activity was tested using (14) C-labelled bacteria. DE, SWM, NOIL and ICHI had very small effects on rumen function when used at inclusion rate up to 2 g L(-1) . ASC had anti-protozoal effects (up to -23%) promoting a decrease in gas production and methanogenesis (-15%). LAM increased VFA production (+7%) and shifted from butyrate to acetate. CHI also shifted fermentation towards propionate production and lower methane (-23%) and protozoal activity (-56%). IVY decreased protozoal activity (-39%) and ammonia concentration (-56%), as well as increased feed fermentation (+11% VFA concentration) and shifted from acetate to propionate production. ASC, LAM, CHI and IVY showed promising potential in vitro as feed additives to improve rumen function, thus more research is needed to investigate their mode of action in the rumen microbial ecosystem. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Effect of Plant Extracts on In-vitro Ruminal Fermentation, Methanogenesis and Methane-related Microbes in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Min, K. -S.; Kim, C. -H.; Moon, Y. H.; Kim, S. C.; Lee, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect on methanogens attached to the surface of rumen ciliate protozoa by the addition of plant extracts (pine needles and ginkgo leaves) was studied with particular reference to their effectiveness for decreasing methane emission. The plant extracts (pine needles and ginkgo leaves) were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. The microbial population including bacteria, ciliated-associated methanogen, four different groups of methanogens and Fibrobacter succinogenes were quantified by using the real-time PCR. Gas profiles including methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and runinal fermentation characteristics were observed in vitro. The methane emission from samples with an addition of individual juices from pine needles, ginkgo leaves and 70% ethanol extract from ginko leaves was significantly lower (p<0.05, 27.1, 28.1 and 28.1 vs 34.0 ml/g DM) than that of the control, respectively. Total VFAs in samples with an addition of any of the plant extracts were significantly lower than that of the control (p<0.05) as well. The order Methanococcales and the order Methanosarcinales were not detected by using PCR in any incubated mixtures. The ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased from 25% to 49% in the plant extacts as compared to control. We speculate that the supplementation of juice from pine needles and ginkgo leaves extract (70% ethanol extract) decreased the protozoa population resulting in a reduction of methane emission in the rumen and thus inhibiting methanogenesis. The order Methanobacteriales community was affected by addition of all plant extracts and decreased to less than the control, while the order Methanomicrobiales population showed an increase to more than that of the control. The F. succinogenes, the major fibrolytic microorganism, population in all added plant extracts was increased to greater than that of the control. In conclusion, pine needles and ginkgo leaves extracts appear to have properties that

  8. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  9. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun T.; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J.; Lee, Sang M.; Lee, Sang S.; Lee, Il D.; Lee, Su K.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  10. Solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth by anion-exchangeable silica confined ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wentao; Zhou, Jun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-01-15

    Three anion-exchangeable, silica-confined ionic liquids were synthesized for solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection. By comparing the adsorption isotherms of lactic acid on different silica-confined ionic liquids, interactions between the lactic acid and sorbents were investigated. The adsorbed amounts were then fitted into different adsorption isotherm equations; finally, the Langmuir equation was selected. Then the imidazolium silica with the highest adsorption capacity of lactic acid was packed into a cartridge for solid phase extraction. The loading volume of the cartridge was optimized by the Langmuir equation and geometry. After washing with distilled water and eluting with 0.25 mol L(-1) of an HCl solution, the lactic acid was separated from interference with a recovery yield of 91.9%. Furthermore, this kind of anion-exchangeable material exhibited potential for industrial applications and separation of other anionic bioactive compounds.

  11. Development of an Innovative Nutraceutical Fermented Beverage from Herbal Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. PMID:22312286

  12. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.

  13. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  14. Protective effect of fermented soybean dried extracts against TPA-induced oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms.

  15. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katusya; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Machida, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding the industrial potential of the fungus in biotechnology. Genes that have been newly discovered through genome research can be used for the production of novel valuable enzymes and chemicals, and are important for designing new industrial processes. This article describes recent progress of A . oryzae genomics and its impact on industrial production of enzymes, metabolites, and bioprocesses.

  17. Production and characterization of two major Aspergillus oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases able to efficiently digest proline-rich peptides of gliadin.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Philippe J; Salamin, Karine; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich proteins. Fungal extracts rich in prolyl endopeptidases produced by a species such as Aspergillus oryzae used in food fermentation would be of particular interest for the development of an oral enzyme therapy product in patients affected by intolerance to gluten. Two major A. oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases of the MEROPS S28 peptidase family, AoS28A and AoS28B, were identified when this fungus was grown at acidic pH in a medium containing soy meal protein or wheat gliadin as the sole source of nitrogen. AoS28B was produced by 12 reference A. oryzae strains used in food fermentation. AoS28A was secreted by six of these 12 strains. This protease is the orthologue of the previously characterized Aspergillus fumigatus (AfuS28) and Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP) prolyl endopeptidases which are encoded by genes with a similar intron-exon structure. Large amounts of secreted AoS28A and AoS28B were obtained by gene overexpression in A. oryzae. AoS28A and AoS28B are endoproteases able to cleave N-terminally blocked proline substrates. Both enzymes very efficiently digested the proline-rich 33-mer of gliadin, the most representative immunotoxic peptide deriving from gliadin, with some differences in terms of specificity and optimal pH. Digestion of the gliadin peptide in short peptides with both enzymes was found to occur from its N terminus.

  18. Astaxanthin preparation by fermentation of esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal extracts with Stenotrophomonas species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Li, Xuemin; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2016-05-01

    Natural astaxanthin (Ax) is an additive that is widely used because of its beneficial biochemical functions. However, the methods used to produce free Ax have drawbacks. Chemical saponification methods produce several by-products, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis methods are not cost effective. In this study, a bacterial strain of Stenotrophomonas sp. was selected to enzymatically catalyze the saponification of Ax esters to produce free all-trans-Ax. Through single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken design, the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: a seed culture age of 37.79 h, an inoculum concentration of 5.92%, and an initial broth pH of 6.80. Under these conditions, a fermentation curve was drawn, and the optimal fermentation time was shown to be 60 h. At 60 h, the degradation rate of the Ax esters was 98.08%, and the yield of free all-trans-Ax was 50.130 μg/mL. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:649-656, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Sensory improvement of dry-fermented sausages by the addition of cell-free extracts from Debaryomyces hansenii and Lactobacillus sakei.

    PubMed

    Bolumar, T; Sanz, Y; Flores, M; Aristoy, M-C; Toldrá, F; Flores, J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the addition of a combined cell-free extract from Lactobacillus sakei and Debaryomyces hansenii (D+L) or just a D. hansenii cell-free extract (D) to the initial formulation of a dry-fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations, pH, moisture content and global proteolytic and lipolytic indexes (total free amino acids, non protein nitrogen, acidity and tiobarbituric acid index) were not significant. Only, the acidity value of batch D was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of batch D+L. Thus, cell-free extract from D. hansenii accelerated the lipolysis. Moreover, there were some significant differences (p<0.05) in the amino acid profile and, especially, in the aroma profile. The combination D+L and D promoted the generation of volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation and carbohydrate fermentation. In batch D, the production of volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism and microbial fermentation was also enhanced. The overall quality was improved by both treatments (D+L, D) and also the aroma by addition of the combination of extracts (D+L). It is concluded that the addition of cell-free extracts from D. hansenii and, particularly, D. hansenii plus L. sakei could be useful to improve the final quality of fermented sausages.

  20. Alleviating monoterpene toxicity using a two-phase extractive fermentation for the bioproduction of jet fuel mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Timothy C R; Turner, Christopher D; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2012-10-01

    Monoterpenes are a diverse class of compounds with applications as flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and more recently, jet fuels. Engineering biosynthetic pathways for monoterpene production in microbial hosts has received increasing attention. However, monoterpenes are highly toxic to many microorganisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used industrial biocatalyst. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. cerevisiae was determined for five monoterpenes: β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, and terpinolene (1.52, 0.44, 2.12, 0.70, 0.53 mM, respectively). Given the low MIC for all compounds tested, a liquid two-phase solvent extraction system to alleviate toxicity during fermentation was evaluated. Ten solvents were tested for biocompatibility, monoterpene distribution, phase separation, and price. The solvents dioctyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, isopropyl myristate, and farnesene showed greater than 100-fold increase in the MIC compared to the monoterpenes in a solvent-free system. In particular, the MIC for limonene in dibutyl phthalate showed a 702-fold (308 mM, 42.1 g L(-1) of limonene) improvement while cell viability was maintained above 90%, demonstrating that extractive fermentation is a suitable tool for the reduction of monoterpene toxicity. Finally, we estimated that a limonane to farnesane ratio of 1:9 has physicochemical properties similar to traditional Jet-A aviation fuel. Since farnesene is currently produced in S. cerevisiae, its use as a co-product and extractant for microbial terpene-based jet fuel production in a two-phase system offers an attractive bioprocessing option. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analytical optimization of a phenolic-rich herbal extract and supplementation in fermented milk containing sweet potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Lorena Rodrigues; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Daguer, Heitor; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Granato, Daniel

    2017-04-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and characterize the phenolic composition of a herbal extract composed of green mate (Ilex paraguariensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and to propose the addition of this polyphenol-rich extract to fermented milks (FM) with/without sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea batatas). Proximate composition, pH, acidity, instrumental texture profile, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) of all formulations were measured, and sensory attributes were also investigated. The addition of a lyophilized extract (1g 100g(-1)) containing 87.5% clove and 12.5% green mate increased the AA and TPC, while FM with added sweet potato pulp had the best sensory acceptance. The TPC and total reducing capacity had a slight change during 21days of storage. The data showed that herbal extracts and sweet potato pulp may be used to develop new dairy foods with potential functional properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in artificially inoculated and naturally infected rice seeds and plants by molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, N; Mortensen, C N; Mathur, S B

    2001-08-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for detecting the presence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) pathogen in rice seed and for studying the transmission of this bacterium from seed to plant. Primers TXT and TXT4R from an insertion sequence (IS1113) of the pathogen were used to amplify a 964-bp DNA fragment. A combined biological and enzymatic amplification (BIO-PCR) technique was used to detect the pathogen in naturally infected seed. The level of detection of TXT and TXT4R primers was 55 fg DNA of X. o. pv. oryzae, which is roughly the equivalent of seven cells (and four cells in pure culture suspension) of X. o. pv. oryzae. Hybridization of IS1113 with the amplified DNA fragment in Southern blot analysis confirmed that the 964-bp DNA fragment was amplified from X. o. pv. oryzae. The presence of the IS1113 element in strains of X. o. pv. oryzae from 16 rice-growing countries was confirmed by DNA dot blot analysis. X. o. pv. oryzae was detected from the seed washes and DNA extracted from the seed washes of naturally infected seeds of cvs Jaya and TN1. When stored at 4 degrees C, the pathogen was recovered up to 4 months and 9 months from naturally infected seeds of cvs Jaya and TN1, respectively. The BLB bacterium was also detected in seedlings, mature plants and seeds collected from plants raised from naturally infected seeds.

  3. Extractive fermentation for improved production and recovery of lipase derived from Burkholderia cepacia using a thermoseparating polymer in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Chin Ping; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Ariff, Arbakariya; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Chen, Soo Kien; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2012-07-01

    An extractive fermentation technique was developed using a thermoseparating reagent to form a two-phase system for simultaneous cell cultivation and downstream processing of extracellular Burkholderia cepacia lipase. A 10% (w/w) solution of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with a molecular mass of 3900 g/mol and pH 8.5, a 200 rpm speed, and 30 °C were selected as the optimal conditions for lipase production (55 U/ml). Repetitive batch fermentation was performed by continuous replacement of the top phase every 24h, which resulted in an average cell growth mass of 4.7 g/L for 10 extractive batches over 240 h. In scaling-up the process, a bench-scale bioreactor was tested under the conditions that had been optimized in flasks. The production rate and recovery yield were higher in the bioreactor compared to fermentation performed in flasks.

  4. Lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus: Fermented Rice Straw Extracts Interferes with Methane Production and Gene Expression in Methanobrevibacter smithii

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Chin, James

    2013-01-01

    Lovastatin, a natural byproduct of some fungi, is able to inhibit HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl CoA) reductase. This is a key enzyme involved in isoprenoid synthesis and essential for cell membrane formation in methanogenic Archaea. In this paper, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that lovastatin secreted by Aspergillus terreus in fermented rice straw extracts (FRSE) can inhibit growth and CH4 production in Methanobrevibacter smithii (a test methanogen). By HPLC analysis, 75% of the total lovastatin in FRSE was in the active hydroxyacid form, and in vitro studies confirmed that this had a stronger effect in reducing both growth and CH4 production in M. smithii compared to commercial lovastatin. Transmission electron micrographs revealed distorted morphological divisions of lovastatin- and FRSE-treated M. smithii cells, supporting its role in blocking normal cell membrane synthesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that both commercial lovastatin and FRSE increased (P < 0.01) the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene (hmg). In addition, expressions of other gene transcripts in M. smithii. with a key involvement in methanogenesis were also affected. Experimental confirmation that CH4 production is inhibited by lovastatin in A. terreus-fermented rice straw paves the way for its evaluation as a feed additive for mitigating CH4 production in ruminants. PMID:23710454

  5. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity.

  6. Enhancement of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) aqueous extract and antioxidant yield with fungal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pengilly, Mia; Joubert, Elizabeth; van Zyl, Willem H; Botha, Alfred; Bloom, Marinda

    2008-06-11

    The leaves and stems of the Rooibos plant ( Aspalathus linearis) are used for the production of an herbal tea known for its health promoting properties, which have been linked to its flavonoid content but which is substantially reduced by the traditional processing method employed. Selected food-grade fungi were screened for their potential to improve the yield of soluble matter extracted from rooibos plant material. Fungal cocktails of hydrolyzing enzymes enhanced either the yield of soluble solids ( Lentinula edodes and Rhizopus oryzae cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) or the yield in antioxidants from fermented rooibos ( R. oryzae cultured in potato dextrose or yeast peptone-wheat straw medium). When applied to green rooibos, L. edodes (cultured in yeast peptone-wheat straw medium) enhanced the release of soluble solids as well as color formation, leading to semifermented rooibos with a relatively high aspalathin content, compared to fermented rooibos.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Rhizopus oryzae in response to xylose during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Wen, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    Xylose is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic components, but it cannot be used by R. oryzae for fumaric acid production. Here, we applied high-throughput RNA sequencing to generate two transcriptional maps of R. oryzae following fermentation in glucose or xylose. The differential expression analysis showed that, genes involved in amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis, were up-regulated in response to xylose. Moreover, we discovered the potential presence of oxidative stress in R. oryzae during xylose fermentation. To adapt to this unfavorable condition, R. oryzae displayed reduced growth and induce of a number of antioxidant enzymes, including genes involved in glutathione, trehalose synthesis, and the proteasomal pathway. These responses might divert the flow of carbon required for the accumulation of fumaric acid. Furthermore, using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we identified a large number of novel transcripts and a substantial number of genes that underwent alternative splicing. Our analysis provides remarkable insight into the mechanisms underlying xylose fermentation by R. oryzae. These results may reveal potential target genes or strategies to improve xylose fermentation.

  8. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  9. Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity.

  10. Avemar, a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract, induces apoptosis and inhibits ribonucleotide reductase in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Philipp; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Madlener, Sibylle; Bernhaus, Astrid; Lackner, Andreas; Grusch, Michael; Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Krupitza, Georg; Jaeger, Walter; Ammer, Kirsten; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas

    2007-06-08

    Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from various malignancies. We investigated its effects in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation, Avemar inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 400, 190, and 160 microg/ml, respectively. Incubation with MSC caused dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in up to 85% of tumor cells. In addition, Avemar attenuated the progression from G2-M to G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle and was also found to significantly reduce the in situ activity of ribonucleotide reductase, the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis. We conclude that Avemar exerts a number of beneficial effects which could support conventional chemotherapy of human malignancies.

