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Sample records for os aliados 1961-1968

  1. 1961-1968 New Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Richmond, IN.

    137 NAPPA colleges and universities provided data for this summary. Projects are summarized by thirteen building classifications. Under each classification the following information headings are used--(1) name of institution, (2) project completion date, (3) gross square feet, (4) net assignable area, (5) construction costs, (6) number of stories,…

  2. Os trigonum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nault, Marie-Lyne; Kocher, Mininder S; Micheli, Lyle J

    2014-09-01

    Os trigonum syndrome is the result of an overuse injury of the posterior ankle caused by repetitive plantar flexion stress. It is predominantly seen in ballet dancers and soccer players and is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exacerbated posterior ankle pain while dancing on pointe or demi-pointe or while doing push-off maneuvers. Symptoms may improve with rest or activity modification. Imaging studies, including a lateral radiographic view of the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, will typically reveal the os trigonum between the posterior tibial lip and calcaneus. If an os trigonum is absent on radiography, an MRI may reveal scar tissue behind the posterior talus, a condition associated with similar symptoms. Os trigonum syndrome is often associated with pathology of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Treatment begins with nonsurgical measures. In addition to physical therapy, symptomatic athletes may need surgical excision of os trigonum secondary to unavoidable plantar flexion associated with their sport. This surgery can be performed using open or arthroscopic approaches.

  3. OS-10 Payload Provisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Hempsell, C. M.

    The OS-10 is a small space station concept which is intended for commercial development and sale on the open market. It is designed to be operated as a “shelter”; that is for most of its in orbit life it operates unmanned but is supported by periodic manned servicing visits. This pattern of utilisation and the expected customer requirements led to a different approach to the provision of payload facilities when compared with past manned orbiting laboratories. The paper outlines these facilities and explains the rationale for their inclusion. While it is outside the scope of the paper to fully cover and justify the commercial and marketing aspects of the OS-10 project, some discussion of the background assumptions is required to appreciate their impact on the technical approaches.

  4. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    writes a cache bank block of data to USB controller .......34 Fig. 29 Process stack example...Architecture Block Diagram Data Bus Program Address Bus Data Address Bus Read/ Write Program Memory Extended Harvard Processor Architecture Program...Bus Data Memory Data Address Bus Read/ Write Data Address Bus Read/ Write Register Mem Pipeline State Mem OS Friendly Architecture B us se s B us se

  5. Symptomatic os infranaviculare.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Roh, Kwon Jae

    2013-06-01

    The author observed a new accessory bone of the foot in the distal portion of navicular, which articulated with the medial cuneiform and the intermediate cuneiform, and named it os infranaviculare. A degenerative change was observed between the accessory bone and the navicular; this caused midfoot pain to the patient during weight-bearing. Thus, the patient was treated by excision of the accessory bone. The symptom was relieved at one-year postoperative.

  6. Symptomatic Os Infranaviculare

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kwon Jae

    2013-01-01

    The author observed a new accessory bone of the foot in the distal portion of navicular, which articulated with the medial cuneiform and the intermediate cuneiform, and named it os infranaviculare. A degenerative change was observed between the accessory bone and the navicular; this caused midfoot pain to the patient during weight-bearing. Thus, the patient was treated by excision of the accessory bone. The symptom was relieved at one-year postoperative. PMID:23730481

  7. CIAO? ADiOS!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Andreas

    At the New Horizons in Globular Cluster Astronomy conference (Padova, June 2002), two members of the VLT globular cluster team presented different views on the importance of heavy-element sedimentation in Population II stars: ``The lack of evidence for depletion of Fe and Li in the atmospheres of globular cluster subgiants led some people to suspect that, for unknown reasons, Population II stars are not affected by this mechanism.'' \\citep{Castellani_2003} and ``There should be some mechanism that prevents sedimentation.'' \\citep{Gratton_2003}. In this review, I will argue that the scepticism behind both these statements is justified. We recently revisited the results on sedimentation in NGC 6397 stars presented by {\\citet{Gratton_etal_2001}} using higher-quality VLT/FLAMES-UVES data \\citep{Korn_etal_2006,Korn_etal_2007}. Element-specific abundance trends were identified which agree with atomic-diffusion predictions, if turbulent mixing below the convective envelope is accounted for in a parametrized way. Have we thus detected signatures of Atomic Diffusion in Old Stars (ADiOS)? Or are these trends mere artefacts of Conspiring Inaccuracies in Abundance Observations (CIAO)?

  8. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  9. 187Os/186Os in Lunar and Meteoritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birck, J. L.; Allegre, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    The unique potentiallity of the ^187Re-^1870s radiochronometer stems from the chemical properties of the 2 elements. Their siderophilic nature has made the dating of the metal phase of iron meteorites and chondrites possible [1,2]. In silicate crystallization or melting, Os behaves as a strongly compatible element [3]. For Re the results hereunder show that its behavior is highly variable, depending on context. The development of the highly sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry [4,5] made possible the extensive analysis of silicate materials. We developed a chemical separation method allowing the analysis of 0,5 g of silicate with an Os blank of 0.3 pg (1pg=10^-12 g). The isotopic measurement of Os has a typical precision of a few permil for 1 pg of Os. A variety of samples has been investigated. Iron Meteorites: The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the history of Kodaikanal. The silicate inclusions of this meteorite were reset at 3.7 Ga for both the Rb-Sr and the U-Pb chronometers [6,7]. The data from Coahuila, Canyon Diablo, Tlacotepec, and North Chile plot within 1% on the same isochron along with 3 samples from 2 locations inside the meteorite of Kodaikanal. As a consequence the Kodaikanal parent body did not form at 3.7 Ga but at about the same time as the parent bodies of the the majority of the other iron meteorites (~4.5 Ga). The only difference is that Kodaikanal suffered a strong secondary event at 3.7 Ga, which reset Rb/Sr and U-Pb chronometers but did not fractionate the Re/Os ratio. This result has already been suggested by our earlier work [8]. The St Severin Chondrite: A bulk sample and several batches of the metal separated from this chondrite were analysed. They plot on the iron meteorite isochron. However this metal is heterogeneous in Re/Os by a factor of at least 2 and indicates an uncomplete homogeinization of Re/Os between metal grains during parent body metamorphism. Basaltic Materials: Basaltic

  10. High-precision measurement of (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os: isobaric oxide corrections with in-run measured oxygen isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhu-Yin; Li, Chao-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Xu, Jun-Jie; Di, Yan-Kun; Guo, Jing-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel method for high precision measurement of (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os ratios, applying isobaric oxide interference correction based on in-run measurements of oxygen isotopic ratios. For this purpose, we set up a static data collection routine to measure the main Os(16)O3(-) ion beams with Faraday cups connected to conventional 10(11) amplifiers, and (192)Os(16)O2(17)O(-) and (192)Os(16)O2(18)O(-) ion beams with Faraday cups connected to 10(12) amplifiers. Because of the limited number of Faraday cups, we did not measure (184)Os(16)O3(-) and (189)Os(16)O3(-) simultaneously in-run, but the analytical setup had no significant influence on final (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os data. By analyzing UMd, DROsS, an in-house Os solution standard, and several rock reference materials, including WPR-1, WMS-1a, and Gpt-5, the in-run measured oxygen isotopic ratios were proven to present accurate Os isotopic data. However, (186)Os/(188)Os and (187)Os/(188)Os data obtained with in-run O isotopic compositions for the solution standards and rock reference materials show minimal improvement in internal and external precision, compared to the conventional oxygen correction method. We concluded that, the small variations of oxygen isotopes during OsO3(-) analytical sessions are probably not the main source of error for high precision Os isotopic analysis. Nevertheless, use of run-specific O isotopic compositions is still a better choice for Os isotopic data reduction and eliminates the requirement of extra measurements of the oxygen isotopic ratios.

  11. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  12. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Kristie A

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. PMID:22224150

  13. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0015 Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis Gerwin Klein NATIONAL ICT AUSTRALIA LIMITED Final Report 02/14/2017 DISTRIBUTION A...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL ICT AUSTRALIA LIMITED L 5 13 GARDEN ST EVELEIGH, 2015 AU 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...sharing infrastructure. The typical approach to proof trans- fer in the past has involved engineering a one-off proof-trace based solution fit to the task

  14. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  15. Gouty os trigonum tarsi: case report.

    PubMed

    Lai, P L; Yang, W E; Chen, W J; Lin, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Os trigonum tarsi is found in 7% of the world adult population. However, it rarely causes symptoms. The majority of patients with os trigonum tarsi are found incidentally. This condition is often found in ballet dancers, javelin throwers and soccer players. It rarely produces symptoms in normally active adults. The etiology of os trigonum syndrome is impingement of an unfused ossicle or a fractured posterior lateral tubercle of talus over the posterior rim of tibial plafond. We present a case of os trigonum syndrome in a young man. His posterior heel pain was due to tophaceous gout around the os trigonum tarsi, instead of the common pathogenesis of repeated hyperflexion of the ankle joint. Pictures of the specimen showed marked giant cell reaction which resulted in pseudotumor formation. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of os trigonum tarsi and gout and present the treatment of our patient.

  16. The Empathic Operating System (emOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-15

    The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical research equipment...Report: The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Report Title Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical...C-0043 Proposal number: 62850-LS-DRP Project title: “The Empathic Operating System ( emOS )” Contract performance period: January 1, 2016 – April 7

  17. Neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os for the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Masaki, T.; Nagai, Y.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2007-08-15

    Discrete as well as continuum {gamma}-ray energy spectra from the neutron capture by {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os have been taken for the first time at 5{<=}E{sub n}{<=}90 keV by an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The detection of a weak discrete {gamma}-ray, about 0.5% of total {gamma}-ray strength, demonstrates the high sensitivity of the present measurement. The energy spectra enabled us to accurately determine the reaction cross sections with a small systematic uncertainty. Based on the new cross sections, we reestimate on the basis of a careful reaction cross section calculation the correction factor F{sub {sigma}} for the neutron capture on the 9.75-keV first excited state in {sup 187}Os as a function of stellar temperature, as required to derive the age of the galaxy within the Re-Os chronology.

  18. Osmium uptake, distribution, and 187Os/188Os and 187Re/188Os compositions in Phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus: Implications for determining the 187Os/188Os composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racionero-Gómez, B.; Sproson, A. D.; Selby, D.; Gannoun, A.; Gröcke, D. R.; Greenwell, H. C.; Burton, K. W.

    2017-02-01

    The osmium isotopic composition (187Os/188Os) of seawater reflects the balance of input from mantle-, continental- and anthropogenic-derived sources. This study utilizes the Phaeophyceae, Fucus vesiculosus, to analyse its Os abundance and uptake, as well as to assess if macroalgae records the Os isotope composition of the seawater in which it lives. The data demonstrates that Os is not located in one specific biological structure within macroalgae, but is found throughout the organism. Osmium uptake was measured by culturing F. vesiculosus non-fertile tips with different concentrations of Os with a known 187Os/188Os composition (∼0.16), which is significantly different from the background isotopic composition of local seawater (∼0.94). The Os abundance of cultured non-fertile tips show a positive correlation to the concentration of the Os doped seawater. Moreover, the 187Os/188Os composition of the seaweed equalled that of the culture medium, strongly confirming the possible use of macroalgae as a biological proxy for the Os isotopic composition of the seawater.

  19. Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Verhoeff, N I; Chen, Z; Chen, S; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, P B F

    2015-10-01

    Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator.

  20. Neutron capture and inelastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os and the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Masaki, T.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2008-05-21

    We measured the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,189}Os taking for the first time their pulse height spectra for neutrons between 5 and 90 keV by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The neutron inelastic scattering cross section for {sup 187}Os as well as the neutron elastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186,187}Os were also observed with use of {sup 6}Li-glass scintillation detectors with a small systematic uncertainty.

  1. Painful os acromiale presenting as septic shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Nirav S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Fayad, Laura M; McFarland, Edward G; Millin, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    The unfused acromial apophysis of an os acromiale typically is an undetected orthopedic anomaly with minimal symptoms. In some instances, however, pain and disability can result from motion between the unfused bone fragments. Trauma to the acromion can similarly displace the unfused os acromiale or can result in chronic symptoms of pain and swelling. In this article, we report the case of a young man who had a fractured os acromiale secondary to trauma and presented with the signs and symptoms of a septic glenohumeral joint.

  2. Os subtibiale: Mimicking medial malleolar fracture.

    PubMed

    Topal, Murat; Köse, Ahmet; Dinçer, Recep; Baran, Tuncay; Köse, Mehmet; Çağatay Engin, M

    2017-06-01

    There are numerous sesamoids and accessory ossicles around the foot which can easily be misdiagnosed as fractures. Os subtibiale is a very rare normal variant of the medial malleolus which is usually diagnosed incidentally in routine ankle radiographs. In this report, we present a case series of 3 patients with os subtibiale who were admitted to the emergency department with ankle sprains and misdiagnosed as medial malleolar fractures. We would like to raise awareness to the very rare and usually asymptomatic os subtibiale as a diagnostic pitfall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracking the Hirnantian glaciation using Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Alexander J.; Selby, David; Gröcke, Darren R.

    2010-05-01

    Here we present initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) values integrated with δ13Corg for the first Paleozoic section - the Ordovician/Silurian boundary GSSP at Dob's Linn, Scotland. Our 187Os/188Os data tracks major changes in climate that occurred during the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian glaciation), which coincides with the second largest known mass extinction. During the complanatus and early anceps Biozones Osi values increase from 0.28-1.08. This provides evidence for a period of increased silicate weathering of radiogenic continental crust, likely from the Caledonian Orogen. This increase in weathering was likely the driving mechanism for the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 and global cooling that resulted in the onset of the Hirnantian Glaciation. A decrease to less radiogenic Osi occurs at the base Hirnantian extraordinarius Biozone and coincides with the trend to more positive δ13Corg values that mark the onset of the Hirnantian Glaciation. The trend in Osi during this interval is ascribed to Hirnantian ice cover and reduced chemical weathering rates cutting the supply of radiogenic material to the Iapetus Ocean. The reduction in silicate weathering enabled atmospheric CO2 to return back to greenhouse levels, causing rapid deglaciation during the mid persculptus Biozone. This period is marked by an abrupt increase in Osi values from 0.6 to 1.08 over 19 cm of stratigraphy and coincides with the deglacial limb of the δ13Corg profile. We interpret the Osi data to reflect the leaching of exposed radiogenic 187Os/188Os bearing glacial deposits and increased weathering of radiogenic 187Os/188Os silicate terrane during the deglaciation. Previous workers have identified the Hirnantian glaciation primarily through δ13C stratigraphy. However, our Os isotope data indicate that an initial mechanism (i.e. increased silicate weathering) was the driving mechanism behind the Hirnantian Glaciation and subsequent mass extinction. Thus, by coupling Osi and δ13Corg proxies we provide the

  4. Intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum.

    PubMed

    Ercin, Ersin; Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Avsar, Serdar

    2012-01-16

    High levels of uric acid cause accumulation of monosodium urate crystals. This formation of masses is called tophus. Intraosseous tophus deposits are rare, even for patients with gout. We report an unusual case of intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum. The patient presented with ankle pain with no previous history of gout. On examination, tenderness on the posterior aspect of his ankle and limitation of plantarflexion was noted. Laboratory values were normal, except for an elevated serum uric acid value. Radiographs of the right ankle showed the presence of a large os trigonum with osteosclerotic changes, whereas magnetic resonance imaging showed intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum. Conservative therapy failed, and the patient was admitted for an endoscopic resection of the os trigonum.Intraosseous chalky crystals were detected during endoscopic resection of the os trigonum. The histological diagnosis was tophaceous gout. The underlying pathological mechanism of intraosseous tophi is uncertain. Penetration of urate crystals from the joint due to hyperuricemia may be the mechanism of deposition in this patient.When a patient with hyperuricemia presents with posterior ankle impingement symptoms, intraosseous tophus deposits should be included in the differential diagnosis. Posterior endoscopic excision may be an option for treating intraosseous lesions of the os trigonum because of good visualization, satisfactory excision, and rapid recovery time.

  5. The causes for geographical variations in OS187/OS186 at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turekian, K. K.; Esser, B. K.; Ravizza, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at Yale has approached the problem of the osmium isotopic composition of marine deposits formed in contact with both oxidized and reduced bottom waters. The measured (187) Os/(186) Os ratios of modern bulk sediment can be explained using mixing equations involving continental detrital, volcaniclastic, cosmogenic and hydrogeneous components. These studies show that sediments deposited under reducing marine conditions contain a hydrogenous component which is enriched in Re and has a radiogenic (187) Os/(186) Os ratio. The presence of such a hydrogenous component in the marine fish clay at Stevns Klint can account for the elevation of its (187) Os/(186) Os ration above the expected meteoritic value. Mass balance considerations require the Re/Os ratio of the phase precipitated from the terminal Cretaceous sea at Stevns Klint to have been about one tenth the value observed in contemporary deposits in the Black Sea, assuming Re has not been lost (or Os gained) subsequent to precipitation. In continental sections, the elevation of the (187) Os/(186) Os ratio in boundary layers may be due to precipitation from continental waters of crustally-derived radiogenic osmium either contemporaneous with the meteoritic (or mantle) osmium deposition or later during diagenesis.

  6. 187Os/188Os of boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, IODP Exp 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, D. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Godard, M.; Shervais, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone is an ideal laboratory in which to study the evolution of a subduction zone from its initiation to the development of modern-day arc volcanism. Boninite lavas were produced in the IBM forearc region during the early stages of subduction and are thought to have been generated by flux melting the previously depleted mantle wedge. Mariana forearc mantle peridotites record unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signatures (0.1193-0.1273) supporting the existence of variably depleted mantle in this region (Parkinson et al., 1998). In order to understand the connection between the regional mantle, slab-derived fluids, and the generation of boninites, Re-Os isotopic data were measured on subset of boninite-series lavas obtained during IODP Expedition 352. Preliminary age-corrected (48 Ma) 187Os/188Os isotopic data for boninite-series lavas (sites U1439C and U1442A) are unradiogenic to modestly radiogenic (0.1254-0.1390) compared to primitive mantle (0.1296), consistent with Os isotopic data from boninite sands from the Bonin Islands (0.1279-0.1382; Suzuki et al., 2011). The least radiogenic boninites have 187Os/188Os (< 0.1296) values consistent with average MORB mantle recorded globally by abyssal peridotites (0.1238 ± 0.0042; Rudnick & Walker, 2009). However, boninite lavas were not derived from the most refractory ancient mantle recorded by Mariana peridotites. Unradiogenic boninites generally have higher Os abundances (0.043-0.567 ppb), whereas more radiogenic boninites have low Os abundances (0.015-0.036). Due to their low Os abundances, the moderately radiogenic isotopic signatures may be the result of interaction with highly radiogenic seawater or incorporation of radiogenic sediment (e.g. Suzuki et al. 2011). However, the radiogenic values could also be the result of fluid flux from the subducting Pacific plate.

  7. Bilateral Symptomatic Os Epilunatum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mauler, Flavien; Rahm, Stefan; Schweizer, Andreas; Nagy, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background Accessory carpal ossicles may be the cause of atraumatic wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a fracture after a trauma. Case Description We report the case of a patient suffering with chronic, bilateral wrist pain without history of trauma. Sonographic examination showed a bilateral symptomatic os epilunatum, both of which were surgically resected, resulting in pain relief. Literature Review Os epilunatum is a rare entity that has been reported only in few cadaveric specimen. Clinical Relevance Os epilunatum is a rare accessory ossicle of the carpus that can cause this aggravating pain. Sonography enabled accurate diagnosis of this anomaly. Because of possible associated tear of the scapholunate ligament, we recommend intraoperative testing of the stability of the scapholunate joint. PMID:25709883

  8. Os isotopic composition of steels: Constraints on sources of Os in steel & crustal isotopic evolution of iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Metal contamination during sample processing is a potential concern in Os-isotope studies. We examined Os concentrations and Os isotopes in industrial steels. Samples include high Cr stainless steels (>10.5% Cr), low alloy steels (>=92% Fe) and high alloy steels (<92% Fe). The chief components used to make steel are iron ore, chromites and coke. Coke is derived from coals that have low Os concentration (~36 ppt) [1]. Chromites in steels are mined from chromitites, which have high average Os concentrations and mantle-like 187Os/188Os ratios (~88 ppb Os, 187Os/188Os ≈ 0.127×24) [2]. Iron ores used in US steel manufacturing derive chiefly from magnetites mined from iron-bearing formations such as Banded Iron Formations (BIF), which have median Os concentration of ~4.8 ppb and radiogenic 187Os/188Os ≈ 0.358×388 [3]. Os concentrations in the measured steels span a wide range, from 0.03 to 22 ppb. The 187Os/188Os ratios vary from 0.144-4.12. Such high Os concentrations and radiogenic isotopic compositions confirm that metal contamination can affect Os-isotope compositions during sample processing, particularly for low-[Os] samples. There is no correlation between C and Os concentration in steel, indicating that coke is not a major Os source in steels. Os concentrations in steels are positively correlated with Cr content, suggesting that chromite-derived Os dominates the Os budget in stainless steels. 187Os/188Os is negatively correlated with Cr content, ranging from 0.144-0.195 in high-Cr (>10.5 % Cr) steels but from 0.279-4.12 in low-Cr steels. In addition, there is a positive correlation between 1/Os and 187Os/188Os, consistent with two-component mixing of Os derived from magnetite ore and chromites. Lower Os concentrations in steels than expected from simple mixing of magnetite and chromitite suggest some volatile Os loss during smelting. Although the current data is limited, the 186Os-187Os trend defined by the steel analyses can be utilized to extrapolate

  9. NbOsSi and TaOsSi - Two new superconducting ternary osmium silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benndorf, Christopher; Heletta, Lukas; Heymann, Gunter; Huppertz, Hubert; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    The new equiatomic silicides NbOsSi and TaOsSi as well as ZrOsSi, TIrSi (T = Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) and TPtSi (T = Nb, Ta) were prepared from the elements by arc-melting. These silicides crystallize with the orthorhombic TiNiSi type structure, space group Pnma. Irregularly shaped crystals of ZrOsSi, NbOsSi, TaOsSi, ZrIrSi and HfIrSi were separated from the annealed samples and investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (a = 640.46(7), b = 404.07(5), c = 743.66(8) pm, wR2 = 0.0285, 390 F2 values, 20 variables for ZrOsSi; a = 629.78(6), b = 388.72(4), c = 727.48(7) pm, wR2 = 0.0350, 397 F2 values, 20 variables for NbOsSi, a = 626.80(6), b = 389.36(4), c = 726.22(7) pm, wR2 = 0.0501, 385 F2 values, 20 variables for TaOsSi, a = 653.48(8), b = 395.35(4), c = 739.19(8) pm, wR2 = 0.0427, 413 F2 values, 20 variables for ZrIrSi and a = 646.34(12), b = 393.57(7), c = 736.8(14) pm, wR2 = 0.0582, 371 F2 values, 20 variables for HfIrSi). The striking structural motifs in the new osmium compounds are three-dimensional [OsSi] networks (Os-Si: 240-251 pm) in which the osmium atoms have strongly distorted tetrahedral silicon coordination. High-pressure/high-temperature experiments (9.5 GPa/1520 K) on TaOsSi gave no hint for a structural phase transition. Temperature dependent measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and the electrical conductivity of NbOsSi and TaOsSi showed superconductivity below TC = 3.5 and 5.5 K, respectively. 29Si solid state MAS NMR investigations of the prepared silicides approved the structural models and showed a correlation between the observed 29Si resonance shifts and the electronegativity of the involved refractory metal.

  10. 186Os/188Os Isotopic Compositions of Peridotites: Constraints on Melt Depletion and Pt/Os Evolution of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Global correlations between Al2O3 and Pt/Os in mantle peridotites suggest that Pt behaves incompatibly relative to Os during partial melting [c.f., 1]. Because 190Pt decays to 186Os (t1/2 = 468 Ga), correlations between 186Os/188Os and peridotite fertility can be used to constrain the long-term Pt/Os evolution of the depleted mantle and the initial Pt/Os ratio of the primitive upper mantle (PUM). We examined 186Os/188Os in mantle peridotites from continental (Rio Grande Rift/Colorado Plateau) and oceanic (Lena Trough, Hawaiian Islands) settings that span a wide range in fertility (Al2O3 ~0.67-4.42 %) and 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1138-0.1305). The new data define a narrow range in 186Os/188Os (0.1198338 to 0.1198393, 2 SD~24 ppm), placing constraints on long-term Pt/Os variability in the DMM. 186Os/188Os is broadly correlated with indices of melt depletion including spinel Cr#, clinopyroxene Cr#, and clinopyroxene Yb content, consistent with the inferred relative compatibility of Pt and Os during partial melting. Extrapolation of the alumina-186Os/188Os trend to PUM alumina content (~4.5 wt% Al2O3; [2]) suggests a PUM 186Os/188Os of ~0.1198380±15, similar to the 186Os/188Os of H chondrites (~0.1198398±16; [3]). This 186Os/188Os value is consistent with a PUM Pt/Os of 1.8±0.3, similar to Pt/Os values measured in several classes of chondrites (Carbonaceous ~1.9±0.2, Ordinary ~2.0±0.3 and Enstatite ~1.9±0.2; [3]). Whereas ~84% of peridotites worldwide [excluding low-[Os] samples (<1 ppb Os) that may have been compromised by melt-rock reaction and/or weathering and alteration] with measured Pt/Os ratios have Pt/Os between 0.3 and 3.1 (the range permissible from 186Os/188Os variations for melt extraction from PUM at ~1.5 Ga), only ~36% fall between 1.3 and 2.2 (a narrower range consistent with an older ~4.5 Ga melt depletion age). This suggests that much of the observed Pt/Os variability in mantle peridotites is relatively recent. Close agreement between our inferred

  11. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Re-Os isotope systematics in black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: their chronology and role in the 187Os/ 188Os evolution of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1999-08-01

    Re and Os abundances and Os isotope systematics have been measured in a number of black shales sampled from outcrops and two underground phosphorite mines, Maldeota and Durmala, in the Lesser Himalaya. The Re and Os concentrations in these samples exhibit wide range, 0.2 to 264 ng/g and 0.02 to 13.5 ng/g, respectively, with a mean Re/Os of ˜25. The 187Os/ 188Os of these samples also show a broad range 1.02 to 11.6, with many of them far more radiogenic than the currently eroding continental crust. The black shales from the Maldeota and Durmala mines, collected a few meters above the Krol-Tal (Pc-C) boundary and occurring in the same stratigraphic horizon, yield 187Re- 187Os isochron ages of 554 ± 16 and 552 ± 22 Ma, respectively, consistent with fossil evidences and those assigned for the Pc-C boundary at various other locations. These results indicate closed system behaviour of Re and Os in these mine samples and reaffirm the validity of 187Re- 187Os pair to date organic-rich sediments. The age of these mine samples from the outer belt seems to be a few hundred millions of years younger than the preliminary Re-Os age of 839 ± 138 Ma for black shales from Theog, collected from the inner belt. These initial results lean toward the hypothesis that the inner belt sediments were deposited earlier than the outer belt; however, more analyses of black shales are needed to confirm this. The role of weathering black shales from the Himalaya in contributing to the Os isotope evolution of seawater over the past ˜25 Ma was assessed using a simple budget model for seawater Os and assuming values for Os fluxes and 187Os/ 188Os based on the available limited data on Os concentration and its 187Os/ 188Os in rivers and oceans. These calculations indicate that the required contributions from black shale weathering to account for the entire increase in oceanic 187Os/ 188Os over the past ˜16 Ma is difficult to satisfy by varying only the Os flux from HTP rivers ( 187Os/ 188Os

  13. Re Os elemental and isotopic systematics in crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, David; Creaser, Robert A.; Fowler, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of 12 worldwide oil samples show that Re and Os abundances are positively correlated with the asphaltene content of oil. Light oils with <1% asphaltene content have basically no measurable Re or Os. Within oil, Re and Os are present dominantly in the asphaltene fraction (>83%), with <14% Re and Os found in the maltene fraction, this distribution is similar to other trace metals such as V and Mo. Rhenium and Os could be present in oil as metalloporphyrin complexes, but given their abundance in the asphaltene component they are also likely bound by heteroatomic ligands. The 187Re/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os values in asphaltene calculated at the estimated time of oil generation (Os i) are similar to those of the whole oil, as expected from the elemental results. This suggests that the asphaltene fraction can be used to approximate the Re-Os isotopic compositions of the whole oil. Os isotopic compositions in oils show a considerable range, from 187Os/ 188Os of 1.9-6.0, and they correlate positively with the age of the proposed source rock. Re/Os ratios also show a large range and overlap the Re/Os ratios found in typical oil source rocks such as organic rich shale.

  14. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  15. Neutron capture studies on /sup 189/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.M.; Colvin, G.G.; Gelletly, W.; Warner, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive study of the level structure of /sup 189/Os has been carried out using the (n,..gamma..) and (n,e-) reactions. The use of the Average Resonance Capture technique ensures that the complete set of 1/2-, 3/2- states has been established up to 1500 keV in excitation energy and secondary ..gamma..-rays have been measured in singles and coincidence to build up the detailed level scheme. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. The Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion: Chemostratigraphy, cosmic dust flux and the Early Oligocene glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Tarun K.; Ravizza, Gregory E.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution records (ca. 100 kyr) of Os isotope composition ( 187Os / 188Os) in bulk sediments from two tropical Pacific sites (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219) capture the complete Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion and confirm that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum, earlier reported by Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210 (2003) 151-165], is a global feature. Using the astronomically tuned age models available for these sites, it is suggested that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum can be placed at 34.5 ± 0.1 Ma in the marine records. In addition, two other distinct features of the 187Os / 188Os excursion that are correlatable among sections are proposed as chemostratigraphic markers which can serve as age control points with a precision of ca. ± 0.1 Myr. We propose a speculative hypothesis that higher cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene may have contributed to global cooling and Early Oligocene glaciation (Oi-1) by supplying bio-essential trace elements to the oceans and thereby resulting in higher ocean productivity, enhanced burial of organic carbon and draw down of atmospheric CO 2. To determine if the hypothesis that enhanced cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene was a cause for the 187Os / 188Os excursion can be tested by using the paired bulk sediment and leachate Os isotope composition; 187Os / 188Os were also measured in sediment leachates. Results of analyses of leachates are inconsistent between the south Atlantic and the Pacific sites, and therefore do not yield a robust test of this hypothesis. Comparison of 187Os / 188Os records with high resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O records across the Eocene-Oligocene transition suggests that 187Os flux to the oceans decreased during cooling and ice growth leading to the Oi-1 glaciation, whereas subsequent decay of ice-sheets and deglacial weathering drove seawater 187Os / 188Os to higher values. Although the precise timing and magnitude of these changes in weathering fluxes

  17. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Alan D.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Strauss, Justin V.; Dudás, Francis Ö.; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post–Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  18. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alan D; Macdonald, Francis A; Strauss, Justin V; Dudás, Francis Ö; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-07

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post-Snowball Earth hothouse.

  19. Cooperative application/OS DRAM fault recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Heroux, Michael Allen; Hoemmen, Mark; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Exascale systems will present considerable fault-tolerance challenges to applications and system software. These systems are expected to suffer several hard and soft errors per day. Unfortunately, many fault-tolerance methods in use, such as rollback recovery, are unsuitable for many expected errors, for example DRAM failures. As a result, applications will need to address these resilience challenges to more effectively utilize future systems. In this paper, we describe work on a cross-layer application/OS framework to handle uncorrected memory errors. We illustrate the use of this framework through its integration with a new fault-tolerant iterative solver within the Trilinos library, and present initial convergence results.

  20. Sortilin is required for toxic action of Aβ oligomers (AβOs): extracellular AβOs trigger apoptosis, and intraneuronal AβOs impair degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Ayumi; Sato, Yota; Watabe, Daisuke; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Nakata, Takashi; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Oddo, Salvatore; Laferla, Frank M; Shoji, Mikio; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2012-12-10

    We investigated the pathological relevance of the "Aβ oligomer (AβO) cascade hypothesis" in 3xTg-AD mice. This study was also designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the toxic action of AβOs. To target the extracellular AβOs in vivo, a monoclonal antibody specific for AβOs was developed using a novel method. Monoclonal 72D9 was intravenously administered to aged 3xTg-AD mice bearing the human AD pathology to investigate the relevance of the AβO cascade hypothesis. To further identify the AβO-binding molecule on the cell surface, small interfering RNA (siRNA) for sortilin was transfected into SH-SY5Y cells. The sortilin-dependent molecular mechanism underlying toxic action of AβOs and/or AβO endocytosis was also assessed in cultured cortical neurons forming synapses. The 72D9 immunotherapy of aged 3xTg-AD mice revealed that extracellular and intraneuronal AβOs are related, and that intraneuronal AβOs act upstream of tau. We also found that extracellular AβOs first act as a sortilin ligand, and then induce p75(NTF)-mediated apoptosis, endocytosis-induced attenuation of autophagy, or accumulation of AβOs in autophagosomes. Taken together, these findings provide novel lines of evidence that sortilin governs the toxic action of extracellular AβOs, which affects the degradation and/or clearance of either intraneuronal AβOs or tau. Thus, therapeutic intervention targeting extracellular AβOs themselves or for preventing the interaction between intraneuronal AβOs and tau is a promising strategy to be developed for AD treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The auxin response factor, OsARF19, controls rice leaf angles through positively regulating OsGH3-5 and OsBRI1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, SaiNa; Wang, SuiKang; Xu, YanXia; Yu, ChenLiang; Shen, ChenJia; Qian, Qian; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) are important phytohormones for controlling lamina inclination implicated in plant architecture and grain yield. But the molecular mechanism of auxin and BR crosstalk for regulating lamina inclination remains unknown. Auxin response factors (ARFs) control various aspects of plant growth and development. We here report that OsARF19-overexpression rice lines show an enlarged lamina inclination due to increase of its adaxial cell division. OsARF19 is expressed in various organs including lamina joint and strongly induced by auxin and BR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that OsARF19 binds to the promoter of OsGH3-5 and brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (OsBRI1) directing their expression. OsGH3-5-overexpression lines show a similar phenotype as OsARF19-O1. Free auxin contents in the lamina joint of OsGH3-5-O1 or OsARF19-O1 are reduced. OsGH3-5 is localized at the endoplasmic retieulum (ER) matching reduction of the free auxin contents in OsGH3-5-O1. osarf19-TDNA and osgh3-5-Tos17 mutants without erected leaves show a function redundancy with other members of their gene family. OsARF19-overexpression lines are sensitive to exogenous BR treatment and alter the expressions of genes related to BR signalling. These findings provide novel insights into auxin and BR signalling, and might have significant implications for improving plant architecture of monocot crops.

  2. Os-187/Os-188 and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Apollo 17 Aphanitic Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; James, O. B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Generally chondritic relative abundances and high absolute abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) in Earth s upper mantle provide strong evidence that these elements were added to the Earth following the last major interaction between its metallic core and silicate fraction. So called "late accretion" may have added materials comprising as much as 0.8% of the total mass of the Earth and possibly a similar proportion of mass to the Moon. We have begun to study the chemical nature of late accreted materials to the Earth - Moon system by examining the HSE contained in lunar impact-melt rocks. The HSE contained in melt rocks were largely added to the Moon during the period of time from the origin of the lunar highlands crust (4.4- 4.5 Ga) to the end of the late bombardment period (ca. 3.9 Ga). These materials provide the only direct chemical link to the late accretionary period. The chemical fingerprints of the HSE in late accreted materials may enable us to ascertain under what conditions and where in the solar system the late accreted materials formed. The Os-187/Os-188 ratios (reflecting long-term Re/Os), coupled with ratios of other HSE, can be diagnostic for identifying the nature of the impactor. A critical issue, however, will be deconvolving the exogenous from indigenous components.

  3. [Investigate of DNA extraction of os cervi].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxue; Chen, Min; Cui, Guanghong; Tang, Shihuan; Huang, Luqi; He, Liqun; Xia, Ruixue

    2011-02-01

    To establish a convenient, practical and high efficient method of DNA extraction of os cervi, and lay the foundation of identification of animal bones. The bones of sika deer, red deer, cattle, dog and pig were used to extract DNA under different decalcification time (24,48,72 h) and decalcification temperature (4,25,37,56,70 degrees C), and extract method. It proved by experiments that demineralization process promotes the cracking of osteocyte. In a broad of decalcification time and temperature, DNA could be extracted from all bone samples successfully while the quantity varied slightly. Samples (about 0.1 g) decalcify with 0. mol x L(-1) EDTA at 4 degrees C for 24 h, then water-bath for 1 h after lysis buffer added, DNA extracted via the method above is of high quality and can be used for PCR.