  11. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  12. Enhanced Product Recovery from Glycerol Fermentation into 3-Carbon Compounds in a Bioelectrochemical System Combined with In Situ Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Roume, Hugo; Arends, Jan B. A.; Ameril, Camar P.; Patil, Sunil A.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-01-01

    Given the large amount of crude glycerol formed as a by-product in the biodiesel industries and the concomitant decrease in its overall market price, there is a need to add extra value to this biorefinery side stream. Upgrading can be achieved by new biotechnologies dealing with recovery and conversion of glycerol present in wastewaters into value-added products, aiming at a zero-waste policy and developing an economically viable process. In microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), the mixed microbial community growing on the cathode can convert glycerol reductively to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO). However, the product yield is rather limited in BESs compared with classic fermentation processes, and the synthesis of side-products, resulting from oxidation of glycerol, such as organic acids, represents a major burden for recovery of 1,3-PDO. Here, we show that the use of an enriched mixed-microbial community of glycerol degraders and in situ extraction of organic acids positively impacts 1,3-PDO yield and allows additional recovery of propionate from glycerol. We report the highest production yield achieved (0.72 mol1,3-PDO mol−1glycerol) in electricity-driven 1,3-PDO biosynthesis from raw glycerol, which is very close to the 1,3-PDO yield reported thus far for a mixed-microbial culture-based glycerol fermentation process. We also present a combined approach for 1,3-PDO production and propionate extraction in a single three chamber reactor system, which leads to recovery of additional 3-carbon compounds in BESs. This opens up further opportunities for an economical upgrading of biodiesel refinery side or waste streams. PMID:27725929

  13. The cardioprotective effect of an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on cultured cardiomyocytes derived from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dludla, P V; Muller, C J F; Louw, J; Joubert, E; Salie, R; Opoku, A R; Johnson, R

    2014-04-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disorder of the heart muscle that contributes to cardiovascular deaths in the diabetic population. Excessive generation of free radicals has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of DCM. The use of antioxidants, through dietary supplementation, to combat increased cellular oxidative stress has gained popularity worldwide. Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) is a popular herbal tea that contains a novel antioxidant, aspalathin. Literature has reported on the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects of rooibos. However, its protective effect against DCM has not been established. Therefore, this study investigated whether chronic exposure to an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos (FRE) has an ex vivo cardioprotective effect on hearts obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Adult Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg of STZ. Two weeks after STZ injection, cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured. Cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with FRE (1 and 10 μg/ml), vitamin E (50 μg/ml), and n-acetyl cysteine (1mM) for 6h, before exposure to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or an ischemic solution. Cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2 or an ischemic solution showed a decrease in metabolic activity and glutathione content with a concomitant increase in apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Pretreatment with FRE was able to combat these effects and the observed amelioration was better than the known antioxidant vitamin E. This study provides evidence that an aqueous extract of fermented rooibos protects cardiomyocytes, derived from diabetic rats, against experimentally induced oxidative stress and ischemia.

  14. Enhancing enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of sugarcane bagasse by synergistic pretreatment of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A study on the synergistic pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using Fenton reaction and NaOH extraction was conducted. The optimized process conditions for Fenton pretreatment were 10% (w/w) of H2O2, 20mM of Fe(2+), pH 2.5, pretreatment time 6h, and pretreatment temperature 55°C. Sequential pretreatments were performed in combination with NaOH extraction (NaOH 1% (w/w), 80°C, 5% of solid loading, 1h). Among all the pretreatments, Fenton pretreatment followed by NaOH extraction had the highest efficiency of 64.7% and 108.3% for enzymolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) with an ethanol concentration of 17.44g/L. The analyses by the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Fenton pretreatment disrupts the structure of SCB to facilitate the degradation of lignin by NaOH. The overall data suggest that this combinatorial strategy is a promising process for SCB pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  16. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  17. Antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts and their gut fermentation products in the human colon carcinoma cell line caco-2.

    PubMed

    Bellion, Phillip; Hofmann, Thomas; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Knaup, Bastian; Richling, Elke; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2008-08-13

    Apples represent a major dietary source of antioxidative polyphenols. Their metabolic conversion by the gut microflora might generate products that protect the intestine against oxidative damage. We studied the antioxidant effectiveness of supernatants of fermented apple juice extracts (F-AEs, 6 and 24 h fermentation) and of selected phenolic degradation products, identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Cell free antioxidant capacity of unfermented apple juice extracts (AEs) was decreased after fermentation by 30-50%. In the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, F-AEs (containing <0.5% of original AE-phenolics) decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level more efficiently than the F-blank (fermented without AE) but were less effective than the respective AEs. Similarly, antioxidant effectiveness of individual degradation products was lower compared to respective AE constituents. Glutathione level was slightly increased and oxidative DNA damage slightly decreased by fermented AE03, rich in quercetin glycosides. In conclusion, F-AEs/degradation products exhibit antioxidant activity in colon cells but to a lesser extent than the respective unfermented AEs/constituents.

  18. Growth kinetics and physiological behavior of co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, fermenting carob sugars extracted with whey.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E; Constantino, A; Raposo, S; Felizardo, C; Gonçalves, D; Fernandes, T; Dionísio, L; Peinado, J M

    2016-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of carob waste sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) extracted with cheese whey, by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis has been analyzed. Growth and fermentation of S. cerevisiae in the carob-whey medium showed an inhibition of about 30% in comparison with water-extracted carob. The inhibition of K. lactis on carob-whey was greater (70%) when compared with the whey medium alone, due to osmolarity problems. Oxygen availability was a very important factor for K. lactis, influencing its fermentation performance. When K. lactis was grown alone on carob-whey medium, lactose was always consumed first, and glucose and fructose were consumed afterwards, only at high aeration conditions. In co-culture with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis was completely inhibited and, at low aeration, died after 3 days; at high aeration this culture could survive but growth and lactose fermentation were only recovered after S. cerevisiae became stationary. To overcome the osmolarity and K. lactis' oxygen problems, the medium had to be diluted and a sequential fermentative process was designed in a STR-3l reactor. K. lactis was inoculated first and, with low aeration (0.13vvm), consumed all the lactose in 48h. Then S. cerevisiae was inoculated, consuming the total of the carob sugars, and producing ethanol in a fed-batch regime. The established co-culture with K. lactis increased S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerance. This fermentation process produced ethanol with good efficiency (80g/l final concentration and a conversion factor of 0.4g ethanol/g sugar), eliminating all the sugars of the mixed waste. These efficient fermentative results pointed to a new joint treatment of agro-industrial wastes which may be implemented successfully, with economic and environmental sustainability for a bioethanol industrial proposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-pressure assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from industrial fermented fig by-product.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Elisabete M C; Araújo, Paula; Duarte, Maria F; de Freitas, Victor; Pintado, Manuela; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2017-07-01

    High-pressure assisted extraction was employed to obtain fig by-product derived extracts and its impact was evaluated on antioxidant activity and total phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid. A Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of pressure, extraction time and ethanol concentration on extractions and optimal conditions were estimated by response surface methodology. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the high pressure extraction of compounds. Only the models developed for total antioxidant activity by DPPH (·) and for total flavonoids presented coefficient determinations lower than 0.95. From response surface plots, pressure, extraction time and ethanol concentration showed independent and interactive effects. The optimal conditions included 600 MPa, an extraction time between 18 and 29 min, depending on the parameter analyzed and a low ethanol concentration (<15%) except for flavonoids (48%). High pressure led to an increase of 8-13% of antioxidant activity and an increase of 8-11% of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content when compared to extracts performed at 0.1 MPa. Analysis of variance indicated a high goodness of fit of the models used and the adequacy of response surface methodology for optimizing high pressure extraction.

  20. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.

    PubMed

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dorado, Maria Pilar; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-05-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement.

  1. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Fermented blueberry juice extract and its specific fractions have an anti-adipogenic effect in 3 T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villavicencio, Mayra L; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Matar, Chantal; Alarcón Aguilar, Francisco J; Escobar Villanueva, Maria Del Carmen; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-01-06

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic status worldwide. Wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is a plant of the North American Aboriginal traditional pharmacopeia with antidiabetic potential, especially when it is fermented with Serratia vaccinii. A phytochemical fractionation scheme was used to identify potential bioactive compounds as confirmed by HPLC retention times and UV-Vis spectra. 3 T3-L1 cells were differentiated for 7 days with either Normal Blueberry Extract (NBE), Fermented Blueberry Extract (FBE/F1), seven fractions and four pure compounds. Triglyceride content was measured. Examination of selected intracellular signalling components (p-Akt, p-AMPK) and transcriptional factors (SREBP-1c and PPARγ) was carried out by Western blot analysis. The inhibitory effect of FBE/F1 on adipocyte triglyceride accumulation was attributed to total phenolic (F2) and chlorogenic acid enriched (F3-2) fractions that both inhibited by 75%. Pure compounds catechol (CAT) and chlorogenic acid (CA) also inhibited adipogenesis by 70%. Treatment with NBE, F1, F3-2, CAT and CA decreased p-AKT, whereas p-AMPK tended to increase with F1. The expression of SREBP1-c was not significantly modulated. In contrast, PPARγ decreased in all experimental groups that inhibited adipogenesis. These results demonstrate that fermented blueberry extract contains compounds with anti-adipogenic activity, which can serve to standardize nutraceutical preparations from fermented blueberry juice and to develop novel compounds with anti-obesity properties.

  3. The anti-obesity effect of fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayan; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying; Shi, Lani; Xu, Tian; Wu, Fei

    2017-03-22

    Fermented cereals have significant potential for improving the nutritional quality and health effects of foods and ingredients. In the present study, aqueous extracts of fermented barley with either Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated for their anti-adipogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of fermented barley with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) significantly prevented body weight gain and fat mass increase, and improved lipid profiles and glucose tolerance in high fat diet-induced obese male rats. In contrast, an aqueous extract of fermented barley with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SFBE) had no significant anti-obesity effects. In addition, LFBE effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, but only a high dose of SFBE had similar effects. Phenolic acids (mainly vanillic acid and ferulic acid) and β-glucan in LFBE were responsible for the lipid accumulating actions and may be considered as primary anti-obesity mediators. The results showed that LFBE has more significant anti-obesity effects than SFBE. LFBE has the potential to prevent obesity and its related metabolic diseases.

  4. Anti-Amnesic Effect of Fermented Ganoderma lucidum Water Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu Jin; Yang, Hee Sun; Jo, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Cheon; Park, Tae Young; Choi, Bong Suk; Seo, Kyoung Sun; Huh, Chang Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-amnesic effect of fermented Ganoderma lucidum water extracts (GW) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. GW were fermented by the lactic acid bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (FGWB), followed by Lactobacillus sakei LI033 (FGWBL). To induce amnesia, scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats 30 min before the behavioral tests. Step-through latencies of rats treated with primary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWB) and secondary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWBL) were significantly longer than those of rats treated with GW (300 mg/kg) in the retention trial of the multiple trial passive avoidance test. In the Morris water maze task, FGWBL significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials. Furthermore, swimming times within the target zone during the probe trial with FGWBL were significantly higher than the GW and FGWB treatments. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activities were lower in the brains of scopolamine-treated rats treated with FGWBL. These results suggest that FGWBL could be useful to enhance learning memory and cognitive function via cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:26176000

  5. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, RHE: rice hull extract, ROS: reactive oxygen species, TNF

  6. Oryza sativa (Rice) Hull Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, and Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Keun; Sung, Jeehye; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Yoonsook

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. The release of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, rice hull extract attenuated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusion: This suggests that rice hull extract decreases the production of inflammatory mediators by downregulating ERK and JNK and the NF-κB signal pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. SUMMARY Rice hull extract inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages.Rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively.Rice hull extract exerted anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.Rice hull extract may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Abbreviations used: COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, ERK: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, IκB: inhibitory kappa B, IL-1β: interleukin-1β, iNOS: inducible NO synthase, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, MAPKs: mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB, NO: nitric oxide, PGE2: prostaglandin

  7. Electrolytic extraction drives volatile fatty acid chain elongation through lactic acid and replaces chemical pH control in thin stillage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Candry, Pieter; Basadre, Thais; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are building blocks for the chemical industry. Sustainable, biological production is constrained by production and recovery costs, including the need for intensive pH correction. Membrane electrolysis has been developed as an in situ extraction technology tailored to the direct recovery of VFA from fermentation while stabilizing acidogenesis without caustic addition. A current applied across an anion exchange membrane reduces the fermentation broth (catholyte, water reduction: H2O + e(-) → ½ H2 + OH(-)) and drives carboxylate ions into a clean, concentrated VFA stream (anolyte, water oxidation: H2O → 2e(-) + 2 H(+) + O2). In this study, we fermented thin stillage to generate a mixed VFA extract without chemical pH control. Membrane electrolysis (0.1 A, 3.22 ± 0.60 V) extracted 28 ± 6 % of carboxylates generated per day (on a carbon basis) and completely replaced caustic control of pH, with no impact on the total carboxylate production amount or rate. Hydrogen generated from the applied current shifted the fermentation outcome from predominantly C2 and C3 VFA (64 ± 3 % of the total VFA present in the control) to majority of C4 to C6 (70 ± 12 % in the experiment), with identical proportions in the VFA acid extract. A strain related to Megasphaera elsdenii (maximum abundance of 57 %), a bacteria capable of producing mid-chain VFA at a high rate, was enriched by the applied current, alongside a stable community of Lactobacillus spp. (10 %), enabling chain elongation of VFA through lactic acid. A conversion of 30 ± 5 % VFA produced per sCOD fed (60 ± 10 % of the reactive fraction) was achieved, with a 50 ± 6 % reduction in suspended solids likely by electro-coagulation. VFA can be extracted directly from a fermentation broth by membrane electrolysis. The electrolytic water reduction products are utilized in the fermentation: OH(-) is used for pH control without added chemicals, and H2 is

  8. Protective effects of fermented Citrus unshiu peel extract against ultraviolet-A-induced photoageing in human dermal fibrobolasts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jun Tae; Ko, Hyun Ju; Kim, Gyoung Bum; Pyo, Hyeong Bae; Lee, Geun Soo

    2012-12-01

    The aqueous extracts of Citrus unshiu peel containing flavonoid glycosides was used as co-substrate with Schizophyllum commune mycelia producing β-glucosidase and its biological activities were studied. β-glucosidase-produced S. commune mycelia converted the glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) into aglycones (naringenin and hesperetin). The photoprotective potential of fermented C. unshiu peel extract with S. commune (S-CPE) was tested in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) exposed to UVA. It was revealed that S-CPE had an inhibitory effect on human interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1) expression in UVA-irradiated HDFs. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with S-CPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the expression level of MMP-1 mRNA. The UVA irradiation raised the proportion of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) positive cells in comparison with the normal control group. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with S-CPE was shown to decrease the level of SA-β-gal (by approximately 45% at an S-CPE concentration 0.1%, w/v) compared with the UVA-irradiated HDFs. It was found that S-CPE containing hesperetin has notable collagen biosynthetic activity for fibroblasts, indicating that S-CPE can be promising cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Purification of coenzyme Q10 from fermentation extract: high-speed counter-current chromatography versus silica gel column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue-Li; Xu, Ya-Tao; Zhang, Guang-Ming; Xie, Sheng-Meng; Dong, Ying-Mao; Ito, Yoichiro

    2006-09-15

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) is applied to the purification of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) for the first time. CoQ(10) was obtained from a fermentation broth extract. A non-aqueous two-phase solvent system composed of heptane-acetonitrile-dichloromethane (12:7:3.5, v/v/v) was selected by analytical HSCCC and used for purification of CoQ(10) from 500 mg of the crude extract. The separation yielded 130 mg of CoQ(10) at an HPLC purity of over 99%. The overall results of the present studies show the advantages of HSCCC over an alternative of silica gel chromatography followed by recrystallization. These advantages extend to higher purity (97.8% versus 93.3%), recovery (88% versus 74.3%) and yield (26.4% versus 23.4%). An effort to avoid the toxic, expensive solvent CH(2)Cl(2) was unsuccessful, but at least its percentage is low in the solvent system.

  10. Purification and characterization of rice alpha-glucosidase, a key enzyme for alcohol fermentation of rice polish.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Aramaki, Isao

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase, a key enzyme for nuka-sake brewing, was purified from Oryza sativa cv. Yamadanishiki, which is widely used for sake brewing. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 95 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The substrate specificity differed from that of Oryza sativa cv. Shinsetsu, which is a variety of rice consumed as a cereal. The extraction of alpha-glucosidase from the rice was stimulated by lactic acid, which suggests that lactic acid plays an important role not only in preventing bacterial contamination, but also in stimulating the parallel fermentation that occurs in nuka-sake brewing.

  11. Effects of quebracho tannin extract on rumen fermentation and yield and composition of microbial mass in heifers.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, U; Ahnert, S; Susenbeth, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of incremental quebracho tannin extract (QTE) infusions on rumen fermentation and yield and composition of microbial mass, a study was conducted that consisted of 1 control period (Control I) without QTE dosing; 4 periods when all animals received 1, 2, 4, or 6% QTE of the diet (DM basis); and a second control period (Control II). Each period consisted of 9 d of adaptation, 6 d of urine collection, and 1 d of rumen sampling. Three rumen-fistulated heifers (495 kg BW [SE 14]) were offered 2.6 kg/d grass hay, 2.6 kg/d concentrates, and 60 g/d mineral-vitamin premix (as fed) in 2 equal meals. Half the daily QTE dosage was intraruminally administered at every meal. Urine and rumen fluids were analyzed for purine derivatives and short-chain fatty acids, respectively. Nitrogen and purine base (PB) concentrations were determined in liquid-associated microbes in rumen fluid (LAMF), liquid-associated microbes in the solid phase (LAMS), and particle-associated microbes (PAM). Increasing QTE dosages linearly increased propionate and butyrate proportions in rumen fluid ( = 0.37, = 0.004 and = 0.51, < 0.001, respectively). Instead, proportions of acetate ( = 0.75, < 0.001), isobutyrate ( = 0.66, < 0.001), and isovalerate ( = 0.49, < 0.001) and urinary purine derivatives excretions ( = 0.66, < 0.001) linearly decreased with increasing QTE infusions. Inconsistent differences were observed for LAMF, but concentrations of PB in LAMS ( ≤ 0.018) and of N in PAM ( < 0.001) were greater at 6% QTE than at Control I, II, and 1% QTE. Hence, low to moderate QTE dosages hamper rumen fermentation and microbial biomass yields. Alongside the nutritional consequences for the host, the methodological implications of these effects should be considered in studies evaluating the targeted use of tannins in ruminant feeding.