  4. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  5. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  6. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Carbonates from Serpent Mound, Ohio: Implications for Re-Os Dating of Crustal Rocks and Ordovician Seawater Os Isotopic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, E.; Gaddis, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Eleven core samples of Ordovician carbonate rocks from within and nearby the Serpent Mound (Ohio) cryptoexplosion structure were analyzed for Re-Os isotopes to evaluate the potential role of a meteorite impact in the formation of the structure. The samples span a large range in measured 187Os/188Os from 0.714 to 6.083, and exhibit a strong linear correlation of 187Os/188Os vs. 187Re/188Os. The linear relationship is inconsistent with that expected for a meteorite-crust mixing trend, and is instead interpreted to have age significance. Although the data scatter slightly outside of analytical error, the linear trend can be interpreted as an errorchron with an age of 485 +/- 33 Ma. This age is consistent with previous estimates for these rocks based on paleostratigraphy, and indicates that the Re-Os isotope system is a potentially useful tool for dating crustal rocks that can be difficult to date by other methods. The initial 187Os/188Os indicated by the y-intercept on the Re-Os isochron diagram is 0.54 +/- 0.15, which may reflect the isotopic composition of seawater at the time of deposition. In this case, early Ordovician seawater was distinctly less radiogenic than seawater today, despite having similar Sr isotope signatures. The lower 187Os/188Os but similar 87Sr/86Sr in early Ordovician relative to present-day seawater might reflect the more rapid response of Os compared to Sr isotopes to a decreased continental input to seawater, as expected based on the relative residence times of Os and Sr in seawater (103-105 and 106 Ma, respectively; Levasseur et al., 1999; Oxburgh, 2001). Reduction in uplift and continental weathering rates due to waning Pan African orogenies, as has been proposed to explain a slow decrease in seawater 87Sr/86Sr that started during the early Ordovician (Qing et al., 1998), may explain the relatively unradiogenic Os in seawater at this time.

  7. Precise ReOs determinations and systematics of iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1996-08-01

    The ReOs system for samples of FeNi, sulphide, and phosphide from iron meteorites was investigated. Techniques were developed which yield reproducible analyses for Re/Os at the 2%‰ level and which permit complete isotopic exchange between sample and tracer, as is necessary for concentration measurements of Re and Os by isotope dilution. High precision osmium and rhenium isotope data have been obtained using negative ion thermal ionization, with ionization efficiencies of up to 10% for Os and 20% for Re, both for normals and for Re and Os extracted from the samples. Replicate analyses of Re/Os are in good agreement, within ±2.5%o. The results show a well defined correlation line on a 187Re- 187Os evolution diagram for iron meteorites from groups IAB, IIAB, IIIAB, IVA, and IVB, all taken together. This correlation line yields a slope of 0.07863 ± 0.00031 (2σ) and initial 187Os/ 188Os = 0.09560 ± 0.00018 (2σ). If the individual groups of iron meteorites for which there is sufficient dispersion in Re/Os are considered, data on the IIAB and on the IVA irons appear to indicate a difference in age of 60 ± 45 Ma, with the IVA group being older. This age difference is qualitatively the same as obtained for PdAg data but is larger. Sulphides from two IAB iron meteorites show extremely low concentrations of Re and Os and indicate that Re and Os are not partitioned into this phase during planetary differentiation. There is evidence for recent element remobilization or contamination, corresponding to relative enrichment of Re or loss of Os in the sulphides. Schreibersites contain small but significant amounts of Re and Os, with high Re/Os relative to the metal phases and with 187Os/ 188Os much more radiogenic than in the metal. Model ages for the Schreibersites are relatively young (4.3-3.5 AE) and indicate that the Schreibersites were open-systems for ReOs at least 0.5-1 AE after the original formation of the iron meteorites. It now appears possible to use

  8. Initial Os-isotopic composition of Os-Ir-Ru alloys from ultramafic massifs of the Polar Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Badanina, I. Yu.; Kostoyanov, A. I.

    2011-09-01

    This study firstly presents chemical and initial Os-isotopic compositions of Os-Ir-Ru minerals of two ultramafic formations of Polar Siberia, which are exemplified by Guli clinopyroxene-dunite massif of the Maimecha-Kotui Province and the Kunar dunite-harzburgite massif from the Chelyuskin ultramafic belt of the Taimyr Peninsula. The study employed a range of methods, including electron microprobe analysis, negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) and laser ablation attached to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA MC-ICP-MS). The majority of platinum-group minerals (PGM) from the Guli massif are Os-(Ir-Ru) solid solutions or Os-rich minerals. At Kunar, minerals of Ru-Os-Ir system (i.e., osmium, ruthenium, iridium and rutheniridosmine) dominate the PGM assemblage. The ruthenium trend in the mineral compositions is due to the formation of these minerals under high pressures and temperatures at considerable depths. The 187Os/188Os values of Os-rich minerals from the Guli massif range from 0.12309 ± 0.00002 to 0.12606 ± 0.00003 ( n = 168). The initial Os-isotopic composition of PGM from the central block of the Guli massif is characterized by the 187Os/188Os values, varying in the range 0.12404-0.12606. Osmiumrich minerals from the southwestern block of the Guli massif are characterized by the least "radiogenic" 187Os/188Os values (i.e., 0.12309-0.12341). Low relative to the chondritic universal reservoir (CHUR) 187Os/188Os values are indicative of a near-to-chondritic source of platinum-group elements (PGE). The most "productive" stage of PGM formation at Guli ( n = 121) is recorded in the time interval of 545-615 Ma. The older model 187Os/188Os ages of osmium minerals are characteristic of the southwestern block of the Guli massif (e.g., 745-760 Ma). The results of the initial Os-isotopic composition for Os-rich alloys are consistent with a model, in which PGM were formed during multi-stage melt depletion events in the mantle. This

  9. iOS and OS X Apps for Exploring Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies rapidly provide information following earthquakes. This timely information garners great public interest and provides a rich opportunity to engage students in discussion and analysis of earthquakes and tectonics. In this presentation I will describe a suite of iOS and Mac OS X apps that I use for teaching and that Penn State employs in outreach efforts in a small museum run by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. The iOS apps include a simple, global overview of earthquake activity, epicentral, designed for a quick review or event lookup. A more full-featured iPad app, epicentral-plus, includes a simple global overview along with views that allow a more detailed exploration of geographic regions of interest. In addition, epicentral-plus allows the user to monitor ground motions using seismic channel lists compatible with the IRIS web services. Some limited seismogram processing features are included to allow focus on appropriate signal bandwidths. A companion web site, which includes background material on earthquakes, and a blog that includes sample images and channel lists appropriate for monitoring earthquakes in regions of recent earthquake activity can be accessed through the a third panel in the app. I use epicentral-plus at the beginning of each earthquake seismology class to review recent earthquake activity and to stimulate students to formulate and to ask questions that lead to discussions of earthquake and tectonic processes. Less interactive OS X versions of the apps are used to display a global map of earthquake activity and seismograms in near real time in a small museum on the ground floor of the building hosting Penn State's Geoscience Department.

  10. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  11. 186Os-187Os and highly siderophile element abundance systematics of the mantle revealed by abyssal peridotites and Os-rich alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Walker, Richard J.; Warren, Jessica M.

    2017-03-01

    Abyssal peridotites are oceanic mantle fragments that were recently processed through ridges and represent residues of both modern and ancient melting. To constrain the nature and timing of melt depletion processes, and the composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Os isotope data for abyssal peridotites from three ocean basins, as well as for Os-rich alloys, primarily from Mesozoic ophiolites. These data are complemented by whole-rock highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), trace- and major-element abundances for the abyssal peridotites, which are from the Southwest Indian (SWIR), Central Indian (CIR), Mid-Atlantic (MAR) and Gakkel Ridges. The results reveal a limited role for melt refertilization or secondary alteration processes in modifying abyssal peridotite HSE compositions. The abyssal peridotites examined have experienced variable melt depletion (2% to >16%), which occurred >0.5 Ga ago for some samples. Abyssal peridotites typically exhibit low Pd/Ir and, combined with high-degrees of estimated total melt extraction, imply that they were relatively refractory residues prior to incorporation into their present ridge setting. Recent partial melting processes and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) generation therefore played a limited role in the chemical evolution of their precursor mantle domains. The results confirm that many abyssal peridotites are not simple residues of recent MORB source melting, having a more complex and long-lived depletion history. Peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge, SWIR, CIR and MAR indicate that the depleted MORB mantle has 186Os/188Os of 0.1198356 ± 21 (2SD). The Phanerozoic Os-rich alloys yield an average 186Os/188Os within uncertainty of abyssal peridotites (0.1198361 ± 20). Melt depletion trends defined between Os isotopes and melt extraction indices (e.g., Al2O3) allow an estimate of the primitive mantle (PM) composition, using only abyssal peridotites. This yields 187Os/188Os (0.1292 ± 25), and 186Os

  12. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  13. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  14. Os odontoideum in identical twins: Comparative gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Straus, David; Xu, Shunbin; Traynelis, Vincent C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Os odontoideum is a well identified anomaly of the craniovertebral junction. Since its initial description, there has been a continuous debate regarding the nature of its etiology: Whether congenital or traumatic. We sought to compare the gene expression profiles in patients with congenital os odontoideum, those with traumatic os odontoideum and controls. Methods: We have evaluated a pair of identical twins both with os odontoideum. We identified two additional patients with and four subjects without os odontoideum. We analyzed the gene expression profiles in these patients using a custom TaqMan microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relative gene expression profiles in the two identical twins, the two nontwin patients with os odontoideum and the controls were assessed. Results: A total of 213 genes with significantly different expression between the twin os odontoideum patients and the subjects without os odontoideum were detected. CACNG6, PHEX, CACNAD3, IL2, FAS, TUFT1, KIT, TGFBR2, and IGF2 were expressed at levels greater than 100-fold more in the twins. There were six genes with significantly different expression profiles in the twins as compared with the nontwin os odontoideum patients: CMK4, ATF1, PLCG1, TAB1, E2F3, and ATF4. There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression in the four patients with os odontoideum and the subjects without. Trends, however, were noted in MMP8, KIT, HIF1A, CREB3, PWHAZ, TGFBR1, NFKB2, FGFR1, IPO8, STAT1, COL1A1, and BMP3. Conclusions: Os odontoideum has multiple etiologies, both traumatic and congenital and perhaps some represent a combination of the two. This work has identified a number of genes that show increased expression in a pair of twins with congenital os odontoideum and also demonstrates trends in gene expression profiles between a larger group of os odontoideum patients and non-os patients. A number of these genes are related to

  15. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  16. Phosphate transporters OsPHT1;9 and OsPHT1;10 are involved in phosphate uptake in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs, and lateral roots, with the expression being specifically induced by Pi-starvation. In leaves, the expression of the two ...

  17. Bilateral Os Acromiale in a Division I Basketball Player

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, Christina D.; Fluker, Dave

    2003-01-01

    An unfused acromial epiphysis, called os acromiale, can become unstable and mobile when the deltoid contracts. This may cause pain and lead to impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tearing. After sustaining a direct blow to the right shoulder, a male division I basketball player was diagnosed with impingement syndrome and an os acromiale. Following failed conservative treatment, the athlete underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression & debridement of the loose os acromiale in the right shoulder. One year later, following a fall on the left shoulder, the athlete was diagnosed with os acromiale, impingement syndrome and a superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion. Arthroscopic repair of the unstable type II SLAP lesion, together, with arthroscopic subacromial decompression, and resection of the os acromiale was performed on the left shoulder. Both surgeries were successful and the athlete was able to return to competition subsequent to completing a progressive shoulder rehabilitation program. Symptomatic os acromiale is rarely seen in young athletes. However, proper diagnosis and management is necessary for a successful recovery. Os acromiale should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis in any athlete with rotator cuff impingement symptoms. PMID:24688280

  18. Sources of osmium to the modern oceans: New evidence from the 190Pt-186Os system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, D.K.; Walker, R.J.; Hemming, S.R.; Horan, M.F.; Becker, H.; Grauch, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    High precision Os isotope analysis of young marine manganese nodules indicate that whereas the composition of modern seawater is radiogenic with respect to 187Os/188Os, it has 186Os/188Os that is within uncertainty of the chondritic value. Marine Mn nodule compositions thus indicate that the average continental source of Os to modern seawater had long-term high Re/Os compared to Pt/Os. Analyses of loess and freshwater Mn nodules support existing evidence that average upper continental crust (UCC) has resolvably suprachondritic 186Os/188Os, as well as radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Modeling the composition of seawater as a two-component mixture of oceanic/cosmic Os with chondritic Os compositions and continentally-derived Os demonstrates that, insofar as estimates for the composition of average UCC are accurate, congruently weathered average UCC cannot be the sole continental source of Os to seawater. Our analysis of four Cambrian black shales confirm that organic-rich sediments can have 187Os/188Os ratios that are much higher than average UCC, but 186Os/188Os compositions that are generally between those of chondrites and average-UCC. Preferential weathering of black shales can result in dissolved Os discharged to the ocean basins that has a much lower 186Os/188Os than does average upper crust. Modeling the available data demonstrates that augmentation of estimated average UCC compositions with less than 0.1% additional black shale and 1.4% additional ultramafic rock can produce a continental end-member Os isotopic composition that satisfies the requirements imposed by the marine Mn nodule data. The interplay of these two sources provides a mechanism by which the 187Os/188Os of seawater can change as sources and weathering conditions change, yet seawater 186Os/188Os varies only minimally. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. Research on Separation of Three Powers Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Xin, Siyuan

    The privilege in the operating system (OS) often results in the break of confidentiality and integrity of the system. To solve this problem, several security mechanisms are proposed, such as Role-based Access Control, Separation of Duty. However, these mechanisms can not eliminate the privilege in OS kernel layer. This paper proposes a Separation of Three Powers Architecture (STPA). The authorizations in OS are divided into three parts: System Management Subsystem (SMS), Security Management Subsystem (SEMS) and Audit Subsystem (AS). Mutual support and mutual checks and balances which are the design principles of STPA eliminate the administrator in the kernel layer. Furthermore, the paper gives the formal description for authorization division using the graph theory. Finally, the implementation of STPA is given. Proved by experiments, the Separation of Three Powers Architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through authorization division.

  1. Weakly deformed oblate structures in 76198Os122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolyák, Zs.; Steer, S. J.; Pietri, S.; Xu, F. R.; Liu, H. L.; Regan, P. H.; Rudolph, D.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hoischen, R.; Górska, M.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Benzoni, G.; Shizuma, T.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Caceres, L.; Doornenbal, P.; Geissel, H.; Grebosz, J.; Kelic, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Montes, F.; Prokopowicz, W.; Saito, T.; Schaffner, H.; Tashenov, S.; Heinz, A.; Pfützner, M.; Jungclaus, A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Brandau, C.; Bruce, A. M.; Catford, W. N.; Cullen, I. J.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Estevez, E.; Gelletly, W.; Ilie, G.; Jolie, J.; Jones, G. A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Krücken, R.; Lalkovski, S.; Liu, Z.; Maj, A.; Myalski, S.; Schwertel, S.; Walker, P. M.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.

    2009-03-01

    Gamma rays de-exciting isomeric states in the neutron-rich nucleus 76198Os122 have been observed following relativistic projectile fragmentation of a 1 GeV per nucleon Pb208 beam. The ground-state band has properties compatible with oblate deformation. The evolution of the structure of Os isotopes characterized by sudden prolate-oblate shape change is discussed and contrasted with the smooth change known in the Pt chain.

  2. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  3. Activation cross sections for 190Os( n, p) 190m,gRe, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs reactions from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Zhirong; Tian, Weisong; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2009-04-01

    Cross sections for ( n, p) and ( n, n') reactions have been measured on osmium isotopes at the neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV using the activation technique in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Neutrons were produced via the 3H( d, n) 4He reaction using solid TiT. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb( n,2 n) 92mNb. Data are reported for the following reactions: 190Os( n, p) 190mRe, 190Os( n, p) 190gRe, 190Os( n, p) 190Re, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the products. The cross sections were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature, with values of model calculations including the pre-equilibrium contribution, and with evaluation data of JEFF-3.1/A.

  4. New Applications of the Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 Isotope Systems to the Study of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. L.; Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 isotope systems are applied to dating evolved iron meteorites. The Re-Os systematics of some evolved irons may indicate late stage system closure. This conclusion appears to be supported by a "young" Pt-Os isochron age.

  5. Rice Stress Associated Protein 1 (OsSAP1) Interacts with Aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and Pathogenesis-Related 1a Protein (OsSCP) and Regulates Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Kamakshi S.; Dansana, Prasant K.; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated proteins (SAPs) are the A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing proteins which can regulate the stress signaling in plants. The rice SAP protein, OsSAP1 has been shown to confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants, when overexpressed, by modulating the expression of endogenous stress-related genes. To further understand the mechanism of OsSAP1-mediated stress signaling, OsSAP1 interacting proteins were identified using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Two novel proteins, aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and a SCP/TAPS or pathogenesis-related 1 class of protein (OsSCP) were found to interact with OsSAP1. The genes encoding OsAMTR1 and OsSCP were stress-responsive and showed higher expression upon abiotic stress treatments. The role of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP under stress was analyzed by overexpressing them constitutively in Arabidopsis and responses of transgenic plants were assessed under salt and water-deficit stress. The OsAMTR1 and OsSCP overexpressing plants showed higher seed germination, root growth and fresh weight than wild-type plants under stress conditions. Overexpression of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP affected the expression of many known stress-responsive genes which were not affected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Moreover, the transcript levels of OsSCP and OsAMTR1 were also unaffected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Hence, it was concluded that OsSAP1 regulates the stress responsive signaling by interacting with these proteins which further regulate the downstream stress responsive gene expression. PMID:27486471

  6. On-surface reaction of tetraphenylporphyrins with Os3(CO)12 precursors and Os clusters: A scanning tunnelling microscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam, Özge; Yetik, Görsel; Reichert, Joachim; Barth, Johannes V.; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.

    2016-04-01

    The ability of porphyrin molecules to incorporate metal atoms into the cavity of the macrocycle is the primary factor that enables the plethora of their applications. The fabrication and characterisation of surface confined metal-organic architectures by employing porphyrins promise unique technical applications in the field of nanotechnology. Here we report on the efforts to use triosmium dodecacarbonyl as a metal precursor for the on-surface Os functionalisation of porphyrins under ultra-high vacuum conditions. We address the effects of the temperature treatment of mixtures of tetraphenylporphyrins and the Os precursor molecules, which can decompose to yield Os clusters, on Ag(111) via scanning tunnelling microscopy, a technique that provides real-space visualisation of the reaction products formed. It is shown that free base porphyrins can be metallated to osmium porphyrins. Furthermore the presence of Os on the Ag(111) surface catalyses intramolecular cyclodehydrogenations in tetraphenylporphyrins, as well as intermolecular tetraphenylporphyrin polymerisation.

  7. 187Re - 187Os Nuclear Geochronometry: Advancing Precambrian Chronostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2015-04-01

    187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry is a newly developed dating method, which combines ideas of nuclear astrophysics with geochronology. For this, the concept of sudden nucleosynthesis [1-3] is used to calculate so-called nucleogeochronometric Rhenium-Osmium two-point-isochrone (TPI) ages, using the IVREA nuclear geochronometer as one data point in a two-point-isochrone diagram. This chronometer is one of five terrestrial nuclear geochronometers identified so far [4]. It is based upon the peculiar and enigmatic isotopic Re-Os signature (Re/Os = 0.951, 187Os/188Os = 0.23211 ± 0.00018) from an Al-Augite Websterite dike within the Balmuccia Peridotite (Northern Italy) [5]. Constrained by nuclear theory and astrophysical evidence, the IVREA isotopic Re-Os signature may be explained as produced in a rapid (r) neutron-capture process around 3000 Ma ago [4]. Here, a TPI age is calculated for each of 9 drill core samples from a 20 m stratigraphic column (drill core ABDP-9, Astrobiology Drilling Program of the NASA Astrobiology Institute) of the Archean Mount McRae shales in Western Australia, which belong to the Pilbara Craton. An isochrone age of 2501.1 ± 8.2 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.04 ± 0.06, 95% CL) has previously been published for these 9 samples [6], using the open access computer program Isoplot [7] for the calculations. Therefore, the same program and data are used to test whether the results obtained by means of the new method meet the peer-reviewed results. As can be shown, all TPI ages are indeed consistent with the previously reported isochrone age. The same is true for the initial 187Os/188Osi ratios, which are in line with the enigmatic, extremely subchondritic initial ratio of 187Os/188Osi = 0.04 ± 0.06, constrained by the isochrone. TPI ages range from 2485 ± 66 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.0322 ± 0.0036, 95% CL) to 2519 ± 41 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.0312 ± 0.0035, 95% CL), with a mean value of 2501 ± 8.9 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.03267 ± 0.00073, 68% CL, n = 9

  8. OS friendly microprocessor architecture: Hardware level computer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; La Fratta, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We present an introduction to the patented OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA) and hardware level computer security. Conventional microprocessors have not tried to balance hardware performance and OS performance at the same time. Conventional microprocessors have depended on the Operating System for computer security and information assurance. The goal of the OS Friendly Architecture is to provide a high performance and secure microprocessor and OS system. We are interested in cyber security, information technology (IT), and SCADA control professionals reviewing the hardware level security features. The OS Friendly Architecture is a switched set of cache memory banks in a pipeline configuration. For light-weight threads, the memory pipeline configuration provides near instantaneous context switching times. The pipelining and parallelism provided by the cache memory pipeline provides for background cache read and write operations while the microprocessor's execution pipeline is running instructions. The cache bank selection controllers provide arbitration to prevent the memory pipeline and microprocessor's execution pipeline from accessing the same cache bank at the same time. This separation allows the cache memory pages to transfer to and from level 1 (L1) caching while the microprocessor pipeline is executing instructions. Computer security operations are implemented in hardware. By extending Unix file permissions bits to each cache memory bank and memory address, the OSFA provides hardware level computer security.

  9. The os penis of the frugivorous bat, Eidolon helvum (Kerr).

    PubMed

    Nwoha, P U; Caxton-Martins, A E; Baxter-Grillo, D L

    2000-01-01

    The os penis reported in some species of the mammalian order was observed in the juvenile and adult penes of the friguvorous African bat, Eidolon helvum. The morphology of the os penis in Eidolon helvum differs from that observed in bat species and other mammalian order. In the adult form it is large, disc-shaped and located at the distal segment of the penile organ. The proximal segment of the penis does not contain any bone. In the juvenile bat the os penis is made of two separate bones located longitudinally close to each other at the distal third of the penile tissue. The distal location in both the juvenile and the adult poses a question about the true function of this tissue. The bone may function in Eidolon helvum to support erection of the penis more for micturition than for intromission.

  10. Ru and Os film deposition from metal carbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.D.; Brown, D.J.; Kaplan, R.; Cukauskas, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    Adherent, highly reflective films of Ru and Os have been deposited in vacuum on heated Si substrates by thermal decomposition of the pentacarbonyls Ru(CO)/sub 5/ and Os(CO)/sub 5/, at 150 and 200 /sup 0/C, respectively. Auger analysis after ion bombardment cleaning revealed nearly O-free surfaces, with slight C contamination which grew with exposure to the primary electron beam, thus making accurate determination of C content difficult. X-ray diffraction showed the films to be polycrystalline with the expected hexagonal close-packed structure, while measured resistivities were about a factor of 3 greater than bulk values. This method of depositing Ru and Os offers the advantages of simplicity, modest temperature requirement, and metallization of heated surfaces only.

  11. Isotope shift of the electric-dipole transition in Os-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerbauer, A.; Canali, C.; Fischer, A.; Warring, U.; Fritzsche, S.

    2011-12-01

    The isotope shift of the bound-bound electric dipole transition at 1162.75 nm in the osmium anion was measured by high-precision collinear laser spectroscopy. The transition was observed in all naturally occurring isotopes, including 184Os- with a natural abundance of 0.02%. We combined the data with our prior measurements of the hyperfine structure in 187Os- and 189Os- and used them to determine experimental values for the isotope shift coefficients. The normal mass shift, specific mass shift, and field shift coefficients were found to be MNMS=141.4 GHz u, MSMS=2.4(12.6) THz u, and F=16.2(9.9) GHz fm-2, respectively. Theoretical values for the MSMS and F parameters were calculated based on a series of relativistic configuration interaction computations and a Fermi-like charge distribution and found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

  12. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  13. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center, which integrates a set of models for determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems. This research provides for the integration of the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, both new and existing simulation models, and existing operations and support (O&S) costing equations in arriving at a complete analysis methodology. Details concerning the R&M model and the O&S costing model may be found in previous reports accomplished under this grant (NASA Research Grant NAG1-1327). In the process of developing this comprehensive analysis approach, significant enhancements were made to the R&M model, updates to the O&S costing model were accomplished, and a new simulation model developed. This is the 1st part of a 3 part technical report.

  14. Varied clinical presentation of os odontoideum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chrobak, Karen; Larson, Ryan; Stern, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of an os odontoideum and to provide insight into the varied clinical presentations. Clinical Features: A 54 year old man presented with chronic neck pain without headache. A clinical examination was performed and the chiropractor viewed his AP and lateral radiographs. Previous flexion/ extension radiographs and MRI imaging from 2009 were requested for review. The patient was diagnosed with grade II mechanical neck pain. Treatment was rendered that day which included spinal manipulation/ mobilization. Several days later the requested imaging reports were received and described the presence of an os odontoideum. Conclusion: In the presence of os odontoideum, familiarity with the signs and symptoms of potential cervical instability is imperative. Health care providers must remain diligent in their patient histories, physical exams, and imaging. This case highlights the importance of following up on imaging studies to rule out diagnoses that would involve treatment contraindications thus ensuring safe and effective treatment. PMID:25202154

  15. Automated audiometry using apple iOS-based application technology.

    PubMed

    Foulad, Allen; Bui, Peggy; Djalilian, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of an Apple iOS-based automated hearing testing application and to compare its accuracy with conventional audiometry. Prospective diagnostic study. Setting Academic medical center. An iOS-based software application was developed to perform automated pure-tone hearing testing on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To assess for device variations and compatibility, preliminary work was performed to compare the standardized sound output (dB) of various Apple device and headset combinations. Forty-two subjects underwent automated iOS-based hearing testing in a sound booth, automated iOS-based hearing testing in a quiet room, and conventional manual audiometry. The maximum difference in sound intensity between various Apple device and headset combinations was 4 dB. On average, 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-100%) of the threshold values obtained using the automated test in a sound booth were within 10 dB of the corresponding threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. When the automated test was performed in a quiet room, 94% (95% CI, 87%-100%) of the threshold values were within 10 dB of the threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. Under standardized testing conditions, 90% of the subjects preferred iOS-based audiometry as opposed to conventional audiometry. Apple iOS-based devices provide a platform for automated air conduction audiometry without requiring extra equipment and yield hearing test results that approach those of conventional audiometry.

  16. Mini-Ckpts: Surviving OS Failures in Persistent Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fiala, David; Mueller, Frank; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Engelmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Concern is growing in the high-performance computing (HPC) community on the reliability of future extreme-scale systems. Current efforts have focused on application fault-tolerance rather than the operating system (OS), despite the fact that recent studies have suggested that failures in OS memory are more likely. The OS is critical to a system's correct and efficient operation of the node and processes it governs -- and in HPC also for any other nodes a parallelized application runs on and communicates with: Any single node failure generally forces all processes of this application to terminate due to tight communication in HPC. Therefore, the OS itself must be capable of tolerating failures. In this work, we introduce mini-ckpts, a framework which enables application survival despite the occurrence of a fatal OS failure or crash. Mini-ckpts achieves this tolerance by ensuring that the critical data describing a process is preserved in persistent memory prior to the failure. Following the failure, the OS is rejuvenated via a warm reboot and the application continues execution effectively making the failure and restart transparent. The mini-ckpts rejuvenation and recovery process is measured to take between three to six seconds and has a failure-free overhead of between 3-5% for a number of key HPC workloads. In contrast to current fault-tolerance methods, this work ensures that the operating and runtime system can continue in the presence of faults. This is a much finer-grained and dynamic method of fault-tolerance than the current, coarse-grained, application-centric methods. Handling faults at this level has the potential to greatly reduce overheads and enables mitigation of additional fault scenarios.

  17. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manish; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Munna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and Toxic compound Extrusion proteins (MATE) are a group of secondary active transporters with ubiquitous occurrences in all domains of life. This is a newly characterized transporter family with limited functional knowledge in plants. In this study, we functionally characterised two members of rice MATE gene family, OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 through expression in heterologous system, Arabidopsis. Expression of OsMATEs in Arabidopsis altered growth and morphology of transgenic plants. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed modulation of genes involved in plant growth, development and biotic stress in transgenic lines. Transgenic plants displayed sensitivity for biotic and abiotic stresses. Elevated pathogen susceptibility of transgenic lines was correlated with reduced expressions of defence related genes. Promoter and cellular localization studies suggest that both MATEs express in developing and reproductive organs and are plasma-membrane localised. Our results reveal that OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 regulate plant growth and development as well as negatively affect disease resistance. PMID:24492654

  18. [Results after fracture of the os calcis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ostapowicz, G; Sateri, F; Wessel, G

    1978-02-10

    A double study over a period of 40 years was undertaken--from 1935 to 1954 in Berlin and from 1955 to 1976 in Salzgitter--including a total of 393 fractures of the os calcis. The results of different types of treatment are presented. It is the type and severity of the fractures, not the way of treatment which determines the outcome. 161 patients have been followed clinically and radiologically at least 5 years after fracture of the os calcis. Third degree fractures were objectively and subjectively less favourable regardless of therapy. Active surgical treatment should be post-poned and consist in fusion of the subtalar joint.

  19. Resetting of Re-Os ages in mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H.; Gawronski, T.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Among long-lived geochronometers, the Re-Os decay system is unique in that it permits to obtain direct age information on past melt extraction events in the mantle. Some studies have discovered ancient melting residues in oceanic peridotites emplaced on young seafloor [1-3]. Other work indicates that melt transport and reactive infiltration may affect the Re-Os systematics of both depleted and fertile peridotites to variable extent [4-6]. Open system polybaric melting of depleted lherzolites and harzburgites should lead to removal of basaltic components and at the same time partial or complete equilibration with infiltrating magma. If such magma carries radiogenic Os, it will lead to partial or complete resetting of the Re-Os clock. This is what may have occurred in many abyssal peridotites [e.g. 2, 7], although, the parameters that control isotopic resetting, the timing, extent and controls on equilibration with melts carrying radiogenic Os are still incompletely understood. Studies of well-characterized Phanerozoic peridotite massifs that represent former ocean-continent transitions and analogues of modern slow spreading environments do offer some additional insight. Re-Os data on the Ligurian peridotite massifs [8,9], the Lanzo peridotite [9], and peridotites from the Ivrea zone [10,11] suggest addition of radiogenic Os to some, but not all, harzburgites and depleted lherzolites. The source of the radiogenic Os may have been either local (melting of pyroxenites) or external. Fertile lherzolites in these massifs often display petrological and geochemical evidence for refertilization, but the timing of magmatic processes is not always clear. In the Ivrea zone, Sm-Nd dates obtained on clinopyroxenes from peridotites are Paleozoic [12], as are some Os model ages of peridotites [10, 11], however, the spectrum of Re-Os (primitive mantle) model ages ranges between 0.2 and 1.6 Ga (median 0.5 Ga). Hence, it is likely that extensive magmatic re-equilibration occurred in

  20. Testing Organic-Rich Sediments as Recorders of the Seawater Os Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, F.; Ravizza, G.

    2006-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments of Eocene to Oligocene age, deposited under anoxic to moderately reducing conditions from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 on the continental margin of the Cote d'Ivoire- Ghana were investigated in order to empirically test the fidelity of organic-rich marine sediments as recorders of past seawater Os isotope variations. Although initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios derived from Re-Os isochrons provide the best available constraints on the Mesozoic and Paleozoic portions of the marine Os isotope record, no systematic study comparing Re-Os analyses of organic-rich marine sediments to a well established portion of the Cenozoic marine Os isotope record has been made. Forty-two bulk sediment Os analyses from Site 959 reveal that Os concentrations range from 80 to 550 pg/g, indicating the dominance of hydrogenous Os. Measured ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios range from 0.48 to 1.40 and are larger than the ^{187}Os/^{188}Os of contemporaneous seawater. Variability among replicate analyses clearly indicates significant powder heterogeneity in some samples. A small subset of these samples has been subjected to an oxidative partial dissolution that allows analyses of Re and Os on the same sample splits, and calculation of initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios using an age model constrained by biostratigraphy. Comparison of leach analyses to bulk sediment analyses indicates that all the Re and in excess of 90% of the Os is liberated during leaching. In most cases the ^{187}Os/^{188}Os of leachable Os is indistinguishable from that of the bulk sediment. The resulting calculated initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios are in general agreement with the independently established Os isotope record of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. In particular, one sample analyzed records the pronounced minimum in the seawater ^{187}Os/^{188}Os record during the late Eocene. In total these results indicate that the Re-Os systematics of Cenozoic organic-rich sediments effectively record

  1. pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 expression enhances nitrogen uptake efficiency and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Fan, Xiaoru; Qian, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yong; Song, Miaoquan; Liu, Yu; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2017-02-22

    The nitrate (NO3-) transporter has been selected as an important gene maker in the process of environmental adoption in rice cultivars. In this work, we transferred another native OsNAR2.1 promoter with driving OsNAR2.1 gene into rice plants. The transgenic lines with exogenous pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 constructs showed enhanced OsNAR2.1 expression level, compared with wild type (WT), and (15) N influx in roots increased 21%-32% in response to 0.2 mm and 2.5 mm 15NO3- and 1.25 mm (15) NH4(15) NO3 . Under these three N conditions, the biomass of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 transgenic lines increased 143%, 129% and 51%, and total N content increased 161%, 242% and 69%, respectively, compared to WT. Furthermore in field experiments we found the grain yield, agricultural nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE), and dry matter transfer of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 plants increased by about 21%, 22% and 21%, compared to WT. We also compared the phenotypes of pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines in the field, found that postanthesis N uptake differed significantly between them, and in comparison with the WT. Postanthesis N uptake (PANU) increased approximately 39% and 85%, in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 and pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 transgenic lines, respectively, possibly because OsNRT2.1 expression was less in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNAR2.1 lines than in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines during the late growth stage. These results show that rice NO3(-) uptake, yield and NUE were improved by increased OsNAR2.1 expression via its native promoter.

  2. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ±more » 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics.« less

  3. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) OS&D SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, A.C.

    1994-08-30

    A Department of Energy (DOE) policy for the business processes related to the Over, Short, and Damaged Claims Module (OS&D) has been established. The impetus behind the development of the OS&D stems from a subtask created to expand the usefulness of the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). This subtask supports the development of individual modules covering three important areas: household goods movement, damage claims, and single rate. The OS&D will employ ATMS to perform two transportation management functions: to (a) enter and modify claims-related data related to over, short, or damaged shipments, and to (b) generate letters and reports. The purpose of this document is to define the system requirements necessary to implement and integrate computer support for these business processes into the ATMS. This software requirements specification (SRS) will serve as direct input to the detailed design. The acceptance criteria section in this document will serve as the driving force in the development of test plans. To fulfill these objectives, the SRS must contain complete and verifiable requirements. This SRS provides the ATMS software developers a concise definition of the system software requirements. By emphasizing functions to be performed, rather than system architecture, the SRS will not be restrictive and will allow maximum flexibility during system design. The general structure of this document is to progress from a description of the OS&D to the specific software requirements necessary to support its` functionality.

  4. Addressing Small Computers in the First OS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Small computers are emerging as important components of the contemporary computing scene. Their operating systems vary from specialized software for an embedded system to the same style of OS used on a generic desktop or server computer. This article describes a course in which systems are classified by their hardware capability and the…

  5. Compliance of blood donation apps with mobile OS usability guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations.

  6. NEDLite user's manual: forest inventory for Palm OS handheld computers

    Treesearch

    Peter D. Knopp; Mark J. Twery

    2006-01-01

    A user's manual for NEDLite, software that enables collection of forest inventory data on Palm OS handheld computers, with the option of transferring data into NED software for analysis and subsequent prescription development. NEDLite software is included. Download the NEDLite software at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/burlington/ned

  7. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  8. Addressing Small Computers in the First OS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Small computers are emerging as important components of the contemporary computing scene. Their operating systems vary from specialized software for an embedded system to the same style of OS used on a generic desktop or server computer. This article describes a course in which systems are classified by their hardware capability and the…

  9. Super El Niños in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. A.; Latif, M.; Park, W.

    2012-12-01

    El Niño is a disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the Tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather and climate around the globe. The phenomenon originates in the Equatorial Pacific, and it is the strongest interannual climate signal with global teleconnections. El Niño events are typified by strong warming of the order of a few degrees of the eastern and central Equatorial Pacific Ocean with cooling over portions of the subtropics and mid-latitudes and the tropical western Pacific. These SST anomalies drive anomalous diabatic heating in the upper atmosphere thereby perturbing the global atmospheric circulation and generating global teleconnections. Although El Niños considerably vary in strength, typical eastern Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies generally do not exceed 4°C. Here we present an ensemble of greenhouse gas integrations (1% increase in CO2 per year) of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), in which some events exceed SST anomalies of 6°C. Such Super El Niños force up to three times stronger teleconnection patterns in temperature and rainfall, which would have dramatic consequences for many countries around the world. Most of the Super El Niños happen during the last third of the 21st century and represent a prolonged event that sustains extremely strong SST anomalies for more than half a year. The change in the zonal wind stress climatology in the Equatorial Pacific Sector is the primary reason for the occurrence of Super El Niños in the greenhouse climate, with a second pronounced minimum favoring more persistent and powerful El Niños.

  10. Agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency of rice can be increased by driving OsNRT2.1 expression with the OsNAR2.1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Zhang, Yong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Longlong; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2016-08-01

    The importance of the nitrate (NO3-) transporter for yield and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice was previously demonstrated using map-based cloning. In this study, we enhanced the expression of the OsNRT2.1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity NO3- transporter, using a ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter and the NO3--inducible promoter of the OsNAR2.1 gene to drive OsNRT2.1 expression in transgenic rice plants. Transgenic lines expressing pUbi:OsNRT2.1 or pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 constructs exhibited the increased total biomass including yields of approximately 21% and 38% compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The agricultural NUE (ANUE) of the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines decreased to 83% of that of the WT plants, while the ANUE of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines increased to 128% of that of the WT plants. The dry matter transfer into grain decreased by 68% in the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines and increased by 46% in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines relative to the WT. The expression of OsNRT2.1 in shoot and grain showed that Ubi enhanced OsNRT2.1 expression by 7.5-fold averagely and OsNAR2.1 promoters increased by about 80% higher than the WT. Interestingly, we found that the OsNAR2.1 was expressed higher in all the organs of pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines; however, for pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines, OsNAR2.1 expression was only increased in root, leaf sheaths and internodes. We show that increased expression of OsNRT2.1, especially driven by OsNAR2.1 promoter, can improve the yield and NUE in rice.

  11. OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 Function as Arsenate Reductases and Regulate Arsenic Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shulin; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ziru; Tang, Zhong; Wu, Zhongchang; Salt, David E; Chao, Dai-Yin; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Rice is a major dietary source of the toxic metalloid arsenic (As). Reducing its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grain is of critical importance to food safety. Rice roots take up arsenate and arsenite depending on the prevailing soil conditions. The first step of arsenate detoxification is its reduction to arsenite, but the enzyme(s) catalyzing this reaction in rice remains unknown. Here, we identify OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 as arsenate reductases in rice. OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 are able to complement an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the endogenous arsenate reductase and to reduce arsenate to arsenite. OsHAC1:1 and OsHAC1;2 are predominantly expressed in roots, with OsHAC1;1 being abundant in the epidermis, root hairs, and pericycle cells while OsHAC1;2 is abundant in the epidermis, outer layers of cortex, and endodermis cells. Expression of the two genes was induced by arsenate exposure. Knocking out OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 decreased the reduction of arsenate to arsenite in roots, reducing arsenite efflux to the external medium. Loss of arsenite efflux was also associated with increased As accumulation in shoots. Greater effects were observed in a double mutant of the two genes. In contrast, overexpression of either OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 increased arsenite efflux, reduced As accumulation, and enhanced arsenate tolerance. When grown under aerobic soil conditions, overexpression of either OsHAC1;1 or OsHAC1;2 also decreased As accumulation in rice grain, whereas grain As increased in the knockout mutants. We conclude that OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 are arsenate reductases that play an important role in restricting As accumulation in rice shoots and grain.

  12. The rice RING E3 ligase, OsCTR1, inhibits trafficking to the chloroplasts of OsCP12 and OsRP1, and its overexpression confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Don; Lee, Chanhui; Jang, Cheol Seong

    2014-05-01

    Plant growth under low water availability adversely affects many key processes with morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular consequences. Here, we found that a rice gene, OsCTR1, encoding the RING Ub E3 ligase plays an important role in drought tolerance. OsCTR1 was highly expressed in response to dehydration treatment and defense-related phytohormones, and its encoded protein was localized in both the chloroplasts and the cytosol. Intriguingly, the OsCTR1 protein was found predominantly targeted to the cytosol when rice protoplasts transfected with OsCTR1 were treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Several interacting partners were identified, which were mainly targeted to the chloroplasts, and interactions with OsCTR1 were confirmed by using biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Interestingly, two chloroplast-localized proteins (OsCP12 and OsRP1) interacted with OsCTR1 in the cytosol, and ubiquitination by OsCTR1 led to protein degradation via the Ub 26S proteasome. Heterogeneous overexpression of OsCTR1 in Arabidopsis exhibited hypersensitive phenotypes with respect to ABA-responsive seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal closure. The ABA-sensitive transgenic plants also showed improvement in their tolerance against severe water deficits. Taken together, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the molecular functions of OsCTR1 are related to tolerance to water-deficit stress via ABA-dependent regulation and related systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Re-187-Os-187, Pt-190-Os-186 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVA Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Schulte, R. F.; McDonough, W. F.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently completed Re-187-Os-187 and Pt-190-Os-186 isotopic and elemental studies of the two largest magmatic iron meteorite groups, IIAB and IIIAB [1]. These studies revealed closed-system behavior of both isotopic systems, but complex trace element behavior for Re, Pt and Os in group IIIAB. Here we examine isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVA irons. The IVA irons are not as extensively fractionated as IIAB and IIIAB and their apparently less complex crystallization history may make for more robust interpretation of the relative partitioning behavior of Re, Pt and Os, as well as the other highly siderophile elements (HSE) measured here; Pd, Ru and Ir [e.g. 2]. An additional goal of our continuing research plan for iron meteorites is to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via trace element modeling. Here, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped irons Nedagolla and EET 83230 are compared with the IVA irons.

  14. Auxin regulated OsRGP1 and OsSuS are involved in the gravitropic bending of rice shoot bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liwei; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    The gravitropic bending of rice shoot in horizontal position results from differential elongation of cells between two halves of shoot bases. In our experiment, reversibly glycosylated polypeptide (OsRGP1), sucrose synthase (OsSuS) genes which related to sugar metabolism were identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in gravitropism in rice shoot bases. Realtime RT-PCR were used to study the expression of two genes in detail. OsRGP1 and OsSuS were differentially induced in the abaxial (lower) side of rice shoot bases during gravitropism. The OsRGP1 and OsSuS expression were regulated by auxin. The sequence analysis of their promoters was in concurrence. TIBA treatment could inhibit the asymmetrical expression of OsRGP1 and OsSuS in gravitropism in rice shoot bases. In addition, there was more hexose in the lower side of rice shoot bases in gravitropism. Our data suggested that asymmetric redistribution of auxin following gravistimulation resulted in the different localized expression of OsRGP1 and OsSuS. It is possible that asymmetrical expression of OsSuS resulted in the asymmetrical distribution of hexose and asymmetrical expression of OsRGP1 induced the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in the lower half of rice shoot bases. Hexose and cell wall polysaccharides accumulation in lower side of rice shoot bases might contribute to the cell expansion, thus leading to gravitropic bending.

  15. OsSRO1a Interacts with RNA Binding Domain-Containing Protein (OsRBD1) and Functions in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Kaur, Charanpreet; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Sopory, Sudhir K.

    2016-01-01

    SRO1 is an important regulator of stress and hormonal response in plants and functions by interacting with transcription factors and several other proteins involved in abiotic stress response. In the present study, we report OsRBD1, an RNA binding domain 1- containing protein as a novel interacting partner of OsSRO1a from rice. The interaction of OsSRO1a with OsRBD1 was shown in yeast as well as in planta. Domain–domain interaction study revealed that C-terminal RST domain of OsSRO1a interacts with the N-terminal RRM1 domain of OsRBD1 protein. Both the proteins were found to co-localize in nucleus. Transcript profiling under different stress conditions revealed co-regulation of OsSRO1a and OsRBD1 expression under some abiotic stress conditions. Further, co-transformation of both OsSRO1a and OsRBD1 in yeast conferred enhanced tolerance toward salinity, osmotic, and methylglyoxal treatments. Our study suggests that the interaction of OsSRO1a with OsRBD1 confers enhanced stress tolerance in yeast and may play an important role under abiotic stress responses in plants. PMID:26870074

  16. Comprehensive Analysis and Expression Profiling of the OsLAX and OsABCB Auxin Transporter Gene Families in Rice (Oryza sativa) under Phytohormone Stimuli and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chenglin; Subudhi, Prasanta K.

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin gradient is formed in plant as a result of polar auxin transportation by three types of auxin transporters such as OsLAX, OsPIN, and OsABCB. We report here the analysis of two rice auxin transporter gene families, OsLAX and OsABCB, using bioinformatics tools, publicly accessible microarray data, and quantitative RT-PCR. There are 5 putative OsLAXs and 22 putative OsABCBs in rice genome, which were mapped on 8 chromosomes. The exon-intron structure of OsLAX genes and properties of deduced proteins were relatively conserved within grass family, while that of OsABCB genes varied greatly. Both constitutive and organ/tissue specific expression patterns were observed in OsLAXs and OsABCBs. Analysis of evolutionarily closely related “gene pairs” together with organ/tissue specific expression revealed possible “function gaining” and “function losing” events during rice evolution. Most OsLAX and OsABCB genes were regulated by drought and salt stress, as well as hormonal stimuli [auxin and Abscisic Acid (ABA)], which suggests extensive crosstalk between abiotic stresses and hormone signaling pathways. The existence of large number of auxin and stress related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions might account for their massive responsiveness of these genes to these environmental stimuli, indicating complexity of regulatory networks involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The comprehensive analysis of OsLAX and OsABCB auxin transporter genes in this study would be helpful for understanding the biological significance of these gene families in hormone signaling and adaptation of rice plants to unfavorable environments. PMID:27200061

  17. Pacific 187Os/188Os isotope chemistry and U-Pb geochronology: Synchroneity of global Os isotope change across OAE 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Vivier, A. D. C.; Selby, D.; Condon, D. J.; Takashima, R.; Nishi, H.

    2015-10-01

    Studies of OAE 2 sections beyond the Atlantic Ocean, Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and European pelagic shelf are limited. Here, we present initial osmium isotope stratigraphy (187Os/188Os-Osi) from two proto-Pacific sites that span the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval (CTBI): the Yezo Group (YG) section, Hokkaido, Japan, and the Great Valley Sequence (GVS), California, USA; to evaluate the 187Os/188Os seawater chemistry of the proto-Pacific. Additionally we combine new 206Pb/238U zircon CA-ID-TIMS geochronology from five volcanic tuff horizons of the Yezo Group section to test and facilitate inter-basinal integration with the WIS using radio-isotopically constrained age-depth models for both sections, and quantitatively constrain the absolute timing and duration of events across the CTBI. The YG shows an almost identical Osi profile to that of the WIS, and very similar to that of other sites of the proto-Atlantic and European pelagic oceans (Turgeon and Creaser, 2008; Du Vivier et al., 2014). The characteristics of the Osi profile are radiogenic and heterogeneous (∼0.55-0.85) prior to the OAE 2, and synchronous with the inferred OAE 2 onset the Osi abruptly become unradiogenic and remain relatively homogeneous (∼0.20-0.30) before showing a gradual return to more radiogenic Osi (∼ 0.70) throughout the middle to late OAE 2. A206Pb/238U zircon age of an interbedded tuff (HK017) in the adjacent horizon to the first unradiogenic Osi value constrains the age of the Osi inflection at 94.44 ± 0.14 Ma. This age, including uncertainty, agrees with the interpolated age of the same point in the Osi profile (94.28 ± 0.25 Ma) in the only other dated OAE 2 section, the WIS; indicating a coeval shift in seawater chemistry associated with volcanism at the OAE 2 onset at the levels of temporal resolution (ca. 0.1 Myr). Further, prior to the onset of OAE 2 an enhanced radiogenic inflection in the Osi profile of the YG is correlative, within uncertainty, with a similar

  18. The influence of extraterrestrial material on the late Eocene marine Os isotope record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, François S.; Ravizza, Greg; Coccioni, Rodolfo

    2014-11-01

    A reconstruction of seawater 187Os/188Os ratios during the late Eocene (∼36-34 Ma), based upon bulk sediment analyses from the sub-Antarctic Southern Atlantic Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090), Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219) and the uplifted (land-based) Tethyan section (Massignano, Italy), confirms that the previously reported abrupt shift to lower 187Os/188Os is a unique global feature of the marine Os isotope record that occurs in magnetochron C16n.1n. This feature is interpreted to represent the change in seawater 187Os/188Os caused by the Popigai impact event. Higher in the Massignano section, two other iridium anomalies previously proposed to represent additional impact events do not show a comparable excursion to low 187Os/188Os, suggesting that these horizons do not record multiple large impacts. Comparison of records from three different ocean basins indicates that seawater 187Os/188Os begins to decline in advance of the Popigai impact event. At Massignano this decline coincides with a previously reported episode of elevated 3He flux, suggesting that increased influx of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contributed to the pre-impact shift in 187Os/188Os and not to the longer-term latest Eocene 187Os/188Os decline that occurred ∼1 million year after the Popigai impact event.

  19. Excited states and reduced transition probabilities in 168Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, T.; Stolze, S.; Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Sayǧı, B.; O'Donnell, D.; Akmali, M.; Andgren, K.; Bianco, L.; Cullen, D. M.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, P. T.; Heyde, K.; Iwasaki, H.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Judson, D. S.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Lumley, N.; Mason, P. J. R.; Möller, O.; Nomura, K.; Nyman, M.; Petts, A.; Peura, P.; Pietralla, N.; Pissulla, Th.; Rahkila, P.; Sapple, P. J.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.; Stevenson, P. D.; Uusitalo, J.; Watkins, H. V.; Wood, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    The level scheme of the neutron-deficient nuclide 168Os has been extended and mean lifetimes of excited states have been measured by the recoil distance Doppler-shift method using the JUROGAM γ -ray spectrometer in conjunction with the IKP Köln plunger device. The 168Osγ rays were measured in delayed coincidence with recoiling fusion-evaporation residues detected at the focal plane of the RITU gas-filled separator. The ratio of reduced transition probabilities B (E 2 ;41+→21+) /B (E 2 ;21+→01+) is measured to be 0.34(18), which is very unusual for collective band structures and cannot be reproduced by interacting boson model (IBM-2) calculations based on the SkM* energy-density functional.

  20. Erlichmanite /OsS sub 2/, a new mineral.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snetsinger, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Natural osmium disulfide (termed erlichmanite) was recognized in two occurrences on the basis of electron probe and X-ray data. One occurrence is in grains of platinum-metal sand from California, the other in a platinum-metal nugget from Western Ethiopian laterites. California erlichmanite has Os 68.0, Ir 2.6, Rh 3.8, Ru 0.4, Pd 0.5, and S 25.2, summation of 100.5 wt. %, the number of metal atoms being 1.06 on the basis of 2.00 sulfurs. Ethiopian material has higher Rh and Ir and lower Os. Both are optically isotropic. Spotty X-ray reflections from a 15-micron particle of California erlichmanite give rise to d spacing which match those of synthetic cubic osmium disulfide. Erlichmanite is defined as a cubic disulfide in which osmium is the most abundant metal atom.

  1. Ru, Re, Os, Pt and Au in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernicka, Ernst; Wasson, John T.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used to ascertain the proportions of Ru, Re, Os, and Pt refractory siderophiles, and moderately volatile Au, in 41 iron meteorites. The Ni-element trends defined for groups IID and IIIF support a magmatic origin; in addition, the results obtained for groups IAB and IIICD contrast with trends observed in magmatic groups, where the Ru and Pt slopes are substantially less steep. In group IIIAB, at Ni concentrations above 90 mg/g, the steep decrease of Re, Os, and Ir with Ni levels off, and the interelement ratios exhibit considerable scatter. These observations may be explained in terms of the contamination of the residual molten core with small amounts of late primitive melts draining from the mantle.

  2. Os zygomaticum bipartitum: frequency distribution in major human populations

    PubMed Central

    HANIHARA, TSUNEHIKO; ISHIDA, HAJIME; DODO, YUKIO

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of the Os zygomaticum bipartitum was examined in major human populations around the world. Eastern Asians have a higher frequency of the bipartite zygomatic bone than any other geographical groups. The arctic peoples, Amerindians and the Oceanians, who all may have derived from eastern Asian population stocks, have a considerably low frequency of this trait. The frequency distribution from East/Southeast Asia to Africa and Europe through South/Central/West Asia suggests some clinality for the bipartite zygomatic bone. The second peak in the frequency is seen in Subsaharan Africa. The clinal variation with no identifiable regulation by subsistence patterns and environmental factors suggested a genetic background for the occurrence of the Os zygomaticum bipartitum. PMID:9723981

  3. A review of elongation of os calcis for flat feet.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G E

    1983-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1974 the late Dillwyn Evans treated severe symptomatic flat feet by elongating the os calcis. The long-term follow-up of 20 of these patients with a total of 23 feet is presented 7 to 20 years after the operation. At review 17 of the 23 feet showed very good or good results and it was concluded that this is a useful procedure for severe cases of flat feet which appears to stand the test of time.

  4. Os acromiale: population differences and their etiological significance.

    PubMed

    Case, D T; Burnett, S E; Nielsen, T

    2006-01-01

    The os acromiale is an accessory bone resulting from failure of the acromial apophysis to fuse to the scapula. It is a relatively frequent defect affecting 4-18% of most large skeletal series. The etiology of os acromiale is poorly understood, and two competing hypotheses have been proposed: (1) that the accessory bone represents a genetic defect, and (2) that it results from mechanical stress on the developing acromion. In order to assess the evidence for these two hypotheses, os acromiale frequencies from a South African cadaver sample (n = 494) were compared to frequencies from a medieval Danish archaeological sample (n = 532). The South African frequency (18.2%) was significantly higher than the medieval Danish frequency (7.7%, p < 0.0001). These results mirror those of another study comparing African- and Euro-Americans, and tend to support the genetic hypothesis. However, a left side bias (72%) was also found among the South Africans (p = 0.013), lending some support to the mechanical stress hypothesis. Sex and age biases were also examined but were not found. In order to further test the mechanical hypothesis, the medieval Danes were divided into groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status based upon cemetery type. Lower status individuals were presumed to have engaged in strenuous labor activities more often and at a younger age than higher status individuals. However, comparison of these two groups failed to demonstrate a significant frequency difference (p = 0.105). Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that a third etiology combining a genetic predisposition for os acromiale with mechanical stress as the proximate cause should also be considered.

  5. Os Trigonum Excision in Dancers via an Open Posteromedial Approach.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Jessica H; Rose, Donald J

    2017-01-01

    An os trigonum is a potential source of posterior ankle pain in dancers, often associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology. Options for operative excision include open excision, subtalar arthroscopy, and posterior endoscopy. The purpose of this paper was to present a series of dancers who underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum via an open posteromedial approach. This study is a retrospective case series of 40 ankles in 38 dancers who underwent os trigonum excision via an open posteromedial approach with FHL tenolysis between 2000 and 2013. All patients were interviewed and charts retrospectively analyzed. Collected variables included pre- and postoperative pain level, time to return to dance, and subjective satisfaction. The average age was 19.2 years; ballet was the primary dance form in 36 (95%) of patient-cases. Eight (20%) of the patient-cases were professional dancers, and 30 (75%) were students or preprofessional dancers. Average preoperative pain level was 7.7/10, which decreased to 0.6/10 postoperatively. Seventeen (42.5%) experienced concurrent preoperation-associated FHL symptomatology, all of whom experienced relief postoperatively. The average time to return to dance was 7.9 weeks, and time to pain-free dance was 17.7 weeks. Of the 37 patient-cases desiring to return to dance, 35 (94.6%) returned to their preoperative level of dance. There were no neurovascular or other major complications. Four (10%) had minor wound complications that resolved, and 38 cases (95%) considered the procedure a success. Open posteromedial excision of an os trigonum in dancers provided satisfactory pain relief, return to dance, and complication rates compared to other approaches, and allowed for identifying and treating any associated FHL pathology. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  6. O/S analysis of conceptual space vehicles. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The application of recently developed computer models in determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems is discussed. The models used are the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, the maintenance simulation model, and the operations and support (O&S) cost model. In the process of applying these models, the R&M and O&S cost models were updated. The more significant enhancements include (1) improved R&M equations for the tank subsystems, (2) the ability to allocate schedule maintenance by subsystem, (3) redefined spares calculations, (4) computing a weighted average of the working days and mission days per month, (5) the use of a position manning factor, and (6) the incorporation into the O&S model of new formulas for computing depot and organizational recurring and nonrecurring training costs and documentation costs, and depot support equipment costs. The case study used is based upon a winged, single-stage, vertical-takeoff vehicle (SSV) designed to deliver to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) a 25,000 lb payload including passengers without a crew.

  7. Os odontoideum with cerebellar infarction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H; Itoh, T; Takei, H; Hayashi, M

    2000-05-01

    A case report. To report the case of a child with os odontoideum associated with cerebellar infarction and to discuss the correlation between atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency. Knowledge of the influence of atlantoaxial instability on vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency remains limited despite the publication of several reports. A 5-year-old boy with ataxic gait disturbance was hospitalized in the pediatric ward. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebellar infarctions, and cerebral angiogram showed occlusions of several branches of the basilar artery and a winding of the left vertebral artery. Stress lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed atlantoaxial instability with os odontoideum. Posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation with iliac bone graft was applied to obtain firm stability and fusion. There was no damage to the vertebral arteries or spinal nerves in the perioperative period. Solid union of the grafted bone and rigid stability of the atlantoaxial joint were seen on lateral flexion-extension radiographs 1 year after the operation. There has been no sign of recurrent arterial insufficiency, and the patient has been free from cerebellar dysfunction to date. Atlantoaxial instability may cause insufficiency of the vertebral artery as well as spinal cord injury. More attention should be paid to the possible relation between atlantoaxial instability and vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency.

  8. OsHUS1 facilitates accurate meiotic recombination in rice.

    PubMed

    Che, Lixiao; Wang, Kejian; Tang, Ding; Liu, Qiaoquan; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Yafei; Hu, Qing; Shen, Yi; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2014-06-01

    Meiotic recombination normally takes place between allelic sequences on homologs. This process can also occur between non-allelic homologous sequences. Such ectopic interaction events can lead to chromosome rearrangements and are normally avoided. However, much remains unknown about how these ectopic interaction events are sensed and eliminated. In this study, using a screen in rice, we characterized a homolog of HUS1 and explored its function in meiotic recombination. In Oshus1 mutants, in conjunction with nearly normal homologous pairing and synapsis, vigorous, aberrant ectopic interactions occurred between nonhomologous chromosomes, leading to multivalent formation and subsequent chromosome fragmentation. These ectopic interactions relied on programmed meiotic double strand breaks and were formed in a manner independent of the OsMER3-mediated interference-sensitive crossover pathway. Although early homologous recombination events occurred normally, the number of interference-sensitive crossovers was reduced in the absence of OsHUS1. Together, our results indicate that OsHUS1 might be involved in regulating ectopic interactions during meiosis, probably by forming the canonical RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex.

  9. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice.

  10. Rice GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 play different roles in ascorbic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Deng, Zaian; Zhang, Chuanyu; Wang, Yayun; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhili; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhijin

    2016-02-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose, which is a precursor for ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis in plants. The rice genome encodes three GMPase homologs OsVTC1-1, OsVTC1-3 and OsVTC1-8, but their roles in AsA synthesis are unclear. The overexpression of OsVTC1-1 or OsVTC1-3 restored the AsA synthesis of vtc1-1 in Arabidopsis, while that of OsVTC1-8 did not, indicating that only OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 are involved in AsA synthesis in rice. Similar to Arabidopsis VTC1, the expression of OsVTC1-1 was high in leaves, induced by light, and inhibited by dark. Unlike OsVTC1-1, the expression level of OsVTC1-3 was high in roots and quickly induced by the dark, while the transcription level of OsVTC1-8 did not show obvious changes under constant light or dark treatments. In OsVTC1-1 RNAi plants, the AsA content of rice leaves decreased, and the AsA production induced by light was limited. In contrast, OsVTC1-3 RNAi lines altered AsA synthesis levels in rice roots, but not in the leaves or under the light/dark treatment. The enzyme activity showed that OsVTC1-1 and OsVTC1-3 had higher GMPase activities than OsVTC1-8 in vitro. Our data showed that, unlike in Arabidopsis, the rice GPMase homologous proteins illustrated a new model in AsA synthesis: OsVTC1-1 may be involved in the AsA synthesis, which takes place in leaves, while OsVTC1-3 may be responsible for AsA synthesis in roots. The different roles of rice GMPase homologous proteins in AsA synthesis may be due to their differences in transcript levels and enzyme activities.

  11. LiLa 6I 12Os, a substitutional derivative of rhombohedral La(La 6I 12Os)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Corbett, John D.

    2004-12-01

    The series of quaternary rare-earth-metal halide cluster compounds ALa 6I 12Z with transition metal interstitials Z and alkali or alkaline-earth metal cations A has been expanded to include A=Li. The compounds synthesized by high-temperature solid-state techniques for Z=Os, Ir, Pt, Ru are isotypic with rhombohedral R7X12Z ( R3¯, Z=3). The refined single X-ray crystal structure of (Li 0.967La 0.033)La 6I 12Os is reported, along with supportive results from a Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction from a different sample, 7Li MAS-NMR, and electronic resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The samples show continuous Li 1-xLa x cation compositions and are generally semiconductors, but their complex paramagnetic properties are not those of simple spin-only systems.

  12. Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic sulfides.

    PubMed

    Luguet, Ambre; Graham Pearson, D; Nowell, Geoff M; Dreher, Scott T; Coggon, Judith A; Spetsius, Zdislav V; Parman, Stephen W

    2008-01-25

    To explain the elevated osmium isotope (186Os-187Os) signatures in oceanic basalts, the possibility of material flux from the metallic core into the crust has been invoked. This hypothesis conflicts with theoretical constraints on Earth's thermal and dynamic history. To test the veracity and uniqueness of elevated 186Os-187Os in tracing core-mantle exchange, we present highly siderophile element analyses of pyroxenites, eclogites plus their sulfides, and new 186Os/188Os measurements on pyroxenites and platinum-rich alloys. Modeling shows that involvement in the mantle source of either bulk pyroxenite or, more likely, metasomatic sulfides derived from either pyroxenite or peridotite melts can explain the 186Os-187Os signatures of oceanic basalts. This removes the requirement for core-mantle exchange and provides an effective mechanism for generating Os isotope diversity in basalt source regions.

  13. The NAC family transcription factor OsNAP confers abiotic stress response through the ABA pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yaofeng; Lv, Bo; Li, Jie; Luo, Liqiong; Lu, Songchong; Zhang, Xuan; Ma, Hong; Ming, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Plants respond to environmental stresses by altering gene expression, and several genes have been found to mediate stress-induced expression, but many additional factors are yet to be identified. OsNAP is a member of the NAC transcription factor family; it is localized in the nucleus, and shows transcriptional activator activity in yeast. Analysis of the OsNAP transcript levels in rice showed that this gene was significantly induced by ABA and abiotic stresses, including high salinity, drought and low temperature. Rice plants overexpressing OsNAP did not show growth retardation, but showed a significantly reduced rate of water loss, enhanced tolerance to high salinity, drought and low temperature at the vegetative stage, and improved yield under drought stress at the flowering stage. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants overexpressing OsNAP revealed that many stress-related genes were up-regulated, including OsPP2C06/OsABI2, OsPP2C09, OsPP2C68 and OsSalT, and some genes coding for stress-related transcription factors (OsDREB1A, OsMYB2, OsAP37 and OsAP59). Our data suggest that OsNAP functions as a transcriptional activator that plays a role in mediating abiotic stress responses in rice.

  14. Rice GDP dissociation inhibitor 3 inhibits OsMAPK2 activity through physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jae Bok; Yi, Young Byung; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2011-11-04

    GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) plays an essential role in regulating the state of bound nucleotides and subcellular localizations of Rab proteins. In our previous study, we showed that OsGDI3 facilitates the recycling of OsRab11 with a help of OsGAP1. In this study, we show that OsGDI3 complement the yeast sec19-1 mutant, a temperature-sensitive allele of the yeast GDI gene, suggesting that OsGDI3 is a functional ortholog of yeast GDI. To obtain further knowledge on the function of OsGDI3, candidate OsGDI3-interacting proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid screens. OsMAPK2 is one of OsGDI3 interacting proteins from yeast two-hybrid screens and subject to further analysis. A kinase assay showed that the autophosphorylation activity of OsMAPK2 is inhibited by OsGDI3 in vitro. In addition, ectopic expressions of OsGDI3-in Arabidopsis cause reductions at the level of phosphorylated AtMPK in phosphorylation activity. Taken together, OsGDI3 functions as a negative regulator of OsMAPK2 through modulating its kinase activity.

  15. Redox-induced terpyridyl substitution in the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M H; Lee, D G; White, P S; Meyer, T J

    2001-07-30

    Reaction between the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine and O(CH(2))(4)N(-) = morpholide), and a series of N- or O-bases gives as products the substituted Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes, trans-[Os(VI)(4'-RNtpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) or trans-[Os(VI)(4'-ROtpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) (RN(-) = anilide (PhNH(-)); S,S-diphenyl sulfilimide (Ph(2)S=N(-)); benzophenone imide (Ph(2)C=N(-)); piperidide ((CH(2))(5)N(-)); morpholide (O(CH(2))(4)N(-)); ethylamide (EtNH(-)); diethylamide (Et(2)N(-)); and tert-butylamide (t-BuNH(-)) and RO(-) = tert-butoxide (t-BuO(-)) and acetate (MeCO(2)(-)). The rate law for the formation of the morpholide-substituted complex is first order in trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) and second order in morpholine with k(morp)(25 degrees C, CH(3)CN) = (2.15 +/- 0.04) x 10(6) M(-)(2) s(-)(1). Possible mechanisms are proposed for substitution at the 4'-position of the tpy ligand by the added nucleophiles. The key features of the suggested mechanisms are the extraordinary electron withdrawing effect of Os(VI) on tpy and the ability of the metal to undergo intramolecular Os(VI) to Os(IV) electron transfer. These substituted Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes can be electrochemically reduced to the corresponding Os(V), Os(IV), and Os(III) forms. The Os-N bond length of 1.778(4) A and Os-N-N angle of 172.5(4) degrees in trans-[Os(VI)(4'-O(CH(2))(4)Ntpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) are consistent with sp-hybridization of the alpha-nitrogen of the hydrazido ligand and an Os-N triple bond. The extensive ring substitution chemistry implied for the Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes is discussed.

  16. Shape evolution and test of the critical-point symmetry X(5) in 176Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xin; Zhu, Li-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Pan, Bo; Wang, Lie-Lin; Zheng, Yun; Wang, Lei; Li, Xue-Qin; Liu, Ying; Ding, Huai-Bo; Li, Zhong-Yu

    2009-03-01

    The lifetimes of excited states in the yrast band of 176Os have been measured up to I = 20ħ level using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The high-spin states of 176Os were populated via fusion evaporation reaction 152Sm(28Si,4n)176Os at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The results support an X(5) structure for 176Os at low spin. This structure disappears at high spin and shows a symmetry rotor character. The shape change of 176Os is similar to that of 178Os.

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of Rice Laccase Gene (OsLAC) Family and Ectopic Expression of OsLAC10 Enhances Tolerance to Copper Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingquan; Luo, Le; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Shen, Zhenguo; Zheng, Luqing

    2017-01-01

    Laccases are encoded by a multigene family and widely distributed in plant genomes where they play roles oxidizing monolignols to produce higher-order lignin involved in plant development and stress responses. We identified 30 laccase genes (OsLACs) from rice, which can be divided into five subfamilies, mostly expressed during early development of the endosperm, growing roots, and stems. OsLACs can be induced by hormones, salt, drought, and heavy metals stresses. The expression level of OsLAC10 increased 1200-fold after treatment with 20 μM Cu for 12 h. The laccase activities of OsLAC10 were confirmed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Lignin accumulation increased in the roots of Arabidopsis over-expressing OsLAC10 (OsLAC10-OX) compared to wild-type controls. After growth on 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing toxic levels of Cu for seven days, roots of the OsLAC10-OX lines were significantly longer than those of the wild type. Compared to control plants, the Cu concentration decreased significantly in roots of the OsLAC10-OX line under hydroponic conditions. These results provided insights into the evolutionary expansion and functional divergence of OsLAC family. In addition, OsLAC10 is likely involved in lignin biosynthesis, and reduces the uptake of Cu into roots required for Arabidopsis to develop tolerance to Cu. PMID:28146098

  18. OsPRA1 plays a significant role in targeting of OsRab7 into the tonoplast via the prevacuolar compartment during vacuolar trafficking in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jae Bok; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Se Won; Hwang, Sung Min; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Acharya, Biswa R; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Sam Woong; Lee, Byung Hyun; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2010-09-01

    In yeast and mammals, the Yip/PRA1 family of proteins has been reported to facilitate the delivery of Rab GTPases to the membrane by dissociating the Rab-GDI complex during vesicle trafficking. Recently, we identified OsPRA1, a plant Yip/PRA1 homolog, as an OsRab7-interacting protein that localizes to the prevacuolar compartment, which suggests that it plays a role in vacuolar trafficking of plant cells. Here, we show that OsPRA1 is essential for vacuolar trafficking and that it has molecular properties that are typical of the Yip/PRA1 family of proteins. A trafficking assay using Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that the point mutant OsPRA1((Y94A)) strongly inhibits the vacuolar trafficking of cargo proteins, but has no inhibitory effect on the plasma membrane trafficking of H(+)-ATPase-GFP, suggesting its specific involvement in vacuolar trafficking. Moreover, OsPRA1 was shown to be an integral membrane protein, suggesting that its two hydrophobic domains may mediate membrane integration, and its cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal regions were found to be important for binding to OsRab7. OsPRA1 also interacted with OsVamp3, implying its involvement in vesicle fusion. Finally, we used a yeast expression system to show that OsPRA1 opposes OsGDI2 activity and facilitates the delivery of OsRab7 to the target membrane. Taken together, our results support strongly that OsPRA1 targets OsRab7 to the tonoplast during vacuolar trafficking.

  19. Evaluation of the Role of the LysM Receptor-Like Kinase, OsNFR5/OsRLK2 for AM Symbiosis in Rice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kana; Hayafune, Masahiro; Kobae, Yoshihiro; Kaku, Hanae; Nishizawa, Yoko; Masuda, Yoshiki; Shibuya, Naoto; Nakagawa, Tomomi

    2016-11-01

    In legume-specific rhizobial symbiosis, host plants perceive rhizobial signal molecules, Nod factors, by a pair of LysM receptor-like kinases, NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP, and activate symbiotic responses through the downstream signaling components also required for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Recently, the rice NFR1/LYK3 ortholog, OsCERK1, was shown to play crucial roles for AM symbiosis. On the other hand, the roles of the NFR5/NFP ortholog in rice have not been elucidated, while it has been shown that NFR5/NFP orthologs, Parasponia PaNFR5 and tomato SlRLK10, engage in AM symbiosis. OsCERK1 also triggers immune responses in combination with a receptor partner, OsCEBiP, against fungal or bacterial infection, thus regulating opposite responses against symbiotic and pathogenic microbes. However, it has not been elucidated how OsCERK1 switches these opposite functions. Here, we analyzed the function of the rice NFR5/NFP ortholog, OsNFR5/OsRLK2, as a possible candidate of the OsCERK1 partner for symbiotic signaling. Inoculation of AM fungi induced the expression of OsNFR5 in the rice root, and the chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domain of LjNFR5 and the intracellular domain of OsNFR5 complemented the Ljnfr5 mutant for rhizobial symbiosis, indicating that the intracellular kinase domain of OsNFR5 could activate symbiotic signaling in Lotus japonicus. Although these data suggested the possible involvement of OsNFR5 in AM symbiosis, osnfr5 knockout mutants were colonized by AM fungi similar to the wild-type rice. These observations suggested several possibilities including the presence of functionally redundant genes other than OsNFR5 or involvement of novel ligands, which do not require OsNFR5 for recognition.