  12. Regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract on the intestinal microflora and lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Yen-Jung; Lu, Yan-Ying; Han, Yi-Chun; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the use of fermented plant products to protect against various metabolic syndromes has been increasing enormously. The objective of this study was to check the regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract (FPE) on intestinal microflora, lipid profile, and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Forty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (cholesterol 180-220 mg/dL) were recruited and assigned to two groups: experimental or placebo. Volunteers were requested to drink either 60 mL of FPE or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were done in the initial, 4(th), 8(th), and 10(th) weeks. The anthropometric parameters such as body weight, body fat, and body mass index were markedly lowered (p<0.05) on FPE intervention participants. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolics in plasma were considerably increased along with a reduction (p<0.05) in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) after FPE supplementation. Participants who drank FPE showed a pronounced increase (p<0.05) in the number of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., whereas the number of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (p<0.05) were concomitantly reduced. Furthermore, the lag time of LDL oxidation was substantially ameliorated in FPE-administered group, thus indicating its antioxidative and cardioprotective properties. Treatment with FPE substantially improved the intestinal microflora and thereby positively regulated various physiological functions by lowering the anthropometric parameters, TC, and LDL-c, and remarkably elevated the antioxidant capacity and lag time of LDL oxidation. Therefore, we recommended FPE beverage for combating hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The effectiveness of fermented wheat germ extract as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yeend, Tracey; Robinson, Kai; Lockwood, Craig; McArthur, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to synthesise the best available evidence on effectiveness of fermented wheatgerm extract (Avemar) as an adjunct therapy to conventional cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapies, in the treatment of haematological and non-haematological cancers. Cancer is a public health issue with an incidence rate and prevalence that has wide societal implications and impacts. Data from The World Health Organisation (WHO) indicate that cancer is a leading cause of death and accounts for about 13% of all deaths. The WHO estimate that this number will more than double within the next 18 years, with diagnosis of cancer of the lung, liver, stomach, breast and colon all expected to rise in conjunction with growth of middle class societies, increasing affluence and changes in lifestyle that are associated with rising socioeconomic status.Large amounts of money are invested annually in cancer research and new diagnostic methods and treatments are rapidly evolving. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain the forefront interventions and are all linked to improved prognostic outcomes. The improvement in outcomes can however, be limited by the type cancer, its stage, the location of the cancer, the treatment implemented and timing and continuity of treatment. The treatments can also have a range of ramifications and debilitating side effects. These include: hair loss, depleted immune system, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. As a result, for some patients, treatment may raise as many concerns as the diagnosis. Rarely, until faced with a diagnosis of cancer, does a person recognise the seriousness of the disease or consider the impact and experience of treatment interventions. The high level of cancer awareness across society is a reflection of the significance of the associated burden of disease associated with cancer diagnosis, cancer care and the social impact on families when a diagnosis is made.The prevalence

  14. Isolation and Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes from Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Skory, Christopher D.

    2000-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is used for industrial production of lactic acid, yet little is known about the genetics of this fungus. In this study I cloned two genes, ldhA and ldhB, which code for NAD+-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) (EC 1.1.1.27), from a lactic acid-producing strain of R. oryzae. These genes are similar to each other and exhibit more than 90% nucleotide sequence identity and they contain no introns. This is the first description of ldh genes in a fungus, and sequence comparisons revealed that these genes are distinct from previously isolated prokaryotic and eukaryotic ldh genes. Protein sequencing of the LDH isolated from R. oryzae during lactic acid production confirmed that ldhA codes for a 36-kDa protein that converts pyruvate to lactate. Production of LdhA was greatest when glucose was the carbon source, followed by xylose and trehalose; all of these sugars could be fermented to lactic acid. Transcripts from ldhB were not detected when R. oryzae was grown on any of these sugars but were present when R. oryzae was grown on glycerol, ethanol, and lactate. I hypothesize that ldhB encodes a second NAD+-dependent LDH that is capable of converting l-lactate to pyruvate and is produced by cultures grown on these nonfermentable substrates. Both ldhA and ldhB restored fermentative growth to Escherichia coli (ldhA pfl) mutants so that they grew anaerobically and produced lactic acid. PMID:10831409

  15. Wheat bran extract alters colonic fermentation and microbial composition, but does not affect faecal water toxicity: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Huys, Geert; Broekaert, Willem F; Delcour, Jan A; Louat, Thierry; Herman, Jean; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-28

    Wheat bran extract (WBE), containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides that are potential prebiotic substrates, has been shown to modify bacterial colonic fermentation in human subjects and to beneficially affect the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. However, it is unclear whether these changes in fermentation are able to reduce the risk of developing CRC in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of WBE on the markers of CRC risk in healthy volunteers, and to correlate these effects with colonic fermentation. A total of twenty healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, cross-over, randomised, controlled trial in which the subjects ingested WBE (10 g/d) or placebo (maltodextrin, 10 g/d) for 3 weeks, separated by a 3-week washout period. At the end of each study period, colonic handling of NH3 was evaluated using the biomarker lactose[15N, 15N']ureide, colonic fermentation was characterised through a metabolomics approach, and the predominant microbial composition was analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. As markers of CRC risk, faecal water genotoxicity was determined using the comet assay and faecal water cytotoxicity using a colorimetric cell viability assay. Intake of WBE induced a shift from urinary to faecal 15N excretion, indicating a stimulation of colonic bacterial activity and/or growth. Microbial analysis revealed a selective stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In addition, WBE altered the colonic fermentation pattern and significantly reduced colonic protein fermentation compared with the run-in period. However, faecal water cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were not affected. Although intake of WBE clearly affected colonic fermentation and changed the composition of the microbiota, these changes were not associated with the changes in the markers of CRC risk.

  16. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongjun; Williams, Daniel L; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Li, Muyang; Hahn, Michael G; Hodge, David B

    2014-04-03

    A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. This work demonstrates that this two-stage pretreatment process is well suited for

  17. Validation of a GC-FID method for rapid quantification of nicotine in fermented extracts prepared from Nicotiana tabacum fresh leaves and studies of nicotine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Millet, Agnès; Stintzing, Florian; Merfort, Irmgard

    2009-07-12

    A new GC-FID method, which allows rapid and reliable quantitation of nicotine in tobacco leaf extracts, was developed and validated. To avoid nicotine adsorption on the column, an amine-deactivated capillary column was used. The method developed was applied to study the degradation of nicotine in a fermented aqueous extract, and a loss of nearly 20% of nicotine over 12 months was observed. Careful inspection of GC-MS runs from concentrated samples of the same extract revealed the presence of nicotine metabolites such as nornicotine, anatabine, myosmine, 2,3'-bipyridyl, and 2-pyrrolidinone.

  18. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  19. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 107 spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40 mL of water to 100 g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200 kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5 min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  20. Effective extraction of elastase from Bacillus sp. fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; He, Guo-qing; Li, Jing-jun

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for extracting elastase produced by Bacillus sp. EL31410. The elastase and cell partition behavior in polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt systems was investigated. The suitable system for elastase extraction was PEG/KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4), in which elastase is mainly partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, while the cells remained in the other phase. The influence of defined system parameters (e.g. PEG molecular mass, pH, NaCl addition) on the partitioning behavior of elastase is described. The concentration of phase forming components, PEG and KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4), was optimized for elastase recovery by means of response surface methodology, and it was found that they greatly influenced extraction recovery. The optimal ATPS was 23.1% (w/w) PEG 2 000 and 11.7% (w/w) KH(2)PO(4)-K(2)HPO(4). The predicted recovery was about 89.5%, so this process is suggested to be a rapid and convenient method for elastase extraction.

  1. Effect of Fermented Red Ginseng Extract Enriched in Ginsenoside Rg3 on the Differentiation and Mineralization of Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Jin, Yan; Huq, Md. Amdadul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, red ginseng extract (RGE) was converted into high-content minor ginsenosides by fermenting with Bgp1 enzymes at 37°C for 5 days. Compared to the RGE, the minor ginsenoside contents were increased in fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE). Moreover, the amount of minor ginsenosides such as Rh1 (11%) and Rg2 (16%) was slightly augmented, while the level of Rg3 (33%) was significantly increased after bioconversion. Furthermore, we also examined and compared the effect of RGE and FRGE on the differentiation and mineralization of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Similarly, the level of mRNA expression of intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, type-1 collagen (Col-I) was also increased. Based on the comparison, it is clear that the FRGE has improved effects on bone formation and differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:25764149

  2. Comparative Genomics of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae: An Early View

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxins and is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus oryzae, on the other hand, has been used for centuries in Japan for the fermentation of food. The recently available whole genome sequences of Aspergillus flavus an...

  3. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fermented wheat germ extract with lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on HT-29 cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Yan; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying; Wu, Jing; Yao, Fang; Zhou, Xing-Hua

    2015-03-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activities of aqueous extract of fermented wheat germ with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFWGE). The anticarcinogenic activities, including antiproliferative effects and the induction of apoptosis, were studied in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. The 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone and total phenol contents in LFWGE were determined by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, some functional proteins were separated and purified by gel filtration chromatography. There were 21 proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. The sugars isolated from LFWGE did not possess any anticarcinogenic activity. The results of an MTT assay showed high antiproliferative effects of LFWGE. In addition, LFWGE attenuated the progression from the G0-G1 to the G2-M phase of the cell cycle, and LFWGE-induced cell apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-3. LFWGE and its major bioactive ingredients inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells via apoptosis and thus may be a potential anticarcinogenic agent.

  5. Fermented wheat germ extract induced cell death and enhanced cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching; Wang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Due; Chang, Yu-Jia; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to the difficulties of early diagnosis, curative treatments are not available for most patients. Palliative treatments such as chemotherapy are often associated with low response rate, strong adverse effects and limited clinical benefits for patients. The alternative approaches such as fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) with anti-tumor efficacy may provide improvements in the clinical outcome of current therapy for HCC. This study aimed to clarify antitumor efficacy of FWGE and the combination drug effect of FWGE with chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) in human HCC cells, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5. The present study indicated that FWGE exhibited potential to suppress HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5 cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FWGE were 0.494, 0.371 and 1.524 mg/mL, respectively. FWGE also induced Poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) associated cell death in Hep3B cells. Moreover, the FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in all tested HCC cells, and cytotoxicity of 5-Fu in a synergistic manner in HepJ5 cells. Collectively, the results identified the anti-tumor efficacy of FWGE in HCC cells and suggested that FWGE can be used as a supplement to effectively improve the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and 5-Fu in HCC cells.

  6. Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Cho, Donghyun; Lee, Bum Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Choi, Jae Young; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure and accumulation of excess lipids in adipose tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea and its processed products (e.g., oolong and black tea) are introduced to exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Here, we propose that fermented green tea (FGT) extract, as a novel processed green tea, exhibits antiobesity effects. FGT reduced body weight gain and fat mass without modifying food intake. mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and inflammatory genes were downregulated in white adipose tissue of FGT-administered mice. FGT treatment alleviated glucose intolerance and fatty liver symptoms, common complications of obesity. Notably, FGT restored the changes in gut microbiota composition (e.g., the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides/Prevotella ratios), which is reported to be closely related with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, induced by high-fat diets. Collectively, FGT improves obesity and its associated symptoms and modulates composition of gut microbiota; thus, it could be used as a novel dietary component to control obesity and related symptoms.

  7. Effect of feeding tamarind kernel powder extract residue on digestibility, nitrogen availability and ruminal fermentation in wethers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Nakanishi, Takashi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kei; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was to examine in vivo digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation of tamarind (Tamarind indica) kernel powder extract residue (TKPER) compared to soybean products and by-products in wethers. Methods Four wethers with initial body weight (BW) of 51.6±5.5 kg were assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate nutritional characteristics of TKPER, dry heat soybean (SB), dry soybean curd residue (SBCR) and soybean meal (SBM) feeding with ryegrass straw (R) at a ratio of 1:1 at 2% of BW in dry matter (DM) on a daily basis. Results The digestibility of DM, crude protein, and ether extract (EE) of TKPER-R diet were 57.0%, 87.0%, and 86.0%, respectively. Higher non-fiber carbohydrates digestibility was observed in TKPER-R diet (83.2%) than in SB-R diet (73.9%, p<0.05). Wethers fed the TKPER-R diet had lower retention of nitrogen (N) and ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) contents at 4 h after feeding than those fed the SBM-R diet (p<0.05), which had values similar to the SB-R or SBCR-R diet. The TKPER feeding had higher propionate (C3) and lower butyrate content, as well as lower acetate to propionate ratio (C2:C3) in rumen fluid than SBM feeding at 4 h after feeding (p<0.05). Conclusion TKPER did not bring any side effect to the wethers although it was lack of fiber, and could be used as a high protein and energy ingredient in concentrate with appropriate roughage to meet the fiber requirement for ruminants. PMID:27221250

  8. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  9. Effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Ling, Wenhua; Wang, Qing; Liu, Chi; Hu, Yan; Xia, Min; Feng, Xiang; Xia, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of an anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Rats fed fructose diet for 4 weeks exhibited significantly higher plasma insulin levels and lower insulin sensitivity than the control rats fed AIN-93G diet. Dietary supplementation with the anthocyanin-rich extract (5 g/kg of high-fructose diet) prevented the development of fructose-induced insulin resistance. After fructose-induced insulin resistance had been established, 4-week treatment with the anthocyanin-rich extract (5 g/kg of high-fructose diet) or pioglitazone (270 mg/kg of high-fructose diet) ameliorated the glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, but the extract failed to reverse the fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia as pioglitazone did. In addition, rats supplemented by the extract exhibited lower oxidative stress than the fructose-fed controls, as indicated by the lower concentrations of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and blood oxidized glutathione. Overall, these results suggest that the anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice improves certain metabolic abnormalities associated with diets high in fructose.

  10. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  11. Immunoreactivity and amino acid content of fermented soybean products.

    PubMed

    Frias, Juana; Song, Young Soo; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; González de Mejia, Elvira; Vidal-Valverde, Concepcion

    2008-01-09

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the public and the food industry. The objective of this research was the detection and quantification of the major human allergenic soy proteins and to study the reduction in immunoreactivity and improvement of amino acid content after fermentation of soybean flour. Fermentation was carried out in the solid state of cracked seeds inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, and Bacillus subtilis and in the liquid state of milled soybean flours fermented naturally by microorganisms present only in the seeds or by inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum. ELISA and Western blot were used to quantify IgE antibody response, and HPLC was used to identify and quantify total amino acids. L. plantarum fermented soy flour showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity (96-99%) depending upon the sensitivity of the plasma used. Among the solid fermented products, the lowest reduction in immunoreactivity was obtained when mold strains, R. oryzae and A. oryzae, were used (66 and 68%, respectively, for human plasma 97.5 kUA/L). Among the solid fermented products, those inoculated with B. subtilis yielded a 81 and 86% reduction in immunoreactivity against both human plasma 97.5 IgE kUA/L and human pooled plasma samples, respectively. When soybean was subjected to liquid fermentation, most of the total amino acids increased significantly ( p < or = 0.05). In solid fermentation with R. oryzae, only Ala and Thr content improved. Fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity, and there is potential of developing nutritious hypoallergenic soy products.

  12. Selective bactericidal potential of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) hull extract on Microcystis strains in comparison with green algae and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Baik-Ho; Chung, Ill-Min; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2009-07-01

    We examined the selective inhibitory potential of rice hull extract on the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, in comparison with inhibitory effects on two green algae (Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a zooplankton (Daphnia magna) species. The inhibitory effect of rice hull extract, measured by algal growth or zooplankton survival using four different concentrations of extract (1, 10, 100 and 1000 microg L(-1)), was highest on Microcystis strains (average: 98%, range: 95%-99%), followed by D. magna (average: 22%, range: 10%-47%), A. convolutus (average: 20%, range: 16%-24%), and S. quadricauda (average: 8%, range: 0%-15%). Rice hull extract had only a small effect on the growth of the green algae and Daphnia, particularly in the range 1-100 microg L(-1), and the inhibitory effect was somewhat diminished even at the 1,000 microg L(-1) level, at the end of the experimental period, especially for Daphnia. Our study indicates that rice hull extract has a strong specific algicide potential when used to combat M. aeruginosa.