  20. A first-principle study of Os-based compounds: Electronic structure and vibrational properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıkan, N.; Örnek, O.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Uğur, G.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure, elastic, and phonon properties of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are studied using first-principles calculations. Elastic constants of OsY and specific heat capacity of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y, and Zr) are reported for the first time. The predicted equilibrium lattice constants are in excellent agreement with experiment. The calculated values of bulk moduli are considerably high but are much smaller than that of Osmium, which is around 400 GPa. The phase stability of the OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds were studied by DOS calculations and the results suggest that OsY is unstable in the B2 phase. The brittleness and ductility properties of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) are determined. OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are predicted to be ductile materials. The electronic structure and phonon frequency curves of OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are obtained. The position of Fermi level of these systems was calculated and discussed in terms of the pseudo gaps. The finite and small DOS at the Fermi level 0.335, 0.375, 1.063, and 0.383 electrons/eV for OsHf, OsTi, OsY, and OsZr, respectively, suggest that OsM (M=Hf, Ti, Y and Zr) compounds are weak metals.

  1. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  2. Conversion coefficients and yrast state spins in 180Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Kibédi, T.; Byrne, A. P.; Fabricius, B.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    1990-03-01

    Internal conversion coefficients of transitions in 180Os have been measured using a superconducting, solenoidal electron spectrometer, operated in the lens mode. The high energy resolution and efficiency allow a precise measurement of the conversion coefficients of the 528 keV yrast transition. The values obtained, αK = 0.015(2), αL = 0.004(1) define pure E2 multipolarity. Taken with the measured γ-ray angular distribution, the conversion coefficient leads to an unambiguous assignment of 16 + → 14 + for the 528 keV transition.

  3. Search for extremely deformed systems in {sub 182}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Chasman, R.R.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    We performed an experiment at Gammasphere to search for elongated shapes in the nucleus {sup 182}Os. Recent calculations by R. R. Chasman show that this nucleus is the most promising for finding structures with major to minor axis ratios of 2.2:1 or greater. These calculations include a necking degree of freedom which is thought to be an improvement over past cranked Strutinsky calculations where predictions for extended shapes in Yb and Er nuclei were made. In order to populate {sup 182}Os at spins > 60 h, we utilized the {sup 139}Ba({sup 48}Ca,4n) reaction. The target was made by evaporating {sup 138}Ba onto a 500-{mu}g/cm{sup 2} Au foil, followed by the evaporation of {approximately}250-{mu}g/cm{sup 2} Au onto the exposed side of the Ba. Such a target was necessary since Ba is highly reactive with oxygen. Even after taking this precaution, the target suffered oxidation which adversely effected the quality of our data. The experiment was performed at Gammasphere using the predetermined energy of 220 MeV. A single target was used and the {sup 138}Ba had a thickness of 750 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. The run lasted four days and {approximately}440 x 10{sup 6} 3-fold and higher Compton-suppressed Ge events were collected. No strong evidence for highly deformed structures was found in this data set. However, it is our belief that the oxygen contamination in our target greatly compromised the outcome of the experiment. Much of the background in our total projection is due to fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca on oxygen isotopes. The resulting {gamma} rays are highly Doppler broadened and experience larger Doppler shifts relative to the Os residues. Thus, these {gamma} rays are spread out over the entire energy spectrum almost uniformly adding to the background. Our conclusion is that due to target problems, only 150-200 million of the coincidence events can be associated with Os-like residues.

  4. Electrochemical Os-mediated asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Sigeru

    1995-12-31

    Recently, the effective chiral ligands for enantioselective dihydroxylation of olefins have intensively been investigated. Among the reported asymmetric dihydroxylation systems, the superiority of a H{sub 2}O/t-BuOH-K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} system with chiral ligands, i.e., DHQD and/or DHQ derivatives, has been mentioned. Herein, the authors disclose preliminary studies on the electrochemical Os-catalyzed asymmetric dihyroxylation of olefins with Sharpless` ligands (L*).

  5. Energy-dependent collective excitations in Os and Pt isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaca, A. I.; Budaca, R.

    2017-08-01

    An exactly solvable model is constructed by considering an energy-dependent harmonic oscillator potential in the β part of the Bohr Hamiltonian separated adiabatically from the γ-angular degrees of freedom. The energy dependence is linear and introduced in the string constant. The fundamental implications of the energy dependence in quantum theory are thoroughly discussed in connection with the slope parameter. The numerical applications of the model are found to match the collective features for extended chains of even-even Os and Pt isotopes, which exhibit a smooth evolution in the slope of the energy dependence.

  6. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  7. Modification of os calcis bone mineral profiles during bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral content of the left central os calcis was determined using the photon absorptiometric technique modified for the space missions to permit area scanning, and was compared with total body calcium balance changes. The instrument consists of a rectilinear scanner that is programmed by a specially designed control module to move a low energy X-ray emitting radionuclide placed in opposition to a detector to scan the foot which is places between them. The foot is placed in a plexiglas box filled with water to provide tissue equivalence and to compensate for irregularities in thickness of tissue cover that surrounds the bone. The mineral content is obtained from basic attenuation equation.

  8. Global structure search and physical properties of Os2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Feng; Lu, Jian; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Xu, Run; Xu, Fei; Ma, Zhongquan; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structures of Os2C were extensively investigated using the structure search method from the first-principles calculations. In contrast to the P6 3 /mmc phase previously proposed as the ground state at ambient pressure, an energetically favorable structure with space group P-6m2 was found more stable at ambient condition. The structural stabilities of the new phase are confirmed by the phonon dispersion and elastic constants. Further calculations indicate that the newly predicted P-6m2 phase is ultra-incompressible with a high bulk modulus of 387 GPa and has a larger ideal shear strength than the P6 3 /mmc phase.

  9. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  10. Packings of Os layers for the development of L10 order of FePt in nanoscale [Os-FePt]n multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, T. T.; Hsiao, Ching-Hung; Lo, Shen-Chuan; Ouyang, Wen; Li, Tzu-Yuan; Ouyang, H.; Yao, Y. D.

    2013-05-01

    The element osmium (Os), with high melting and boiling points, plays a crucial role in the development of the L10 order for FePt in [Os(5 nm)/FePt(25 nm)]4 and [Os(1 nm)/FePt(5 nm)]20 systems. The large mismatches of lattice constants between Os and FePt, with specific epitaxial relations, induce a great strain in the [Os(5 nm) /FePt(25 nm)]4 system with fixed total thicknesses for the FePt and Os layers. Due to this large strain effect, the L10 order in a FePt structure can be enhanced through an application of stressing along the c axis for the face-centered cubic structure, which results in a higher coercivity. However, a smaller degree of average strain was observed in the 5 nm-thickness FePt system due to the existence of pinholes.

  11. The unconventional P-loop NTPase OsYchF1 and its regulator OsGAP1 play opposite roles in salinity stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Man-Wah; Yung, Yuk-Lin; Wen, Chao-Qing; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2013-11-01

    YchF proteins are a group of mysterious but ubiquitous unconventional G-proteins found in all kingdoms of life except Archaea. Their functions have been documented in microorganisms, protozoa and human, but those of plant YchF homologues are largely unknown. Our group has previously shown that OsYchF1 and its interacting protein, OsGAP1, play opposite roles in plant defense responses. OsGAP1 was found to stimulate the GTPase/ATPase activities of OsYchF1 and regulate its subcellular localization. In this report, we demonstrate that both OsYchF1 and OsGAP1 are localized mainly in the cytosol under NaCl treatment. The ectopic expression of OsYchF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leads to reduced tolerance towards salinity stress, while the ectopic expression of OsGAP1 has the opposite effect. Similar results were also obtained with the Arabidopsis homologues, AtYchF1 and AtGAP1, by using AtGAP1 overexpressors and underexpressors, as well as an AtYchF1-knockdown mutant. OsYchF1 and OsGAP1 also exhibit highly significant effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress tolerance. The expression of OsYchF1 suppresses the anti-oxidation enzymatic activities and increases lipid peroxidation in transgenic Arabidopsis, and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tobacco BY-2 cells, while the ectopic expression of OsGAP1 has the opposite effects in these two model systems.

  12. Effects of chemical pressure on the magnetic ground states of the osmate double perovskites SrCaCoOs6 and Ca2CoOsO6

    DOE PAGES

    Morrow, Ryan; Yan, Jiaqiang; McGuire, Michael A.; ...

    2015-09-21

    The magnetic ground state in the double perovskite system Sr2-xCaxCoOsO6 changes from an antiferromagnet (x=0), to a spin glass (x=1), to a ferrimagnet (x=2) as the Ca content increases. Moreover, this crossover is driven by chemical pressure effects that control the relative strength of magnetic exchange interactions. The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetism of SrCaCoOsO6 and Ca2CoOsO6 are investigated and compared with Sr2CoOsO6. Both compounds adopt a monoclinic crystal structure with rock-salt ordering of Co2+ and Os6+ and a-a-b+ octahedral tilting, but the average Co–O–Os bond angle evolves from 158.0(3) in SrCaCoOsO6 to 150.54(9)° in Ca2CoOsO6 as the smaller Ca2+more » ion replaces Sr2+. And while this change may seem minor, it has a profound effect on the magnetism, changing the magnetic ground state from antiferromagnetic in Sr2CoOsO6 (TN1=108K, TN2=70K), to a spin glass in SrCaCoOsO6 (Tf1=32K, Tf2=13K), to ferrimagnetic in Ca2CoOsO6 (TC=145K). Finally, in the first two compounds the observation of two transitions is consistent with weak coupling between the Co and Os sublattices.« less

  13. Analysis of the hominoid os coxae by Cartesian coordinates.

    PubMed

    McHenry, H M; Corruccini, R S

    1978-02-01

    This study is based upon 48 3-dimensional coordinates taken on 4 fossil hominid and 127 extant hominoid coxal bones. The follis include Sts 14, SK 3155, MLD 7, and MLD 25. The comparative sample consists of 42 Homo sapiens, 27 Pan troglodytes, 29 Gorilla gorilla and 29 Pongo pygmaeus. The coordinates improve the metrical representation of the bone beyond what can be done with linear measurements because the shape complexity of the os coxae is so great. The coordinates are rotated and translated so that all bones are in a standard position. The coordinates are then standardized for each specimen by dividing all coordinates by the pooled standard deviation of X, Y, and Z coordinates. These data are treated to standard statistical analyses including analysis of variance, Penrose size and shape statistics, principal coordinates and components, and canonical variates analysis. The data are then further altered by using some specimen as a standard and rotating each specimen until the total squared distance between its coordinates and those of the standard are minimized. The same statistics are applied to these "best fit" data. The results show a high degree of agreement between the methods. The hominid os coxae are dundamentally different from the other hominoids and the fossil hominids share the basic hominid configuration but with some unique differences.

  14. Acute traumatic cervical cord injury in patients with os odontoideum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jian; Chu, Tongwei; Li, Changqing; Ren, Xianjun; Wang, Weidong

    2010-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed acute cervical cord injury after minor trauma in 10 patients with os odontoideum. Their clinical history, neurological symptoms, radiological investigations, follow-up period, American Spinal Injury Association impairment classification and motor score were reviewed. Before their traumatic injury, three patients were asymptomatic and seven reported myelopathic symptoms, including four patients with neck pain, two patients with unsteadiness and one patient with dizziness. Falls were the most common cause of injury (n=6), followed by minor motor vehicle accidents (n=3) and assault (n=1). MRI and dynamic cervical lateral radiographs showed that all patients had atlantoaxial instability and cord compression. Most patients had spinal cord thinning and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI. Spinal cord compression was posterior (n=5), or both anterior and posterior (n=5). All patients underwent posterior rigid screw fixation and fusion, including atlantoaxial fusion (n=8) and occipitocervical fusion (n=2). We conclude that patients with asymptomatic or myelopathic atlantoaxial instability secondary to os odontoideum are at risk for acute spinal cord injury after minor traumatic injury. Fixation and fusion should be undertaken as prophylactic treatment for patients at risk of developing myelopathy and to avoid the neurological deterioration associated with acute traumatic cervical cord injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves for OsH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Garcia, M.; Balasubramanian, K.

    1991-11-01

    Complete active space (CASSCF) followed by first-order configuration interaction (FOCI) and second-order CI (SOCI) are carried out on 21 low-lying electronic states of OsH. Spin-orbit effects are investigated using the relativistic CI (RCI) methodology. The ground state of OsH is found to be 4Π symmetry with R e = 1.606 Å, ωe = 2138 cm -1, De = 2.317 eV, and μe = -1.651 D in the absence of spin-orbit interactions, while the ground state is found to be a strong mixture of 4Π( {5}/{2}) and 4Δ( {5}/{2}) including spin-orbit coupling. Potential energy surfaces for 21 low-lying electronic states are reported. Allowed electronic transitions from the ground X4Π and some other low-lying states are predicted. The nature and bonding of the low-lying electronic states are analyzed through Mulliken populations.

  16. Surface studies of Os/Re/W alloy-coated impregnated tungsten cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ares Fang, C.S. ); Maloney, C.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Impregnated tungsten cathodes half-coated with Re/W (or Os/W) alloy and Os/Re/W alloy at right angles were studied to compare the effects of Os/Re/W alloy coatings on the electron emission and emission mechanisms. Constant surface metal compositions of 32% Os--29% Re--39% W and 35% Os--26% Re--39% W were obtained from the activated surfaces initially coated with 40% Os--40% Re--20% W and 35% Os--45% Re--20% W alloys, respectively. Thermionic emission microscopy measurements showed that the Os/Re/W alloy-coated surface gives an average effective work function of 0.29, 0.08, and 0.03 eV lower than the uncoated, Re/W and Os/W alloy-coated surfaces. An effective work function of 1.73 eV was obtained from an activated Os/Re/W alloy surface. Auger studies exhibited a smaller BaO coverage and a higher barium coverage in excess of BaO stoichiometry on the Os/Re/W alloy-coated surface compared to the uncoated, Re/W and Os/W alloy-coated surfaces.

  17. A Combined He and Os Isotopic Study of the HSDP-2 Core from Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Depaolo, D. J.; Kurz, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    Combined osmium and helium isotope systematics of hotspot lavas have the potential to reveal information about the deep Earth. A high 3He/4He ratio may represent an undegassed reservoir, generally associated with the lower mantle. There are two Os isotopes that can be studied to help to further elucidate the problem. The decay of 187Re to 187Os is the more frequently cited system; however, in terms of lower mantle processes, the decay of 190Pt to 186Os may be extremely useful. Both of these Os isotopes are enriched in the core relative to chondritic values. In a previous study, Brandon et al. (1999) examined several Hawaiian volcanoes for both He and Os isotopes. A correlation was noted between the 3He/4He, 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os ratios. In terms of 3He/4He and 187Os/188Os space, the three commonly cited Hawaiian end-members (Kea, Koolau and Loihi members) were clearly defined. A strong positive correlation was also observed for 186Os/188Os versus 3He/4He. These correlations were interpreted as a possible signature of core-mantle interaction. There were some limitations to previous studies. Only 2-3 samples from each volcano were studied, with these samples generally being subaerially erupted. The He data utilized were often not for the same samples for which the Os data were collected (volcano averages for He were used on some samples). With the introduction of data from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP-2), which drilled 2.84 km into the Mauna Kea volcanics (DePaolo et al., 2000), an extensive history of a single volcano can be observed (from the early submarine stages to the later subaerial rocks). In the current study a detailed Os isotopic analysis of several samples that span a large depth range of the HSDP-2 core, in conjunction with previously collected He isotopic data (Kurz et al., 2004), was conducted. The samples define a relatively narrow range of slightly suprachondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.12865-0.13056), despite having a large

  18. Os-186 and Os-187 Enrichments and High-He-3/He-4 sources in the Earth's Mantle: Evidence from Icelandic Picrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Graham, David W.; Waight, Tod; Gautason, Bjarni

    2007-01-01

    Picrites from the neovolcanic zones in Iceland display a range in Os-187/Os-188O from 0.1297 to 0.1381 ((gamma)Os = 0.0 to 6.5) and uniform Os-186/Os-188 of 0.1198375+/-32 (2 (sigma)). The value for Os-186/Os-188 is within uncertainty of the present-day value for the primitive upper mantle of 0.1198398+/-16. These Os isotope systematics are best explained by ancient recycled crust or melt enrichment in the mantle source region. If so, then the coupled enrichments displayed in Os-186/Os-188 and Os-187/Os-188 from lavas of other plume systems must result from an independent process, the most viable candidate at present remains core-mantle interaction. While some plumes with high He-3/He-4, such as Hawaii, appear to have been subjected to detectable addition of Os (and possibly He) from the outer core, others such as Iceland do not. A positive correlation between Os-187/Os-188 and He-3/He-4 from 9.6 to 19 RA in Iceland picrites is best modeled as mixtures of 500 Ma or older ancient recycled crust mixed with primitive mantle, creating a hybrid source region that subsequently mixes with the convecting MORB mantle during ascent and melting. This multistage mechanism to explain these isotope systematics is consistent with ancient recycled crust juxtaposed with more primitive, relatively He-rich mantle, in convective isolation from the upper mantle, most likely in the lowermost mantle. This is inconsistent with models that propose random mixing between heterogeneities in the convecting upper mantle as a mechanism to explain the observed isotopic variation in oceanic lavas or models that produce a high He-3/He-4 signature in melt depleted and strongly outgassed, He-poor mantle. Instead these systematics require a deep mantle source to explain the 3He/4He signature in Iceland lavas. The He-3/He-4 of lavas derived from the Iceland plume changed over time, from a maximum of 50 RA at 60 Ma, to approximately 25-27 RA at present. The changes are coupled with distinct

  19. Os-Sr-Nd results from sediments in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for sediment transport and the marine Os record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Reisberg, Laurie; France-Lanord, Christian; Kudrass, Herman R.

    2001-08-01

    Sr, Nd, and Os isotopic data are presented for sediments from diverse locations in the Bay of Bengal. These data allow the samples to be divided into three groups, related to their sedimentary contexts. The first group, mainly composed of sediments from the shelf off Bangladesh and the currently active fan, has Sr and Nd characteristics consistent with a dominantly Himalayan source. Their 187Os/188Os ratios (˜1.2-1.5) show that the average detrital material delivered by the Ganga-Brahmaputra (G-B) river system is not unusually radiogenic. A large difference in 187Os/188Os ratio exists between these Bengal Fan sediments and Ganga bedloads (187Os/188Os ˜2.5, Pierson-Wickmann et al. [2000]). This difference mainly reflects addition of a less radiogenic Brahmaputra component, though mineralogical sorting and loss of radiogenic Os during transport may also play some role. The second sample group contains sediments from elsewhere in the Bay, particularly those located on the continental slope. They display Os isotopic compositions (0.99-1.11) similar to that of present seawater and higher Os and Re concentrations. These characteristics suggest the presence of a large hydrogenous contribution, consistent with the lower sedimentation rate of these samples. Sr and Nd ratios indicate that a significant fraction of these sediments is derived from erosion of non-Himalayan sources, such as the Indo-Burman range. These observations could be explained by the deflection of sediments from the G-B river system by westward currents in the head of the Bay. The third group contains only one sample, but shows that in addition to a Himalayan source, sediment discharge from Sri Lanka may influence the detrital component in the distal part of the fan. The similarity between the isotopic compositions of the group I R/V Sonne samples and those of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 116 [France-Lanord et al., 1993; Reisberg et al., 1997] suggests that the material eroding in the Himalayas has been

  20. Effects of mother lode-type gold mineralization on 187Os/188Os and platinum group element concentrations in peridotite: Alleghany District, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Li, J.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium isotope compositions and concentrations of Re, platinum group elements (PGE), and Au were determined for host peridotites (serpentinites and barzburgites) and hydrothermally altered ultramafic wall rocks associated with Mother Lode-type hydrothermal gold-quartz vein mineralization in the Alleghany district, California. The host peridotites have Os isotope compositions and Re, PGE, and Au abundances typical of the upper mantle at their presumed formation age during the late Proterozoic or early Paleozoic. The hydrothermally altered rocks have highly variable initial Os isotope compositions with ??os, values (% deviation of 187OS/188OS from the chondritic average calculated for the approx. 120 Ma time of mineralization) ranging from -1.4 to -8.3. The lowest Os isotope compositions are consistent with Re depletion of a chondritic source (e.g., the upper mantle) at ca. 1.6 Ga. Most of the altered samples are enriched in Au and have depleted and fractionated abundances of Re and PGE relative to their precursor peridotites. Geoehemical characteristics of the altered samples suggest that Re and some PGE were variably removed from the ultramafic rocks during the mineralization event. In addition to Re, the Pt and Pd abundances of the most intensely altered rocks appear to have been most affected by mineralization. The 187Os-depleted isotopic compositions of some altered rocks are interpreted to be a result of preferential 187Os loss via destruction of Re-rich phases during the event. For these rocks, Os evidently is not a useful tracer of the mineralizing fluids. The results do, however, provide evidence for differential mobility of these elements, and mobility of 187Os relative to the initial bulk Os isotope composition during hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of ultramafic rocks. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  1. OsCUL3a Negatively Regulates Cell Death and Immunity by Degrading OsNPR1 in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingxin; Yu, Ning; Zhao, Chunde; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Wu, Weixun; Chen, Daibo; Wei, Xiangjin; Cheng, Shihua; Cao, Liyong

    2017-01-01

    Cullin3-based RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL3), composed of Cullin3 (CUL3), RBX1, and BTB proteins, are involved in plant immunity, but the function of CUL3 in the process is largely unknown. Here, we show that rice (Oryza sativa) OsCUL3a is important for the regulation of cell death and immunity. The rice lesion mimic mutant oscul3a displays a significant increase in the accumulation of flg22- and chitin-induced reactive oxygen species, and in pathogenesis-related gene expression as well as resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. We cloned the OsCUL3a gene via a map-based strategy and found that the lesion mimic phenotype of oscul3a is associated with the early termination of OsCUL3a protein. Interaction assays showed that OsCUL3a interacts with both OsRBX1a and OsRBX1b to form a multisubunit CRL in rice. Strikingly, OsCUL3a interacts with and degrades OsNPR1, which acts as a positive regulator of cell death in rice. Accumulation of OsNPR1 protein is greater in the oscul3a mutant than in the wild type. Furthermore, the oscul3a osnpr1 double mutant does not exhibit the lesion mimic phenotype of the oscul3a mutant. Our data demonstrate that OsCUL3a negatively regulates cell death and immunity by degrading OsNPR1 in rice. PMID:28100706

  2. Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pankaj K.; Verma, Shikha; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Deo Tripathi, Rudra; Dhankher, Om P.; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops. PMID:27313586

  3. Multiple mixed-valence behavior in trans,trans-[(tpy)(Cl)2Os(III)(mu-1,3-N3)Os(III)(Cl)2(tpy)]+. An azido bridge from the reaction between trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]+ and NH3.

    PubMed

    Huynh, My Hang V; Meyer, Thomas J; Labouriau, Andrea; Morris, David E; White, Peter S

    2003-03-12

    Reaction between the Os(VI)-nitrido complex, trans-[OsVI(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]PF6 (tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine), and ammonia (NH3) under N2 in dry CH3CN gives the mu-1,3-azido bridged [OsII-N3-OsII]- dimer, trans,trans-NH4[(tpy)(Cl)2OsII(N3)OsII(Cl)2(tpy)]. It undergoes air oxidation to give the [OsIII-N3-OsIII]+ analogue, trans,trans-[(tpy)(Cl)2OsIII(N3)OsIII(Cl)2(tpy)]PF6 ([OsIII-N3-OsIII]PF6), which has been isolated and characterized. The structural formulation as a mu-1,3-N3 bridged complex has been established by infrared and 15N NMR measurements on the 15N-labeled forms, [OsIII-14N=15N=14N-OsIII]+, [OsIII-15N=14N=15N-OsIII]+, and [OsIII-15N=15N=15N-OsIII]+. Cyclic voltammetric measurements in 0.2 M Bu4NPF6/CH3CN reveal the existence of five chemically reversible waves from 1.40 to -0.12 V for couples ranging from OsV-OsIV/OsIV-OsIV to OsIII-OsII/OsII-OsII. DeltaE1/2 values for couples adjacent to the three mixed-valence forms are 0.19 V for OsIII-OsII, 0.52 V for OsIV-OsIII, and >0.71 V for OsV-OsIV. In CH3CN at 60 degrees C, [OsIII-N3-OsIII]+ undergoes a [2 + 3] cycloaddition with CH3CN at the mu-N3- bridge followed by a solvolysis to give trans-[OsIII(tpy)(Cl)2(5-MeCN4)] and trans-[OsIII(tpy)(Cl)2(NCCH3)]PF6.

  4. Brief Announcement: An OS Architecture for Device Self-protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ruan; Lacoste, Marc; Leneutre, Jean

    By introducing context-awareness in the system layer, pervasive computing is a turning point in OS design. Device mobility and dynamicity of situations raise strong challenges for run-time adaptability of embedded software, while at the same time inducing new, serious threats to device security. Paradoxically, due to the multiplicity of protection requirements specific to each environment illustrated by the heterogeneity of network security policies, the solution may come from applying context-awareness to security itself. The idea is to tune security mechanisms to match the protection needs of the current device environment, such as the estimated level of risk. A manual adaptation is ruled out by the administration overhead and error potential of human intervention. To automate reconfiguration, security needs to be autonomic [2]. But how?

  5. The Double-System Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Yu; Zhan, Jing

    With the development of computer science and technology, current secure operating systems failed to respond to many new security challenges. Trusted operating system (TOS) is proposed to try to solve these problems. However, there are no mature, unified architectures for the TOS yet, since most of them cannot make clear of the relationship between security mechanism and the trusted mechanism. Therefore, this paper proposes a double-system architecture (DSA) for the TOS to solve the problem. The DSA is composed of the Trusted System (TS) and the Security System (SS). We constructed the TS by establishing a trusted environment and realized related SS. Furthermore, we proposed the Trusted Information Channel (TIC) to protect the information flow between TS and SS. In a word, the double system architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through the SS with the supports provided by the TS.

  6. The ARES test system for palm OS handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Elsmore, Timothy F; Reeves, Dennis L; Reeves, Andrea N

    2007-02-01

    The ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) is a cognitive testing system designed for operation on palm OS handheld computers i.e., Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). It provides an inexpensive and portable testing platform for field and clinical applications. ARES test batteries can be configured from a library of tests derived from the ANAM test system. ARES features include support of multiple users on a single PDA, a Microsoft Windows test battery authoring program, and a program for downloading, viewing, graphing, and archiving data. In validity tests, the same subjects were tested on identical ARES and conventional ANAM NeuroCog test batteries. Scores from the two platforms correlated highly, but absolute scores differed slightly. In reliability testing with the ARES Warrior battery, ARES scores were highly correlated in daily tests.

  7. Enhancements to surface drifters enabled by AtlantOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Paul; Reverdin, Gilles; Bourlès, Bernard; Carval, Thierry; David, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviews the improvements enabled by the H2020 project AtlantOS on the drifter network observing capacity and data integration. A first improvement is the recurrent deployment of drifters since 2015 in the Tropical Atlantic. The work presented will show the value of the additional surface pressure observations collected by these drifters, for numerical weather prediction and climate reanalysis. A second improvement is the development of a cost-effective temperature and conductivity sensor for drifters. A new sensor has been developed and implemented on a prototype drifter. A third improvement is the definition of a Global Data Assembly Center in the framework of the Marine Climate Data System. The GDAC will serve as global integrator of drifter data and metadata, and consolidate both near-real-time and delayed mode (improved or reprocessed) data feeds. The architecture proposed for this GDAC will be presented to collect feed-back.

  8. The effect of neonatal treatment of male mice with antiandrogens and of females with androgens on the development of the os penis and os clitoridis.

    PubMed Central

    Glucksmann, A; Ooka-Souda, S; Miura-Yasugi, E; Mizuno, T

    1976-01-01

    The os penis in mice and rats is composed of a proximal intramembranous and endochondral osseous element and a distal cartilaginous, ossifying element. Female mice, but not rats, have a small os clitoridis which corresponds to the intramembranous part of the proximal element of the os penis. In mice of either sex a dense mesenchymatous formation ventral to the urethra is the anlage for the bones of the external genitalia. In the early postnatal period the proximal part of the os penis develops as bone at the outer and as cartilage at the basal end of the anlage, while in females a minute focus of ossification differentiates into the small os clitoridis without passing through a cartilaginous phase. The distal element of the os penis is formed later than the proximal rod and grows at a slower rate. Neonatal treatment with an antiandrogen inhibits the increase in size and calcification of the os penis. Neonatal castration is an even more effective inhibitor. Neonatal treatment with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, but not with oestradiol, stimulates the growth of the bony proximal os clitoridis, but induces only a rudimentary collagenous distal element. The differences between mice and rats in the response of the tissues of the clitoris to androgenic treatment are discussed, particularly as regards the differentiation of proximal and distal elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:945257

  9. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of double perovskites SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hai L.; Schnelle, Walter; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Jansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    New double perovskite oxides SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6 were synthesized by solid state reactions from the respective binary metal oxides, and their crystal structures and magnetic properties were characterized. At room temperature SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6 crystallize in ordered double perovskite structures with space groups of P21/n (monoclinic) and I4/m (tetragonal), respectively. They are electrically semiconducting with an activation energy of ≈0.35 eV. Specific heat and magnetic measurements indicate that SrLaNiOsO6 shows predominantly antiferromagnetic correlations and displays antiferromagnetic transition around 60 K. However, for the isoelectronic BaLaNiOsO6 ferromagnetic correlations are predominant and there is no clear feature of a magnetic transition detectable. The remarkable change in magnetic properties of ALaNiOsO6 (A = Sr and Ba) can be related to the degree of structure distortions, i.e. the bending of the O-B-O (B = Ni,Os) links.

  10. OsAM1 is required for leptotene-zygotene transition in rice

    PubMed Central

    Che, Lixiao; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Wang, Mo; Zhu, Keming; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2011-01-01

    The events occurring at the onset of meiosis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, OsAM1 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by map-based cloning. OsAM1, a homolog of Arabidopsis SWI1 and maize AM1, encodes a protein with a coiled-coil domain in its central region. In the Osam1 mutant, pollen mother cells are arrested at leptotene, showing that OsAM1 is required for the leptotene-zygotene transition. Immunocytological analysis revealed that OsAM1 exists as foci in early prophase I meiocytes. Very faint OsREC8 foci persisted in the Osam1 mutant, indicating that OsAM1 is not required for the initial meiotic recruitment of OsREC8. In the absence of OsAM1, many other critical meiotic components, including PAIR2, ZEP1 and OsMER3, could not be correctly installed onto chromosomes. In contrast, in pair2, Osmer3 and zep1 mutants, OsAM1 could be loaded normally, suggesting that OsAM1 plays a fundamental role in building the proper chromosome structure at the beginning of meiosis. PMID:21221128

  11. The role of OsMSH4 in male and female gamete development in rice meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaolong; Wang, Yang; Cheng, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhigang; Chen, Jun; Sheng, Peike; Yu, Yang; Ma, Weiwei; Duan, Erchao; Wu, Fuqing; Liu, Linglong; Qin, Ruizhen; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is essential for gametogenesis in sexual reproduction in rice (Oryza sativa L.). We identified a MutS-homolog (MSH) family gene OsMSH4 in a trisomic plant. Cytological analysis showed that developments of both pollen and embryo sacs in an Osmsh4 mutant were blocked due to defective chromosome pairing. Compared with the wild type, the Osmsh4 mutant displayed a significant ~21.9% reduction in chiasma frequency, which followed a Poisson distribution, suggesting that class I crossover formation in the mutant was impaired. Temporal and spatial expression pattern analyses showed that OsMSH4 was preferentially expressed in meiocytes during their meiosis, indicating a critical role in gametogenesis. Subcellular localization showed that OsMSH4–green fluorescent protein was predominantly located in the nucleus. OsMSH4 could interact with another MSH member (OsMSH5) through the N-terminus and C-terminus, respectively. Direct physical interaction between OsMSH5, OsRPA1a, OsRPA2b, OsRPA1c, and OsRPA2c was identified by yeast two-hybrid assays and further validated by pull-down assays. Our results supported the conclusion that the OsMSH4/5 heterodimer plays a key role in regulation of crossover formation during rice meiosis by interaction with the RPA complex. PMID:26712826

  12. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest Their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22, and OsHOX24. These genes were highly up-regulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/T)ATTG) and AH2 (CAAT(C/G)ATTG). Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27242831

  13. Phytochrome B Negatively Affects Cold Tolerance by Regulating OsDREB1 Gene Expression through Phytochrome Interacting Factor-Like Protein OsPIL16 in Rice

    PubMed Central

    He, Yanan; Li, Yaping; Cui, Lixin; Xie, Lixia; Zheng, Chongke; Zhou, Guanhua; Zhou, Jinjun; Xie, Xianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Cross talk between light signaling and cold signaling has been elucidated in the model plant Arabidopsis and tomato, but little is known about their relationship in rice. Here, we report that phytochrome B (phyB) mutants exhibit improved cold tolerance compared with wild type (WT) rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). The phyB mutants had a lower electrolyte leakage index and malondialdehyde concentration than the WT, suggesting that they had greater cell membrane integrity and less lipid peroxidation. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of dehydration-responsive element binding protein 1 (OsDREB1) family genes, which functions in the cold stress response in rice, were increased in the phyB mutant under normal and cold stress conditions. PIFs are central players in phytochrome-mediated light signaling networks. To explore the relationship between rice PIFs and OsDREB1 gene expression, we produced overexpression lines of rice PIF genes. OsDREB1 family genes were up-regulated in OsPIL16-overexpression lines, which had improved cold tolerance relative to the WT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR assay revealed that OsPIL16 can bind to the N-box region of OsDREB1B promoter. Expression pattern analyses revealed that OsPIL16 transcripts were induced by cold stress and was significantly higher in the phyB mutant than in the WT. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsPIL16 can bind to rice PHYB. Based on these results, we propose that phyB deficiency positively regulates OsDREB1 expression through OsPIL16 to enhance cell membrane integrity and to reduce the malondialdehyde concentration, resulting in the improved cold tolerance of the phyB mutants. PMID:28083003

  14. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of the 190Pt-186Os isotope system to geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Beary, E.S.; Smoliar, M.I.; Czamanske, G.K.; Horan, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Platinum is fractionated from osmium primarily as a consequence of processes involving sulfide and metal crystallization. Consequently, the 190Pt-186Os isotope system (190Pt ??? 186Os + ??) shows promise for dating some types of magmatic sulfide ores and evolved iron meteorites. The first 190Pt-186Os isochrons are presented here for ores from the ca. 251 Ma Noril'sk, Siberia plume, and for group IIAB magmatic iron meteorites. Given the known age of the Noril'sk system, a decay constant for 190Pt is determined to be 1.542 ?? 10-12a-1, with ??1% uncertainty. The isochron generated for the IIAB irons is consistent with this decay constant and the known age of the group. The 186Os/188Os ratios of presumably young, mantle-derived osmiridiums and also the carbonaceous chondrite Allende were measured to high-precision to constrain the composition of the modern upper mantle. These compositions overlap, indicating that the upper mantle is chondritic within the level of resolution now available. Our best estimate for this 186Os/188Os ratio is 0.119834 ?? 2 (2??M). The 190Pt/186Os ratios determined for six enstatite chondrites average 0.001659 ?? 75, which is very similar to published values for carbonaceous chondrites. Using this ratio and the presumed composition of the modern upper mantle and chondrites, a solar system initial 186Os/188Os ratio of 0.119820 is calculated. In comparison to the modern upper mantle composition, the 186Os/188Os ratio of the Noril'sk plume was approximately 0.012% enriched in 186Os. Possible reasons for this heterogeneity include the recycling of Pt-rich crust into the mantle source of the plume and derivation of the osmium from the outer core. Derivation of the osmium from the outer core is our favored model. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Fermi-surface topologies and low-temperature phases of the filled skutterudite compounds CeOs4Sb12 and NdOs4Sb12

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, Pei Chun; Singleton, John; Goddard, Paul A.; ...

    2016-11-28

    We use MHz conductivity, torque magnetometer, and magnetization measurements to report on single crystals of CeOs 4 Sb 12 and NdOs 4 Sb 12 using temperatures down to 0.5 K and magnetic fields of up to 60 tesla. The field-orientation dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is deduced by rotating the samples about the [ 010 ] and [ 0more » $$\\bar{1}$$ 1 1 ] directions. Our results indicate that NdOs 4 Sb 12 has a similar Fermi surface topology to that of the unusual superconductor PrOs 4 Sb 12 , but with significantly smaller effective masses, supporting the importance of local phonon modes in contributing to the low-temperature heat capacity of NdOs 4 Sb 12 . By contrast, CeOs 4 Sb 12 undergoes a field-induced transition from an unusual semimetal into a high-field, high-temperature state characterized by a single, almost spherical Fermi-surface section. Furthermore, the behavior of the phase boundary and comparisons with models of the band structure lead us to propose that the field-induced phase transition in CeOs 4 Sb 12 is similar in origin to the well-known α - γ transition in Ce and its alloys.« less

  17. Fermi-surface topologies and low-temperature phases of the filled skutterudite compounds CeOs4Sb12 and NdOs4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei Chun; Singleton, John; Goddard, Paul A.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Chikara, Shalinee; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Maple, M. Brian; Shrekenhamer, David B.; Lee, Xia; Thomas, Avraham T.

    2016-11-01

    MHz conductivity, torque magnetometer, and magnetization measurements are reported on single crystals of CeOs4Sb12 and NdOs4Sb12 using temperatures down to 0.5 K and magnetic fields of up to 60 tesla. The field-orientation dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is deduced by rotating the samples about the [010 ] and [0 1 ¯1 ] directions. The results indicate that NdOs4Sb12 has a similar Fermi surface topology to that of the unusual superconductor PrOs4Sb12 , but with significantly smaller effective masses, supporting the importance of local phonon modes in contributing to the low-temperature heat capacity of NdOs4Sb12 . By contrast, CeOs4Sb12 undergoes a field-induced transition from an unusual semimetal into a high-field, high-temperature state characterized by a single, almost spherical Fermi-surface section. The behavior of the phase boundary and comparisons with models of the band structure lead us to propose that the field-induced phase transition in CeOs4Sb12 is similar in origin to the well-known α -γ transition in Ce and its alloys.

  18. Hyponatremia and Fractures: Findings From the MrOS Study.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Sophie A; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Bucur, Roxana C; Ensrud, Kristine; Orwoll, Eric S; Bauer, Douglas C

    2015-06-01

    Hyponatremia may be a risk factor for fracture. To determine the relationship between hyponatremia and fracture we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. The MrOS study enrolled 5122 community dwelling men aged ≥65 years from six centers across the United States. We excluded men taking bisphosphonates, those with unknown medication history, those without serum sodium measures, or those with out of range assays for serum sodium. Serum sodium was measured at study entry. Subjects were followed for fractures (nonspine [including hip], hip, incident morphometric, and prevalent morphometric) for up to 9 years. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the association between serum sodium levels (<135 mmol/L versus ≥135 mmol/L) and risk of nonspine and hip fractures, with results presented as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We examined the association between morphometric vertebral fractures and serum sodium using logistic regression models, presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Hyponatremia was observed in 64 men (1.2% of the cohort). After adjusting for age, BMI, study center, and other covariates, we found that, compared to men with serum sodium ≥135 mmol/L, those with serum sodium <135 mmol/L, had an increased risk of hip fracture (HR = 3.04; 95% CI, 1.37 to 6.75), prevalent morphometric spine fracture (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.22 to 4.95), and incident morphometric spine fracture (OR = 3.53; 95% CI, 1.35 to 9.19), but not nonspine fracture (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 0.85 to 2.44). Adjusting for bone mineral density (BMD) did not change our findings. Our data show that hyponatremia is associated with up to a doubling in the risk of hip and morphometric spine fractures, independent of BMD. Further studies, to determine how hyponatremia causes fractures and if correction of hyponatremia decreases fractures, are needed.

  19. Crystal growth, structural transitions, and magnetic properties of the fluorite-related osmates: Sm3OsO7, Eu3OsO7, and Gd3OsO7.

    PubMed

    Gemmill, William R; Smith, Mark D; Mozharivsky, Yurij A; Miller, Gordon J; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2005-10-03

    The Ln3OsO7 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds were grown as single crystals from molten hydroxide fluxes. At temperatures above 235, 330, and 430 K, respectively, the Ln3OsO7 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) compounds exist in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. When they are cooled below these temperatures, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition from space group Cmcm to P2(1)nb. The structure transition results in a loss of lattice centering, a doubling of the b axis, a distortion of the vertex-shared Os-O chains, and a reduction in the coordination of one of the rare earth cations from 8-fold to 7-fold. Sm3OsO7 and Eu3OsO7 exhibit complex magnetic behavior below about 50 K, and Gd3OsO7 shows a ferromagnetic-like order at 34 K in applied fields of less than 10 kG.

  20. OsBRI1 Activates BR Signaling by Preventing Binding between the TPR and Kinase Domains of OsBSK3 via Phosphorylation1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhiying; Wang, Ruiju; Huang, Xiahe; Zhu, Yali; Yuan, Li; Wang, Yingchun; Burlingame, Alma L.; Gao, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Many plant receptor kinases transduce signals through receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs); however, the molecular mechanisms that create an effective on-off switch are unknown. The receptor kinase BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) transduces brassinosteroid (BR) signal by phosphorylating members of the BR-signaling kinase (BSK) family of RLCKs, which contain a kinase domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BSKs is conserved in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that the TPR domain of BSKs functions as a “phospho-switchable” autoregulatory domain to control BSKs’ activity. Genetic studies revealed that OsBSK3 is a positive regulator of BR signaling in rice, while in vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that OsBRI1 interacts directly with and phosphorylates OsBSK3. The TPR domain of OsBSK3, which interacts directly with the protein’s kinase domain, serves as an autoinhibitory domain to prevent OsBSK3 from interacting with bri1-SUPPRESSOR1 (BSU1). Phosphorylation of OsBSK3 by OsBRI1 disrupts the interaction between its TPR and kinase domains, thereby increasing the binding between OsBSK3’s kinase domain and BSU1. Our results not only demonstrate that OsBSK3 plays a conserved role in regulating BR signaling in rice, but also provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which BSK family proteins are inhibited under basal conditions but switched on by the upstream receptor kinase BRI1. PMID:26697897

  1. Redox chemistry of morpholine-based Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes: trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M H; White, P S; Meyer, T J

    2001-09-24

    The oxidations of benzyl alcohol, PPh3, and the sulfides (SEt2 and SPh2) (Ph = phenyl and Et = ethyl) by the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and O(CH2)4N(-) = morpholide) have been investigated in CH3CN solution by UV-visible monitoring and product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For benzyl alcohol and the sulfides, the rate law for the formation of the Os(V)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(V)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](+), is first order in both trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) and reductant, with k(benzyl) (25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C, CH3CN) = (1.80 +/- 0.07) x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1), k(SEt2) = (1.33 +/- 0.02) x 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1), and k(SPh2) = (1.12 +/- 0.05) x 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). Reduction of trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) by PPh3 is rapid and accompanied by isomerization and solvolysis to give the Os(IV)-hydrazido product, cis-[Os(IV)(tpy)(NCCH3)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+), and OPPh3. This reaction presumably occurs by net double Cl-atom transfer to PPh3 to give Cl2PPh3 that subsequently undergoes hydrolysis by trace H2O to give the final product, OPPh3. In the X-ray crystal structure of the Os(IV)-hydrazido complex, the Os-N-N angle of 130.9(5) degrees and the Os-N bond length of 1.971(7) A are consistent with an Os-N double bond.

  2. Reversible interconversion between a nitrido complex of Os(VI) and an ammino complex of osmium(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Pipes, D.W.; Bakir, M.; Vitols, S.E.; Meyer, T.J. ); Hodgson, D.J. )

    1990-07-04

    The reaction between (N(n-Bu){sub 4})(Os(N)(X){sub 4}) (X = Cl, Br) and 2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double prime}-terpyridine (tpy) in acetone under reflux gave the salts (Os(N)(typ)(X){sub 2})X. The X-ray crystal structure of (Os(N)(tpy)(Cl){sub 2})Cl showed that the chloride ligands occupy mutually trans axial positions relative to the nitrido ligand. Reduction potentials were measured or estimated at pH = 3 for the intermediate Os(VI/V), Os(V/IV), Os(IV/III), and Os(III/II) couples. From those measurements, it was shown that the Os(V) intermediate, (Os{sup V}(N)(tpy)(Cl){sub 2}), is both a powerful oxidant and a strong reductant, highly unstable with respect to disproportionation into Os(VI) and Os(IV).

  3. Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdaoui, Fatima; Michels, Raymond; Reisberg, Laurie; Pujol, Magali; Poirier, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    Several recent studies have raised the exciting possibility that oils can be dated using the Re-Os radioisotope system. However the exact nature of the events dated by this technique often remains unclear. Geochronologic interpretation of Re-Os data for oils is hampered by our limited knowledge of how these metals behave in petroleum systems. In particular, it is difficult to understand how isotopic homogenization, an essential prerequisite for the development of an isochronal relationship, can be achieved at the scale of a petroleum basin. The mechanisms capable of fractionating the Re/Os ratio in a suite of oils are also poorly understood. For this reason, we have performed an experimental study aimed at investigating the behavior of Re and Os during a particularly widespread phenomenon in petroleum systems, the interaction of formation waters with oils during migration. Contact experiments between natural oils and aqueous solutions enriched in Re and/or Os were carried out for varying lengths of time (6 h to 5 months), at different temperatures (25-150 °C), over a wide range of metal concentrations in the enriched solution (0.001-100 μg/g for Re; 1 and 10 ng/g for Os). In addition, the effect of oil composition on Re-Os exchange at the water-oil interface was examined by testing two oils with very different properties. All of our results demonstrate that Re and Os are transferred massively and very rapidly from the aqueous solution to the organic phase. This is true regardless of temperature or oil composition. It is also true for a very wide range of metal concentrations in the aqueous solution, up to an apparent saturation level that exceeds natural concentrations in oils by several orders of magnitude. Given the efficiency of Re and Os transfer from water to oil demonstrated here, and assuming that our findings are applicable to natural conditions, water/oil ratios of only about 250 would be needed to explain the Re and Os contents of most oils, based on

  4. OsNRAMP5, a major player for constitutive iron and manganese uptake in rice.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Bashir, Khurram; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2012-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are essential mineral micronutrients for plants and their deficiency and or toxicity represents a serious agricultural problem. In rice the information about genes involved in Mn uptake from soil is scarce. Recently, we showed that OsNRAMP5 is a plasma membrane protein involved in Mn and Fe transport. The concentration of Mn in roots, shoots and xylem sap of OsNRAMP5 RNAi (OsNRAMP5i) plants was significantly reduced compared with WT plants. The expression of OsNRAMP5 is not controlled by Fe deficiency in root and was also observed in pistil, ovary, lemma and palea. These data show that rice would utilize OsNRAMP5 for constitutive Fe and Mn uptake, while OsNRAMP5 would also play a role in Fe and Mn transport during flowering and seed development.

  5. Identification of a rice metal tolerance protein OsMTP11 as a manganese transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Liu, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are a gene family of cation efflux transporters that occur widely in plants and might serve an essential role in metal homeostasis and tolerance. Our research describes the identification, characterization, and localization of OsMTP11, a member of the MTP family from rice. OsMTP11 was expressed constitutively and universally in different tissues in rice plant. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that OsMTP11 complemented the hypersensitivity of mutant strains to Mn, and also complemented yeast mutants to other metals, including Co and Ni. Real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated OsMTP11 expression was substantially enhanced following 4 h under Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn treatments, suggesting possible roles of OsMTP11 involvement in heavy metal stress responses. Promoter analysis by transgenic assays with GUS as a reporter gene and mRNA in situ hybridization experiments showed that OsMTP11 was expressed specifically in conducting tissues in rice. DNA methylation assays of genomic DNA in rice treated with Cd, Zn, Ni, and Mn revealed that decreased DNA methylation levels were present in the OsMTP11 promoter region, which was consistent with OsMTP11 induced-expression patterns resulting from heavy metal stress. This result suggested that DNA methylation is one of major factors regulating expression of OsMTP11 through epigenetic mechanisms. OsMTP11 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to the entire onion epidermal cell cytoplasm, while vacuolar membrane exhibited increased GFP signals, consistent with an OsMTP11 function in cation sequestration. Our results indicated that OsMTP11 might play vital roles in Mn and other heavy metal transportation in rice.

  6. OsPAP26 Encodes a Major Purple Acid Phosphatase and Regulates Phosphate Remobilization in Rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenwen; Lu, Linghong; Qiu, Wenmin; Wang, Chuang; Shou, Huixia

    2017-05-01

    During phosphate (Pi) starvation or leaf senescence, the accumulation of intracellular and extracellular purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) increases in plants in order to scavenge organic phosphorus (P). In this study, we demonstrated that a PAP-encoding gene in rice, OsPAP26, is constitutively expressed in all tissues. While the abundance of OsPAP26 transcript is not affected by Pi supply, it is up-regulated during leaf senescence. Furthermore, Pi deprivation and leaf senescence greatly increased the abundance of OsPAP26 protein. Overexpression or RNA interference (RNAi) of OsPAP26 in transgenic rice significantly increased or reduced APase activities, respectively, in leaves, roots and growth medium. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, Pi concentrations of OsPAP26-overexpressing plants increased in the non-senescing leaves and decreased in the senescing leaves. The increased remobilization of Pi from the senescing leaves to non-senescing leaves in the OsPAP26-overexpressing plants resulted in better growth performance when plants were grown in Pi-depleted condition. In contrast, OsPAP26-RNAi plants retained more Pi in the senescing leaves, and were more sensitive to Pi starvation stress. OsPAP26 was found to localize to the apoplast of rice cells. Western blot analysis of protein extracts from callus growth medium confirmed that OsPAP26 is a secreted PAP. OsPAP26-overexpressing plants were capable of converting more ATP into inorganic Pi in the growth medium, which further supported the potential role of OsPAP26 in utilizing organic P in the rhizosphere. In summary, we concluded that OsPAP26 performs dual functions in plants: Pi remobilization from senescing to non-senescing leaves; and organic P utilization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Recombinant Expression and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Rice β-Glucosidase Os1BGlu4

    PubMed Central

    Rouyi, Chen; Baiya, Supaporn; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Mahong, Bancha; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ketudat-Cairns, James R.; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2014-01-01

    The Os1BGlu4 β-glucosidase is the only glycoside hydrolase family 1 member in rice that is predicted to be localized in the cytoplasm. To characterize the biochemical function of rice Os1BGlu4, the Os1bglu4 cDNA was cloned and used to express a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. After removal of the tag, the purified recombinant Os1BGlu4 (rOs1BGlu4) exhibited an optimum pH of 6.5, which is consistent with Os1BGlu4's cytoplasmic localization. Fluorescence microscopy of maize protoplasts and tobacco leaf cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged Os1BGlu4 confirmed the cytoplasmic localization. Purified rOs1BGlu4 can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-β-d-glucoside (pNPGlc) efficiently (kcat/Km  =  17.9 mM−1·s−1), and hydrolyzes pNP-β-d-fucopyranoside with about 50% the efficiency of the pNPGlc. Among natural substrates tested, rOs1BGlu4 efficiently hydrolyzed β-(1,3)-linked oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization (DP) 2–3, and β-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharide of DP 3–4, and hydrolysis of salicin, esculin and p-coumaryl alcohol was also detected. Analysis of the hydrolysis of pNP-β-cellobioside showed that the initial hydrolysis was between the two glucose molecules, and suggested rOs1BGlu4 transglucosylates this substrate. At 10 mM pNPGlc concentration, rOs1BGlu4 can transfer the glucosyl group of pNPGlc to ethanol and pNPGlc. This transglycosylation activity suggests the potential use of Os1BGlu4 for pNP-oligosaccharide and alkyl glycosides synthesis. PMID:24802508

  8. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  9. Platinum Group Elements, 187OS/188OS and 87SR/86SR Isotope Systematics in Depleted Fluid-Modified Mariana Fore-Arc Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The serpentine mud volcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc, collected during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 [1], contain hard-rock clasts of serpentine sampled from close to the décollement, which separates the down-going Pacific slab from the overlying mantle wedge. These clasts preserve evidence for melt depletion (>25 % melt extraction in many instances) in a sub-arc environment, and extensive (40 - 100%) serpentinization due to subsequent fluid / peridotite interaction, e.g. [2]. Platinum-group element (PGE) abundances are not consistent with melt-depletion alone [3]. Fractionation between I-PGE (Os, Ir, Ru) has resulted in groups of IBM serpentinites with either a high chondrite-normalized Os/Ir ratio (OsN/IrN) or a low OsN/IrN ratio. Similarly, fractionation of P-PGE (Pt, Pd) is marked, and distinguishes the IBM serpentinites from worldwide abyssal peridotites. Interaction with high-pH fluids [4] may have partially oxidized mantle sulphide, the major primary host for PGE in these rocks, leading to partial breakdown to sulphate and the selective redistribution of certain PGE (Os, Ru, Pt), a feature normally associated with sub-aerial weathering [5], but which likely prevails in other oxidizing environments. In particular, the Re-Os systematics of the high (OsN/IrN) IBM serpentinites have been disturbed by the addition of Os. Unlike peridotite xenoliths associated with magmatic regions of subduction zones where subduction-related Os-addition is unequivocally radiogenic and derived from crustal material [6][7], where Os has been added to the IBM serpentinites it is unradiogenic and was most likely derived from within the oceanic mantle. IBM serpentinites therefore preserve osmium isotope ratios that are exclusively sub-chondritic (187Os/188Os ≤ 0.127), as previously reported [8]. These serpentinized peridotites were produced by at least a three-step process: melt depletion, serpentinization, and the mobilization of Os, Ru and Pt to produce low Os

  10. Precise Re-Os age and low initial 187Os/188Os for latest Permian black shales from the mid-Norwegian shelf herald the Permo-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, S.; Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Xu, G.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weiss, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Permo-Triassic boundary records a profound chemical transition and the largest mass extinction in Earth history. Understanding the causal events requires detailed examination of bio/chemo stratigraphic changes precisely pinned in absolute time. Here we report Re-Os isotopic results for well-defined black shale horizons within the Upper Permian marine succession from the Mid-Norwegian shelf: (1) a high-precision Re-Os depositional age and (2) a record of the changes in the Os isotopic composition of seawater at the onset of the Permo-Triassic extinction. Drill core penetrating a Permian-Triassic turbidite succession on the Trøndelag platform, offshore mid-Norway, provided nine organic rich (~3.5% TOC) shale samples over a ca. 30 cm interval. The Re-Os isochron age associated with these samples is extremely precise (< 1 m.y. uncertainty) at 253 Ma with an MSWD near unity. These data place a precise time pin in the studied section and the presumably correlative onshore exposures of the Ravnefjeld formation in East Greenland, indicating deposition of these shales immediately before the catastrophic changes at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Accompanying the isochron regression is a well-determined initial 187Os/188Os ratio of ca. 0.5, notably lower than seawater in the Lower Triassic (Xu et al. 2009). This Os isotopic composition for latest Permian seawater suggests an increase in mantle (or meteoric) material and/or a markedly reduced supply of eroded continental material heralding the up-coming extinction event. These Permian black shales are considered as alternative or complementary source rocks for some of the oil resources in the Norwegian Sea. Our work confirms geographically extensive Upper Permian black shale across the shelves of East Greenland and Norway, implying a major anoxia at the northern margin of Pangea shortly before the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Xu et al. (2009) GCA, v. 73, no. 13. p. A1463

  11. Transcription Factor OsDOF18 Controls Ammonium Uptake by Inducing Ammonium Transporters in Rice Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunfei; Yang, Wenzhu; Wei, Jinhuan; Yoon, Hyeryung; An, Gynheung

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important mineral elements for plant growth. We studied the functional roles of Oryza sativa DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER 18 (OsDOF18) in controlling ammonium uptake. The growth of null mutants of OsDOF18 was retarded in a medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. In contrast, those mutants grew normally in a medium with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. The gene expression was induced by ammonium but not by nitrate. Uptake of ammonium was lower in osdof18 mutants than in the wild type, while that of nitrate was not affected by the mutation. This indicated that OsDOF18 is involved in regulating ammonium transport. Among the 10 ammonium transporter genes examined here, expression of OsAMT1;1, OsAMT1;3, OsAMT2;1, and OsAMT4;1 was reduced in osdof18 mutants, demonstrating that the ammonium transporter genes function downstream of OsDOF18. Genes for nitrogen assimilation were also affected in the mutants. These results provide evidence that OsDOF18 mediates ammonium transport and nitrogen distribution, which then affects nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:28292004

  12. Hexagonal OsB2 reduction upon heating in H2 containing environment

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2014-10-23

    The stability of hexagonal ReB2 type OsB2 powder upon heating under reforming gas was investigated. Pure Os metal particles were detected by powder X-ray diffraction starting at 375⁰ C and complete transformation of OsB2 to metallic Os was observed at 725⁰ C. The mechanisms of precipitation of metallic Os is proposed and changes in the lattice parameters of OsB2 upon heating are analysed in terms of the presence of oxygen or water vapour in the heating chamber. Previous studies suggested that Os atoms possess (0) valence, while B atoms possess both (+3) and ( 3) valences in the alternating boron/osmiummore » sheet structure of hexagonal (P63/mmc, No. 194) OsB2; if controllable method for Os removal from the lattice could be found, the opportunity would arise to form two-dimensional (2D) layers consisting of pure B atoms.« less

  13. Detection of undescribed ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) specimens from Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Martenot, Claire; Lethuillier, Ophélie; Fourour, Sarah; Oden, Elise; Trancart, Suzanne; Travaillé, Emmanuelle; Houssin, Maryline

    2015-11-01

    The ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and variants were implicated in mass mortality affecting the young Pacific cupped oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in European countries and those around the world. From 2008 onwards, oyster mortality had greatly increased on the French coast and was associated with the detection of a new OsHV-1 variant, entitled OsHV-1 μVar. The OsHV-1 μVar is predominant in oysters; however, other OsHV-1 variants have been detected in samples collected during mortality periods or collected out of mortality periods in France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Mexico, United States, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. A retrospective study conducted on 1047 OsHV-1 specimens sampled mainly in France between 2009 and 2012, revealed 17 undescribed OsHV-1 variants found in 65 oyster samples. These specimens presented point mutations situated downstream and upstream from the microsatellite area in the C region (ORF 4/5) which were different from the OsHV-1 reference and the OsHV-1 μVar. In the present work, investigation was performed to further characterize these OsHV-1 specimens by sequencing two habitually targeted regions to study genetic polymorphism of the virus: ORF 41/42 and ORF 35-38. An OsHV-1 variant detected in six oyster samples, contained a nucleotide substitution in the C region which impacted the amino acid sequence and might modify the function of the unknown protein encoding by ORF 4. For the ORF 41/42 region, only two specimens presented a synonymous mutation in comparison with the OsHV-1 μVar. All specimens contained the same deletion with the OsHV-1 μVar in ORF 35-38. Then, a phylogenetic analysis based on the C region was performed to investigate the distribution of undescribed specimens among 21 OsHV-1 DNA sequences notified in GenBank and collected from different countries (France, Japan, New Zealand, China, Ireland, and United States) between 1995 and 2012. All analyzed samples and the OsHV-1 μVar were placed in the same

  14. New SINE families from rice, OsSN, with poly(A) at the 3' ends.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Hirao, Yoshitoshi; Ohtsubo, Eiichi; Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2008-06-01

    A database search of the sequences flanking a member of rice retrotransposon RIRE7 revealed that a 298-bp sequence in the region downstream of the member is a repetitive sequence interspersed in the genome of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare. Most of the repetitive sequences were flanked by a direct repeat of a target-site sequence, about 14 bp in length. The consensus sequence, 293 bp in length, had no regions encoding any proteins but had sequence motifs of an internal promoter of RNA polymerase III. These indicate that the sequence is a retroposon SINE, designated OsSN1 (Oryza sativa SINE1). OsSN1 is a new rice SINE, because it has no homology with any of the three p-SINE families previously identified from rice, and because it has a stretch of A at the 3' end, unlike p-SINE and any other Gramineae SINEs which have a stretch of T at the 3' end. The Nipponbare genome was found to have many members related to OsSN1, forming two additional new SINE families (designated OsSN2 and OsSN3). OsSN2 and OsSN3 are highly homologous to the 3' and 5' regions of OsSN1, respectively. This suggests that OsSN1 has a mosaic structure, which is generated by sequence exchange (or shuffling) between ancestral OsSN2 and OsSN3. Despite the absence of homology in the 3' regions between OsSN1 (or OsSN2) and OsSN3, a sequence, 5'-TTCTC-3', is commonly present in the region preceding the A stretch at the 3' end. This sequence together with the A stretch and a stem-loop structure found in the region near the A stretch are assumed to be important for retroposition. OsSN members were present in strains of Oryza species, as were p-SINE members. Some of the members showed insertion polymorphism at the respective loci among the rice strains. p-SINE had such polymorphic members, which are useful for classification and phylogenetic analysis of various strains of Oryza species. The polymorphic members of OsSN were more frequently found than those of p-SINE, and therefore, such members are likely to be

  15. OsGSR1 is involved in crosstalk between gibberellins and brassinosteroids in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Yunyuan; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Zhiyong; Chong, Kang

    2009-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), two growth-promoting phytohormones, regulate many common physiological processes. Their interactions at the molecular level remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that OsGSR1, a member of the GAST (GA-stimulated transcript) gene family, is induced by GA and repressed by BR. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with reduced OsGSR1 expression show phenotypes similar to plants deficient in BR, including short primary roots, erect leaves and reduced fertility. The OsGSR1 RNAi transgenic rice shows a reduced level of endogenous BR, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by the application of brassinolide. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that OsGSR1 interacts with DIM/DWF1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion from 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in BR biosynthesis. These results suggest that OsGSR1 activates BR synthesis by directly regulating a BR biosynthetic enzyme at the post-translational level. Furthermore, OsGSR1 RNAi plants show a reduced sensitivity to GA treatment, an increased expression of the GA biosynthetic gene OsGA20ox2, which is feedback inhibited by GA signaling, and an elevated level of endogenous GA: together, these suggest that OsGSR1 is a positive regulator of GA signaling. These results demonstrate that OsGSR1 plays important roles in both BR and GA pathways, and also mediates an interaction between the two signaling pathways.

  16. Os isotopic constraints on the identification of pyroxenite in the source of OIBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sally; Dale, Chris; Geist, Dennis; Harpp, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The Re-Os isotope system has become increasingly used as a tracer of lithological heterogeneity in the convecting mantle, with radiogenic 187Os/188Os in high-Os oceanic basalts and picrites widely interpreted as evidence of a melt contribution from ancient recycled oceanic crust. When combined with 206Pb/204Pb and O isotopes, 187Os/188Os ratios have been used to identify distinct lithological units (i.e. sediments, gabbros and basalts). We report new 187Os/188Os for basalts with high Os (>40 ppt) and MgO from Galápagos, which range from near primitive mantle values (0.130) to highly radiogenic (0.155). While co-variations in 187Os/188Os and 206Pb/204Pb for some Galápagos basalts (Floreana-type) are HIMU like, and consistent with melting of ancient recycled oceanic crust, others have variable 187Os/188Os ratios and primitive to depleted mantle like 206Pb/204Pb. Similar variations in Os and Pb isotopic space have been interpreted in other OIB suites as melts from recycled ancient oceanic gabbros, entrained by upwelling mantle plumes. Nevertheless, a marked east-west spatial variation in 187Os/188Os of Galápagos basalts does not correlate with postulated lithological variations in the Galápagos plume based on trace element contents of olivine (Vidito et al., 2013). We show that basalts in eastern Galápagos with elevated 187Os/188Os and positive Sr anomalies occur in the vicinity of over-thickened 10 Ma gabbroic crust, that formed when the Galápagos plume was on-axis. We propose the elevated 187Os/188Os of Galápagos basalts are due to in-situ assimilation of young gabbroic lower crust, with high Re/Os, rather than melting of ancient recycled material in the Galápagos plume. In western Galápagos recent plume accreted crust is thick but more mafic, the melt flux higher and assimilation more sporadic. The contamination thresholds of Os and MgO in Galápagos basalts occur at higher contents than for many global OIBs (Azores, Iceland, Hawaii) and may reflect both a

  17. Re - Os isotopic constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks, Gorgona Island, Colombia: Os isotopic evidence for ancient heterogeneities in the mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Echeverria, L.M.; Shirey, S.B.; Horan, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Re - Os isotopic systematics of komatiites and spatially associated basalts from Gorgona Island, Colombia, indicate that they were produced at 155??43 Ma. Subsequent episodes of volcanism produced basalts at 88.1??3.8 Ma and picritic and basaltic lavas at ca. 58 Ma. The age for the ultramafic rocks is important because it coincides with the late-Jurassic, early-Cretaceous disassembly of Pangea, when the North- and South-American plates began to pull apart. Deep-seated mantle upwelling possibly precipitated the break-up of these continental plates and caused a tear in the subducting slab west of Gorgona, providing a rare, late-Phanerozoic conduit for the komatiitic melts. Mantle sources for the komatiites were heterogeneous with respect to Os and Pb isotopic compositions, but had homogeneous Nd isotopic compositions (??Nd+9??1). Initial 187Os/186Os normalized to carbonaceous chondrites at 155 Ma (??Os) ranged from 0 to +22, and model-initial ?? values ranged from 8.17 to 8.39. The excess radiogenic Os, compared with an assumed bulk-mantle evolution similar to carbonaceous chondrites, was likely produced in portions of the mantle with long-term elevated Re concentrations. The Os, Pb and Nd isotopic compositions, together with major-element constraints, suggest that the sources of the komatiites were enriched more than 1 Ga ago by low (<20%) and variable amounts of a basalt or komatiite component. This component was added as either subducted oceanic crust or melt derived from greater depths in the mantle. These results suggest that the Re - Os isotope system may be a highly sensitive indicator of the presence of ancient subducted oceanic crust in mantle-source regions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  18. OsLEC1/OsHAP3E participates in the determination of meristem identity in both vegetative and reproductive developments of rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-03-01

    In the vegetative phase of plant development, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces leaf primordia in regular phyllotaxy, and transforms to the inflorescence meristem when the plant enters reproductive growth, which will undergo a series of identity differentiations and will finally form a complete and fertile panicle. Our previous studies indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern of the OsLEC1 (leafy cotyledon) gene, which is homologous to the Arabidopsis AtLEC1 gene and belongs to the CCAAT-binding protein HAP3 subfamily, during embryo development. Expression of additional OsLEC1 genomic sequences resulted in abnormalities in the development of leaves, panicles and spikelets. The spikelets in particular presented abnormities, including panicle and spikelet-like structures that occurred reiteratively inside prior spikelets, and the occasional spikelet structures that completely transformed into plantlets (a reproductive habit alteration from sexual to asexual called "pseudovivipary"). Analysis showed that OsLEC1 interacts with several SEPALLATA-like MADS transcription factors, suggesting that increased levels of the OsLEC1 protein might interfere with the normal interaction network of these MADS proteins and lead to defective spikelet development. The expression of OsMADS1 was dramatically reduced, and the DNA methylation level of cytosine in certain regions of the OsMADS1 promoter was increased under OsLEC1 overexpression. These results indicate that OsLEC1 affects the development of leaves, panicles and spikelets, and is a key regulator of meristem identity determination in both rice (Oryza sativa) vegetative and reproductive development. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The Host Specificities of Baculovirus per os Infectivity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjiao; Wang, Xi; Hou, Dianhai; Huang, Huachao; Liu, Xijia; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Arif, Basil M.; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Manli

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are insect-specific pathogens with a generally narrow host ranges. Successful primary infection is initiated by the proper interaction of at least 8 conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs) with the host’s midgut cells, a process that remains largely a mystery. In this study, we investigated the host specificities of the four core components of the PIF complex, P74, PIF1, PIF2 and PIF3 by using Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) backbone. The four pifs of HearNPV were replaced by their counterparts from a group I Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) or a group II Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV). Transfection and infection assays showed that all the recombinant viruses were able to produce infectious budded viruses (BVs) and were lethal to H. armigera larvae via intrahaemocoelic injection. However, feeding experiments using very high concentration of occlusion bodies demonstrated that all the recombinant viruses completely lost oral infectivity except SpltNPV pif3 substituted pif3-null HearNPV (vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph). Furthermore, bioassay result showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) value of vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph was 23-fold higher than that of the control virus vHaBacΔpif3-Hapif3-ph, indicating that SpltNPV pif3 can only partially substitute the function of HearNPV pif3. These results suggested that most of PIFs tested have strict host specificities, which may account, at least in part, for the limited host ranges of baculoviruses. PMID:27454435

  20. Comparative study of structural, electronic and elastic behavior of OsAl and OsSi in B2 and B20 phases under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, N.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2017-06-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding, elastic and mechanical properties of osmium intermetallic OsX (X = Al and Si) compounds in B2-phase as well as in B20-phase have been studied using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the framework of density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice constants (a0) and bulk modulus (B) are in good agreement with experimental and available theoretical results. From the band structure calculations, it is shown that OsAl is metallic in both the phases while OsSi is found to be semiconductor in B20-phase with the indirect band gap of 0.33 eV but at high pressure the density of states at Fermi level N(EF) decreases and the bands spread over the entire reason in both the compounds. The elastic constants of these compounds obey the stability criteria for cubic system at 0 pressure as well as at high pressure. With increasing pressure, all the elastic constants for OsAl and OsSi increase almost linearly with pressure in both the phases except C44 for OsAl-B20 which shows its softening nature. Bonding nature is discussed in terms of charge density difference plots and Fermi surfaces.

  1. Comparative study of structural, electronic and elastic behavior of OsAl and OsSi in B2 and B20 phases under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, N.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding, elastic and mechanical properties of osmium intermetallic OsX (X = Al and Si) compounds in B2-phase as well as in B20-phase have been studied using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the framework of density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice constants (a0) and bulk modulus (B) are in good agreement with experimental and available theoretical results. From the band structure calculations, it is shown that OsAl is metallic in both the phases while OsSi is found to be semiconductor in B20-phase with the indirect band gap of 0.33 eV but at high pressure the density of states at Fermi level N(EF) decreases and the bands spread over the entire reason in both the compounds. The elastic constants of these compounds obey the stability criteria for cubic system at 0 pressure as well as at high pressure. With increasing pressure, all the elastic constants for OsAl and OsSi increase almost linearly with pressure in both the phases except C44 for OsAl-B20 which shows its softening nature. Bonding nature is discussed in terms of charge density difference plots and Fermi surfaces.

  2. A transgenic study on affecting potato tuber yield by expressing the rice sucrose transporter genes OsSUT5Z and OsSUT2M.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aijun; Dai, Yan; Zhang, Xinsheng; Li, Chunmin; Meng, Kun; Xu, Honglin; Wei, Xiaoli; Xiao, Guifang; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-07-01

    In many plants, sucrose transporters are essential for both sucrose exports from sources and imports into sinks, indicating a function in assimilate partitioning. To investigate whether sucrose transporters can improve the yield of starch plant, potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) were transformed with cDNAs of the rice sucrose transporter genes OsSUT5Z and OsSUT2M under the control of a tuber-specific, class-I patatin promoter. Compared to the controls, the average fructose content of OsSUT5Z transgenic tubers significantly increased. However, the content of the sugars and starch in the OsSUT2M transgenic potato tubers showed no obvious difference. Correspondingly, the average tuber yield, average number of tubers per plant and average weight of single tuber showed no significant difference in OsSUT2M transgenic tubers with controls. In the OsSUT5Z transgenic lines, the average tuber yield per plant was 1.9-fold higher than the controls, and the average number of tubers per plant increased by more than 10 tubers on average, whereas the average weight of a single tuber did not increase significantly. These results suggested that the average number of tubers per plant showed more contribution than the average weight of a single tuber to the tuber yield per plant.

  3. A radiogenic Os component in the oceanic lithosphere? Constraints from Hawaiian pyroxenite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Indra Sekhar; Bizimis, Michael; Sen, Gautam; Huang, Shichun

    2011-09-01

    Platinum Group Element (PGE) concentrations in garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Oahu, Hawaii, are significantly lower than those in mantle peridotites and show fractionated patterns (e.g. Pd N/Os N = 2-10, Pd N/Ir N = 4-24; N = chondrite normalized) and very high Re N/Os N ratios (˜9-248). Mass balance calculations show that the bulk rock pyroxenite PGE inventory is controlled by the presence of sulfide phases. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios of these pyroxenites vary from subchondritic to suprachondritic (0.123-0.164); and the 187Os/ 188Os ratios show good correlations with bulk rock and clinopyroxene major and trace element compositions, and bulk rock PGE and sulfur abundances. These observations suggest that the Os isotope compositions in these pyroxenites largely reflect primary processes in the oceanic mantle and Pacific lithosphere. In contrast, bulk rock 187Os/ 188Os ratios do not correlate with other lithophile isotopic tracers (e.g. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf) which show limited isotopic variability ( Bizimis et al., 2005). This and the lack of 187Os/ 188Os vs. Re/Os correlations suggest that the range in Os isotope ratios is not likely the result of mixing between long-lived depleted and enriched components or aging of these pyroxenites within the Pacific lithosphere after its formation at a mid-oceanic ridge setting some 80-100 million years ago. We interpret the Os isotopes, PGE and lithophile element systematics as the result of melt-lithosphere interaction at the base of the Pacific lithosphere. The major and trace element systematics of the clinopyroxenes and bulk rock pyroxenites and the relatively constant lithophile element isotope systematics are best explained by fractional crystallization of a rather homogenous parental magma. We suggest that during melt crystallization and percolation within the lithosphere, the parental pyroxenite melt assimilated radiogenic Os from the grain boundaries of the peridotitic lithosphere. This radiogenic Os component may

  4. Re-Os Isotopes Distinguish Crust vs. Slab Inputs to Northern Cascade Arc Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; Gannoun, A.; Nauret, F.; Schiano, P.; Weis, D.