  13. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  14. Bioethanol fermentation by recombinant E. coli FBR5 and its robust mutant FBHW using hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate as substrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjun; Lin, Lu; Sun, Zhijie; Hu, Ruofei; Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Hemicellulose is a potential by-product currently under-utilized in the papermaking industry. It is a hetero-carbohydrate polymer. For hardwood hemicelluloses, D-xylose is the major component upon depolymerization. At SUNY-ESF, wood extracts were obtained by extracting sugar maple wood chips with hot water at an elevated temperature. The wood extracts were then concentrated and acid hydrolyzed. Ethanologenic bacteria, E. coli FBR5, had a good performance in pure xylose medium for ethanol production. However, FBR5 was strongly inhibited in dilute sulfuric acid hydrolyzate of hot-water wood extract. FBR5 was challenged by hot-water wood extract hydrolyzate in this study. After repeated strain adaptation, an improved strain: E. coli FBHW was obtained. Fermentation experiments indicated that FBHW was resistant to the toxicity of hydrolyzate in the fermentation media of concentrated hydrolyzate, and xylose was completely utilized by the strain to produce ethanol. FBHW was grown in the concentrated hydrolyzate without any detoxification treatment and has yielded 36.8g/L ethanol. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects on growth and oxidative stress status of rice plants (Oryza sativa) exposed to two extracts of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa).

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ana; Campos, Alexandre; Cameán, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria are considered emerging world threats, being responsible for the degradation of the aquatic ecosystems. Aphanizomenon ovalisporum produces the toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) being a concern in fresh water habitats. This work aims to increase our knowledge on the effects of this toxic cyanobacterium in plants by studying the alterations in growth parameters and oxidative stress status of rice (Oriza sativa) exposed to the cyanobacteria cell extracts containing CYN. Significant increases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were detected in the different experiments performed. The roots showed to be more sensitive than leaves regarding the enzyme activities. A reduction in the leaf tissue fresh weight was observed after 9 days of plant treatment suggesting a major physiological stress. The exposure of rice plants to a mixture of A. ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa cell extracts containing CYN and microcystins including microcystin-LR, resulted in a significant increase in the GST and GPx activities, suggesting a synergistic effect of both extracts. Together these results point out the negative effects of cyanotoxins on plant growth and oxidative status, induced by A. ovalisporum cell extracts, raising also concerns in the accumulation of CYN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  17. Gluten-Free Sources of Fermentable Extract: Effect of Temperature and Germination Time on Quality Attributes of Teff [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] Malt and Wort.

    PubMed

    Di Ghionno, Lidia; Marconi, Ombretta; Lee, Eung Gwan; Rice, Christopher J; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of a white teff variety called Witkop during malting by using different parameters (germination temperature and duration) and to identify the best malting program. Samples were evaluated for standard quality malt and wort attributes, pasting characteristics, β-glucan and arabinoxylan content, and sugar profile. It was concluded that malting teff at 24 °C for 6 days produced acceptable malt in terms of quality attributes and sugar profile for brewing. The main attributes were 80.4% extract, 80.9% fermentability, 1.53 mPa s viscosity, 7.4 EBC-U color, 129 mg/L FAN, and 72.1 g/L of total fermentable sugars. Statistical analysis showed that pasting characteristics of teff malt were negatively correlated with some malt quality attributes, such as extract and fermentability. Witkop teff appeared to be a promising raw material for malting and brewing. However, the small grain size may lead to difficulties in handling malting process, and a bespoke brewhouse plant should be developed for the production at industrial scale.

  18. Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is currently used as nutrition supplement for cancer patients. Limited recent data suggest antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects which were at least in part exerted by two quinones, 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzquinone as ingredients of FWGE. These activity data prompted us to further evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of FWGE alone or in combination with the commonly used cytotoxic drugs 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan in a broad spectrum of human tumor cell lines. We used the sulforhodamine B assay to determine dose response relationships and IC50-values were calculated using the Hill equation. Drug interaction of simultaneous and sequential drug exposure was estimated using the model of Drewinko and potential clinical activity was assessed by the model of relative antitumor activity (RAA). Apoptosis was detected by DNA gel electrophoresis. FWGE induced apoptosis and exerted significant antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of 32 human cancer cell lines. The highest activity was found in neuroblastoma cell lines with an average IC50 of 0.042 mg/ml. Furthermore, IC50-range was very narrow ranging from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.54 mg/ml in 8 colon cancer cell lines. At combination experiments in colon cancer cell lines when FWGE was simultaneously applied with either 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan we observed additive to synergistic drug interaction, particularly for 5-FU. At sequential drug exposure with 5-FU and FWGE the observed synergism was abolished. Taken together, FWGE exerts significant antitumor activity in our tumor model. Simultaneous drug exposure with FWGE and 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan yielded in additive to synergistic drug interaction. However, sequential drug exposure of 5-FU and FWGE in colon cancer cell lines appeared to be schedule-dependent (5-FU may precede FWGE). Further evaluation of FWGE as a candidate for clinical combination drug regimens appeared to be

  19. In vitro ruminal fermentation and in situ ruminal degradation of tamarind kernel powder extract residue in wethers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Sato, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Takashi; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kei; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    We examined the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of tamarind kernel powder extract residue (TKPER), a by-product of polysaccharides thickener processing. Two types of TKPER (I and II), of which the CP and neutral detergent fiber organic matter basis contents (%) were 41.4 and 42.0 and 1.4 and 0.5, respectively, were compared with dry heat soybean (SB), soybean meal (SBM) and dry soybean curd residue (SBCR). The TKPERs had significantly lower in vitro gas production compared to the other products at each observation time (P < 0.05). The in vitro DM and CP digestibility (%) of TKPER I and II were 67.7 and 64.9, and 64.5 and 58.0, respectively, significantly lower than those of SB and SBM (P < 0.05). We used four wethers (55.6 ± 4.6 kg) with ruminal cannulas to investigate the in situ degradability of TKPER I, SB, SBM and SBCR. At the ruminal outflow rate of 0.05/h, the effective degradability (%) values of the DM and CP of TKPER I were 64.1 and 49.7, respectively, which were similar to those of SBM. In conclusion, TKPER had high CP and exhibited in situ degradability similar to that of SBM, suggesting that TKPER could be used as a protein source feed. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Fermented Wheat Germ Extract Induced Cell Death and Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching; Wang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Due; Chang, Yu-Jia; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to the difficulties of early diagnosis, curative treatments are not available for most patients. Palliative treatments such as chemotherapy are often associated with low response rate, strong adverse effects and limited clinical benefits for patients. The alternative approaches such as fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) with anti-tumor efficacy may provide improvements in the clinical outcome of current therapy for HCC. This study aimed to clarify antitumor efficacy of FWGE and the combination drug effect of FWGE with chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) in human HCC cells, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5. The present study indicated that FWGE exhibited potential to suppress HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5 cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FWGE were 0.494, 0.371 and 1.524 mg/mL, respectively. FWGE also induced Poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) associated cell death in Hep3B cells. Moreover, the FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in all tested HCC cells, and cytotoxicity of 5-Fu in a synergistic manner in HepJ5 cells. Collectively, the results identified the anti-tumor efficacy of FWGE in HCC cells and suggested that FWGE can be used as a supplement to effectively improve the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and 5-Fu in HCC cells. PMID:24454483

  1. Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; Jordan, Karin; Voigt, Wieland

    2011-04-16

    Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is currently used as nutrition supplement for cancer patients. Limited recent data suggest antiproliferative, antimetastatic and immunological effects which were at least in part exerted by two quinones, 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2,6-dimethoxybenzquinone as ingredients of FWGE. These activity data prompted us to further evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of FWGE alone or in combination with the commonly used cytotoxic drugs 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan in a broad spectrum of human tumor cell lines. We used the sulforhodamine B assay to determine dose response relationships and IC50-values were calculated using the Hill equation. Drug interaction of simultaneous and sequential drug exposure was estimated using the model of Drewinko and potential clinical activity was assessed by the model of relative antitumor activity (RAA). Apoptosis was detected by DNA gel electrophoresis.FWGE induced apoptosis and exerted significant antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of 32 human cancer cell lines. The highest activity was found in neuroblastoma cell lines with an average IC50 of 0.042 mg/ml. Furthermore, IC50-range was very narrow ranging from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.54 mg/ml in 8 colon cancer cell lines. At combination experiments in colon cancer cell lines when FWGE was simultaneously applied with either 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan we observed additive to synergistic drug interaction, particularly for 5-FU. At sequential drug exposure with 5-FU and FWGE the observed synergism was abolished.Taken together, FWGE exerts significant antitumor activity in our tumor model. Simultaneous drug exposure with FWGE and 5-FU, oxaliplatin or irinotecan yielded in additive to synergistic drug interaction. However, sequential drug exposure of 5-FU and FWGE in colon cancer cell lines appeared to be schedule-dependent (5-FU may precede FWGE).Further evaluation of FWGE as a candidate for clinical combination drug regimens appeared to be

  2. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maas, Ronald H W; Bakker, Robert R; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2006-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure L(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the conversion of xylose in synthetic media into lactic acid by ten R. oryzae strains resulting in yields between 0.41 and 0.71 g g(-1). By-products were fungal biomass, xylitol, glycerol, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The growth of R. oryzae CBS 112.07 in media with initial xylose concentrations above 40 g l(-1) showed inhibition of substrate consumption and lactic acid production rates. In case of mixed substrates, diauxic growth was observed where consumption of glucose and xylose occurred subsequently. Sugar consumption rate and lactic acid production rate were significantly higher during glucose consumption phase compared to xylose consumption phase. Available xylose (10.3 g l(-1)) and glucose (19.2 g l(-1)) present in a mild-temperature alkaline treated wheat straw hydrolysate was converted subsequently by R. oryzae with rates of 2.2 g glucose l(-1) h(-1) and 0.5 g xylose l(-1) h(-1). This resulted mainly into the product lactic acid (6.8 g l(-1)) and ethanol (5.7 g l(-1)).

  4. Apoptosis induction in colon cancer cell lines and alteration of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon by purple rice (Oryza sativa L. var. glutinosa) extracts.

    PubMed

    Wongjaikam, Suwakon; Summart, Ratasak; Chewonarin, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of purple rice was fractionated to obtain hexane soluble (HSF) and ethyl acetate soluble fractions (EASF). Total antioxidant capacity was higher in CEE than the HSF and EASF. However, HSF exhibited strong antiproliferation and apoptosis induction against colon cancer cell lines, both p53 wild-type (RKO) and mutant (SW620) strains. Then, the CEE was used to determine the effects on the progression of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a preneoplastic lesion seen in colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected of 40 mg/kg body weight dimethylhydrazin (DMH) once weekly for 2 wk. After 2 wk, rats were orally administered ethanol extract at 100 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, for 4 wk. Rats fed with only the high dose of CEE had significantly decreased numbers of ACF per rat (45.56%) and crypt multiplicity (AC/focus) (16.67%) compared to rats that received DMH alone. The result also demonstrated that CEE induced apoptosis in colonic epithelium cells of rat received colon carcinogen as detected the increasing of caspase-3 activity. This finding could be concluded that purple rice extracts inhibited aberrant colonic epithelial cell progression via apoptosis induction.

  5. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  7. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  8. Determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol in truffle fermentation broth by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector/electron impact mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2008-07-15

    A novel method using solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (FID)/electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS) was developed for the determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol (androstenol), a steroidal compound belonging to the group of musk odorous 16-androstenes, in truffle fermentation broth. Comparison studies between FID and EIMS indicated two detectors gave similar quantitative results. The highest androstenol concentration of 123.5 ng/mL was detected in Tuber indicum fermentation broth, while no androstenol was found in Tuber aestivum fermentation broth. For the first time, this work confirmed the existence of androstenol in the truffle fermentation broth, which suggested truffle fermentation is a promising alternative for androstenol production on a large scale.

  9. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Teng; Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms.

  10. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms. PMID:27800004

  11. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5 g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7 g/L after 48 hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7 g/L, respectively, after 48 hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475 g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD.

  12. A toxic metabolite of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) petch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Davis, N D; Diener, U L

    1986-09-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated from dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) collected in Auburn and from hay shipped under refrigeration to Florida. Some of these samples were eaten by cattle and horses that subsequently developed lameness. Metabolites of N. oryzae were separated by thin layer chromatography and tested for toxicity. Only one metabolite was toxic. Metabolite A showed toxicity to brine shrimp with an LD50 = 500 micrograms/ml in 8 h. It also had an antibiotic effect on Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with a minimum inhibitory level of 10.1 micrograms/disc. As little as 435 micrograms of a crude methanolic extract of N. oryzae showed mild toxicity to chick embryos. The metabolite was not toxic to mice nor rats at the levels tested. Quantitative procedures developed for the determination of metabolite A showed that the maximum production occurred in yeast extract-sucrose liquid medium with an initial pH of 5-6, when incubated as a stationary culture for 28 days at 25 degrees C. It was concluded that metabolite A is a weak antibiotic rather than a mycotoxin, and was probably not associated with the symptoms of lameness observed in cattle and horses. The antibiotic is not one previously reported for N. oryzae.

  13. Simultaneous hydrolysis and co-fermentation of whey lactose with wheat for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiqiong; Parashar, Archana; Mason, Beth; Bressler, David C

    2016-12-01

    Whey permeate was used as a co-substrate to replace part of the wheat for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was achieved with β-galactosidase added at the onset of the fermentation to promote whey lactose hydrolysis. Aspergillus oryzae and Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidases were two enzymes selected and used in the co-fermentation of wheat and whey permeate for the comparison of their effectiveness on lactose hydrolysis. The possibility of co-fermentations in both STARGEN and jet cooking systems was investigated in 5L bioreactors. Ethanol yields from the co-fermentations of wheat and whey permeate were evaluated. It was found that A. oryzae β-galactosidase was more efficient for lactose hydrolysis during the co-fermentation and that whey permeate supplementation can contribute to ethanol yield in co-fermentations with wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  15. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  16. Dose-dependent effects of polyphenolic extracts from green tea, blue-berried honeysuckle, and chokeberry on rat caecal fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Frejnagel, Slawomir; Juskiewicz, Jerzy

    2011-06-01

    The physiological status of the colon or ceacum is known to be very important for the host organism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the influence of high doses of polyphenolic extracts from chokeberry (CH), blue-berried honeysuckle (H), and green tea (GT) on fermentation processes in the caecum and caecal parameters of rats fed casein diets. In a 4-week experiment, 35-day-old rats were fed diets containing 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 % of pure polyphenols. The greatest weight of digesta was recorded in rats fed 1.2 % of GT extract, and these animals were also characterised by having the lowest content of dry matter. Supplementation of diets with the extracts of interest caused a reduction in pH values and ammonia concentrations in caecal digesta in comparison to control animals. The results of a two-way analysis of variance indicated dose-dependent (except for 0.4 % supplementation) inhibition of enzymatic activity compared to control animals. Introduction of CH and H extracts significantly reduced the activity of β-glucuronidase compared to rats fed tea diets. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant decrease in volatile fatty acids concentration in rats fed diets supplemented with H and CH extracts in comparison to control and tea-fed rats. The obtained results showed that the extracts tested can distinctly influence caecal parameters and metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process.

  18. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from glycerol by Zobellella denitrificans MW1 via high-cell-density fed-batch fermentation and simplified solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammad H A; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-10-01

    Industrial production of biodegradable polyesters such as polyhydroxyalkanoates is hampered by high production costs, among which the costs for substrates and for downstream processing represent the main obstacles. Inexpensive fermentable raw materials such as crude glycerol, an abundant by-product of the biodiesel industry, have emerged to be promising carbon sources for industrial fermentations. In this study, Zobellella denitrificans MW1, a recently isolated bacterium, was used for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glycerol as the sole carbon source. Pilot-scale fermentations (42-liter scale) were conducted to scale up the high PHB accumulation capability of this strain. By fed-batch cultivation, at first a relatively high cell density (29.9 +/- 1.3 g/liter) was obtained during only a short fermentation period (24 h). However, the PHB content was relatively low (31.0% +/- 4.2% [wt/wt]). Afterwards, much higher concentrations of PHB (up to 54.3 +/- 7.9 g/liter) and higher cell densities (up to 81.2 +/- 2.5 g/liter) were obtained by further fed-batch optimization in the presence of 20 g/liter NaCl, with optimized feeding of glycerol and ammonia to support both cell growth and polymer accumulation over a period of 50 h. A high specific growth rate (0.422/h) and a short doubling time (1.64 h) were attained. The maximum PHB content obtained was 66.9% +/- 7.6% of cell dry weight, and the maximum polymer productivity and substrate yield coefficient were 1.09 +/- 0.16 g/liter/h and 0.25 +/- 0.04 g PHB/g glycerol, respectively. Furthermore, a simple organic solvent extraction process was employed for PHB recovery during downstream processing: self-flotation of cell debris after extraction of PHB with chloroform allowed a convenient separation of a clear PHB-solvent solution from the cells. Maximum PHB recovery (85.0% +/- 0.10% [wt/wt]) was reached after 72 h of extraction with chloroform at 30 degrees C, with a polymer purity of 98.3% +/- 1.3%.