    2015-12-01

    Delineating the relative contributions of mantle, slab, and crust to arc magmas is particularly challenging in the Cascades where the continental crust is juvenile and contrasts little with magmas in traditional radiogenic isotope systems (Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb). The Re-Os isotope system offers a sensitive technique for evaluating these contributions because even young crust has significantly higher Os ratios than the mantle. We analyzed Re-Os isotope ratios in 33 primitive basalts from 9 volcanic centers of the northern Cascade Arc (Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, GVB). Although GVB basalts have mantle-like Sr-Pb-Nd-Hf ratios (Mullen & Weis, 2015, EPSL), the range in 187Os/188Os is very large (0.13-0.99) with [Os] of <1 to 17 ppt. Ten samples of subducting Cascadia Basin sediment and altered Juan de Fuca MORB are associated with high 187Os/188Os (0.68-0.92) and [Os] = 25-132 ppt. The GVB basalts define two groups: Group 1 (Cinder Cone/Mt. Garibaldi, Salal Glacier, Mt. Meager, Indian Pass/Glacier Peak) has low Os isotopic ratios (0.13-0.19), only slightly elevated relative to global mantle wedge peridotites (≤0.16), indicating minimal crustal contamination. Group 1 samples lie on Os-Sr isotope mixing curves indicating variable sediment input to the mantle. Os ratios of Group 2 basalts (Silverthrone, Bridge River, Elaho, Cheakamus, Mt. Baker, Glacier Peak) extend to extremely high values, up to 0.99, and lie on different Os-Sr mixing curves indicating addition of a crustal contaminant. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic ratios cannot be used to identify this crustal input because Groups 1 and 2 are identical in these isotope systems. Interaction with a mafic underplate from older Cenozoic or accreted Mesozoic arcs is likely, and Re-Os analyses of basement samples (in progress) will provide a test of this hypothesis. This study reveals that most primitive magmas in the Cascades have suffered variable crustal contamination, but only the Re-Os isotope system has the potential to delineate the

  5. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the OsPsbR gene family in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihua; Ye, Taozhi; Gao, Xiaoling; Chen, Rongjun; Xu, Jinghong; Xie, Chen; Zhu, Jianqing; Deng, Xiaojian; Wang, Pingrong; Xu, Zhengjun

    2017-04-01

    Low temperature may exert a negative impact on agronomical productivity. PsbR was known as the 10 kDa Photosystem II polypeptide. Although plant PsbR is thought to play important roles in photosynthesis, little is known about the contribution of plant PsbR to abiotic stress resistance. The expression patterns of three OsPsbR gene family members, OsPsbR1, OsPsbR2, and OsPsbR3, were characterized in rice 'Nipponbare'. Under normal condition, OsPsbR1 and OsPsbR3 showed tissue-specific expression, while the expression of OsPsbR2 could not be detected in all tested tissues. OsPsbR1 was upregulated in response to cold stress, and downregulated under drought, salt, or heat conditions. The upregulation of OsPsbR3 was observed under the treatment of ABA, and its downregulation was detected under drought or heat conditions. Upregulation of OsPsbR1 in rice resulted in significantly increased resistance to cold, but did not affect the yield of rice. Furthermore, after 8 h cold-stress treatment, the expression levels of three cold stress-induced marker genes were significantly higher in the overexpression lines L11 and L19 in comparison with the wild type. All these results suggest that OsPsbR1 may play key roles in photosynthesis and cold stress response and thus has the potential to improve cold stress tolerance of crops.

  7. Os Isotope Heterogeneity of the Convecting Upper Mantle: The Mayari-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (Eastern Cuba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Gervilla, F.; Meibom, A.; Proenza, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Chromite separates from a set of historically important chromite deposits from the 90 Ma old Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt in eastern Cuba were inspected for Re-Os isotopic systematics in an attempt to quantify the extent of Os isotopic heterogeneities within a restricted upper mantle portion represented by a single ophiolite. Compositional variations of chromites indicate their crystallization from hydrous melts varying in composition from back-arc basin basalts (Al-rich chromites; Cr# = 0.43-0.55; low Pd/Ir) to boninites (Cr-rich chromites; Cr# = 0.60-0.83; high Pd/Ir) in a supra-subduction zone setting. Initial Os isotopic compositions of the studied chromites can be grouped according to their distribution in 3 regional districts. Results indicate systematically negative calculated initial γOs values varying from -1.06 ± 0.79 (Moa-Baracoa district), -1.77 ± 0.80 (Sagua de Tanamo district) and -2.79 ± 0.31 (Mayari district). These suprachondritic values are distinctly (3.5-5.2%) less radiogenic than the estimated minimum 187Os/188Os composition of the primitive upper mantle of 0.1296 ± 8 and can be explained by Re depletion during ancient partial melting and melt percolation events. Old Os isotope model ages (<2100 Ma)of some of the chromites (or platinum-group minerals included in them) show and confirm previous findings that ancient Os isotopic signatures can survive in the Earth's upper mantle. Our systematically negative initial γOs values do not improve the definition of an already statistically poorly defined present-day Os isotopic composition of the convecting upper mantle, but instead indicate a complex history for the convecting upper mantle which precludes the calculation of a uniform regional Os isotopic signature for this reservoir.

  8. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. PMID:26663563

  9. Os layers spontaneously deposited on the Pt(111) electrode : XPS, STM and GIF-XAS study.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, C. K.; Wakisaka, M.; Tolmachev, Y.; Johnston, C.; Haasch, R.; Attenkofer, K.; Lu, G. Q.; You, H.; Wieckowski, A.; Univ. of Illinois Champaigh-Urbana

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterized adlayers of spontaneously deposited osmium on a Pt(111) electrode were investigated using ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and in-situ grazing incidence fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (GIF-XAS). After a single spontaneous deposition, monoatomic (or nearly monoatomic) nanoislands of osmium are formed. The island diameter varies from 2 to 5 nm depending on the Os coverage, which in turn is adjusted by varying the concentration of the Os precursor salt (OsCl3) in the deposition bath and/or by the deposition time. XPS reveals three oxidation states: a metallic Os (the 4f7/2 core level binding energy of 50.8 eV), Os(IV) (51.5 eV) and Os(VIII) (52.4 eV). The metallic osmium exists at potentials below 500 mV (vs. RHE) while above 500 mV osmium is oxidized to Os(IV). Electrodissolution of osmium begins above 900 mV and occurs simultaneously with platinum oxidation. At ca. 1200 mV V versus the RHE reference, the oxidation state of some small amounts of osmium that survive dissolution is the Os(VIII). We demonstrate, for the first time, that mixed or odd valencies of osmium exist on the platinum surface at potentials higher that 800 mV. In-situ GIF-XAS measurements of an Os LIII edge also reveal the presence of three Os oxidation states. Namely, below the electrode potential of 400 mV, the X-ray fluorescent energy at maximum absorption is 10.8765 keV, and is characteristic of the metallic Os. In the potential range between 500 and 1000 mV this energy is gradually shifted to higher values, assignable to higher valencies of osmium, like Os(IV). This tendency continues to higher potentials consistent with the third, highly oxidized osmium form present, most likely Os(VIII). The variation of the 'raw edge jump height' of Os with the electrode potential, which is equivalent to a drop in osmium surface concentration, demonstrates that the electrochemical stripping of Os begins below 1.0 V versus RHE, as

  10. 187Re - 187Os Nuclear Geochronometry: A New Dating Method Applied to Old Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2015-04-01

    187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry is a newly developed dating method especially (but not only) for PGE hosting magmatic ore deposits. It combines ideas of nuclear astrophysics with geochronology. For this, the concept of sudden nucleosynthesis [1-3] is used to calculate so-called nucleogeochronometric Rhenium-Osmium two-point-isochrone (TPI) ages. Here, the method is applied to the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) and the Stillwater Complex (SC), using a set of two nuclear geochronometers. They are named the BARBERTON ( Re/Os = 0.849, 187Os/186Os = 10.04 ± 0.015 [4]) and the IVREA (Re/Os = 0.951, 187Os/186Os = 1.9360 ± 0.0015 [5]) nuclear geochronometer. Calculated TPI ages are consistent with results from Sm-Nd geochronology, a previously published Re-Os Molybdenum age of 2740 ± 80 Ma for the G-chromitite of the SC [6] and a Re-Os isochrone age of 1689 ± 160 Ma for the Strathcona ores of the SIC [7]. This leads to an alternative explanation of the peculiar and enigmatic 187Os/186Osi isotopic signatures reported from both ore deposits. For example, for a TPI age of 2717 ± 100 Ma the Ultramafic Series of the SC contains both extremely low (subchrondritic) 187Os/186Osi ratios (187Os/186Osi = 0.125 ± 0.067) and extremely radiogenic isotopic signatures (187Os/186Osi = 6.55 ± 1.7, [6]) in mineral separates (chromites) and whole rock samples, respectively. Within the Strathcona ores of the SIC, even more pronounced radiogenic 187Os/186Os initial ratios can be calculated for TPI ages between 1586 ± 63 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.998 ± 0.045) and 1733 ± 84 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.901 ± 0.059). These results are in line with the recalculated Re-Os isochrone age of 1689 ± 160 Ma (187Os/186Osi = 8.8 ± 2.3 [7]). In the light of nuclear geochronometry, the occurrence of such peculiar isotopic 187Os/186Osi signatures within one and the same lithological horizon are plausible if explained by mingling of the two nucleogeochronometric (BARBERTON and IVREA) reservoirs containing

  11. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  12. Discrimination against Latina/os: A Meta-Analysis of Individual-Level Resources and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…

  13. Discrimination against Latina/os: A Meta-Analysis of Individual-Level Resources and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…

  14. Ferrimagnetism in the double perovskite Ca2FeOsO6: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhu, Shasha; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua

    2014-08-01

    Using density functional calculations, we find that the newly synthesized Ca2FeOsO6 has the high-spin Fe3+ (3d5)-Os5+ (5d3) state. The octahedral Os5+ ion has a large intrinsic exchange splitting, and its t2g↑3 configuration makes the spin-orbit coupling ineffective. Moreover, there is a strong antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling between the neighboring Fe3+ (S=5/2) and Os5+ (S=-3/2), but the AF couplings within both the fcc Fe3+ and Os5+ sublattices are one order of magnitude weaker. Therefore a magnetic frustration is suppressed and a stable ferrimagnetic ground state appears. This ferrimagnetic order is due to the virtual hopping of the t2g electrons from Os5+ (t2g↓3) to Fe3+ (t2g↑3eg↑2). However, if the experimental bended Fe3+-O2--Os5+ exchange path gets straight, the eg hopping from Fe3+ (t2g↑3eg↑2) to Os5+ (t2g↑3) would be facilitated and then a ferromagnetic (FM) coupling would occur.

  15. Iron deficiency regulated OsOPT7 is essential for iron homeostasis in rice.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Michiko; An, Gynheung; Oikawa, Takaya; Ueda, Minoru; Sato, Aiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake and transport in plants are well-characterized; however, many components of Fe homeostasis remain unclear. We cloned iron-deficiency-regulated oligopeptide transporter 7 (OsOPT7) from rice. OsOPT7 localized to the plasma membrane and did not transport Fe(III)-DMA or Fe(II)-NA and GSH in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore OsOPT7 did not complement the growth of yeast fet3fet4 mutant. OsOPT7 was specifically upregulated in response to Fe-deficiency. Promoter GUS analysis revealed that OsOPT7 expresses in root tips, root vascular tissue and shoots as well as during seed development. Microarray analysis of OsOPT7 knockout 1 (opt7-1) revealed the upregulation of Fe-deficiency-responsive genes in plants grown under Fe-sufficient conditions, despite the high Fe and ferritin concentrations in shoot tissue indicating that Fe may not be available for physiological functions. Plants overexpressing OsOPT7 do not exhibit any phenotype and do not accumulate more Fe compared to wild type plants. These results indicate that OsOPT7 may be involved in Fe transport in rice.

  16. A new synthesis route for Os-complex modified redox polymers for potential biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Pöller, Sascha; Beyl, Yvonne; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    A new synthesis route for Os-complex modified redox polymers was developed. Instead of ligand exchange reactions for coordinative binding of suitable precursor Os-complexes at the polymer, Os-complexes already exhibiting the final ligand shell containing a suitable functional group were bound to the polymer via an epoxide opening reaction. By separation of the polymer synthesis from the ligand exchange reaction at the Os-complex, the modification of the same polymer backbone with different Os-complexes or the binding of the same Os-complex to a number of different polymer backbones becomes feasible. In addition, the Os-complex can be purified and characterized prior to its binding to the polymer. In order to further understand and optimize suitable enzyme/redox polymer systems concerning their potential application in biosensors or biofuel cells, a series of redox polymers was synthesized and used as immobilization matrix for Trametes hirsuta laccase. The properties of the obtained biofuel cell cathodes were compared with similar biocatalytic interfaces derived from redox polymers obtained via ligand exchange reaction of the parent Os-complex with a ligand integrated into the polymer backbone during the polymer synthesis.

  17. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  18. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  19. Molecular analysis of OsLEA4 and its contributions to improve E. coli viability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingzhang; Zeng, Hua; He, Shuai; Wu, Yingmei; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xiaoyun

    2012-01-01

    OsLEA4, a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.), contains a 312-bp open reading frame encoding a putative polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 11.19 kDa and a theoretical pI of 10.04. OsLEA4 polypeptide is rich in Ala (22%), Lys (15%), Glu (9%), His (8%), Thr (8%), and Arg (7%) and lacking in Trp, Cys, Asn, and Phe residues. OsLEA4 protein contains a Pfam:LEA_1 domain architecture at positions 1-73 with three α-helical domains and without β-sheet domain. In silico predictions showed that OsLEA4 protein was strongly hydrophilic with the grand average of hydropathy value of -0.816 and instability index of 27.31. The hydrophilic regions were found in the conserved motif of OsLEA4. OsLEA4 gene was introduced into Escherichia coli, and a fusion protein (∼29.4 kDa) was expressed after isopropylthio-β-D: -galactoside inducting by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. OsLEA4 protein enhanced the tolerance of E. coli recombinant to high salinity, heat, freezing, and UV radiation, which suggested that OsLEA4 protein may play a protective role under stressed conditions. This is the first successful use of E. coli as a prokaryotic system for LEA production from rice.

  20. Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and

  1. γ -ray spectroscopy of low-lying excited states and shape competition in 194Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, T.; Kisyov, S.; Regan, P. H.; Marginean, N.; Podolyák, Zs.; Marginean, R.; Nomura, K.; Rudigier, M.; Mihai, R.; Werner, V.; Carroll, R. J.; Gurgi, L. A.; Oprea, A.; Berry, T.; Serban, A.; Nita, C. R.; Sotty, C.; Suvaila, R.; Turturica, A.; Costache, C.; Stan, L.; Olacel, A.; Boromiza, M.; Toma, S.

    2017-02-01

    The properties of excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus 194Os have been investigated using the 192Os(18O,16O )194Os reaction with an 80 MeV beam provided by the IFIN-HH Laboratory, Bucharest. Discrete γ -ray decays from excited states have been measured using the hybrid HPGe-LaBr3(Ce ) array RoSPHERE. The current work identifies a number of previously unreported low-lying nonyrast states in 194Os as well as the first measurement of the half-life of the yrast 2+ state of 302(50) ps. This is equivalent to a B (E 2 :2+→0+) =45 (16 ) W.u. and intrinsic quadrupole deformation of βeff=0.14 (1 ) . The experimental results are compared with Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-interacting-boson-model calculations and are consistent with a reduction in a quadrupole collectivity in Os isotopes with increasing neutron number.

  2. RLIM interacts with Smurf2 and promotes TGF-{beta} induced U2OS cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongsheng; Yang, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yang, Xianmei; Yan, Xiaohua; Wang, Chenji; Jiang, Sirui; Yu, Long

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} RLIM directly binds to Smurf2. {yields} RLIM enhances TGF-{beta} responsiveness in U2OS cells. {yields} RLIM promotes TGF-{beta} driven migration of osteosarcoma U2OS cells. -- Abstract: TGF-{beta} (transforming growth factor-{beta}), a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse cellular processes, has been suggested to play critical roles in cell proliferation, migration, and carcinogenesis. Here we found a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM which can directly bind to Smurf2, enhancing TGF-{beta} responsiveness in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. We constructed a U2OS cell line stably over-expressing RLIM and demonstrated that RLIM promoted TGF-{beta}-driven migration of U2OS cells as tested by wound healing assay. Our results indicated that RLIM is an important positive regulator in TGF-{beta} signaling pathway and cell migration.

  3. Oxygen interaction with hexagonal OsB2 at high temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; ...

    2016-08-10

    The stability of ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 powder at high temperature with oxygen presence has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, EDS, and high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscopy and XRD. Results of the study revealed that OsB2 ceramics interact readily with oxygen present in reducing atmosphere, especially at high temperature and produces boric acid, which decomposes on the surface of the powder resulting in the formation of boron vacancies in the hexagonal OsB2 lattice as well as changes in the stoichiometry of the compound. It was also found that under low oxygen partial pressure, sintering of OsB2 powdersmore » occurred at a relatively low temperature (900°C). Finally, hexagonal OsB2 ceramic is prone to oxidation and it is very sensitive to oxygen partial pressures, especially at high temperatures.« less

  4. OsSPL14 promotes panicle branching and higher grain productivity in rice.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kotaro; Ikeda, Mayuko; Matsubara, Atsushi; Song, Xian-Jun; Ito, Midori; Asano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-06-01

    Identification of alleles that improve crop production and lead to higher-yielding varieties are needed for food security. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus WFP (WEALTHY FARMER'S PANICLE) encodes OsSPL14 (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 14, also known as IPA1). Higher expression of OsSPL14 in the reproductive stage promotes panicle branching and higher grain yield in rice. OsSPL14 controls shoot branching in the vegetative stage and is affected by microRNA excision. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using the OsSLP14(WFP) allele to increase rice crop yield. Introduction of the high-yielding OsSPL14(WFP) allele into the standard rice variety Nipponbare resulted in increased rice production.

  5. Paleoproterozoic pyrobitumen: Re-Os goechemistry reveals the fate of giant carbon accumulations in Russian Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-rich pyrobitumen is exposed in abundance in the Onega Basin of Karelia, northwestern Russia - the fossil remains of a giant oil field [1]. The pyrobitumen, locally termed “shungite”, occurs as veins, lenses, and droplets within the Zaonezhskaya and Kondopozhskaya Formations, part of a Paleoproterozoic platform sequence developed on a rifted continental margin. In its purest form, this material approaches 100% C. Less pure pyrobitumen occurs in Corg-rich siltstones, which are intercalated with basaltic flows and sills, including peperites. Locally, the pyrobitumen forms a massive organo-siliceous diapir, cross-cutting the sedimentary section. A Re-Os isochron for six samples of Corg-rich siltstone taken from a mine adit in Shunga village yields a precise age of 2.05 Ga [2], fitting existing constraints for the depositional age. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio given by the isochron for the Shunga adit samples is within uncertainty of chondritic (0.113 at 2.05 Ga), as expected in a restricted rift basin dominated by hydrothermal Os. Re-Os data for samples from ICDP FAR-DEEP drillhole 13A near Shunga village, tell the rest of the story. Eleven ~500 mg samples, drilled from two 3-cm intervals 0.5 m apart in a single core, yield an isochron age of ~1.73 Ga with initial 187Os/188Os = 5. This age is consistent with the latest phase of the Svecofennian orogeny [3], known to have impacted the Onega Basin. Assuming isotopic homogenization (maturation) of the pyrobitumen took place during a relatively brief thermal maximum, the largest control on the present-day 187Os/188Os is the 187Re/188Os. The 187Re/188Os for the 17 siltstone samples analyzed to date range from 280 to 1250. An average 187Re/188Os of 900 will raise the 187Os/188Os from 0.113 to about 5 during the 320 m.y. between deposition (2.05 Ga) and maturation (1.73 Ga) - precisely the value determined by our isochron. Similarly, the lower 187Re/188Os of 280 for three samples of lustrous pyrobitumen from the

  6. Tracking Melt-Rock Reaction Using Os Isotopes: Maqsad Diapir (Oman Ophiolite)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Alard, O.; Lorand, J.; Burton, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    The exceptional exposure of the Oman ophiolite allows to study in detail the mantle processes occurring beneath a spreading centre. We have carried out a Re-Os pilot study focussed on the Maqsad diapir in the western part of the Sumail massif. The Maqsad diapir is roughly constituted of 3 petrographic units: 1, the main harzburgitic domain (MHD); 2, the diapir harzburgite (DH) showing plunging lineation; 3, a thick dunitic, mantle-crust transition zone (MTZ) topping the DH section. The MHD samples are characterised by Os content about 4 ppb and 187Os/188Os down to 0.1210. These features are in agreement with a >15% melt extraction. These unradiogenic Os compositions yield a model Re-depletion age ca. 1 Ga, similar to other Re-Os model age obtained for other oceanic related mantle samples worldwide. Samples from the DH domain despite similar range in Al2O3 content show more radiogenic Os composition (0.1240<187Os/188Os <0.1298). The MTZ dunites show even more radiogenic Os composition (0.1352<187Os/188Os <0.1399). The MTZ dunite are further characterised by low Os content (<1.5 ppb) not in agreement with the well know high compatible nature of Os. These observations are inconsistent with a residual origin after melting for these dunites. In contrast, Os systematic indicate than the MTZ dunites as well as the diapir harzburgites are not a mere product of melt depletion but rather result from extensive melt-rock reaction as previously demonstrated (e.g., Kelemen et al., 1995; Godard et al., 2000). Those authors have postulated that dunites are the product of melt-rock reaction leading to the crystallisation of olivine and Fe-enrichment (leading to low Mg-number) similar but less extensive process has been envisaged for the diapir harzburgite. 187Os/188Os is inversely correlated with the Mg-number of the MTZ and DH samples. Suggesting that indeed the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of both domains are due to the same process occurring at various extend

  7. Re-Os Systematics and HSE Distribution in Metal from Ochansk (H4) Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoliar, M. I.; Horan, M. F.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of the Re-Os systematics of chondrites have documented considerable variation in the Re/Os ratios of whole rock samples. For some whole rock chondrites, Re-Os systematics display large deviations from the primitive isochron that are considerably larger than deviations in other isotope systems. Possible interpretation of these facts is that the Re-Os system in chondrites is particularly sensitive to post-formation alteration processes, thus providing a useful tool to examine such processes. Significant variations that have been detected in highly siderophile element (HSE) patterns for ordinary chondrites support this conclusion. We report Re-Os isotope data for metal separates from the Ochansk H4 chondrite coupled with abundance data for Ru, Pd, Ir, and Pt, determined in the same samples by isotope dilution. We chose this meteorite mainly because it is an observed fall with minimal signs of weathering, and its low metamorphic grade (H4) and shock stage (S3).

  8. A novel gene OsAHL1 improves both drought avoidance and drought tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liguo; Liu, Zaochang; Liu, Yunhua; Kong, Deyan; Li, Tianfei; Yu, Shunwu; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Hongyan; Chen, Liang; Luo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A novel gene, OsAHL1, containing an AT-hook motif and a PPC domain was identified through genome-wide profiling and analysis of mRNAs by comparing the microarray of drought-challenged versus normally watered rice. The results indicated OsAHL1 has both drought avoidance and drought tolerance that could greatly improve drought resistance of the rice plant. Overexpression of OsAHL1 enhanced multiple stress tolerances in rice plants during both seedling and panicle development stages. Functional studies revealed that OsAHL1 regulates root development under drought condition to enhance drought avoidance, participates in oxidative stress response and also regulates the content of chlorophyll in rice leaves. OsAHL1 specifically binds to the A/T rich sequence region of promoters or introns, and hence directly regulates the expression of many stress related downstream genes. PMID:27453463

  9. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  10. Two highly similar DEAD box proteins, OsRH2 and OsRH34, homologous to eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII, play roles of the exon junction complex in regulating growth and development in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Sie, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Yu-Fu; Huang, Tian-Sheng; Lu, Chung-An

    2016-04-12

    The exon junction complex (EJC), which contains four core components, eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII), MAGO/NASHI (MAGO), Y14/Tsunagi/RNA-binding protein 8A, and Barentsz/Metastatic lymph node 51, is formed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and plays important roles in gene expression. Genes encoding core EJC components have been found in plants, including rice. Currently, the functional characterizations of MAGO and Y14 homologs have been demonstrated in rice. However, it is still unknown whether eIF4AIII is essential for the functional EJC in rice. This study investigated two DEAD box RNA helicases, OsRH2 and OsRH34, which are homologous to eIF4AIII, in rice. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that OsRH2 and OsRH34 had 99 % identity and 100 % similarity, and their gene expression patterns were similar in various rice tissues, but the level of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings. From bimolecular fluorescence complementation results, OsRH2 and OsRH34 interacted physically with OsMAGO1 and OsY14b, respectively, which indicated that both of OsRH2 and OsRH34 were core components of the EJC in rice. To study the biological roles of OsRH2 and OsRH34 in rice, transgenic rice plants were generated by RNA interference. The phenotypes of three independent OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines included dwarfism, a short internode distance, reproductive delay, defective embryonic development, and a low seed setting rate. These phenotypes resembled those of mutants with gibberellin-related developmental defects. In addition, the OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines exhibited the accumulation of unspliced rice UNDEVELOPED TAPETUM 1 mRNA. Rice contains two eIF4AIII paralogous genes, OsRH2 and OsRH34. The abundance of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings, suggesting that the OsRH2 is major eIF4AIII in rice. Both OsRH2 and OsRH34 are core components of the EJC

  11. Effects of pressure and composition on Pt-Re-Os partitioning behavior between solid and liquid metal in the Fe-Ni-S system: Implication for Os isotopic anomalies in plume-derived lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Ohtani, E.; Terasaki, H.; Ito, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Coupled 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os enrichments of plume-derived lavas have been suggested to reflect material contribution from the outer core (e.g., Brandon, 1998). This geochemical hypothesis is based on an assumption that the outer core shows coupled enrichments in 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os ratio, reflecting the decay of 190Pt and 187Re to 186Os and 187Os, respectively. In order to examine this hypothesis, partitioning experiments of Pt-Re-Os between solid metal and liquid metal were performed using an MA-8 Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus at 5-20 GPa and 1250-1400C. Starting materials of Fe metal, Ni (7 wt.%) metal and FeS (5 wt.% S in the bulk) were doped with 3 wt.% of Pt, Re and Os metals. Concentrations of all elements were determined using JXA-8800M electron probe microanalyzer with wave-dispersive spectrometry. Measured partition coefficients of Pt, Re and Os increase with increasing sulfur content and almost constant with increasing pressure. Therefore, the effect of liquid composition on the partitioning behavior of highly siderophile elements is much more significant compared to the effect of pressure and temperature. On the basis of the present experimental results, it is unlikely to generate the required Pt-Re-Os fractionation during inner core crystallization assuming that the light element in the Earth"fs core is sulfur only.

  12. Characterization of metal removal by os sepiae of Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Pan, Hong; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xian-Wei; Song, Xian-Chong; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jin; Liu, Yang

    2010-07-15

    To develop low cost metal adsorbents with less secondary pollution, metal adsorption from the aqueous solutions by the raw os sepiae (ROS) and alkali (NaOH)-pretreated OS (APOS) of the cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune) was characterized. The capacities of adsorption of ROS and APOS were estimated to be 299.26 mg Cu g(-1) and 299.58 mg Cu g(-1), respectively. Metal adsorption by OS was significantly improved by appropriately increasing initial pH in the solution but hardly affected by temperature change within a wide range of 15-45 degrees C. Cu adsorption of both ROS and APOS was well described neither by Langmuir model nor by Freundlich model. Metal adsorption by OS fell in the order of Fe > Cu approximately = Cd > Zn in the solution with mixed metals, but followed the sequence of Cd > Cu > Fe approximately = Zn in the solutions respectively, with a single metal of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn. The changes in Ca amounts in OS and solutions in adsorption strongly correlated with removal efficiencies of the metals. Obvious shifts of stretching bands of numbers of groups in OS after and before adsorption and the pretreatment occurred. It was concluded: (1) that metal adsorption by OS involves ion exchange, which occurred mainly between Ca rather than K and Na that OS itself contains and metals that were added in the solution, (2) that metal adsorption-promoting effects by NaOH pretreatment likely involve deprotonation of surface groups in OS, exposure of more functional groups, and increase in specific surface areas and (3) that related mechanisms for adsorption also likely include surface complexation, electrostatic adsorption and even micro-deposition. The results also indicated that OS is a very promising absorbent for metal removal from electroplating wastewater. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  14. s-Process Os isotope enrichment in ureilites by planetary processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, S.; Brandon, A. D.; Mayer, B.; Humayun, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies relative to the terrestrial isotopic composition in Mo, Ru, and other elements are known from both bulk chondrites and differentiated meteorites, but Os isotope ratios reported from such meteorites have been found to be indistinguishable from the terrestrial value. The carriers of s- and r-process Os must thus have been homogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. As large Os isotope anomalies are known from acid leachates and residues of primitive chondrites, the constant relative proportions of presolar s- and r-process carriers in such chondrites must have been maintained during nebular processes. It has long been assumed that partial melting of primitive chondrites would homogenize the isotopic heterogeneity carried by presolar grains. Here, ureilites, carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites dominantly composed of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, are shown to be the first differentiated bulk Solar System materials for which nucleosynthetic Os isotope anomalies have been identified. These anomalies consist of enrichment in s-process Os heterogeneously distributed in different ureilites. Given the observed homogeneity of Os isotopes in all types of primitive chondrites, this Os isotope variability among ureilites must have been caused by selective removal of s-process-poor Os host phases, probably metal, during rapid localized melting on the ureilite parent body. While Mo and Ru isotope anomalies for all meteorites measured so far exhibit s-process deficits relative to the Earth, the opposite holds for the Os isotope anomalies in ureilites reported here. This might indicate that the Earth preferentially accreted olivine-rich restites and inherited a s-process excess relative to smaller meteorite bodies, consistent with Earth's high Mg/Si ratio and enrichment of s-process nuclides in Mo, Ru, and Nd isotopes. Our new Os isotope results imply that caution must be used when applying nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies as provenance

  15. Re-Os Geochronology Pins Age and Os Isotope Composition of Middle Triassic Black Shales and Seawater, Barents Sea and Spitsbergen (Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Hannah, J. L.; Bingen, B.; Stein, H. J.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, A.; Weitschat, W.; Weiss, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Absolute age control throughout the Triassic is extraordinarily sparse. Two "golden spikes" have been added recently (http://www.stratigraphy.org/cheu.pdf) within the otherwise unconstrained Triassic, but ages of stage boundaries remain controversial. Here we report two Re-Os isochrons for Anisian (Middle Triassic) black shales from outcrop in western Svalbard and drill core from the Svalis Dome about 600 km to the SE in the Barents Sea. Black shales of the Blanknuten Member, Botneheia Formation, from the type section at Botneheia, western Spitsbergen (Svalbard), have total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 2.6 to 6.0 wt%. Rock-Eval data suggest moderately mature (Tmax = 440-450° C) Type II-III kerogens (Hydrogen Index (HI) = 232-311 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a well-constrained Model 3 age of 241 Ma and initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) of 0.83 (MSWD = 16, n = 6). Samples of the possibly correlative Steinkobbe Formation from IKU core hole 7323/07-U-04 into the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea (at about 73°30'N, 23°15'E) have TOC contents of 1.4 to 2.4%. Rock-Eval data suggest immature (Tmax = 410-430°) Type II-III kerogens (HI = 246-294 mg HC/g TOC). Re-Os data yield a precise Model 1 age of 239 Ma and Osi of 0.776 (MSWD = 0.2, n = 5). The sampled section of Blanknuten shale underlies a distinctive Frechitas (formerly Ptychites) layer, and is therefore assumed to be middle Anisian. The Steinkobbe core was sampled at 99-100 m, just above the Olenekian-Anisian transition. It is therefore assumed to be lower Anisian. The two isochron ages overlap within uncertainty, and fall within constraints provided by biozones and the current ICS-approved stage boundary ages. The Re-Os ages support the correlation of the Botneheia and Steinkobbe formations. The nearly identical Osi ratios suggest regional homogeneity of seawater and provide new information for the Os seawater curve, marking a relatively high 187Os/188Os ratio during profound ocean anoxia in the Middle Triassic.

  16. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  17. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,γ) cross sections of Os186,187,188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Mosconi, M.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Käppeler, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-07-01

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of Os186, Os187, and Os188 measured at the n_TOF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the Os187 abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  18. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. II. The (n,n{sup '}) cross section of {sup 187}Os at 30 keV neutron energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mosconi, M.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Mengoni, A.

    2010-07-15

    The inelastic neutron-scattering cross section of {sup 187}Os has been determined in a time-of-flight experiment at the Karlsruhe 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. An almost monoenergetic beam of 30-keV neutrons was produced at the threshold of the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Information on the inelastic channel is required for reliable calculations of the so-called stellar enhancement factor, by which the laboratory cross section of {sup 187}Os must be corrected in order to account for the thermal population of low-lying excited states at the temperatures of s-process nucleosynthesis, in particular of the important state at 9.75 keV. This correction represents a crucial step in the interpretation of the {sup 187}Os/{sup 187}Re pair as a cosmochronometer.

  19. Photodisintegration cross section measurements on {sup 186}W, {sup 187}Re, and {sup 188}Os: Implications for the Re-Os cosmochronology

    SciTech Connect

    Shizuma, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goko, S.; Makinaga, A.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Ohta, M.; Mohr, P.; Hayakawa, T.; Ohgaki, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Toyokawa, H.; Uritani, A.; Goriely, S.

    2005-08-01

    Cross sections of the {sup 186}W, {sup 187}Re, {sup 188}Os({gamma},n) reactions were measured using quasimonochromatic photon beams from laser Compton scattering with average energies from 7.3 to 10.9 MeV. The results are compared with the predictions of Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations using four different sets of input parameters. In addition, the inverse neutron capture cross sections were evaluated by constraining the model parameters, especially the E1 strength function, on the basis of the experimental data. The present experiment helps to further constrain the correction factor F{sub {sigma}} for the neutron capture on the 9.75 keV state in {sup 187}Os. Implications of F{sub {sigma}} for the Re-Os cosmochronology are discussed with a focus on the uncertainty in the estimate of the age of the galaxy.

  20. OsFTIP1-Mediated Regulation of Florigen Transport in Rice Is Negatively Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Like Domain Kinase OsUbDKγ4.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiyong; Chen, Ying; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yanwen; Bao, Shengjie; Zhou, Xuan; Teo, Zhi Wei Norman; Mao, Chuanzao; Gan, Yinbo; Yu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that determines successful seed production and adaptation of crop plants. Photoperiodic control of this process in flowering plants is mediated by the long-distance mobile signal called florigen partly encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana and its orthologs in other plant species. Despite the progress in understanding FT transport in the dicot model Arabidopsis, the mechanisms of florigen transport in monocots, which provide most of the biomass in agriculture, are unknown. Here, we show that rice FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN1 (OsFTIP1), a member of the family of multiple C2 domain and transmembrane region proteins (MCTPs) and the closest ortholog of Arabidopsis FTIP1, is required for export of RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1) from companion cells to sieve elements. This affects RFT1 movement to the shoot apical meristem and its regulation of rice flowering time under long days. We further reveal that a ubiquitin-like domain kinase γ4, OsUbDKγ4, interacts with OsFTIP1 and modulates its degradation in leaves through the 26S proteasome, which in turn affects RFT1 transport to the shoot apical meristem. Thus, dynamic modulation of OsFTIP1 abundance in leaves by a negative regulator OsUbDKγ4 is integral to the role of OsFTIP1 in mediating RFT1 transport in rice and provides key evidence for a conserved role of FTIP1-like MCTPs in mediating florigen transport in flowering plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Platinum group elements and 187Os/ 188Os in a purported impact ejecta layer near the Eifelian-Givetian stage boundary, Middle Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Birger; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; El Hassani, Ahmed; Bultynck, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    A global faunal crisis close to the Eifelian-Givetian stage boundary in the mid-Devonian has been purported to be related to the impact of one or two major extraterrestrial bodies. This was based on unusual mineralogical and chemical features within a distinct composite marl bed, at a level c. 40 cm below the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Eifelian-Givetian boundary at Jebel Mech Irdane in Morocco. The impact relation has been challenged based partly on the absence of platinum group element data. We present here detailed Ir, Os, Pd and Pt as well as Os isotopic data across the bed at Mech Irdane and from a correlated 10 cm bed at a nearby site, Rich Haroun. Iridium concentrations of 0.13-0.28 ng/g in the beds represent a small enrichment compared to average shale, but Ir/Al ratios are only a factor 1.5-2 higher than background at respective site. Such small enrichments can readily be explained by terrestrial diagenetic processes, and do not require the presence of an extraterrestrial component. On an Al-normalized basis Pd and Pt show weak enrichments, typically a factor 2-4 higher than background. High 187Os/ 188Os ratios, 1.1-3.8, reflect ingrowth of radiogenic Os from Re, which is also evident from Os concentrations of up to 3 ng/g. The platinum group inter-element ratios are clearly non-chondritic. The overall platinum group and trace element (e.g. Co, Ni, As, V) patterns indicate that diagenetic processes at redox fronts have played a crucial role in shaping most element enrichments. If an excess siderophile-rich extraterrestrial component exists in these beds it represents less than 0.2‰ by weight.

  2. The WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY78 regulates stem elongation and seed development in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-Quan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Yan; Yu, Heng-Xiu; Gu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2011-09-01

    WRKY proteins are a large super family of transcriptional regulators primarily involved in various plant physiological programs. In present study, the expression profile and putative function of the WRKY transcriptional factor, WRKY78, in rice were identified. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that OsWRKY78 transcript was most abundant in elongating stems though its expression was detected in all the tested organs. The expression profiles were further confirmed by using promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic rice. OsWRKY78::GFP fusion gene transient expression analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY78 targeted to the nuclei of onion epidermal cell. Furthermore, OsWRKY78 RNAi and overexpression transgenic rice lines were generated. Transgenic plants with OsWRKY78 overexpression exhibited a phenotype identical to the wild type, whereas inhibition of OsWRKY78 expression resulted in a semi-dwarf and small kernel phenotype due to reduced cell length in transgenic plants. In addition, a T-DNA insertion mutant line oswrky78 was identified and a phenotype similar to that of RNAi plants was also observed. Grain quality analysis data showed no significant differences, with the exception of minor changes in endosperm starch crystal structure in RNAi plants. Taken together, these results suggest that OsWRKY78 may acts as a stem elongation and seed development regulator in rice.

  3. OsGRF4 controls grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering in rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pingyong; Zhang, Wuhan; Wang, Yihua; He, Qiang; Shu, Fu; Liu, Hai; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jianmin; Yuan, Longping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traits such as grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering, play important roles in grain yield and harvest. In this study, the cloning and functional analysis of PANICLE TRAITS 2 (PT2), a novel gene from the Indica rice Chuandali (CDL), is reported. PT2 is synonymous with Growth‐Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), which encodes a growth‐regulating factor that positively regulates grain shape and panicle length and negatively regulates seed shattering. Higher expression of OsGRF4 is correlated with larger grain, longer panicle and lower seed shattering. A unique OsGRF4 mutation, which occurs at the OsmiRNA396 target site of OsGRF4, seems to be associated with high levels of OsGRF4 expression, and results in phenotypic difference. Further research showed that OsGRF4 regulated two cytokinin dehydrogenase precursor genes (CKX5 and CKX1) resulting in increased cytokinin levels, which might affect the panicle traits. High storage capacity and moderate seed shattering of OsGRF4 may be useful in high‐yield breeding and mechanized harvesting of rice. Our findings provide additional insight into the molecular basis of panicle growth. PMID:26936408

  4. Nonoperative treatment of an os peroneum fracture in a high-level athlete: a case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy T; Johnson, Anne H; Heckman, James D

    2011-05-01

    The os peroneum is a sesamoid bone in the peroneus longus tendon. Fractures of the os peroneum are rare. Some authors recommend surgery for active patients. A 41-year-old male professional tennis coach sustained a minimally displaced fracture of the os peroneum. He was treated with restricted weightbearing for 2 weeks, followed by physical therapy and gradual return to activities. He returned to tennis 8 weeks after injury. Followup 7 years after the injury showed he had full strength, full motion, and a radiographically healed os peroneum. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale score was 100 and Ankle Activity Score and Tegner Activity Level Scale were unchanged from those before injury. Fracture of the os peroneum is a rare injury and treatment recommendations are based largely on very small series and case reports. Proposed treatment strategies for fracture of the os peroneum include nonoperative treatment, fixation of the fracture, excision of the bone with direct repair of the tendon, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Although some surgeons suggest fracture of the os peroneum should be treated operatively in active patients, this case shows nonoperative treatment allowed pain-free return to activities in a high-level athlete with a minimally-displaced fracture.

  5. Resolvase OsGEN1 Mediates DNA Repair by Homologous Recombination1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pingli

    2017-01-01

    Yen1/GEN1 are canonical Holliday junction resolvases that belong to the RAD2/XPG family. In eukaryotes, such as budding yeast, mice, worms, and humans, Yen1/GEN1 work together with Mus81-Mms4/MUS81-EME1 and Slx1-Slx4/SLX1-SLX4 in DNA repair by homologous recombination to maintain genome stability. In plants, the biological function of Yen1/GEN1 remains largely unclear. In this study, we characterized the loss of function mutants of OsGEN1 and OsSEND1, a pair of paralogs of Yen1/GEN1 in rice (Oryza sativa). We first investigated the role of OsGEN1 during meiosis and found a reduction in chiasma frequency by ∼6% in osgen1 mutants, compared to the wild type, suggesting a possible involvement of OsGEN1 in the formation of crossovers. Postmeiosis, OsGEN1 foci were detected in wild-type microspore nuclei, but not in the osgen1 mutant concomitant with an increase in double-strand breaks. Persistent double-strand breaks led to programmed cell death of the male gametes and complete male sterility. In contrast, depletion of OsSEND1 had no effects on plant development and did not enhance osgen1 defects. Our results indicate that OsGEN1 is essential for homologous recombinational DNA repair at two stages of microsporogenesis in rice. PMID:28049740

  6. Potential role of the rice OsCCS52A gene in endoreduplication.

    PubMed

    Su'udi, Mukhamad; Cha, Joon-Yung; Jung, Min Hee; Ermawati, Netty; Han, Chang-deok; Kim, Min Gab; Woo, Young-Min; Son, Daeyoung

    2012-02-01

    In eukaryotes, the cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1, S, G2 and M. In certain condition, the cells skip M-phase and undergo endoreduplication. Endoreduplication, occurring during a modified cell cycle, duplicates the entire genome without being followed by M-phase. A cycle of endoreduplication is common in most of the differentiated cells of plant vegetative tissues and it occurs extensively in cereal endosperm cells. Endoreduplication occurs when CDK/Cyclin complex low or inactive caused by ubiquitin-mediated degradation by APC and their activators. In this study, rice cell cycle switch 52 A (OsCCS52A), an APC activator, is functionally characterized using the reverse genetic approach. In rice, OsCCS52A is highly expressed in seedlings, flowers, immature panicles and 15 DAP kernels. Localization studies revealed that OsCCS52A is a nuclear protein. OsCCS52A interacts with OsCdc16 in yeast. In addition, overexpression of OsCCS52A inhibits mitotic cell division and induces endoreduplication and cell elongation in fission yeast. The homozygous mutant exhibits dwarfism and smaller seeds. Further analysis demonstrated that endoreduplication cycles in the endosperm of mutant seeds were disturbed, evidenced by reduced nuclear and cell sizes. Taken together, these results suggest that OsCCS52A is involved in maintaining normal seed size formation by mediating the exit from mitotic cell division to enter the endoreduplication cycles in rice endosperm.

  7. OsWRKY53, a versatile switch in regulating herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins, which belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores by regulating defense-related signaling pathways. Recently, a rice WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY53 has been reported to function as a negative feedback modulator of OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and thereby to control the size of the investment a rice plant makes to defend against a chewing herbivore, the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. We investigated the performance of a piecing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, on transgenic plants that silence or overexpress OsWRKY53, and found that OsWRKY53 activates rice defenses against BPH by activating an H2O2 burst and suppressing ethylene biosynthesis. These findings suggest that OsWRKY53 functions not only as a regulator of plants' investment in specific defenses, but also as a switch to initiate new defenses against other stresses, highlighting the versatility and importance of OsWRKY53 in herbivore-induced plant defenses.

  8. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  9. Divergent evolution and molecular adaptation in the Drosophila odorant-binding protein family: inferences from sequence variation at the OS-E and OS-F genes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Drosophila Odorant-Binding Protein (Obp) genes constitute a multigene family with moderate gene number variation across species. The OS-E and OS-F genes are the two phylogenetically closest members of this family in the D. melanogaster genome. In this species, these genes are arranged in the same genomic cluster and likely arose by tandem gene duplication, the major mechanism proposed for the origin of new members in this olfactory-system family. Results We have analyzed the genomic cluster encompassing OS-E and OS-F genes (Obp83 genomic region) to determine the role of the functional divergence and molecular adaptation on the Obp family size evolution. We compared nucleotide and amino acid variation across 18 Drosophila and 4 mosquito species applying a phylogenetic-based maximum likelihood approach complemented with information of the OBP three-dimensional structure and function. We show that, in spite the OS-E and OS-F genes are currently subject to similar and strong selective constraints, they likely underwent divergent evolution. Positive selection was likely involved in the functional diversification of new copies in the early stages after the gene duplication event; moreover, it might have shaped nucleotide variation of the OS-E gene concomitantly with the loss of functionally related members. Besides, molecular adaptation likely affecting the functional OBP conformational changes was supported by the analysis of the evolution of physicochemical properties of the OS-E protein and the location of the putative positive selected amino acids on the OBP three-dimensional structure. Conclusion Our results support that positive selection was likely involved in the functional differentiation of new copies of the OBP multigene family in the early stages after their birth by gene duplication; likewise, it might shape variation of some members of the family concomitantly with the loss of functionally related genes. Thus, the stochastic gene gain

  10. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@M (M = Ir, Os, IrOs) Core-Shell Nanoribbons For Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The high-yield synthesis of 4H/face-centered cubic (fcc)-Au@Ir core-shell nanoribbons (NRBs) is achieved via the direct growth of Ir on 4H Au NRBs under ambient conditions. Importantly, this method can be used to synthesize 4H/fcc-Au@Os and 4H/fcc-Au@IrOs core-shell NRBs. Significantly, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ir core-shell NRBs demonstrate an exceptional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic condition, which is much higher than that of the commercial Ir/C catalyst.

  11. Fractionation of highly siderophile elements in refertilized mantle: Implications for the Os isotope composition of basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Dale, Christopher W.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Pearson, D. Graham; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly

    2014-08-01

    Highly fertile lherzolite and spinel websterite in the Ronda peridotite massif are enriched in Pt and Pd compared to Os, Ir, Ru and Re. The fractionation of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) in these rocks was produced by reaction of melt with their peridotite and pyroxenite precursors. Modeling indicates that upon reaction primary HSE hosts were dissolved and magmatic sulphides precipitated, largely erasing the original HSE signature of reacting protoliths. The budget of HSE in the melt was controlled by sulphide-silicate partitioning or entrainment of molten sulphide in silicate melt. Rhenium was likely removed from precursor peridotite and pyroxenite by previous melt extraction. Refertilization of peridotite by melts increased Al2O3, CaO, Pt, Pd contents and 187Os/188Os beyond typical values for mantle peridotite and the primitive upper mantle. The interaction of melts with residual peridotite and pyroxenite, as illustrated in the Ronda massif, can generate radiogenic-Os-enriched domains in the mantle with high melt productivity, higher Pt/Os and Pt/Re than common peridotite, and lower Re/Os than typical pyroxenite. As also previously proposed for pyroxenites, these “hybrid” domains can account for the difference in Os isotope compositions between many basalts (e.g., MORB and OIB) and common depleted mantle peridotites. Moreover, the presence of these enriched hybrid components in the mantle, evolved over sufficient timescales and in geologically reasonable proportions, may account for the 186Os-187Os enrichment of plume lavas without requiring a chemical contribution from the core.

  12. Fractionation of Highly Siderophile Elements in Refertilized Mantle: Implications for the Os Isotope Composition of Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Dale, C. W.; Garrido, C. J.; Pearson, D. G.; Bosch, D.; Bodinier, J. L.; Gervilla, F.; Hidas, K.

    2014-12-01

    Highly fertile lherzolite and spinel websterite in the Ronda peridotite massif are enriched in Pt and Pd compared to Os, Ir, Ru and Re. The fractionation of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) in these rocks was produced by reaction of melt with their peridotite and pyroxenite precursors. Modelling indicates that upon reaction primary HSE hosts were dissolved and magmatic sulphides precipitated, largely erasing the original HSE signature of reacting protoliths. The budget of HSE in the melt was controlled by sulphide-silicate partitioning or entrainment of molten sulphide in silicate melt. Rhenium was likely removed from precursor peridotite and pyroxenite by previous melt extraction. Refertilization of peridotite by melts increased Al2O3, CaO, Pt, Pd contents and 187Os/188Os beyond typical values for mantle peridotite and the primitive upper mantle. The interaction of melts with residual peridotite and pyroxenite, as illustrated in the Ronda massif, can generate radiogenic-Os-enriched domains in the mantle with high melt productivity, higher Pt/Os and Pt/Re than common peridotite, and lower Re/Os than typical pyroxenite. As also previously proposed for pyroxenites, these "hybrid" domains can account for the difference in Os isotope compositions between many basalts (e.g., MORB and OIB) and common depleted mantle peridotites. Moreover, the presence of these enriched hybrid components in the mantle, evolved over sufficient timescales and in geologically reasonable proportions, may account for the 186Os-187Os enrichment of plume lavas without requiring a chemical contribution from the core.

  13. Os isotope evidence for a differentiated plume head reservoir for the Ontong Java Nui source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. F.; Hoernle, K.; Parkinson, I. J.; Golowin, R.; Portnyagin, M.; Turner, S.; Werner, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Os isotopic investigations of lavas from the Ontong Java Plateau1 observed that geographically widely dispersed samples of differing chemistries preserved an isochron of 123±8 Ma with an initial 187Os/188Os = 0.1289±0.0095. Samples from the Manihiki Plateau, itself a portion of the greater Ontong Java Nui (OJN) magmatic event, preserve a far greater range in Os isotopic signatures than previously reported for the OJP alone. In contrast to the OJP data which points towards a near-chondritic, primitive mantle source for both Kroenke and Kwambaita lavas, the low Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) ranging from 0.1056-0.1714. High Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1094-0.1288. Such strongly subchondritic signatures require some component of recycled material in the mantle source, possibly SCLM (TRD low Ti samples ~3.1Ga; and ~2.3-2.6Ga for the high Ti samples). Higher initial Os isotope ratios could indicate the presence of metasomatised lithosphere and/or lower crust. The low Ti samples from Manihiki have been interpreted as the result of a two stage melting process, analogous to boninites2, the depleted source of which has itself been metasomatised by a HIMU component entrained within the plume head. Collectively the Ontong Java and Manihiki samples could conceivably contain mantle sourced from both an undifferentiated, near-chondritic source, as well as ancient, unradiogenic recycled sources. Thus the greater OJN province samples a heterogeneous source containing both primitive and recycled components. It is probable that greater degress of partial melting beneath Ontong Java homogenised these heterogeneities, whereas more complex, multi stage melting processes near the plume margin at Manihiki allowed sampling of the inherent heterogeneities within the plume head. 1: Parkinson et al., 2002, GCA 66(15A) A580. 2: Golowin et al., in prep.

  14. The Rice Monovalent Cation Transporter OsHKT2;4: Revisited Ionic Selectivity1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Ali; Mieulet, Delphine; Khan, Imran; Moreau, Bertrand; Gaillard, Isabelle; Sentenac, Hervé; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2012-01-01

    The family of plant membrane transporters named HKT (for high-affinity K+ transporters) can be subdivided into subfamilies 1 and 2, which, respectively, comprise Na+-selective transporters and transporters able to function as Na+-K+ symporters, at least when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or Xenopus oocytes. Surprisingly, a subfamily 2 member from rice (Oryza sativa), OsHKT2;4, has been proposed to form cation/K+ channels or transporters permeable to Ca2+ when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Here, OsHKT2;4 functional properties were reassessed in Xenopus oocytes. A Ca2+ permeability through OsHKT2;4 was not detected, even at very low external K+ concentration, as shown by highly negative OsHKT2;4 zero-current potential in high Ca2+ conditions and lack of sensitivity of OsHKT2;4 zero-current potential and conductance to external Ca2+. The Ca2+ permeability previously attributed to OsHKT2;4 probably resulted from activation of an endogenous oocyte conductance. OsHKT2;4 displayed a high permeability to K+ compared with that to Na+ (permeability sequence: K+ > Rb+ ≈ Cs+ > Na+ ≈ Li+ ≈ NH4+). Examination of OsHKT2;4 current sensitivity to external pH suggested that H+ is not significantly permeant through OsHKT2;4 in most physiological ionic conditions. Further analyses in media containing both Na+ and K+ indicated that OsHKT2;4 functions as K+-selective transporter at low external Na+, but transports also Na+ at high (>10 mm) Na+ concentrations. These data identify OsHKT2;4 as a new functional type in the K+ and Na+-permeable HKT transporter subfamily. Furthermore, the high permeability to K+ in OsHKT2;4 supports the hypothesis that this system is dedicated to K+ transport in the plant. PMID:22773759

  15. Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao; Xu, Chao-Nan; Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-07-07

    We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

  16. Triaxial models description of the low-lying properties in 192Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, T.; An, S. Y.; Li, X. X.; Yu, X. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Several typical triaxial models have been parallel addressed and applied to describe the energy values and B(E2) transitional rates in the ground band and the γ band for 192Os. It is shown that the different triaxial model presents different triaxial dynamics but each of them can only succeed to explain part of the spectral properties of this nucleus, which indicates that the triaxial shape of 192Os may be more complicated than that reflected by an ideal triaxial model. In addition, the staggering signature in experiments hints that γ-rigid triaxiality should be more or less involved in 192Os.

  17. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1, and OsAKT1) involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop. PMID:27695459

  18. Homologous U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 Are Involved in the Positive Regulation of Low Temperature Stress Response in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Mi Young; Cui, Li Hua; Oh, Tae Kyung; Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Andosung; Park, Ki Youl; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2017-01-01

    Rice U-box E3 Ub ligases (OsPUBs) are implicated in biotic stress responses. However, their cellular roles in response to abiotic stress are poorly understood. In this study, we performed functional analyses of two homologous OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 in response to cold stress (4°C). OsPUB2 was up-regulated by high salinity, drought, and cold, whereas OsPUB3 was constitutively expressed. A subcellular localization assay revealed that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 were localized to the exocyst positive organelle (EXPO)-like punctate structures. OsPUB2 was also localized to the nuclei. OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 formed a hetero-dimeric complex as well as homo-dimers in yeast cells and in vitro. OsPUB2/OsPUB3 exhibited self-ubiquitination activities in vitro and were rapidly degraded in the cell-free extracts with apparent half-lives of 150–160 min. This rapid degradation of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was delayed in the presence of the crude extracts of cold-treated seedlings (apparent half-lives of 200–280 min). Moreover, a hetero-dimeric form of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was more stable than the homo-dimers. These results suggested that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 function coordinately in response to cold stress. OsPUB2- and OsPUB3-overexpressing transgenic rice plants showed markedly better tolerance to cold stress than did the wild-type plants in terms of survival rates, chlorophyll content, ion leakage, and expression levels of cold stress-inducible marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that the two homologous rice U-box E3 Ub ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 are positive regulators of the response to cold stress. PMID:28163713

  19. Homologous U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 Are Involved in the Positive Regulation of Low Temperature Stress Response in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Cui, Li Hua; Oh, Tae Kyung; Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Andosung; Park, Ki Youl; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2017-01-01

    Rice U-box E3 Ub ligases (OsPUBs) are implicated in biotic stress responses. However, their cellular roles in response to abiotic stress are poorly understood. In this study, we performed functional analyses of two homologous OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 in response to cold stress (4°C). OsPUB2 was up-regulated by high salinity, drought, and cold, whereas OsPUB3 was constitutively expressed. A subcellular localization assay revealed that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 were localized to the exocyst positive organelle (EXPO)-like punctate structures. OsPUB2 was also localized to the nuclei. OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 formed a hetero-dimeric complex as well as homo-dimers in yeast cells and in vitro. OsPUB2/OsPUB3 exhibited self-ubiquitination activities in vitro and were rapidly degraded in the cell-free extracts with apparent half-lives of 150-160 min. This rapid degradation of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was delayed in the presence of the crude extracts of cold-treated seedlings (apparent half-lives of 200-280 min). Moreover, a hetero-dimeric form of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was more stable than the homo-dimers. These results suggested that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 function coordinately in response to cold stress. OsPUB2- and OsPUB3-overexpressing transgenic rice plants showed markedly better tolerance to cold stress than did the wild-type plants in terms of survival rates, chlorophyll content, ion leakage, and expression levels of cold stress-inducible marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that the two homologous rice U-box E3 Ub ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 are positive regulators of the response to cold stress.

  20. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    SciTech Connect

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A.; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B. F.; Quail, Peter H.; Margarida Oliveira, M.; Saibo, Nelson J. M.

    2015-12-28

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein–DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. Additionally, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. Our results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Finally, although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.

  1. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    DOE PAGES

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; ...

    2015-12-28

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein–DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressormore » activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. Additionally, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. Our results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Finally, although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.« less

  2. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, André M; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Quail, Peter H; Margarida Oliveira, M; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2016-02-01

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein-DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. All together, these results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.

  3. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of Phytochrome B

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A.; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Quail, Peter H.; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J. M.

    2016-01-01

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a Yeast one Hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein-DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a Phytochrome Interacting Factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. All together, these results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses. PMID:26732823

  4. iOS--Worthy of the Hype as Assistive Technology for Visual Impairments? A Phenomenological Study of iOS Device Use by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shari

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the shared essence of the lived experiences of early adopters of iOS devices as assistive technology by persons with visual impairments. The capstone question addressed the idea of whether any one device could fully meet the assistive technology needs of this population. Purposeful sampling methods were…

  5. iOS--Worthy of the Hype as Assistive Technology for Visual Impairments? A Phenomenological Study of iOS Device Use by Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Shari

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the shared essence of the lived experiences of early adopters of iOS devices as assistive technology by persons with visual impairments. The capstone question addressed the idea of whether any one device could fully meet the assistive technology needs of this population. Purposeful sampling methods were…

  6. Three-Dimensional CT Findings of Os Calcaneus Secundarius Mimicking a Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Bora, Aydın; Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Özkaçmaz, Sercan; Batur, Abdussamet

    2014-01-01

    Os calcaneus secundarius is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot that have been identified as normal variants of skeletal development. It may cause ankle pain and may mimic an avulsion fracture of the anterior calcaneal process. A twenty-year-old male was admitted to our institution with right ankle pain following an inversion injury. An axial CT image of the patient's right ankle revealed a shape with smooth and sharp margins, identified as a well-corticated bone fragment in the subtalar region. A diagnosis of an accessory ossicle, os calcaneus secundarius, was made based on radiographic findings. As a result of this case, it is recommended that potential locations of the accessory bones should be well understood in order to prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate surgical procedures. Os calcaneus secundarius must be considered when an apparent bone fragment or a suspicious fracture line at the anterior region of os calcaneus is demonstrated. PMID:25610694

  7. Nanoscale variations in 187Os isotopic composition and HSE systematics in a Bultfontein peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, A. N.; Luguet, A.; Schreiber, A.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Nowell, G. M.; Lorand, J.-P.; Wirth, R.; Janney, P. E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the mineralogical controls on radiogenic chronometers is a fundamental aspect of all geochronological tools. As with other common dating tools, it has become increasingly clear that the Re-Os system can be impacted by multiple mineral formation events. The accessory and micrometric nature of the Re-Os-bearing minerals has made assessing this influence complex. This is especially evident in cratonic peridotites, where long residence times and multiple metasomatic events have created a complex melting and re-enrichment history. Here we investigate a harzburgitic peridotite from the Bultfontein kimberlite (South Africa) which contains sub-micron Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions within base metal sulphides (BMS). Through the combination of the focused ion beam lift-out technique and low blank mass spectrometry we were able to remove and analyse the Pt-Fe-alloy inclusions for their Re-Os composition and highly siderophile element (HSE) systematics. Six repeats of the whole-rock yield 187Os/188Os compositions of 0.10893-0.10965, which correspond to Re depletion model ages (TRD) of 2.69-2.79 Ga. The Os, Ir and Pt concentrations are slightly variable across the different digestions, whilst Pd and Re remain constant. The resulting HSE pattern is typical of cratonic peridotites displaying depleted Pt and Pd. The Pt-Fe-alloys have PUM-like 187Os/188Os compositions of 0.1294 ± 24 (2-s.d.) and 0.1342 ± 38, and exhibit a saw-tooth HSE pattern with enriched Re and Pt. In contrast, their BMS hosts have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os of 0.1084 ± 6 and 0.1066 ± 3, with TRD ages of 2.86 and 3.09 Ga, similar to the whole-rock systematics. The metasomatic origin of the BMS is supported by (i) the highly depleted nature of the mantle peridotite and (ii) their Ni-rich sulphide assemblage. Occurrence of Pt-Fe-alloys as inclusions within BMS grains demonstrates the genetic link between the BMS and Pt-Fe-alloys and argues for formation during a single but continuous event of silicate melt

  8. Os isotopes in SNC meteorites and their implications to the early evolution of Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Luck, J. M.; Othman, D. Ben; Wanke, H.

    1993-01-01

    A new development on the measurement of the Os isotopic composition by mass spectrometry using negative ions opened a new field of applications. The Re-Os systematic provides time information on the differentiation of the nobel metals. The nobel metals are strongly partitioned into metal and sulphide phases, but also the generation of silicate melts might fractionate the Re-Os system. Compared to the other isotopic systems which are mainly dating the fractionation of the alkalis and alkali-earth elements, the Re-Os system is expected to disclose entirely new information about the geochemistry. Especially the differentiation and early evolution of the planets such as the formation of the core will be elucidated with this method.

  9. Structure of the OsSERK2 leucine-rich repeat extracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    McAndrew, Ryan; Pruitt, Rory N.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Majumdar, Dipali; Hammock, Bruce D.; Adams, Paul D.; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing integral membrane receptors that are involved in the regulation of development and immune responses in plants. It has recently been shown that rice SERK2 (OsSERK2) is essential for XA21-mediated resistance to the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. OsSERK2 is also required for the BRI1-mediated, FLS2-mediated and EFR-mediated responses to brassinosteroids, flagellin and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), respectively. Here, crystal structures of the LRR domains of OsSERK2 and a D128N OsSERK2 mutant, expressed as hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) fusions, are reported. These structures suggest that the aspartate mutation does not generate any significant conformational change in the protein, but instead leads to an altered interaction with partner receptors. PMID:25372696

  10. Structure of the OsSERK2 leucine-rich repeat extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Ryan; Pruitt, Rory N; Kamita, Shizuo G; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Majumdar, Dipali; Hammock, Bruce D; Adams, Paul D; Ronald, Pamela C

    2014-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing integral membrane receptors that are involved in the regulation of development and immune responses in plants. It has recently been shown that rice SERK2 (OsSERK2) is essential for XA21-mediated resistance to the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. OsSERK2 is also required for the BRI1-mediated, FLS2-mediated and EFR-mediated responses to brassinosteroids, flagellin and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), respectively. Here, crystal structures of the LRR domains of OsSERK2 and a D128N OsSERK2 mutant, expressed as hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) fusions, are reported. These structures suggest that the aspartate mutation does not generate any significant conformational change in the protein, but instead leads to an altered interaction with partner receptors.

  11. The flavonoid luteolin enhances doxorubicin-induced autophagy in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoliang; Yu, Xin; Xia, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Luteolin (LUT), a flavone, which is universally present as constituent of medicinal plants as well as some vegetables and spices, has been demonstrated display specific anti-carcinogenic effects. However, the mechanisms by which LUT inhibits human osteosarcoma growth remain unknown. The effects of LUT on cell growth in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells were measured by MTT assay and flowcytometry. The effects of LUT on morphological markers of autophagy in U2OS were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Autophagic markers, beclin1 and LC3 were detected by western blotting. Here, we found that LUT induced autophagy in U2OS and acted as an enhancer to sensitize doxorubicin (DOX)-mediated autophagy signaling. The combined treatment of LUT and DOX greatly decreases the growth of U2OS, showing synergistic cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that LUT in combination with DOX maybe a novel strategy for the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:26629003

  12. Structural stability and phase transition in OsC and RuC.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erjun; Wang, Jinping; Wu, Zhijian

    2010-12-01

    The structural stability and phase transition of osmium and ruthenium carbides (OsC and RuC) were investigated by first principles. Nine structures were considered for each carbide. Zinc blende structure has the lowest energy among the considered structures at ambient conditions for both carbides. For OsC at elevated pressures, the most stable phase is zinc blende structure from 0 to 10 GPa, FeSi from 10 to 32 GPa. In these two structures, Os atom is fourfold coordinated. From 32 to 40 GPa, tungsten carbide (WC) and NiAs are energetically competitive with Os atom sixfold coordinated. NiAs becomes energetically the most stable structure above 40 GPa. For RuC, zinc blende structure is the most stable from 0 to 20 GPa. From 20 to 100 GPa, WC structure is the most stable. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Convergence of SART + OS + TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for optical CT imaging of gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi; Yu, Gongyi; Xiang, Xincheng; Wang, Xiangang; De Deene, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Computational simulations are used to investigate the convergence of a hybrid iterative algorithm for optical CT reconstruction, i.e. the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) integrated with ordered subsets (OS) iteration and total variation (TV) minimization regularization, or SART+OS+TV for short. The influence of parameter selection to reach convergence, spatial dose gradient integrity, MTF and convergent speed are discussed. It’s shown that the results of SART+OS+TV algorithm converge to the true values without significant bias, and MTF and convergent speed are affected by different parameter sets used for iterative calculation. In conclusion, the performance of the SART+OS+TV depends on parameter selection, which also implies that careful parameter tuning work is required and necessary for proper spatial performance and fast convergence.

  14. 75As-NQR study of the hybridization gap semiconductor CeOs4As12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogi, M.; Higa, N.; Niki, H.; Kawata, T.; Sekine, C.

    2016-02-01

    We performed an 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs4As12. The 75As-NQR spectrum shape demonstrates that the Ce-site filling fraction of our high-pressure synthesized sample is close to unity. A presence of the c — f hybridization gap is confirmed from the temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1. An increase of 1/T1 below ∼3 K indicates a development of the spin fluctuations. The 1/T1 for CeOs4As12 shows similar behavior as that for CeOs4Sb12 with different magnitude of the c — f hybridization gap. An absence of phase transition in CeOs4As12 may be caused by the increase of the c — f hybridization, which increases the gap magnitude and reduces the residual density of state inside the gap.

  15. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  16. Intraarticular Entrapment of Os Subfibulare Following a Severe Inversion Injury of the Ankle: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Ozkan; Kilicaslan, Omer Faruk; Guler, Ferhat; Aktan, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior Talofibular Ligament (ATFL) rupture is the most commonly injured anatomic structure in lateral ankle sprain. In some cases, ATFL avulsion fracture from the lateral malleolus may occur instead of purely ligamentous injuries. The ATFL avulsion fracture is detected as a small ossicle at the tip of lateral malleolus on direct radiographs, which is called os subfibulare in chronic cases. Case Presentation: Severe displacement of this ossicle to the tibiotalar joint space is an extremely rare injury. Herein, a case of intra-articular entrapment of os subfibulare following a severe inversion injury of the ankle, which caused a diagnostic challenge was presented. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of entrapment of os subfibulare in the talotibial joint space. Fixation of the os subfibulare to lateral malleolus resulted in union and excellent functional results. PMID:26101763

  17. Os trigonum syndrome with flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis in a professional football referee.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M E; Wolin, P M

    1999-07-01

    The presentation of posterior ankle pain in any patient poses a diagnostic dilemma. The os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus stenosing tenosynovitis have been reported to occur in professional and amateur ballet dancers. It is important to consider these diagnoses in a patient who is not a dancer, as is shown in the case presented here. The patient in this case is a professional referee who injured his ankle while working on artificial turf. The treatment for os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis is initially conservative, but in refractory cases, surgical removal of the os and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon can be successfully performed. This is the first reported case of os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis presenting simultaneously in a patient who is not a dancer.

  18. Bug-Free Sensors: The Automatic Verification of Context-Aware TinyOS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Doina; Kwiatkowska, Marta

    We provide the first tool for verifying the logic of context-aware applications written for the mainstream sensor network operating system TinyOS; we focus on detecting programming errors related to incorrect adaptation to context.

  19. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Characterization and molecular cloning of a serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (OsSHM1) in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dekai; Liu, Heqin; Li, Sujuan; Zhai, Guowei; Shao, Jianfeng; Tao, Yuezhi

    2015-09-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is important for one carbon metabolism and photorespiration in higher plants for its participation in plant growth and development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A rice serine hydroxymethyltransferase gene, OsSHM1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SHM1, was isolated using map-based cloning. The osshm1 mutant had chlorotic lesions and a considerably smaller, lethal phenotype under natural ambient CO2 concentrations, but could be restored to wild type with normal growth under elevated CO2 levels (0.5% CO2 ), showing a typical photorespiratory phenotype. The data from antioxidant enzymes activity measurement suggested that osshm1 was subjected to significant oxidative stress. Also, OsSHM1 was expressed in all organs tested (root, culm, leaf, and young panicle) but predominantly in leaves. OsSHM1 protein is localized to the mitochondria. Our study suggested that molecular function of the OsSHM1 gene is conserved in rice and Arabidopsis.

  1. High-pressure crystal growth and electromagnetic properties of 5d double-perovskite Ca₃OsO₆

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hai Luke; Shi, Youguo; Guo, Yanfeng; Li, Jun; Sato, Akira; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xia; Yu, Shan; Sathish, Clastin I.; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2013-05-01

    Single crystals of the osmium-containing compound Ca₃OsO₆ have been successfully grown under high-pressure conditions, for the first time. The crystal structure of Ca₃OsO₆ atoms being fully ordered at the perovskite B-site. The electromagnetic analysis shows that the crystal exhibits a semiconductor-like behavior below 300 K and undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at 50 K. - Graphical Abstract: Schematic image of crystal structure of Ca₃OsO₆ as determined by X-ray diffraction, where the gray and black octahedrons are occupied by Ca and Os, respectively. Top inset reveals an optic image of a typical Ca₃OsO₆ single crystal. Highlights: • Single crystals of Ca₃OsO₆ have been successfully grown under high-pressure. • Ca₃OsO₆ crystalizes into an ordered double-perovskite structure. • The Ca₃OsO₆ undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at 50 K.

  2. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB{sub 2} by mechanochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB{sub 2}, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB{sub 2} crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from −225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron micrograph of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} nanocrystallite with corresponding fast Fourier transform and simulated diffraction pattern. - Highlights: • Hexagonal OsB{sub 2} has been synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical method. • Hexagonal OsB{sub 2} crystallizes in P63/mmc space group (No. 194), a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. • The hexagonal structure was confirmed by a transmission electron microscope. • No phase transformation was observed after being annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days. • 20 wt% of h-OsB{sub 2} was transformed to o-OsB{sub 2} after being sintered at 1500 °C for 5 min.

  3. Hydrocarbon Maturation and Os Mixing on Bolide Impact at the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, H.; Zimmerman, A.; Yang, G.; Hannah, J.; Egenhoff, S.