  19. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species.

    PubMed

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  20. Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of alkaline phosphatase from Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 1483 using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Banik, R M

    2011-03-01

    A study was made to find out maximum partitioning of Bacillus licheniformis alkaline phosphatase in different ATPSs composed of different molecular weight of PEG X (X=2000, 4000, 6000) with salts (magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, sodium citrate) and polymers (dextran 40, dextran T500). Physicochemical factors such as effect of system pH, system temperature and production media were evaluated for partitioning of alkaline phosphatase. PEG 4000 [9.0% (w/v)] and dextran T500 [9.6% (w/v)] were selected as most suitable system components for alkaline phosphatase production by B. licheniformis based on greater partition coefficient (k=5.23). The two-phase system produced fewer enzymes than the homogeneous fermentation (control) in early stage of fermentation, but after 72 h the enzyme produced in the control system was less than that in the ATPS. Total alkaline phosphatase yield in ATPS fermentation was 3907.01 U/ml and in homogeneous fermentation 2856.50 U/ml.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae: Effects of overexpressing pyc and pepc genes on fumaric acid biosynthesis from glucose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid used as a food acidulant and in manufacturing synthetic resins, can be produced from glucose in fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. However, the fumaric acid yield is limited by the co-production of ethanol and other byproducts. To increase fumaric acid production, ove...

  2. Comparative study of multi-enzyme production from typical agro-industrial residues and ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude enzyme in fermentation with Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 for multi-enzyme complexes (MEC) production were comparatively studied. The results showed that orange peel and wheat bran were the best substrates for MEC production in SmF and SSF, respectively. After 72 h of cultivation under SmF, the maximal pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase activities reached 2610, 85, and 335 U/gds (units/gram dry substrate), respectively; while after 72 h of cultivation under SSF, these three enzymes' activities reached 966, 58, and 1004 U/gds, respectively. Effects of ultrasound on extraction of crude enzymes from SSF medium were determined, the maximal activities of pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase increased to 1.20, 1.48, and 1.30-fold, respectively. Apparent different mycelia growths of SSF and SmF were observed by scanning electron microscopy; and different isoforms of the crude enzyme extracts from SSF and SmF were presented by zymogram analysis.

  3. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  4. Effects of extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) and Yucca schidigera applied alone or in combination with monensin on rumen fermentation and microbial populations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, Nelmy; Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim

    2013-08-15

    β-Acids in hops (Humulus lupulus) and saponins in yucca (Yucca schidigera) have been found to possess antimicrobial properties similar to that of monensin and could be an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. The effects of monensin (MON) and ethanol extracts of hops (HE) and Y. schidigera (YE) alone and in combination with MON were assessed on ruminal microbial composition and fermentation in vitro of a barley-based diet. All treatments decreased (P < 0.05) CH4 production (per unit of dry matter), microbial protein (mg), and NH3 -N accumulation. All treatments reduced (P < 0.01) the acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio and molar proportions of butyrate, but increased (P < 0.01) those of propionate, whereas those of acetate decreased (P < 0.001) with addition of MON (10 µg mL(-1)) and combined with HE or YE. Methane produced per unit of true digested dry matter decreased (P < 0.001) with all treatments except YE. Monensin reduced (P < 0.001) proportions of 16S rRNA copies of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, but increased (P < 0.01) those of Selenomonas ruminantium. Hops extract alone or combined with MON reduced (P < 0.01) proportions of R. flavefaciens but combined with MON tended (P < 0.1) to increase those of S. ruminantium. Yucca extract combined with MON increased (P < 0.01) the proportions of R. flavefaciens and S. ruminantium. All treatments except MON (2.5 µg mL(-1)) reduced (P < 0.01) the relative abundance of methanogens. Hops extract and YE altered rumen microbes and fermentation in a manner similar to MON with many responses being additive when applied in combination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  6. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  7. Thermophile-fermented compost extract as a possible feed additive to enhance fecundity in the laying hen and pig: Modulation of gut metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Udagawa, Motoaki; Shinmyo, Toshihito; Mori, Kenichi; Ogawa, Kazuo; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we reported that the oral administration of an extract of compost fermented with marine animal resources and thermophilic Bacillus species should confer health benefits in fish, pigs and rodents. Herein, the relations between fecundity and gut metabolites in laying hens and pigs on farms after oral exposure to compost were investigated. On the hen farms, the egg production of hens continuously administered the extract was maintained at significantly higher levels compared with the hens not administered the extract. On the swine farms, after the compost treatment, the shipping dates of fattening pigs were shortened, with an improvement in the death rate of the pigs. When the levels of fecal organic acids, such as short-chain fatty acids, lactate, and ammonium, as indicators of gut metabolism and energy sources for peripheral tissues, were examined, the levels of the acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the feces of the hens and pigs in the compost-treated group were not always different from those in the untreated control group. However, the levels of lactate were consistently low in the feces of both animals after the compost treatment. The fecal ammonium concentrations in old hens (age 597-672 days) and 2-month-old piglets from the compost-fed mother sows were low when compared with the untreated groups. The concentrations of free organic acids and their related compounds in the animal products (eggs and pig loins) were nearly equal to those in the untreated control products. Thus, the oral administration of the thermophile-fermented compost should improve the fecundity of hens and pigs by modifying their gut metabolism.

  8. Extracellular superoxide anion production contributes to the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Pang, Xinyue; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Minquan; Li, Hongyu

    2009-02-01

    Endogenous superoxide anion production was determined by electron spin resonance in wild-type strains and avrXa7 mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The localization of superoxide anion was carried out in the intra- and extra-cellular fractions. Results showed the presence of superoxide anion in multi-locations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae cells. The extracellular fraction was the major location of superoxide anion production. Furthermore, a positive relationship was shown between the levels of endogenous superoxide anion and the virulence of strains. These indubitable results suggested that the superoxide anion contributes to the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  9. Concentration, partial characterization, and immobilization of lipase extract from P. brevicompactum by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Di Luccio, Marco; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2011-07-01

    One relevant limitation hindering the industrial application of microbial lipases has been attributed to their production cost, which is determined by the production yield, enzyme stability among other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration and immobilization of lipase extracts from Penicillium brevicompactum obtained by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake. The precipitation with ammonium sulfate 60% of saturation of crude extract obtained with babassu cake as raw material showed an enhancement in hydrolytic and esterification activities from 31.82 to 227.57 U/g and from 170.92 to 207.40 U/g, respectively. Concentrated lipase extracts showed preference to medium-chain triglycerides and fatty acids. It is shown that the enzyme activity is maintained during storage at low temperatures (4 and -10°C) for up to 30 days. Higher esterification activities were achieved when the lipase extract was immobilized in sodium alginate and activated coal.

  10. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Boll, Elin V Johansson; Ekström, Linda M N K; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Nilsson, Anne C; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-06-01

    Specific combinations of dietary fiber (DF) have been observed to result in improved glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are considered as DF with prebiotic potential, but so far no studies have investigated their metabolic effects in humans. This randomized cross-over study evaluated the overnight impact of breads containing AXOS-rich wheat bran extract and resistant starch (RS, Hi-Maize), separately or combined, on glucose tolerance, related metabolic parameters and markers of gut fermentation in healthy subjects. Evening reference and test products were: (1) reference white wheat flour bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with (2) AXOS and RS (WWB + AXOS + RS), (3) an increased content of either AXOS (WWB + hiAXOS) or (4) RS (WWB + hiRS). At the subsequent standardized breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h to monitor glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2. Breath hydrogen (H2) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured as markers of gut fermentation, and subjective appetite was rated using visual analog scales. Dose-dependent decreases in glucose responses were observed with increased AXOS over the duration of 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index was improved in the morning after the WWB + hiAXOS evening meal. An increase in breath H2 concentration and circulating SCFA was observed in the morning after both evening meals containing AXOS. The present study indicates that AXOS have the potential of improving glucose tolerance in an overnight perspective and suggested mechanisms are improved insulin sensitivity and increased gut fermentation.

  11. Fermentation of purple Jerusalem artichoke extract to improve the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro and ameliorate blood glucose in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sun Youb

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db). MATERIALS/METHODS The water extract of PJA was fermented by L. plantarum, and two strains of Bacillus subtilis to compare their anti-α-glucosidase activities in vitro by α-glucosidase assays. The anti-diabetes effect of LJA was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db) for seven weeks. During the experiment, food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. At the end of the treatment period, several diabetic parameters and the intestinal α-glucosidase activity were measured. RESULTS The LJA showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, it resulted in a significantly lower blood glucose concentration than the control. Serum insulin and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher and the concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol were significant lower in mice treated with LJA after seven weeks. In addition, the intestinal α-glucosidase activity was partially inhibited. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that LJA regulates blood glucose and has potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:27247724

  12. Fermentation of purple Jerusalem artichoke extract to improve the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro and ameliorate blood glucose in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sun Youb; Lim, Soon Sung

    2016-06-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db). The water extract of PJA was fermented by L. plantarum, and two strains of Bacillus subtilis to compare their anti-α-glucosidase activities in vitro by α-glucosidase assays. The anti-diabetes effect of LJA was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db) for seven weeks. During the experiment, food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. At the end of the treatment period, several diabetic parameters and the intestinal α-glucosidase activity were measured. The LJA showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, it resulted in a significantly lower blood glucose concentration than the control. Serum insulin and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher and the concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol were significant lower in mice treated with LJA after seven weeks. In addition, the intestinal α-glucosidase activity was partially inhibited. These results suggested that LJA regulates blood glucose and has potential use as a dietary supplement.

  13. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf in northern Thailand and their tannin-tolerant ability in tea extract.

    PubMed

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Baipong, Sasitorn; Sone, Teruo; Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Chui-Chai, Naradorn; Asano, Kozo; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2017-09-01

    The microbiota of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in thirty-five samples of Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf product, collected from twenty-two different regions of eight provinces in upper northern Thailand was revealed through the culture-dependent technique. A total of 311 presumptive LAB strains were isolated and subjected to clustering analysis based on repetitive genomic element-PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting profiles. The majority of the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genera with an overwhelming predominance of the Lb. plantarum group. Further studies of species-specific PCR showed that 201 of 252 isolates in the Lb. plantarum group were Lb. plantarum which were thus considered as the predominant LAB in Miang, while the other 51 isolates belonged to Lb. pentosus. In contrast to Lb. plantarum, there is a lack of information on the tannase gene and the tea tannin-tolerant ability of Lb. pentosus. Of the 51 Lb. pentosus isolates, 33 were found to harbor the genes encoding tannase and shared 93-99% amino acid identity with tannase obtained from Lb. pentosus ATCC 8041(T). Among 33 tannase gene-positive isolates, 23 isolates exhibited high tannin- tolerant capabilities when cultivated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar-containing bromocresol purple (0.02 g/L, MRS-BCP) supplemented with 20% (v/v) crude tea extract, which corresponded to 2.5% (w/v) tannins. These Lb. pentosus isolates with high tannin-tolerant capacity are expected to be the high potential strains for functional tannase production involved in Miang fermentation as they will bring about certain benefits and could be used to improve the fermentation of tea products.

  14. [Effect of ZnSO4 on L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae].

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunmei; Pan, Renrui; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Jingmin; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-05-04

    To improve the yield and quality of L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae, we aim to understand the relationship between inorganic salts utilization and the L-lactic acid metabolism of the strain RLC41-6, through systematic analysis of the effects of zinc ion concentration on the production of L-lactic acid and the Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Rhizopus oryzae was cultured at 36 degrees C for 36h with different quantity of ZnSO4 in fermentation medium. The fermentation products were monitored by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), LDH isoenzyme composition in the cell was analysed by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Our results showed that the concentration of ZnSO4 in medium could modulate the expression of LDH isoenzyme except LDH1, especially stimulated the expression of LDH4 and LDH5. When initial concentration of ZnSO4 is above 0.02%, the LDH4 and LDH5 reached the highest level. However, the activity of LDH was inhibited by higher concentration zinc ion in extracellular environment. When ZnSO4 concentration is 0.02%, LDH activity reaches its maximum 200U/mL, the HPLC assay showed only L-lactic in the fermentation products (137 g/L), while the conversion rate of glucose to lactic acid is 91%. Zinc ion can regulate the metabolic processes of Rhizopus oryzae and modulate the types of the final fermentation products. An optimal concentration of ZnSO4 can not only facilitate the LDH expression but also prevent pyruvate from transformation into the malic acid and fumaric acid during the metabolism process, thereby enhance the metabolism of glucose to lactic acid of Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Fermented Pueraria Lobata extract ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and recovering intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seungho; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Jang, Yeong-Su; Kang, Ju-Hee; Jang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Yoon, Yeo-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD. PMID:27729931

  16. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  17. Production of lactic acid with loofa sponge immobilized Rhizopus oryzae RBU2-10.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Ruma; Dwivedi, Pallavi; Singh, R P

    2007-04-01

    Lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae RBU2-10 immobilized in loofa sponge was evaluated. Shape and texture of loofa sponge, which was obtained from the mature dried fruit of Luffa cylindrica, remained intact after its treatment with buffers of varying pH and following its repeated autoclaving for up to four cycles (121 degrees C, 20 min per cycle). The medium having four pieces of loofa sponge (1.008 cm(3)) per 100 ml medium and inoculated with 3 x1 0(6) spores ml(-1) resulted maximum production (80.75 g l(-1)) of lactic acid in 48 h of fermentation. Repeated batch fermentation for lactic acid production could be carried out for 10 cycles. Remarkably higher levels of productivity (1.66-1.84 g l(-1)h(-1)) was obtained during first five cycles of fermentation with a maximum productivity (1.84 g l(-1)h(-1)) obtained during third cycle of fermentation.

  18. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  19. Effects of koji fermented phenolic compounds on the oxidative stability of fish miso.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anupam; Osako, Kazufumi; Okamoto, Akira; Okazaki, Emiko; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, Aspergillus oryzae-inoculated koji inhibited lipid oxidation in fermented fish paste rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids following a long fermentation period. The fermentation of koji by A. oryzae liberated several bioactive phenolic compounds, including kojic acid and ferulic acid, which were the most abundant. A linear correlation between several phenolic compounds and their bioactive properties, including their radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal-chelating activity, and ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation was observed. This suggested an important role of koji phenolics in the oxidative stability of fermented fish paste. The activities of different carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes, including α-amylase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase, were positively correlated with the liberation of several phenolic compounds through koji fermentation. Thus, the application of koji offers a novel strategy to enhance the oxidative stability of newly developed fermented fish miso. Application of traditional Japanese koji fermentation technique to develop an aroma enriched fish meat bases seasoning has been established. Aspergillus oryzae-inoculated koji releases several carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes, including α-amylase, cellulose, and β-glucosidase, which led to the liberation of several phenolic compounds during fermentation. Improvement of oxidative stability of the fermented fish meat paste by koji phenolics suggests a useful strategy to uplift the value of different trash fish meat-based seasoning through proper utilization of the present technique. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Recessive resistance genes and the Oryza sativa-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; McCouch, Susan R

    2007-07-01

    Though recessive resistance is well-studied in viral systems, little is understood regarding the phenomenon in plant-bacterial interactions. The Oryza sativa-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. orzyae pathosystem provides an excellent opportunity to examine recessive resistance in plant-bacterial interactions, in which nine of 30 documented resistance (R) genes are recessively inherited. Infestations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight, result in significant crop loss and damage throughout South and Southeast Asia. Two recently cloned novel recessive R genes, xa5 and xa13, have yielded insights to this system. Like their viral counterparts, these bacterial recessive R gene products do not conform to the five commonly described classes of R proteins. New findings suggest that such genes may more aptly be viewed as mutations in dominant susceptibility alleles and may also function in a gene-for-gene manner. In this review, we discuss recent accomplishments in the understanding of recessively inherited R genes in the rice-bacterial blight pathosystem and suggest a new model for the function of recessive resistance in plant-bacterial interactions.

  1. Enzymatic activity and flavor compound production in fermented silver carp fish paste inoculated with douchi starter culture.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2012-01-11

    Silver carp fish pastes inoculated with or without a douchi starter culture containing live Aspergillus oryzae were fermented for 30 days to produce two different fermented products, designated CulF and ConF, respectively. Protein degradation and flavor compound production during the course of fermentation were monitored. Proteolytic activity, generally higher in CulF than in ConF (P < 0.05) and dominated by acidic and serine proteases, declined to an overall minimum after 30 days. Myosin in the CulF and ConF extractives was completely degraded after 1 and 5 days, respectively. The content of free amino acids and low molecular weight (<1.3 kDa) peptides rose rapidly in CulF and progressively in ConF (P < 0.05). Ethanol, silanediol, pyrazine, phenol, and formic acid were prevalent volatile compounds in CulF, whereas butanol, butanoic acid, and acetic acid were abundant in ConF. Therefore, douchi-inoculated fermentation is an attractive process to produce savory fish pastes.

  2. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with unprocessed and ethanol-extracted apple pomaces on caecal fermentation, antioxidant and blood biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jarosławska, Julia; Jurgoński, Adam

    2012-04-01

    The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats.

  4. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  5. [Influence of yeast extract on the fermentation of glucose by the demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Kai; Li, Ming-Xia; Wang, Cai-Lin; Lu, Li-Jun; Liu, Jia

    2013-04-01

    The demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, isolated from oil contaminated soil, was cultivated with glucose as the carbon source. The influences of yeast extract on the growth, demulsifying ability and the element composition of the strain were investigated. The results showed that the yeast extract could increase the biomass and enhance the glucose utilization of Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1. When the concentration of the yeast extract was 5 g x L(-1), the biomass was increased up to 3.0 g x L(-1), and the glucose utilization achieved 58%. The demulsifying ability of the strain was improved with increasing yeast extract concentration. When the concentration of the yeast extract was 10 g x L(-1), the demulsification ratio of the obtained cell was 76%. While the C/N ratio of the cells decreased with the increasing concentration of yeast extract. The proteins of cells were extracted and measured. The results showed that the proteins of the obtained cell increased with the increasing concentration of yeast extract, in accordance with the increased concentrations of proteins on the surface of the cells as measured by FTIR. It is estimated that the increase of the proteins leads to the improvement of the demulsifying ability of the demulsifying strain and theses proteins play essential roles in the demulsifying process.

  6. Fermented Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  7. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration

  8. Fermented wheat germ extract inhibits glycolysis/pentose cycle enzymes and induces apoptosis through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in Jurkat T-cell leukemia tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Comin-Anduix, Begona; Boros, Laszlo G; Marin, Silvia; Boren, Joan; Callol-Massot, Carles; Centelles, Josep J; Torres, Josep L; Agell, Neus; Bassilian, Sara; Cascante, Marta

    2002-11-29

    The fermented extract of wheat germ, trade name Avemar, is a complex mixture of biologically active molecules with potent anti-metastatic activities in various human malignancies. Here we report the effect of Avemar on Jurkat leukemia cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and the activity of key glycolytic/pentose cycle enzymes that control carbon flow for nucleic acid synthesis. The cytotoxic IC(50) concentration of Avemar for Jurkat tumor cells is 0.2 mg/ml, and increasing doses of the crude powder inhibit Jurkat cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. At concentrations higher than 0.2 mg/ml, Avemar inhibits cell growth by more than 50% (72 h of incubation), which is preceded by the appearance of a sub-G(1) peak on flow histograms at 48 h. Laser scanning cytometry of propidium iodide- and annexin V-stained cells indicated that the growth-inhibiting effect of Avemar was consistent with a strong induction of apoptosis. Inhibition by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone of apoptosis but increased proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) indicate caspases mediate the cellular effects of Avemar. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and transketolase were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, which correlated with decreased (13)C incorporation and pentose cycle substrate flow into RNA ribose. This decrease in pentose cycle enzyme activities and carbon flow toward nucleic acid precursor synthesis provide the mechanistic understanding of the cell growth-controlling and apoptosis-inducing effects of fermented wheat germ. Avemar exhibits about a 50-fold higher IC(50) (10.02 mg/ml) for peripheral blood lymphocytes to induce a biological response, which provides the broad therapeutic window for this supplemental cancer treatment modality with no toxic effects.

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extracts Obtained from Raw and Fermented Wild Macrofungus, Lenzites quercina

    PubMed Central

    Ogidi, Olusola Clement; Oyetayo, Victor Olusegun; Akinyele, Bamidele Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In recent time, there is a major concern about antibiotic resistance displayed by some pathogenic microorganisms and this had involved a continuous search for natural antimicrobial products. The phytochemistry as well as antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Lenzites quercina was investigated. The extracts and purified fractions were, respectively, tested against indicator organisms using agar well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. The quantity of phytochemicals found in the extracts of L. quercina ranged from 14.4 to 20.7 mg/g for alkaloids, 6.1 to 12.8 mg/g for steroids, 4.5 to 10.6 mg/g for saponins, 2.8 to 17.2 mg/g for terpenoids, and 0.41 to 17.1 mg/g for flavonoids. The gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GCMS) analysis of the extract reveals the presence of caprylic acid, stearic acid, tetradecanoic acid, methyl-11-octadecenoate, oleic acid, and 4-methyl-2-propyl-1-pentanol. Extracts of L. quercina and its purified fractions exhibited wider range of inhibition (4 mm to 26 mm) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial effects of L. quercina extracts indicate that this wild macrofungus contains significant amount of pharmacological agents, which could be extracted to curb the menace of antibiotic resistances by pathogenic organisms. PMID:26604928

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis Between Aspergillus oryzae Strains Reveals Close Relationship Between Sites of Mutation Localization and Regions of Highly Divergent Genes among Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Yamane, Noriko; Koyama, Yoshinori; Satou, Yuki; Kikuzato, Ikuya; Teruya, Morimi; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Imada, Yumi; Wachi, Youji; Miwa, Yukino; Yano, Shuichi; Tamano, Koichi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E.; Machida, Masayuki; Hirano, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized for over 1000 years in Japan for the production of various traditional foods, and a large number of A. oryzae strains have been isolated and/or selected for the effective fermentation of food ingredients. Characteristics of genetic alterations among the strains used are of particular interest in studies of A. oryzae. Here, we have sequenced the whole genome of an industrial fungal isolate, A. oryzae RIB326, by using a next-generation sequencing system and compared the data with those of A. oryzae RIB40, a wild-type strain sequenced in 2005. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation pressure on the non-syntenic blocks (NSBs) of the genome, which were previously identified through comparative genomic analysis of A. oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. We found that genes within the NSBs of RIB326 accumulate mutations more frequently than those within the SBs, regardless of their distance from the telomeres or of their expression level. Our findings suggest that the high mutation frequency of NSBs might contribute to maintaining the diversity of the A. oryzae genome. PMID:22912434

  11. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  12. Antifungal Activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during Sourdough Fermentation: Identification of Novel Compounds and Long-Term Effect during Storage of Wheat Bread ▿

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties. PMID:21441340

  13. Fermented green tea extract exhibits hypolipidaemic effects through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and promotion of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Sukyung; Kim, Jeongkee; Lee, Ji Hae; Joo, Kyungmi; Choi, Jin Kyu; Shin, Song Seok; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and related CVD and can be prevented with natural substances. Previously, we reported that a novel Bacillus-fermented green tea (FGT) exerts anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects. This study further investigated the hypotriglyceridaemic and anti-obesogenic effects of FGT and its underlying mechanisms. FGT effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (IC50, 0·48 mg/ml) and ameliorated postprandial lipaemia in rats (26 % reduction with 500 mg/kg FGT). In hypertriglyceridaemic hamsters, FGT administration significantly reduced plasma TAG levels. In mice, FGT administration (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks augmented energy expenditure by 22 % through the induction of plasma serotonin, a neurotransmitter that modulates energy expenditure and mRNA expressions of lipid metabolism genes in peripheral tissues. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that FGT reduced the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes in hamsters, which could further contribute to its anti-obesity effects. Collectively, these data demonstrate that FGT decreases plasma TAG levels via multiple mechanisms including inhibition of pancreatic lipase, augmentation of energy expenditure, induction of serotonin secretion and alteration of gut microbiota. These results suggest that FGT may be a useful natural agent for preventing hypertriglyceridaemia and obesity.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Oryza sativa Calli Under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Haiying; Cai, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptome of Oryza sativacalli was analyzed on board the Chinese spaceship "Shenzhou 8" to study the effects of microgravity on plant signal transduction and secondary metabolism (as one of the experiments with SIMBOX on Shenzhou 8). Calli of Oryza sativa were pre-cultured for 4 days on ground and then loaded into the stationary platform or the rotating platform of a biological incubator, called SIMBOX, to grow in space under microgravity conditions or 1g-conditions, respectively. The calli were fixed by RNAlater after grew 324 h under microgravity. After 17 days, Shenzhou 8 returned to Earth carrying SIMBOX. Oryza sativa calli were recovered, and the RNA was extracted for transcriptome analysis. After comparing 1 gspaceflight controls-inflight controls with 1 g-ground controls, 157 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. When comparing spaceflight controls to 1 g-ground controls and to 1 g-inflight controls, 678 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. The fact that the same 678 probe sets were identified in these two comparisons suggests that transcription was affected under microgravity conditions. MapMan analysis was used to classify 627 microgravity responsive (MR) transcripts. The MR transcripts were mainly involved in cell wall structure, the TCA cycle, primary metabolism, transcription, protein modification and degradation, hormone metabolism, calcium regulation, receptor like kinase activity and transport.

  15. Optimization of medium for one-step fermentation of inulin extract from Jerusalem artichoke tubers using Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 to produce R,R-2,3-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Xu, Hong; Li, Qiu-jie; Feng, Xiao-hai; Li, Sha

    2010-09-01

    The medium for one-step fermentation of raw inulin extract from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9 to produce R,R-2,3-butanediol (R,R-2,3-BD) was developed. Inulin, K(2)HPO(4) and NH(4)Cl were found to be the key factors in the fermentation according to the results obtained from the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The optimal concentration range of the three factors was examined by the steepest ascent path, and their optimal concentration was further investigated according to the Box-Behnken design and determined to be 77.14 g/L, 3.09 g/L and 0.93 g/L, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration of the obtained R,R-2,3-BD was 36.92 g/L, at more than 98% optical purity. Compared with other investigated carbon resources, fermentation of the raw inulin extract afforded the highest yield of R,R-2,3-BD. This process featured one-step fermentation of inulin without further hydrolyzing, which greatly decreased the raw material cost and thus facilitated its practical application.

  16. Bioactive steroids from Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G

    2006-07-01

    Rice is one of the most interesting crops in the world from both the social and the economic point of views. The monoculture practices along with the heavy use of herbicides are characteristic of modern agriculture and are inducing the appearance of tolerant and/or herbicide resistant weed biotypes. This is the case the world's main weed of rice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Alternative strategies for weed suppression consist of the use of chemicals from rice due to necessity of obtaining new herbicides with new modes of action that could prevent resistance phenomena. In order to carry out a study that guides to the isolation of the most active compounds from rice, different extracts were achieved, and their activities evaluated. So, all the plant material was divided into three parts: fresh plant, dried plant, and fresh plant from Pluviotron. The aerial part was separated from roots in all cases and extracted in water, in organic solvents as well as with the Pluviotron device. The activity of the 12 extracts obtained was evaluated using a generalist bioassay, wheat etiolated coleoptiles bioassay, and a phytotoxic bioassay on barnyardgrass as target species. The bioactive extracts were fractionated and 15 compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Eight of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Oryza sativa. The most phytotoxic compounds on E. crus-galli were ergosterol peroxide and 7-oxo-stigmasterol. In the case of ergosterol peroxide the activity was higher than the commercial herbicide Logran. This is the first report of potential allelopathic activity of steroids on weeds based on their phytotoxicity.

  17. Mass production of spores of lactic acid-producing Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 on agar plate.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of sporangiospores (spores) of Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 5384 (identical to NRRL 395 and ATCC 9363) on potato-dextrose-agar medium was studied aiming at starting its L(+)-lactic acid fermentation directly from spore inoculation. Various parameters including harvest time, sowed spore density, size of agar plate, height of air space, and incubation mode of plate (agar-on-bottom or agar-on-top) were studied. Ordinarily used shallow Petri dishes were found out to be unsuitable for the full growth of R. oryzae sporangiophores. In a very wide range of the sowed spore density, the smaller it was, the greater the number of the harvested spores was. It was also interesting to find out that R. oryzae grown downward vertically with a deep air space in an agar-on-top mode gave larger amount of spores than in an agar-on-bottom mode at 30°C for 7-day cultivation. Scale-up of the agar plate culture from 26.4 to 292 cm(2) was studied, resulting in the proportional relationship between the number of the harvested spores/plate and the plate area in the deep Petri dishes. The number of plates of 50 cm in diameter needed for 100 m(3) industrial submerged fermentation started directly from 2 × 10(5) spores/mL inoculum size was estimated as about 6, from which it was inferred that such a fermentation would be feasible. Designing a 50 cm plate and a method of spreading and collecting the spores were suggested. Bioprocess technological significance of the "full-scale industrial submerged fermentation started directly from spore inoculation omitting pre-culture" has been discussed.

  18. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  19. Extraction and Esterification of Low-Titer Short-Chain Volatile Fatty Acids from Anaerobic Fermentation with Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stephen J; Berton, Jan K E T; Naert, Pieter; Gildemyn, Sylvia; Rabaey, Korneel; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-23

    Ionic liquids can both act as a solvent and mediate esterification to valorize low-titer volatile fatty acids and generate organic solvents from renewable carbon sources including biowaste and CO2 . In this study, four phosphonium ionic liquids were tested for single-stage extraction of acetic acid from a dilute stream and esterification to ethyl acetate with added ethanol and heat. The esterification proceeded with a maximum conversion of 85.9±1.3 % after 30 min at 75 °C at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of reactants. Extraction and esterification can be tailored using mixed-anion ionic liquids; this is demonstrated herein using a common trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and a mixed chloride and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ionic liquid. As a further proof-of-concept, ethyl acetate was generated from an ionic liquid-driven esterification of an acetic acid extractant generated using CO2 as the only carbon source by microbial electrosynthesis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qing; Lv, Chunwei; Yan, Caixia; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH is a major problem in industrial organic acid fermentation. To circumvent this problem, we used a metabolic profiling approach to analyze metabolite changes in Rhizopus oryzae under different pH conditions. A correlation between fumaric acid production and intracellular metabolic characteristics of R. oryzae was revealed by principal component analysis. The results showed that to help cell survival in the presence of low pH, R. oryzae altered amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and promoted sugar or sugar alcohol synthesis, corresponding with a suppressing of energy metabolism, phenylalanine, and tyrosine synthesis and finally resulting in the low performance of fumaric acid production. Based on this observation, 1 % linoleic acid was added to the culture medium in pH 3.0 to decrease the carbon demand for cell survival, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 39.7 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without linoleic acid addition), reaching 18.3 g/L after 84 h of fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which R. oryzae responds to acidic stress and would be helpful for the development of efficient strategies for fumaric acid production at low pH.

  1. Improved production of protease-resistant phytase by Aspergillus oryzae and its applicability in the hydrolysis of insoluble phytates.

    PubMed

    Sapna; Singh, Bijender

    2013-08-01

    Among three hundred isolates of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 secreted higher phytase activity at pH 5.0, 35 °C and 200 rpm after 96 h of fermentation. Starch and beef extract supported the highest phytase production than other carbon and nitrogen sources. A nine-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved due to optimization. Supplementation of the medium with inorganic phosphate repressed the enzyme synthesis. Among surfactants tested, Tween 80 increased fungal growth and phytase production, which further resulted in 5.4-fold enhancement in phytase production. The phytase activity was not much affected by proteases treatment. The enzyme resulted in the efficient hydrolysis of insoluble phytate complexes (metal- and protein-phytates) in a time dependent manner. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of insoluble phytates was also supported by scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme, being resistant to trypsin and pepsin, and able to hydrolyze insoluble phytates, can find an application in the animal food/feed industry for improving nutritional quality and also in combating environmental phosphorus pollution and plant growth promotion.

  2. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits. PMID:19698158

  3. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Joo Wan; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-Kwang; Sohn, Jae Hak; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects. PMID:25214876

  4. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  5. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preclinical evaluation on the tumor suppression efficiency and combination drug effects of fermented wheat germ extract in human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Woei; Wang, Chien-Kai; Chang, Yu-Jia; Choong, Chen-Yen; Lin, Chi-Shian; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2015-01-01

    Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is a nutrient supplement and a potential antitumor ingredient for developing an integrated chemotherapy with standard chemotherapeutic drugs for treating ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the tumor suppression efficiency of FWGE in human ovarian carcinoma cells, SKOV-3 and ES-2, and found the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) to be 643.76 μg/mL and 246.11 μg/mL after 48 h of FWGE treatment. FWGE treatment also induced programmed cell death by activating the caspase-7 cleavage in both SKOV-3 and ES-2 cells, but only caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase cleavages were activated in SKOV-3 cells. Moreover, FWGE exhibited combination drug effects with cisplatin and docetaxel in SKOV-3 and ES-2 cells by enhancing the cytotoxicity of both drugs. In conclusion, we found that FWGE not only suppressed cell growth but also induced caspase-3-related and caspase-7-related cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells. FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and docetaxel, suggesting that FWGE is a potential ingredient in the development of adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin or docetaxel for treating ovarian cancer patients.

  7. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  8. Anti-glycation properties of the aqueous extract solutions of dried algae products and effect of lactic acid fermentation on the properties.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Eda, Mika; Kataoka, Manami; Nemoto, Maki; Kawahara, Miho; Oshio, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2016-02-01

    The antioxidant and anti-glycation properties in aqueous extract solutions (AESs) of 11 dried algae products were investigated. AESs of brown algae Ecklonia kurome (kurome) and Ecklonia stolonifera (tsuruarame) showed a strong DPPH radical-scavenging capacity and Fe-reducing power with high total phenolic compound content. On the other hand, superoxide anion radical-scavenging capacities of Porphyra sp. (iwanori, red alga), sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (mekabu, brown alga), and Gelidiaceae sp. (tengusa, red alga) were also high. Anti-glycation activities in BSA-fructose and BSA-methylglyoxal glycation were also high in kurome, while iwanori showed high activity. Results of the BSA-fructose model agreed with those of superoxide anion radical-scavenging. On the other hand, those of the BSA-methylglyoxal model agreed with those of the phenolic content, DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and Fe-reducing power. Anti-glycation activities of iwanori, U. pinnatifida (wakame), and mekabu in the BSA-fructose model were clearly increased by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum AN6.

  9. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-07-07

    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ∼55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch.

  10. Filamentous fungal diversity and community structure associated with the solid state fermentation of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-02

    Maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process under solid state conditions, including Daqu (starter) making, stacking fermentation and alcohol fermentation stages. Filamentous fungi produce many enzymes to degrade the starch material into fermentable sugar during liquor fermentation. This study investigated the filamentous fungal community associated with liquor making process. Eight and seven different fungal species were identified by using culture-dependent and -independent method (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) analyses, respectively. The traditional enumeration method showed that Daqu provided 7 fungal species for stacking fermentation. The total population of filamentous fungi increased from 3.4 × 10(3)cfu/g to 1.28 × 10(4)cfu/g in the first 3 days of stacking fermentation, and then decreased till the end. In alcohol fermentation in pits, the population continuously decreased and few fungal species survived (lower than 1 × 10(3)cfu/g) after 10 days. Therefore, stacking fermentation is an essential stage for the growth of filamentous fungi. Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus were detected by both methods, and P. variotii and A. oryzae were the predominant species. Meanwhile, P. variotii possessed the highest glucoamylase (3252 ± 526 U/g) and A. oryzae exhibited the highest α-amylase (1491 ± 324 U/g) activity among the cultivable fungal species. Furthermore, the variation of starch and reducing sugar content was consistent with the growth of P. variotii and A. oryzae in Zaopei (fermented grains) during stacking fermentation, which implied that the two filamentous fungi played an important role in producing amylase for hydrolyzing the starch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in Rice Seed Using a Padlock Probe-Based Assay.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Xu, Rui; Liu, Fengquan; Hu, Baishi; Walcott, R R

    2014-10-01

    Based on 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence data, two padlock probes (PLPs), P-Xoo and P-Xoc, were designed and tested to detect Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, respectively. These PLPs were combined with dot-blot hybridization to detect X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola individually in rice seed. Using this technique, a detection sensitivity of 1 pg of X. oryzae pv. oryzae genomic DNA was observed. The technique also facilitated the detection of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice seedlots with 2% artificially infested seed. With regards to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola a detection threshold of 1 pg genomic DNA was observed and the pathogen was successful detected in rice seedlots with 0.2% artificially infested seed. The PLP assays detected X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in 39.3% (13 of 33) and 21.3% (10 of 47) of naturally infested commercial rice seedlots, respectively. In contrast, conventional polymerase chain reaction using OSF1/OSR1 and XoocF/XoocR primers sets detected X. oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola in 9.1% (3 of 33) and 8.5% (4 of 47) of the same rice seedlots, respectively. We also detected both pathogens simultaneously in two seedlots, which successfully proved that PLPs (P-Xoo and P-Xoc) combined with reverse dotblot hybridization can be used to simultaneously detect multiple pathogens in naturally infested commercial rice seedlots. This approach has the potential to be an important tool for detecting multiple pathogens in seed and thereby preventing the spread of important pathogens.

  12. Cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  13. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  14. Effect of quebracho-chestnut tannin extracts at 2 dietary crude protein levels on performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Capozzolo, M C; Lencioni, P; Cabral, C; Wattiaux, M A

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of a tannin mixture extract on lactating cow performance, rumen fermentation, and N partitioning, and whether responses were affected by dietary crude protein (CP). The experiment was conducted as a split-plot with 24 Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation; 669±55kg of body weight; 87±36 d in milk; 8 ruminally cannulated) randomly assigned to a diet of [dry matter (DM) basis] 15.3 or 16.6% CP (whole plot) and 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.80% of a tannin mixture in three 4×4 Latin squares within each level of CP (sub-plot). Tannin extract mixture was from quebracho and chestnut trees (2:1 ratio). Dietary CP level did not influence responses to tannin supplementation. A linear decrease in DM intake (25.5 to 23.4kg/d) was found, as well as a linear increase in milk/DM intake (1.62 to 1.75) and a trend for a linear decrease in fat-and-protein-corrected milk (38.4 to 37.1kg/d) with increasing levels of tannin supplementation. In addition, there was a negative linear effect for milk urea N (14.0 to 12.9mg/dL), milk protein yield (1.20 to 1.15kg), and concentration (2.87 to 2.83%). Furthermore, the change in milk protein concentration tended to be quadratic, and predicted maximum was 2.89% for a tannin mixture fed at 0.47% of dietary DM. Tannin supplementation reduced ruminal NH3-N (11.3 to 8.8mg/dL), total branched-chain volatile fatty acid concentration (2.97 to 2.47mol/100mol), DM, organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Dietary tannin had no effect on intake N (587±63g/d), milk N (175±32g/d), or N utilization efficiency (29.7±4.4%). However, feeding tannin extracts linearly increased fecal N excretion (214 to 256g/d), but reduced urinary N (213 to 177g/d) and urinary urea N (141 to 116g/d) excretion. Decreasing dietary CP did not influence milk production, but increased N utilization efficiency (milk N/N intake; 0.27 to 0.33), and decreased milk urea N (15.4 to 11.8mg/dL), ruminal NH3-N (11.0 to 9.3mg

  15. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Results Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l-1, which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g-1 in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g-1 in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l-1 h-1 after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l-1 while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l-1 the lowest rate of 0.12 g l-1 h-1 was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g-1) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l-1 and LGJ 25 g l-1, and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l-1. Conclusions This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l-1 concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l-1. Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients

  16. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Vodnar, Dan C; Dulf, Francisc V; Pop, Oana L; Socaciu, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l(-1), which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g(-1) in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g(-1) in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l(-1) h(-1) after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l(-1) while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l(-1) the lowest rate of 0.12 g l(-1) h(-1) was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g(-1)) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l(-1) and LGJ 25 g l(-1), and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l(-1). This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l(-1) concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l(-1). Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients. Crude glycerol and lucerne

  17. Acetone-butanol fermentation of marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Huesemann, Michael H; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay; Gill, Gary A; Roesijadi, Guri

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to subject mannitol, either as a sole carbon source or in combination with glucose, and aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., containing mannitol and laminarin, to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  19. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  20. Effect of the combination of crude extracts of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum containing patulin and zearalenone on rumen microbial fermentation and on their metabolism in continuous culture fermenters.

    PubMed

    Riccio, María Belén; Tapia, María Ofelia; Martínez, Guadalupe; Aranguren, Sandra Mariela; Dieguez, Susana Neyi; Soraci, Alejandro Luis; Rodríguez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Six single-flow continuous cultures were used to study the effects of the mycotoxins patulin (PAT) and zearalenone (ZEN) alone or in combination on rumen microbial fermentation. In each of the four 7-d periods, the fermenters were supplemented in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of PAT (0 and 20 mg/l) and three levels of ZEN (0, 5 and 10 mg/l). The treatments did not affect the apparent and true digestibility of organic matter. PAT alone decreased the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (p < 0.01), but in the presence of 5 or 10 mg/l of ZEN, there were no effects of PAT. In contrast, the digestibility of NDF and ADF was decreased at 10 mg/l of ZEN in the absence of PAT (p < 0.05). The pH of the fermenters increased after 2 and 3 d of PAT treatment (p < 0.01). PAT decreased the concentration of total volatile acids (VFA), the molar proportion of acetate and the acetate:proportionate ratio (p < 0.01). The molar concentrations of other VFA were unchanged. Ammonia N (NH3-N) flow increased (p < 0.05) and there was a tendency to a higher NH3-N concentration (p < 0.1) in fermenters with PAT. Total N, non-ammonia N and bacterial N as well as efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of N utilisation were not affected by treatments. PAT was nearly completely degraded during incubation. The mean recovery of ZEN, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol expressed as a proportion of administered ZEN was less than 50% in effluents from fermenters receiving only ZEN and ZEN plus PAT, respectively. With exception of fibre digestion, the co-administration of PAT and ZEN did not elicit interaction effects on most measured parameters of rumen metabolism.

  1. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  2. Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in seeds using a specific TaqMan probe.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Shui-Fang; Liao, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Hong-Yun; Tan, Tian-Wei

    2007-02-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the pathogen that causes bacterial leaf blight in rice. Bacterial leaf blight is the main cause for severe rice underproduction in many countries. However, with conventional methods it is difficult to quickly and reliably distinguish this pathogen from other closely related pathogenic bacteria, especially X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal organism of bacterial leaf streak in rice. We have developed a novel and highly sensitive real-time method for the identification of this specific bacteria based on a TaqMan probe. This probe is designed to recognize the sequence of a putative siderophore receptor gene cds specific to X. oryzae pv. oryzae, and can be identified from either a bacterial culture or naturally infected rice seeds and leaves in only 2 h. The sensitivity of the method is 100 times higher than that of the current polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gel electrophoresis method for diagnosis.

  3. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production.

  4. Fumaric Acid Production from Alkali-Pretreated Corncob by Fed-Batch Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Combined with Separated Hydrolysis and Fermentation at High Solids Loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Jin; Ouyang, Shuiping; Ouyang, Jia; Yong, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Production of fumaric acid from alkali-pretreated corncob (APC) at high solids loading was investigated using a combination of separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Rhizopus oryzae. Four different fermentation modes were tested to maximize fumaric acid concentration at high solids loading. The highest concentration of 41.32 g/L fumaric acid was obtained from 20 % (w/v) APC at 38 °C in the combined SHF and fed-batch SSF process, compared with 19.13 g/L fumaric acid in batch SSF alone. The results indicated that a combination of SHF and fed-batch SSF significantly improved production of fumaric acid from lignocellulose by R. oryzae than that achieved with batch SSF at high solids loading.

  5. Characterization of the hrpF pathogenicity peninsula of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F

    2005-06-01

    The hrp gene cluster of Xanthomonas spp. contains genes for the assembly and function of a type III secretion system (TTSS). The hrpF genes reside in a region between hpaB and the right end of the hrp cluster. The region of the hrpF gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is bounded by two IS elements and also contains a homolog of hpaF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and two newly identified genes, hpa3 and hpa4. A comparison of the hrp gene clusters of different species of Xanthomonas revealed that the hrpF region is a constant yet more variable peninsula of the hrp pathogenicity island. Mutations in hpaF, hpa3, and hpa4 had no effect on virulence, whereas hrpF mutants were severely reduced in virulence on susceptible rice cultivars. The hrpF genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, X. campestris pv. campestris, and X. axonopodis pv. citri each were capable of restoring virulence to the hrpF mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Correspondingly, none of the Xanthomonas pathovars with hrpF from X. oryzae pv. oryzae elicited a hypersensitive reaction in their respective hosts. Therefore, no evidence was found for hrpF as a host-specialization factor. In contrast to the loss of Bs3-dependent reactions by hrpF mutants of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, hrpF mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with either avrXa10 or avrXa7 elicited hypersensitive reactions in rice cultivars with the corresponding R genes. A double hrpFxoo-hpa1 mutant also elicited an Xa10-dependent resistance reaction. Thus, loss of hrpF, hpal, or both may reduce delivery or effectiveness of type III effectors. However, the mutations did not completely prevent the delivery of effectors from X. oryzae pv. oryzae into the host cells.

  6. A novel honeycomb matrix for cell immobilization to enhance lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yuanliang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Runguang; Ren, Huiqing

    2010-07-01

    A new support matrix inspired by honeycomb was developed for cell immobilization to control fungal morphology and enhance mass transfer in bioreactor for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae. The immobilization matrix composed of asterisk-shaped fibrous matrices in a honeycomb configuration provided high surface areas for cell attachment and biofilm growth. More than 90% of inoculated spores were adsorbed onto the matrices within 6-8h and after 10h there was no suspended cell in the fermentation broth, indicating a 100% immobilization efficiency. Compared to free-cell fermentation, lactic acid production increased approximately 70% (49.5 g/L vs. 29.3g/L) and fermentation time reduced 33% (48 h vs. 72 h) in shake-flasks with 80 g/L initial glucose. The immobilized-cell fermentation was evaluated for its long-term performance in a bubble-column bioreactor operated in a repeated batch mode for nine cycles in 36 days. The highest lactic acid production was 68.8 g/L, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 0.72 g/Lh and 93.4% (w/w) lactic acid yield from consumed glucose. The overall yield and productivity were 77.6% and 0.57 g/Lh, respectively. The fermentation can be improved by increasing aeration and mixing in the bubble-column bioreactor.

  7. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  8. Detection of aflatoxin-producing molds in Korean fermented foods and grains by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng-You; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Ji-Hun; Park, Seon-Ja; Kang, Sung-Jo; Nam, Baik-Sang; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2004-11-01

    An assay based on multiplex PCR was applied for the detection of potential aflatoxin-producing molds in Korean fermented foods and grains. Three genes, avfA, omtA, and ver-1, coding for key enzymes in aflatoxin biosynthesis, were used as aflatoxin-detecting target genes in multiplex PCR. DNA extracted from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium expansum, and Fusarium verticillioides was used as PCR template to test specificity of the multiplex PCR assay. Positive results were achieved only with DNA that was extracted from the aflatoxigenic molds A. flavus and A. parasiticus in all three primer pairs. This result was supported by aflatoxin detection with direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DC-ELISA). The PCR assay required just a few hours, enabling rapid and simultaneous detection of many samples at a low cost. A total of 22 Meju samples, 24 Doenjang samples, and 10 barley samples commercially obtained in Korea were analyzed. The DC-ELISA assay for aflatoxin detection gave negative results for all samples, whereas the PCR-based method gave positive results for 1 of 22 Meju samples and 2 of 10 barley samples. After incubation of the positive samples with malt extract agar, DC-ELISA also gave positive results for aflatoxin detection. All Doenjang samples were negative by multiplex PCR and DC-ELISA assay, suggesting that aflatoxin contamination and the presence of aflatoxin-producing molds in Doenjang are probably low.

  9. Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, P W; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-10-01

    Four Holstein heifers (360 +/- 22 and 450 +/- 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 x 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and AEX and CIE1 in combination; and Exp. 2, no additive, anise oil (2 g/d), capsicum oil (1 g/d), and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d). Heifers were fed a 90:10 concentrate:barley straw diet (16% CP; 25% NDF) for ad libitum intake. Each period consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 6 d for sampling. On d 16 to 18, DM and water intakes were measured. On d 19 to 21 ruminal contents were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding to determine ruminal pH and the concentrations of VFA, L-lactate, large peptides, small peptides plus AA (SPep+AA), and ammonia N. On d 20 and 21, samples of ruminal fluid were collected at 0 and 3 h after feeding to determine protozoal counts. In Exp. 1, CIE1 and AEX decreased (P < 0.05) total DMI, concentrate DMI, and water intake. The increase (P < 0.05) in SPep+AA and the decrease (P < 0.05) in ammonia N when supplementing CIE1 suggest that deamination was inhibited. Treatment AEX increased (P < 0.05) the acetate to propionate ratio, which is less efficient for beef production. Treatment CIE1 increased (P < 0.05) counts of holotrichs. Effects of AEX and CIE1 were not additive for many of the measured metabolites. In Exp. 2, treatments had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA concentration, and butyrate proportion. The capsicum oil treatment increased (P < 0.05) DMI, water intake, and SPep+AA N concentration and decreased (P < 0.05) acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA concentration, and large peptide N concentration. The cinnamaldehyde (0.6 g/d) and eugenol (0.3 g/d) treatment decreased (P < 0.05) water intake, acetate proportion, branched-chain VFA, L

  10. Fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation for food waste treatment and fermentation feedstock preparation.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-01

    Potential of fungal hydrolysis in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae as a food waste treatment process and for preparation of fermentation feedstock has been investigated. By fungal hydrolysis, 80-90% of the initial amount of waste was reduced and degraded within 36-48 h into glucose, free amino nitrogen (FAN) and phosphate. Experiments revealed that 80-90% of starch can be converted into glucose and highest concentration of FAN obtained, when solid mashes of A. awamori and A. oryzae are successively added to fermentations at an interval of 24h. A maximal solid-to-liquid ratio of 43.2% (w/v) of food waste has been tested without a negative impact on releases of glucose, FAN and phosphate, and final concentrations of 143 g L(-1), 1.8 g L(-1) and 1.6 g L(-1) were obtained in the hydrolysate, respectively. Additionally, fungal hydrolysis as an alternative to conventional treatments for utilization of food waste is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  12. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  13. Effects of inulin or yeast cell-wall extract on nutrient digestibility, fecal fermentative end-product concentrations, and blood metabolite concentrations in adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Duclos, Laura M; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-07-01

    To determine the effects of raw meat-based diets with and without inulin or yeast cell-wall (YCW) extract on macronutrient digestibility, blood cell counts, serum metabolite concentrations, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in healthy adult dogs. 6 healthy adult spayed female dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.5 ± 0.5 years; mean body weight, 8.5 ± 0.5 kg). Dogs were fed each of the following 6 diets for 21 days, the order of which was randomly assigned in a Latin square design: beef control, beef and 1.4% inulin, beef and 1.4% YCW extract, chicken control, chicken and 1.4% inulin, and chicken and 1.4% YCW extract. Each diet trial consisted of a phase for diet adaptation (days 0 to 14) and a phase for measurement of urine and fecal output and content (days 15 to 20). On day 21, food was withheld for blood sample collection. Afterward, the next diet trial began immediately. All dogs maintained desirable fecal quality characteristics and produced low fecal volume. All diets were highly digestible (protein digestibility > 88%; fat digestibility > 97%). Differences in fermentative end-product concentrations among all diets were minor, but a significant increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations was evident when dogs were fed beef-based diets with inulin and YCW extract. Fecal spermine concentrations were higher with diets containing inulin and YCW extract than with control diets. Blood cell counts and serum metabolite values were within reference limits after each trial. All diets resulted in maintenance of nitrogen balance. Results suggested the raw meat-based diets evaluated were highly digestible in dogs. The increase in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations achieved when inulin and YCW extract were included may be beneficial to canine health.

  14. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  15. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  16. Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinfeng; Huang, Quanfei; Gao, Dongying; Wang, Junyi; Lang, Yongshan; Liu, Tieyan; Li, Bo; Bai, Zetao; Luis Goicoechea, Jose; Liang, Chengzhi; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Wenli; Sun, Shouhong; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Lu; Song, Chengli; Wang, Meijiao; Shi, Jinfeng; Liu, Geng; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Heling; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Qiulin; An, Na; Chen, Yan; Cai, Qingle; Wang, Bo; Liu, Binghang; Min, Jiumeng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Honglong; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Ye; Song, Wenqin; Jiang, Jiming; Jackson, Scott A.; Wing, Rod A.; Wang, Jun; Chen, Mingsheng

    2013-01-01

    The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza. PMID:23481403

  17. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production from Xylose with Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RLC41-6 Breeding by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingge; Fan, Yonghong; Li, Wen; Wang, Dongmei; Wu, Yuejin; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-10-01

    In order to obtain an industrial strain with a higher L(+)-lactic acid yield, the strain Rhizopus oryzae PW352 was mutated by means of nitrogen ion beam implantation and the mutant strain Rhizopus oryzae RLC41-6 was obtained. An experimental finding was made in surprise that Rhizopus oryzae mutant RLC41-6 is not only an L(+)-lactic acid producer from corn starch but also an efficient producer of L(+)-lactic acid from xylose. Under optimal conditions, the production of L(+)-lactic acid from 100 g/L xylose reached 77.39 g/L after 144 h fed-batch fermentation. A high mutation rate and a wide mutation spectrum of low-energy ion implantation were observed in the experiment.

  18. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Yijun; Yang, Lirong; Lin, Jianping; Cen, Peilin

    2014-07-15

    Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain during the co

  19. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  20. Fermented wheat germ extract induces apoptosis and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in tumor T and B cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Hidvégi, Maté; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ion, Gabriela; Demydenko, Dmytro; Tömösközi-Farkas, Rita; Vizler, Csaba; Telekes, András; Resetar, Akos; Monostori, Eva

    2002-03-01

    The fermented wheat germ extract (code name: MSC, trade name: Avemar), with standardized benzoquinone content has been shown to inhibit tumor propagation and metastases formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the anti-tumor effect of MSC. Therefore, we have designed in vitro model experiments using T and B tumor lymphocytic cell lines. Tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were examined using immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and cytofluorimetry by means of Ca2+ sensitive fluorescence dyes, Fluo-3AM and FuraRed-AM, respectively. Apoptosis was measured with cytofluorimetry by staining the DNA with propidium iodide and detecting the cell population. The level of the cell surface MHC class I molecules was analysed with indirect immunofluorescence on cytofluorimeter using a monoclonal antibody to the non-polymorphic region of the human MHC class I. MSC stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the influx of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Prominent apoptosis of 20-40% was detected upon 24 h of MSC treatment of the cell lines. As a result of the MSC treatment, the amount of the cell surface MHC class I proteins was downregulated by 70-85% compared to the non-stimulated control. MSC did not induce a similar degree of apoptosis in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inhibition of the cellular tyrosine phosphatase activity or Ca2+ influx resulted in the opposite effect increasing or diminishing the Avemar induced apoptosis as well as the MHC class I downregulation, respectively. A benzoquinone component (2,6-dimethoxi-p-benzoquinone) in MSC induced similar apoptosis and downregulation of the MHC class I molecules in the tumor T and B cell lines to that of MSC. These results suggest that MSC acts on lymphoid tumor cells by reducing MHC class I expression

  1. Insecticidal and oviposition deterrent properties of some spices against coleopteran beetle, Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kalpana C; Devi, Sumithra S

    2013-06-01

    Eighteen spices were screened for their insecticidal potential and antiovipositional properties against the rice weevil- Sitophilus oryzae-a serious insect pest of stored food grains. The bioefficacy of the powders and hexane extracts of selected spices were determined by assessing the toxicity, effect on F1 progeny, contact toxicity, persistence and seed viability. Responses varied with the spices, dosage and exposure time. Powders of mace and pepper, at 1% level were highly effective resulting in total mortality of S. oryzae by one week followed by nutmeg and clove with 100% mortality and cinnamon and star anise with 90% mortality at 5% concentration. These spices also completely inhibited F1 progeny. The hexane extracts of these spices at 1,000 ppm showed insecticidal activity, with pepper extract recording 100% mortality by 5 days. S. oryzae was susceptible to clove oil resulting in 92% mortality. Mortality was 51.63% in nutmeg, 66.6% in cinnamon, and 79.8% in case of mace and star anise. Hexane extracts of star anise, cinnamon and clove at 0.59 μl/cm(2) on filter paper discs induced 100% mortality by 72 h. These spices offered protection to wheat up to 9 months without affecting seed germination thereby showing promise as grain protectants.

  2. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification and characterization of a thermostable hypothetical xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae HML366.

    PubMed

    He, Haiyan; Qin, Yongling; Li, Nan; Chen, Guiguang; Liang, Zhiqun

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae HML366 in sugar cane bagasse was subjected to ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography, and two xylanases, XynH1 and XynH2, were purified. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that XynH1 is identical to the hypothetical A. oryzae RIB40 protein XP_001826985.1, with a molecular weight of 33.671 kDa. Likewise, XynH2 was identified as xylanase XynF1 with a molecular weight of 35.402 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that XynH1 belongs to glycosyl hydrolases family 10. The specific activity of XynH1 was measured at 476.9 U/mg. Optimal xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0, and enzyme remained active within pH 4.0-10.0 and at a temperature below 70 °C. Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), and K(+) enhanced the XynH1 xylanase activity to 146, 122, 114, and 108%, respectively. XynH1 hydrolyzed Birchwood xylan and Larchwood xylan effectively. The K m and V max of XynH1 values determined were 1.16 mM and 336 μmol/min/mg with Birchwood xylan as the substrate. A. oryzae HML366 xylanase XynH1 showed superior heat and pH tolerance, therefore may have significant applications in paper and biofuel industries. These studies constitute the first investigation of the xylanase activities of the hypothetical protein XP_001826985.1 form A. oryzae.

  4. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  7. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-06-20

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.

  8. The ameliorative effect of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice extracts on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation underlie the major pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Antioxidants are known to protect against the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, a traditional Chinese medicine as well as a health food, includes multifunctional metabolites. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the antioxidant-containing M. purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice extract (extracted with 50% ethanol, so called R50E) in 6-hydrodopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, treatment with R50E reduced 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. In vivo, two doses of R50E (5.5 and 11.0 mg kg(-1)) were administered for a period of 28 days following 6-OHDA-induced lesioning. The administration of R50E reduced parkinsonian motor dysfunction and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons present in 6-OHDA-induced lesioned rats. Moreover, the administration of R50E reversed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and promoted the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase via down-regulation of p47 phox, NOX1, and NOX2 expression in the 6-OHDA-lesion rats. Furthermore, treatment with R50E attenuated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels in the 6-OHDA-lesion rats. In conclusion, R50E may prevent neurodegeneration via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for PD treatment. This is the first study for evaluating the neuroprotective effects of red mold fermented products in PD models.

  9. Genomic comparison between Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, using suppression-subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Soto-Suárez, Mauricio; González, Carolina; Piégu, Benoît; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2010-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) cause bacterial diseases in rice: leaf blight and leaf streak, respectively. Although both the Asian and the African strains of Xoo induce similar symptoms, they are genetically different, with the African Xoo strains being more closely related to the Asian Xoc. To identify the sequences responsible for differences between African and Asian Xoo strains and their relatedness to Xoc strains, a suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) procedure was performed, using the African Xoo MAI1 strain as a tester and the Philippine Xoo PXO86 strain and Xoc BLS256 strain as drivers. A nonredundant set of 134 sequences from MAI1 was generated. Several DNA fragments isolated by SSH were similar to genes of unknown function, hypothetical proteins, genes related to the type III secretion system, and other pathogenicity-related genes. The specificity of various fragments was validated by Southern blot analysis. SSH sequences were compared with several xanthomonad genomes. In silico analysis revealed SSH sequences as specific to strain MAI1, revealing their potential as specific markers for further epidemiological and diagnostic studies. SSH proved to be a useful method for rapidly identifying specific genes among closely related X. oryzae strains.

  10. Analysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon.

    PubMed

    Nurdin, Samsu U; Le Leu, Richard K; Young, Graeme P; Stangoulis, James C R; Christophersen, Claus T; Abbott, Catherine A

    2017-04-03

    Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer.

  11. Analysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Nurdin, Samsu U.; Le Leu, Richard K.; Young, Graeme P.; Stangoulis, James C. R.; Christophersen, Claus T.; Abbott, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer. PMID:28368356

  12. Antimicrobial peptide melittin against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen in rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Li, Caiyun; Li, Man; Zong, Xicui; Han, Dongju; Chen, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a destructive bacterial disease of rice, and the development of an environmentally safe bactericide is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides, as antibacterial sources, may play important roles in bactericide development. In the present study, we found that the antimicrobial peptide melittin had the desired antibacterial activity against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The antibacterial mechanism was investigated by examining its effects on cell membranes, energy metabolism, and nucleic acid, and protein synthesis. The antibacterial effects arose from its ability to interact with the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane by making holes and channels, resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic content. Additionally, melittin is able to permeabilize bacterial membranes and reach the cytoplasm, indicating that there are multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial action. DNA/RNA binding assay suggests that melittin may inhibit macromolecular biosynthesis by binding intracellular targets, such as DNA or RNA, and that those two modes eventually lead to bacterial cell death. Melittin can inhibit X. oryzae pv. oryzae from spreading, alleviating the disease symptoms, which indicated that melittin may have potential applications in plant protection.

  13. Molecular analysis of the hrp gene cluster in Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10859.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee-Jung; Park, Young-Jin; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Yeong-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Song, Eun-Sung; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Moo

    2008-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight. The plant pathogenic bacterium X. oryzae pv. oryzae expresses a type III secretion system that is necessary for both the pathogenicity in susceptible hosts and the induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants. This specialized protein transport system is encoded by a 32.18kb hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster. The hrp gene cluster is composed of nine hrp, nine hrc (hrp conserved) and eight hpa (hrp-associated) genes and is controlled by HrpG and HrpX, which are known as regulators of the hrp gene cluster. Before mutational analysis of these hrp genes, the transcriptional linkages of the core region of the hrp gene cluster from hpaB to hrcC of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10859 was determined and the non-polarity of EZTn5 insertional mutagenesis was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenicity assays of these non-polar hrp mutants were carried out on the susceptible rice cultivar, Milyang-23. According to the results of these assays, all hrp-hrc, except hrpF, and hpaB mutants lost their pathogenicity, which indicates that most hrp-hrc genes encode essential pathogenicity factors. On the other hand, most hpa mutants showed decreased virulence in a different pattern, i.e., hpa genes are not essential but are important for pathogenicity.

  14. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  16. Enhancement and modeling of microparticle-added Rhizopus oryzae lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan Bugra; Demirci, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid has a wide industrial application area and can be produced by fungal strains. However, excessive bulk growth form of fungi during the fermentations is a major problem, which limits the fermentation performance. Microparticles are excellent tools to prevent bulk fungal growth and provide homogenized fermentation broth to increase uniformity and the prediction performance of the models. Therefore, in this study, addition of aluminum oxide and talcum microparticles into fermentations was evaluated to enhance the production of lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. The results showed that the bulk fungal growth was prevented and the lactic acid concentration increased from 6.02 to 13.88 and 24.01 g/L, when 15 g/L of aluminum oxide or 10 g/L of talcum was used, respectively, in the shake-flask fermentations. Additionally, substrate concentration, pH, and agitation were optimized in the bioreactors using response surface methodology, and optimum values were determined as 126 g/L of glucose, 6.22 pH, and 387 rpm, respectively. Under these conditions, lactic acid production further increased to 75.1 ± 1.5 g/L with 10 g/L of talcum addition. Also, lactic acid production and glucose consumption in the batch fermentation were successfully modeled with modified Gompertz model and modified logistic model. RMSE and MAE values for lactic acid production were calculated as 2.279 and 1.498 for the modified Gompertz model; 3.6 and 4.056 for the modified logistic model. Additionally, modified logistic model predicted glucose consumption with -2.088 MAE and 2.868 RMSE, whereas these values were calculated as 2.035 and 3.946 for the modified Gompertz model.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and A. oryzae 100-8 strains: Towards the production of different soy sauce flavors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guozhong; Hou, Lihua; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-07-16

    Aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. We present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain A100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, with 134 spots being confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). There was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots, and at least a two-fold decrease for 163 spots, in strain A100-8 when compared to 3.042. Further analysis showed that 63 of the more abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle; 43 more abundant proteins and 10 less abundant proteins were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism; two of the more abundant proteins were involved in vitamin biosynthesis; and five of the more abundant proteins and four of the less abundant proteins were related to secondary metabolites. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of six typical genes we selected were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there may be a relationship between DEPs and the flavor formation mechanism in A. oryzae. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome sequence and rapid evolution of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Steven L; Sommer, Daniel D; Schatz, Michael C; Phillippy, Adam M; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Delcher, Arthur L; Kelley, David; Madupu, Ramana; Puiu, Daniela; Radune, Diana; Shumway, Martin; Trapnell, Cole; Aparna, Gudlur; Jha, Gopaljee; Pandey, Alok; Patil, Prabhu B; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Meyer, Damien F; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valerie; Koebnik, Ralf; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Won Lee, Sang; Ronald, Pamela C; Sonti, Ramesh V; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Leach, Jan E; White, Frank F; Bogdanove, Adam J

    2008-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. Results The PXO99A genome is a single circular chromosome of 5,240,075 bp, considerably longer than the genomes of the other strains (4,941,439 bp and 4,940,217 bp, respectively), and it contains 5083 protein-coding genes, including 87 not found in KACC10331 or MAFF311018. PXO99A contains a greater number of virulence-associated transcription activator-like effector genes and has at least ten major chromosomal rearrangements relative to KACC10331 and MAFF311018. PXO99A contains numerous copies of diverse insertion sequence elements, members of which are associated with 7 out of 10 of the major rearrangements. A rapidly-evolving CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) region contains evidence of dozens of phage infections unique to the PXO99A lineage. PXO99A also contains a unique, near-perfect tandem repeat of 212 kilobases close to the replication terminus. Conclusion Our results provide striking evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for strain-specific adaptations of this pathogen that help to explain the extraordinary diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae genotypes and races that have been isolated from around the world. PMID:18452608

  19. Identification of novel type III secretion effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Ayako; Takaoka, Minako; Sanada, Harumi; Noguchi, Yukari; Oku, Takashi; Tsuno, Kazunori; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Tsuge, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion (T3S) system. Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors, 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria: i) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria, ii) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX, or iii) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae. Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells, 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner. Of these 16 proteins, nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not. Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp.; however, some were specific to X. oryzae. Interestingly, all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner, suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system. In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, HpaB and HpaC (HpaP in X. oryzae pv. oryzae) have a central role in recruiting T3S substrates to the secretion apparatus. Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB() and HpaP() mutant strains, indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors.

  20. Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jillian M.; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R.; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A.; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Verdier, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all a