    2009-04-01

    An intractable problem in the application of Re-Os geochemistry has been knowledge of the distribution of Re and Os between source rock and generated hydrocarbon. Solutions lie in combined experimental work with controlled and induced maturation, and field studies optimized by known source rock and time of hydrocarbon generation. The Siljan impact site with its variably tilted but largely intact Ordovician-Silurian sections provides an unsurpassed opportunity to examine the Re-Os systematics of source rock and generated crude oil, and the Re-Os imprint of the bolide. This three-component system contains (1) a time pin for maturation (377 ± 2 Ma; laser argon dating of impact melt, Reimold et al. 2005) arguably at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, (2) known source rocks with kerogens still intact, and (3) crude oils generated on impact. Modeling takes into consideration the possibility of pre-impact maturation as well. At Siljan, numerous quarries expose the Upper Ordovician Boda and Kullsberg limestone mounds, and locally, the underlying and laterally equivalent Tretaspis (Fjäcka) shale. We obtained a sample of crude oil seeping from a drill hole in the quarry floor at Solberga. Preliminary Re-Os analyses on four aliquots of this oil form an excellent linear array in 187Re/188Os versus 187Os/188Os space. The associated age, however, is impossibly old (Neoproterozoic), and the initial 187Os/188Os unreasonably low (0.2). Rather, this linear array fits a mixing line between a meteoritic component and a hydrocarbon generated from the Tretaspis shale. We are presently performing further tests to isolate the two end-members. Filtering suggests that the extraterrestrial component consists of small physical particles which can be largely removed from the petroleum fraction. The extreme contrast in Re-Os composition between meteorite (known) and black shale (in progress) end-members maximizes the sensitivity of the isotopic study. Reimold, W.U., Kelley, S.P., Sherlock, S

  4. Os and U-Th isotope signatures of arc magmatism near Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Shirey, Steven B.; Hart, Garret L.; Bacon, Charles R.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-03-01

    Interaction of mantle melts with the continental crust can have significant effects on the composition of the resulting melts as well as on the crust itself, and tracing this interaction is key to our understanding of arc magmatism. Lava flows and pyroclastic deposits erupted from ∼50 to 7.7 ka at Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon) were analyzed for their Re/Os and U-Th isotopic compositions. Mafic lavas from monogenetic vents around Mt. Mazama that erupted during the buildup to its climactic eruption have lower 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1394 to 0.1956) and high 230Th excess ((230Th/238U)0 of 1.180 to 1.302), whereas dacites and rhyodacites tend to have higher 187Os/188Os ratios (0.2292 to 0.2788) and significant 238U excess ((230Th/238U)0 of 0.975 to 0.989). The less radiogenic Os isotope compositions of the mafic lavas can be modeled by assimilation of young (∼2.5 to 7 Ma), mafic lower crust that was modified during regional extension, whereas the more radiogenic Os isotope compositions of the dacites and rhyodacites can be attributed to assimilation of older (∼10 to 16 Ma), mid to upper crust that acquired its composition during an earlier period of Cascade magmatism. Production of Th excesses in the lower crust requires very young garnet formation accompanying dehydration melting in the lower crust at less than a few 100 ka by heat from recent basaltic magma injection. The results from this study suggest that the combination of Os and Th isotopes may be used to provide insights into the timescales of evolution of the continental crust in arc settings, as well as the influence of the crust on erupted magmas, and suggest a link between the age and composition of the lower and upper crust to regional tectonic extension and/or earlier Cascade magmatism.

  5. OsCHX14 is Involved in the K+ Homeostasis in Rice (Oryza sativa) Flowers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Jingkun; Miller, Anthony J; Luo, Bingbing; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F

    2016-07-01

    Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found that K concentrations in lodicules and flowers of osjar1-2 were significantly elevated compared with the wild type, indicating that K(+) homeostasis may play a role in regulating the closure of rice flowers. The cation/H(+) exchanger (CHX) family from rice was screened for potential K(+) transporters involved as many members of this family in Arabidopsis were exclusively or preferentially expressed in flowers. Expression profiling confirmed that among 17 CHX genes in rice, OsCHX14 was the only member that showed an expression polymorphism, not only in osjar1 mutants but also in RNAi (RNA interference) lines of OsCOI1, another key member of the JA signaling pathway. This suggests that the expression of OsCHX14 is regulated by the JA signaling pathway. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCHX14 protein was preferentially localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis of transgenic rice revealed that OsCHX14 is mainly expressed in lodicules and the region close by throughout the flowering process. Characterization in yeast and Xenopus laevis oocytes verified that OsCHX14 is able to transport K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) in vivo. Our data suggest that OsCHX14 may play an important role in K(+) homeostasis during flowering in rice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Functional analysis of the rice vacuolar zinc transporter OsMTP1

    PubMed Central

    Menguer, Paloma K.; Farthing, Emily; Peaston, Kerry A.; Ricachenevsky, Felipe Klein; Fett, Janette Palma; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal homeostasis is maintained in plant cells by specialized transporters which compartmentalize or efflux metal ions, maintaining cytosolic concentrations within a narrow range. OsMTP1 is a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF)/metal tolerance protein (MTP) family of metal cation transporters in Oryza sativa, which is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1. Functional complementation of the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant mtp1-1 demonstrates that OsMTP1 transports Zn in planta and localizes at the tonoplast. When heterologously expressed in the yeast mutant zrc1 cot1, OsMTP1 complemented its Zn hypersensitivity and was also localized to the vacuole. OsMTP1 alleviated, to some extent, the Co sensitivity of this mutant, rescued the Fe hypersensitivity of the ccc1 mutant at low Fe concentrations, and restored growth of the Cd-hypersensitive mutant ycf1 at low Cd concentrations. These results suggest that OsMTP1 transports Zn but also Co, Fe, and Cd, possibly with lower affinity. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed two substitutions in OsMTP1 that alter the transport function of this protein. OsMTP1 harbouring a substitution of Leu82 to a phenylalanine can still transport low levels of Zn, with an enhanced affinity for Fe and Co, and a gain of function for Mn. A substitution of His90 with an aspartic acid completely abolishes Zn transport but improves Fe transport in OsMTP1. These amino acid residues are important in determining substrate specificity and may be a starting point for refining transporter activity in possible biotechnological applications, such as biofortification and phytoremediation. PMID:23761487

  7. A rice ABC transporter, OsABCC1, reduces arsenic accumulation in the grain

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Yong; Yamaki, Tomohiro; Yamaji, Naoki; Ko, Donghwi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; An, Gynheung; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a chronic poison that causes severe skin lesions and cancer. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major dietary source of As; therefore, reducing As accumulation in the rice grain and thereby diminishing the amount of As that enters the food chain is of critical importance. Here, we report that a member of the Oryza sativa C-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (OsABCC) family, OsABCC1, is involved in the detoxification and reduction of As in rice grains. We found that OsABCC1 was expressed in many organs, including the roots, leaves, nodes, peduncle, and rachis. Expression was not affected when plants were exposed to low levels of As but was up-regulated in response to high levels of As. In both the basal nodes and upper nodes, which are connected to the panicle, OsABCC1 was localized to the phloem region of vascular bundles. Furthermore, OsABCC1 was localized to the tonoplast and conferred phytochelatin-dependent As resistance in yeast. Knockout of OsABCC1 in rice resulted in decreased tolerance to As, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. At the reproductive growth stage, the As content was higher in the nodes and in other tissues of wild-type rice than in those of OsABCC1 knockout mutants, but was significantly lower in the grain. Taken together, our results indicate that OsABCC1 limits As transport to the grains by sequestering As in the vacuoles of the phloem companion cells of the nodes in rice. PMID:25331872

  8. OsHV-1 countermeasures to the Pacific oyster's anti-viral response.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Rolland, Jean-Luc; Vergnes, Agnes; Raftos, David; Montagnani, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    The host-pathogen interactions between the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) are poorly characterised. Herpesviruses are a group of large, DNA viruses that are known to encode gene products that subvert their host's antiviral response. It is likely that OsHV-1 has also evolved similar strategies as its genome encodes genes with high homology to C. gigas inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) and an interferon-stimulated gene (termed CH25H). The first objective of this study was to simultaneously investigate the expression of C. gigas and OsHV-1 genes that share high sequence homology during an acute infection. Comparison of apoptosis-related genes revealed that components of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway (TNF) were induced in response to OsHV-1 infection, but we failed to observe evidence of apoptosis using a combination of biochemical and molecular assays. IAPs encoded by OsHV-1 were highly expressed during the acute stage of infection and may explain why we didn't observe evidence of apoptosis. However, C. gigas must have an alternative mechanism to apoptosis for clearing OsHV-1 from infected gill cells as we observed a reduction in viral DNA between 27 and 54 h post-infection. The reduction of viral DNA in C. gigas gill cells occurred after the up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes (viperin, PKR, ADAR). In a second objective, we manipulated the host's anti-viral response by injecting C. gigas with a small dose of poly I:C at the time of OsHV-1 infection. This small dose of poly I:C was unable to induce transcription of known antiviral effectors (ISGs), but these oysters were still capable of inhibiting OsHV-1 replication. This result suggests dsRNA induces an anti-viral response that is additional to the IFN-like pathway.

  9. The BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide: Copper deficiency and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Berthebaud, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Lebedev, O.I.

    2016-05-15

    An oxysulfide series of nominal compositions BiCu{sub 1−x}OS with x<0.20 has been prepared and its structural properties characterized by combining powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is found that this oxysulfide, crystallizing in the P4/nmm space group, tends to adopt a constant amount of copper vacancy corresponding to x=0.05 in the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS formula. The presence of Cu vacancies is confirmed by HAADF-STEM analysis showing, in the Cu atomic columns, alternating peaks of different intensities in some very localized regions. For larger Cu deficiencies (x>0.05 in the nominal composition), other types of structural nanodefects are evidenced such as bismuth oxysulfides of the “BiOS” ternary system which might explain the report of superconductivity for the BiCu{sub 1−x}OS oxysulfide. Local epitaxial growth of the BiCuOS oxysulfide on top of CuO is also observed. In marked contrast to the BiCu{sub 1−x}OSe oxyselenide, these results give an explanation to the limited impact of Cu deficiency on the Seebeck coefficient in BiCu{sub 1−x}OS compounds. - Graphical abstract: High resolution TEM image showing a Bi(Cu)OS/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S interface and corresponding dislocation region. The Bi(Cu)OS structure adopts a rather constant Cu content (near 0.95); starting from BiCuOS leads to the formation of defects such as the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}S oxysulfide.

  10. Re-Os isotopic evidence for Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley block, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stuart; Lambert, David D.; Shee, Simon R.; Smith, Chris B.; Reeves, Shane

    1999-05-01

    We report Sm-Nd and the first Re-Os isotopic data as well as platinum-group element concentrations for two of the highest-grade diamond deposits in the Kimberley block of Western Australia. Whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 1200 Ma Argyle olivine lamproite and an Argyle peridotite xenolith yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.2 to -6.0) and depleted mantle model ages of 1750 to 2000 Ma. These data indicate that shallow-mantle light rare earth element enrichment of the Argyle lamproite source probably occurred during the Proterozoic Hooper orogeny. Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 800 Ma Seppelt kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial isotopic composition (ɛNd = +1.8) and a TDM model age of 1200 Ma, isotopic features consistent with worldwide group I kimberlite occurrences. Re-Os isotopic data yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions for the Argyle lamproite and peridotite xenoliths (γOs = -2 to -6) and Seppelt kimberlite and kimberlitic chromites (γOs = -7 to -8), whereas data for a picroilmenite megacryst from the 800 Ma Maude Creek kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial Os isotopic composition (γOs = +27). Our modeling suggests that the Os isotopic composition of the Argyle lamproite and peridotites may be explained as mixtures of a ca. 3000 Ma refractory mantle component (as represented by the kimberlitic chromites) and a ca. 1500 Ma enriched-mantle component (as represented by the picroilmenite megacryst). The xenoliths and chromites yield an imprecise Re-Os isochron age of 3400 Ma, giving a strong indication that the Kimberley block is underlain by Archean continental lithospheric mantle and that this mantle was largely unaffected during Early Proterozoic orogenesis.

  11. Physiological mechanisms underlying OsNAC5-dependent tolerance of rice plants to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Shi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Chen, Jie; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2011-08-01

    To understand the functions of transcription factor OsNAC5 in response to abiotic stress, we generated transgenic rice plants with knockdown OsNAC5 by RNA-interfered (RNAi) and overexpressing OsNAC5, and investigated the effects of cold, drought and salt stress on wild-type (WT), RNAi and overexpression rice lines. Our results demonstrated that RNAi lines became less tolerant to these stresses than WT plants, while overexpression of OsNAC5 in Arabidopsis and rice enhanced tolerance to these stresses. The mechanisms underlying the changes in tolerance of the transgenic rice plants to abiotic stresses were explored by measuring free proline (Pro) and soluble sugar contents in WT and transgenic plants. Accumulation of Pro and soluble sugars was positively correlated with OsNAC5 expression levels. The less accumulation of Pro in RNAi lines may be accounted for by inhibition of Pro synthesis and transport at transcriptional levels. In addition, knockdown and overexpression of OsNAC5 enhanced and reduced accumulation of malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2), suggesting that knockdown of OsNAC5 renders RNAi plants more susceptible to oxidative damage. The RNAi lines displayed higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio due to greater accumulation of Na(+) ions than WT under salt stress conditions, and expression of genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter was lower in RNAi lines than in WT under both control and salt-stressed conditions. Seed germination of RNAi and overexpression plants was more and less inhibited by salt and mannitol than that of WT, respectively. Seed germination of overexpression and RNAi plants was more and less sensitive than that of WT to ABA. These findings highlight the important role of OsNAC5 played in the tolerance of rice plants to abiotic stress by regulating downstream targets associated with accumulation of compatible solutes, Na(+) ions, H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde.

  12. A rice ABC transporter, OsABCC1, reduces arsenic accumulation in the grain.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Yong; Yamaki, Tomohiro; Yamaji, Naoki; Ko, Donghwi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Fujii-Kashino, Miho; An, Gynheung; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-11-04

    Arsenic (As) is a chronic poison that causes severe skin lesions and cancer. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major dietary source of As; therefore, reducing As accumulation in the rice grain and thereby diminishing the amount of As that enters the food chain is of critical importance. Here, we report that a member of the Oryza sativa C-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (OsABCC) family, OsABCC1, is involved in the detoxification and reduction of As in rice grains. We found that OsABCC1 was expressed in many organs, including the roots, leaves, nodes, peduncle, and rachis. Expression was not affected when plants were exposed to low levels of As but was up-regulated in response to high levels of As. In both the basal nodes and upper nodes, which are connected to the panicle, OsABCC1 was localized to the phloem region of vascular bundles. Furthermore, OsABCC1 was localized to the tonoplast and conferred phytochelatin-dependent As resistance in yeast. Knockout of OsABCC1 in rice resulted in decreased tolerance to As, but did not affect cadmium toxicity. At the reproductive growth stage, the As content was higher in the nodes and in other tissues of wild-type rice than in those of OsABCC1 knockout mutants, but was significantly lower in the grain. Taken together, our results indicate that OsABCC1 limits As transport to the grains by sequestering As in the vacuoles of the phloem companion cells of the nodes in rice.

  13. The Os isotopic variation of abyssal peridotites revised: A study from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchl, A.; Snow, J. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is generally thought that the Os isotopic variation of abyssal peridotites (187Os/188Os varies from 0.120 to 0.129 after [1,2,3,4]) only exceeds the chondritic value of 0.127 [5] because of secondary alteration by seawater. In contrast supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios in peridotites from ophiolites [6] and xenoliths from a subduction zone setting [7] have been ascribed to exchange of Os with radiogenic melts. We analysed the Os isotopic composition of 16 peridotites from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge. The samples are unusually fresh for abyssal peridotites. The Os isotopic composition varies from 0.1208 to 0.1344 in the spinel-lherzolites, from 0.1176 to 0.1360 in the harzburgites and from 0.1325 to 0.1400 in the dunites. The reason for the supra-chondritic Os isotopic ratios could be (a) secondary alteration by seawater, (b) radiogenic ingrowth due to the decay of Re to Os, or (c) exchange with a radiogenic magmatic component. The fact that the degree of alteration does not correlate with Os isotopic composition, together with the high Os concentration in the peridotites compared with seawater, implies that the supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios cannot be explained by secondary alteration processes. The similar and low Re and high Os concentrations in all samples rule out the ingrowth of 187Os as source for the supra-chondritic values. World-wide volcanic rocks mostly have supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios. In addition it was shown recently that during melt percolation the peridotites can inherit the signature of percolating melts [6]. This suggests that the supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios are due to the exchange with a magmatic component. This is supported by the observation that the dunites, which are expected to have the highest melt/rock ratio of all lithologies, have the most radiogenic signatures. We therefore suggest that the 187Os/188Os variation of abyssal peridotites is much larger than previously considered. However the origin of

  14. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  15. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: Insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-08-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re-Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re-Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma - all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re-Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a,b; Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re-Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer are mimicking the natural system. This

  16. OsSpo11-4, a rice homologue of the archaeal TopVIA protein, mediates double-strand DNA cleavage and interacts with OsTopVIB.

    PubMed

    An, Xiao Jing; Deng, Zhu Yun; Wang, Tai

    2011-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase VI from Archaea, a heterotetrameric complex composed of two TopVIA and two TopVIB subunits, is involved in altering DNA topology during replication, transcription and chromosome segregation by catalyzing DNA strand transfer through transient double-strand breaks. The sequenced yeast and animal genomes encode only one homologue of the archaeal TopVIA subunit, namely Spo11, and no homologue of the archaeal TopVIB subunit. In yeast, Spo11 is essential for initiating meiotic recombination and this function appears conserved among other eukaryotes. In contrast to yeast and animals, studies in Arabidopsis and rice have identified three Spo11/TopVIA homologues and one TopVIB homologue in plants. Here, we further identified two novel Spo11/TopVIA homologues (named OsSpo11-4 and OsSpo11-5, respectively) that exist just in the monocot model plant Oryza sativa, indicating that at least five Spo11/TopVIA homologues are present in the rice genome. To reveal the biochemical function of the two novel Spo11/TopVIA homologues, we first examined the interactions among OsSpo11-1, OsSpo11-4, OsSpo11-5, and OsTopVIB by yeast two-hybrid assay. The results showed that OsSpo11-4 and OsTopVIB can self-interact strongly and among the 3 examined OsSpo11 proteins, only OsSpo11-4 interacted with OsTopVIB. Pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between OsSpo11-4 and OsTopVIB, which indicates that OsSpo11-4 may interact with OsTopVIB in vivo. Further in vitro enzymatic analysis revealed that among the above 4 proteins, only OsSpo11-4 exhibited double-strand DNA cleavage activity and its enzymatic activity appears dependent on Mg(2+) and independent of OsTopVIB, despite its interaction with OsTopVIB. We further analyzed the biological function of OsSpo11-4 by RNA interference and found that down-regulated expression of OsSpo11-4 led to defects in male meiosis, indicating OsSpo11-4 is required for meiosis.

  17. Probing the links between structure and magnetism in Sr(2-x)Ca(x)FeOsO₆ double perovskites.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Ryan; Freeland, John W; Woodward, Patrick M

    2014-08-04

    The synthesis, structure, and properties of the ordered double perovskites Sr2FeOsO6, Ca2FeOsO6, and SrCaFeOsO6 are reported. The latter two compounds have monoclinic P2₁/n symmetry and a(-)a(-)b(+) tilting of the octahedra, while Sr2FeOsO6 is tetragonal with I4/m symmetry and a(0)a(0)c(-) tilting. Magnetic measurements indicate and neutron powder diffraction studies confirm that Ca2FeOsO6 is a ferrimagnet with a Curie temperature of 350 K. The ferrimagnetism is retained if half of the Ca(2+) ions are replaced with larger Sr(2+) ions to form SrCaFeOsO6 (T(C) = 210 K). This substitution reduces the degree of octahedral tilting, but unlike most perovskites, the magnetic ordering temperature decreases as the Fe-O-Os bond angles approach a linear geometry. In contrast, Sr2FeOsO6 orders antiferromagnetically, as previously reported. X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms the assignment of Fe(III) and Os(V) oxidation states for all three compounds. In these insulating double perovskites, the magnetic ground state is governed by a competition between the four-bond Fe-O-Os-O-Fe antiferromagnetic superexchange coupling of Fe(III) ions and the two-bond Fe-O-Os antiferromagnetic superexchange coupling between neighboring Fe(III) and Os(V) ions. When the Fe-O-Os bonds are linear, as they are in the c direction in Sr2FeOsO6, the four-bond coupling between Fe(III) ions prevails. The competition shifts in favor of antiferromagnetic coupling of Fe(III) and Os(V) as the Fe-O-Os bond angles bend in response to chemical pressure.

  18. Overexpression of OsSWEET5 in Rice Causes Growth Retardation and Precocious Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Liu, Li; Huang, Weifeng; Yuan, Meng; Zhou, Fei; Li, Xianghua; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    As a novel sugar transporter family, SWEETs play important roles in plant growth and development. Here, we characterized a SWEET gene named OsSWEET5 through its overexpression in rice. Heterologous expression assay indicated that OsSWEET5 encoded a galactose transporter in yeast. OsSWEET5-overexpressing plants displayed the phenotypes of growth retardation and precocious senescence at seedling stage. GC-MS analysis showed that the sugar levels were largely altered in the leaves of the OsSWEET5-overexpressing plants. Molecular analysis revealed that these phenotypes might be due to the transcriptional changes of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport. In addition, the transgenic plants showed a lower level of auxin with altered transcription of genes involved in auxin signaling and translocation pathways. However, no obvious phenotype was observed between the amiRNA-OsSWEET5 transgenic lines and WT plants, which could be a result of the functional redundancy of the galactose transporters in rice. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsSWEET5 plays a crucial role in regulating the crosstalk between sugar and auxin in rice. PMID:24709840

  19. CrxOS maintains the self-renewal capacity of murine embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko; Wu, Jinzhan; Kajiho, Hiroaki; Yokoi, Tadashi; Noda, Eiichiro; Nishina, Sachiko; Niwa, Hitoshi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Katada, Toshiaki; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.

  20. Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Galimberti, Roberto; Nali, Micaela; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Re-Os geochronology of oil may constrain the timing of oil formation and improve oil-source and oil-oil correlations. Typically, asphaltene (ASPH), the heaviest and most Re-Os rich oil fraction, from multiple oils within an oil field or a larger petroleum system are analyzed to obtain sufficient spread in Re-Os isotopic ratios, a mathematical necessity for precise Re-Os isochrons. Here we offer a new approach for Re-Os geochronology of oil based on isotopic analyses of different fractions within a single sample of crude oil. We studied three oils from the Gela oil field, southern Sicily, Italy, recovered from Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphic intervals (Streppenosa, Noto, and Sciacca Formations) within the Gela-1 well. ASPH (insoluble in n-alkane) and maltene (MALT, soluble in n-alkane) fractions of oil were separated using n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-decane solvents. The ASPH contents of the Sciacca and Noto oils (26-33 wt%) are notably higher compared to the Streppenosa oil (7-12 wt% ASPH). We present an optimized Re-Os procedure with sample digestion in a high-pressure asher, followed by isotopic measurements using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Very high metal contents of Gela oils allowed acquisition of precise Re-Os data. Systematic variations between the type of solvent used for ASPH precipitation and the ASPH content of the oil (also known from the literature) and the Re-Os contents of the ASPH and MALT fractions (first observed in this study) provide important practical applications for Re-Os analyses of oil. Most Re and Os (∼96-98%) in the Noto oil are hosted in the ASPH fraction. In contrast, a significant portion of Re and Os (∼33-34%) is stored in the MALT fraction of the lighter, but heavily biodegraded Streppenosa oil. Collectively, our new data on alkane distribution, hopane and sterane biomarkers, major and trace element contents, and Re-Os concentrations and isotopic ratios of the oils and their fractions support the

  1. Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Pt, Re, and Os: The Effect of Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabot, N. L.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2004-01-01

    If the measured Os isotopic ratios are a signature from the Earth's outer core, understanding them is a unique opportunity to understand more about the Earth's core. The distribution of elements between the Earth's solid inner core and the liquid outer core will depend on their solid metal-liquid metal partition coefficients (D). Solid metal-liquid metal partitioning data are loosely consistent with the needed fractionations between Re-Os and Pt-Os to account for the Os isotopic signature; D(Os) is greater than both D(Re) and D(Pt), and the magnitude of the partition coefficients are similar to those needed [e.g. 7, 8]. The pressure in the core, the composition of the core, and the crystal structure of the solid Fe alloy in the inner core may influence the specific values of the partition coefficients. It may thus be possible to use these sensitivities of the partition coefficients to gain insight into the conditions within the Earth's core. In this abstract, we focus on the compositional influence of C, a potential component of the light element in the Earth's core [9], on the partitioning behaviors of Pt, Re, and Os.

  2. A rice tonoplastic calcium exchanger, OsCCX2 mediates Ca2+/cation transport in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Akhilesh K.; Shankar, Alka; Jha, Saroj K.; Kanwar, Poonam; Pandey, Amita; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2015-01-01

    In plant cell, cations gradient in cellular compartments is maintained by synergistic action of various exchangers, pumps and channels. The Arabidopsis exchanger family members (AtCCX3 and AtCCX5) were previously studied and belong to CaCA (calcium cation exchangers) superfamily while none of the rice CCXs has been functionally characterized for their cation transport activities till date. Rice genome encode four CCXs and only OsCCX2 transcript showed differential expression under abiotic stresses and Ca2+ starvation conditions. The OsCCX2 localized to tonoplast and suppresses the Ca2+ sensitivity of K667 (low affinity Ca2+ uptake deficient) yeast mutant under excess CaCl2 conditions. In contrast to AtCCXs, OsCCX2 expressing K667 yeast cells show tolerance towards excess Na+, Li+, Fe2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ and suggest its ability to transport both mono as well as divalent cations in yeast. Additionally, in contrast to previously characterized AtCCXs, OsCCX2 is unable to complement yeast trk1trk2 double mutant suggesting inability to transport K+ in yeast system. These finding suggest that OsCCX2 having distinct metal transport properties than previously characterized plant CCXs. OsCCX2 can be used as potential candidate for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance in plants as well as for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soil. PMID:26607171

  3. 32 CFR 1630.17 - Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all military service (separated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.17 Class 1-O-S: Conscientious... and noncombatant training and service in the Armed Forces shall be classified in Class 1-O-S...

  4. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9}: The first osmium perovskites containing alkali cations at the 'A' site

    SciTech Connect

    Mogare, Kailash M.; Klein, Wilhelm; Jansen, Martin

    2012-07-15

    K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} were obtained from solid-state reactions of potassium superoxide, sodium peroxide and osmium metal at elevated oxygen pressures. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} crystallizes as an oxygen-deficient cubic double perovskite in space group Fm3{sup Macron }m with a=8.4184(5) A and contains isolated OsO{sub 6} octahedra. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallizes hexagonally in P6{sub 3}/mmc with a=5.9998(4) A and c=14.3053(14) A. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} consists of face sharing Os{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs of octahedra. According to magnetic measurements K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} is diamagnetic, whereas K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays strong antiferromagnetic coupling (T{sub N}=140 K), indicating enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair. - Graphical abstract: High oxidation states of Os, obtained by high oxygen pressure synthesis, are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New osmates containing highly oxidized Os were obtained by high O{sub 2} pressure synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High oxidation states of Os are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds represent the first Os perovskites with an alkali metal at the A site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair.

  5. CONSTANS-Like 9 (OsCOL9) Interacts with Receptor for Activated C-Kinase 1(OsRACK1) to Regulate Blast Resistance through Salicylic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Dong, Shuangyu; Sun, Dayuan; Liu, Wei; Gu, Fengwei; Liu, Yongzhu; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jiafeng; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptome analysis of early response genes in rice during Magnaporthe oryzae infection, we identified a CONSTANS-like (COL) gene OsCOL9. In the present study, we investigated the functional roles of OsCOL9 in blast resistance. OsCOL9 belonged to group II of the COL protein family, and it contained a BB-box and a C-terminal CCT (CONSTANS, COL and TOC1) domain. OsCOL9 was found in the nucleus of rice cells, and it exerted transcriptional activation activities through its middle region (MR). Magnaporthe oryzae infection induced OsCOL9 expression, and transgenic OsCOL9 knock-out rice plants showed increased pathogen susceptibility. OsCOL9 was a critical regulator of pathogen-related genes, especially PR1b, which were also activated by exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene (ET). Further analysis indicated that OsCOL9 over-expression increased the expressions of phytohormone biosynthetic genes, NPR1, WRKY45, OsACO1 and OsACS1, which were related to SA and ET biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that OsCOL9 physically interacted with the scaffold protein OsRACK1 through its CCT domain, and the OsRACK1 expression was induced in response to exogenous SA and ACC as well as M. oryzae infection. Taken together, these results indicated that the COL protein OsCOL9 interacted with OsRACK1, and it enhanced the rice blast resistance through SA and ET signaling pathways.

  6. CONSTANS-Like 9 (OsCOL9) Interacts with Receptor for Activated C-Kinase 1(OsRACK1) to Regulate Blast Resistance through Salicylic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuangyu; Sun, Dayuan; Liu, Wei; Gu, Fengwei; Liu, Yongzhu; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jiafeng; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptome analysis of early response genes in rice during Magnaporthe oryzae infection, we identified a CONSTANS-like (COL) gene OsCOL9. In the present study, we investigated the functional roles of OsCOL9 in blast resistance. OsCOL9 belonged to group II of the COL protein family, and it contained a BB-box and a C-terminal CCT (CONSTANS, COL and TOC1) domain. OsCOL9 was found in the nucleus of rice cells, and it exerted transcriptional activation activities through its middle region (MR). Magnaporthe oryzae infection induced OsCOL9 expression, and transgenic OsCOL9 knock-out rice plants showed increased pathogen susceptibility. OsCOL9 was a critical regulator of pathogen-related genes, especially PR1b, which were also activated by exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene (ET). Further analysis indicated that OsCOL9 over-expression increased the expressions of phytohormone biosynthetic genes, NPR1, WRKY45, OsACO1 and OsACS1, which were related to SA and ET biosynthesis. Interestingly, we found that OsCOL9 physically interacted with the scaffold protein OsRACK1 through its CCT domain, and the OsRACK1 expression was induced in response to exogenous SA and ACC as well as M. oryzae infection. Taken together, these results indicated that the COL protein OsCOL9 interacted with OsRACK1, and it enhanced the rice blast resistance through SA and ET signaling pathways. PMID:27829023

  7. Quantifying Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) genome copies and expression during transmission.

    PubMed

    Burge, Colleen A; Friedman, Carolyn S

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the pathogenic potential of a new pathogen strain or a known pathogen in a new locale is crucial for management of disease in both wild and farmed animals. The Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1), a known pathogen of early-life-stage Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, has been associated with mortalities of juvenile oysters in many locations around the world including Tomales Bay, California. In two trials, the California OsHV-1 strain was transmitted from infected juvenile C. gigas to naïve C. gigas larvae. Survival of control larvae was high throughout both trials (97-100%) and low among those exposed to OsHV-1. No OsHV-1-exposed larvae survived to day 9 in trial 1, while trial 2 was terminated at day 7 when survival was 36.90 ± 8.66%. To assess the amount of OsHV-1 DNA present, we employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays based on the A fragment and OsHV-1 catalytic subunit of a DNA polymerase δ (DNA pol) gene. Viral genome copy numbers based on qPCR assays peaked between 3 and 5 days. To measure the presence of viable and actively transcribing virus, the DNA pol gene qPCR assay was optimized for RNA analysis after being reverse transcribed (RT-qPCR). A decline in virus gene expression was measured using RT-qPCR: relative to earlier experimental time points copy numbers were significantly lower on day 9, trial 1 (p < 0.05) and day 7, trial 2 (p < 0.05). Peaks in copies of active virus per genome occurred during two periods in trial 1 (days 1 and 5/7, p < 0.05) and one period in trial 2 (day 1, p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed OsHV-1 infection; herpesvirus-like nucleocapsids, capsids, and extracellular particles were visualized. We demonstrated the ability to transmit OsHV-1 from infected juvenile oysters to naïve larvae, which indicates the spread of OsHV-1 between infected hosts in the field and between commercial farms is possible. We also developed an important tool (OsHV-1-specific RT-qPCR for an active

  8. Meteorite - Impact Melt Mixing: PGE and Re-Os Evidence from the Morokweng Impact, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, R.; Andreoli, M.; Cloete, M.; McDonald, I.; Carlson, R. W.; Tredoux, M.

    2001-12-01

    Preserved within the 870m thick impact melt sheet of the 144 Ma Morokweng impact structure, South Africa (1,2) are small (mm-cm) inclusions that are interpreted to be remnants of the impactor. Inclusions are disseminated throughout the melt sheet and consist of ultramafic silicate clasts with segregations of Ni-rich sulfides and oxides. The silicate component in the inclusions displays remnant fabric and, where unaltered, has mineral compositions consistent with ordinary chondrites (3). The sulfide-oxide component of the inclusions is Ni-rich, has high PGE contents (Ir = 16.7 x chondrite) and fractionated PGE ratios compared to chondrites and to the bulk impact melt which reflects the signature of the ordinary chondrite impactor (4). Specifically, the oxides show depletion in Pd, while the sulfide is slightly enriched in Rh and Pt and strongly enriched in Pd relative to Ir and Ru. Significantly, Ru and Ir (the high temperature PGE's) are not fractionated from one another. Initial Os isotopic compositions of the inclusion sulfides and oxides (0.1335 - 0.1358) are slightly more radiogenic than found in the melt rock (0.1301 - 0.1324), but both are substantially less radiogenic than a sample of the basement granite (0.259). The 1/Os vs 187Os/188Os correlation displayed by the bulk melt rocks is consistent with the presence of 1-3 wt% chondritic impactor in the crustal melt. The more radiogenic Os found in the inclusion minerals indicates that the inclusions contain a larger crustal PGE component than the melt rock. Though Os concentration is well correlated with Os isotopic composition in the melt rock, Re concentration is not. Thus, simple binary mixing between crustal melt and meteorite cannot explain the Re-Os systematics. The Re-Os and PGE fractionation observed in inclusion minerals suggests that meteorite-impact melt mixing occurred first through chemical exchange between oxidized melt and reduced, metal or sulfur-rich, impactor. Lithophile elements (e.g. Fe

  9. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. I. Measurement of the (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    The precise determination of the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os and {sup 187}Os is important to define the s-process abundance of {sup 187}Os at the formation of the solar system. This quantity can be used to evaluate the radiogenic component of the abundance of {sup 187}Os due to the decay of the unstable {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) and from this to infer the time duration of the nucleosynthesis in our galaxy (Re/Os cosmochronometer). The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility from 1 eV to 1 MeV, covering the entire energy range of astrophysical interest. The measurement has been performed by time-of-flight technique using isotopically enriched samples and two C{sub 6}D{sub 6} scintillation detectors for recording the prompt gamma rays emitted in the capture events. Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections have been determined for thermal energies between kT=5 and 100 keV corresponding to all possible s-process scenarios. The estimated uncertainties for the values at 30 keV are 4.1, 3.3, and 4.7% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively.

  10. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. I. Measurement of the (n,γ) cross sections of Os186,187,188 at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosconi, M.; Fujii, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Käppeler, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-07-01

    The precise determination of the neutron capture cross sections of Os186 and Os187 is important to define the s-process abundance of Os187 at the formation of the solar system. This quantity can be used to evaluate the radiogenic component of the abundance of Os187 due to the decay of the unstable Re187 (t1/2=41.2 Gyr) and from this to infer the time duration of the nucleosynthesis in our galaxy (Re/Os cosmochronometer). The neutron capture cross sections of Os186, Os187, and Os188 have been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility from 1 eV to 1 MeV, covering the entire energy range of astrophysical interest. The measurement has been performed by time-of-flight technique using isotopically enriched samples and two C6D6 scintillation detectors for recording the prompt γ rays emitted in the capture events. Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections have been determined for thermal energies between kT=5 and 100 keV corresponding to all possible s-process scenarios. The estimated uncertainties for the values at 30 keV are 4.1, 3.3, and 4.7% for Os186, Os187, and Os188, respectively.

  11. The F-Box Protein OsFBK12 Targets OsSAMS1 for Degradation and Affects Pleiotropic Phenotypes, Including Leaf Senescence, in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Wenxuan; Chen, Na; Zhang, Dajian; Chong, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence is related to the grain-filling rate and grain weight in cereals. Many components involved in senescence regulation at either the genetic or physiological level are known. However, less is known about molecular regulation mechanisms. Here, we report that OsFBK12 (an F-box protein containing a Kelch repeat motif) interacts with S-ADENOSYL-l-METHIONINE SYNTHETASE1 (SAMS1) to regulate leaf senescence and seed size as well as grain number in rice (Oryza sativa). Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicate that OsFBK12 interacts with Oryza sativa S-PHASE KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1-LIKE PROTEIN and with OsSAMS1. Biochemical and physiological data showed that OsFBK12 targets OsSAMS1 for degradation. OsFBK12-RNA interference lines and OsSAMS1 overexpression lines showed increased ethylene levels, while OsFBK12-OX lines and OsSAMS1-RNA interference plants exhibited decreased ethylene. Phenotypically, overexpression of OsFBK12 led to a delay in leaf senescence and germination and increased seed size, whereas knockdown lines of either OsFBK12 or OsSAMS1 promoted the senescence program. Our results suggest that OsFBK12 is involved in the 26S proteasome pathway by interacting with Oryza sativa S-PHASE KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1-LIKE PROTEIN and that it targets the substrate OsSAMS1 for degradation, triggering changes in ethylene levels for the regulation of leaf senescence and grain size. These data have potential applications in the molecular breeding of rice. PMID:24144792

  12. Knock-down of OsDCL2 in rice negatively affects maintenance of the endogenous dsRNA virus, Oryza sativa endornavirus.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Syunichi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Aoki, Nanako; Nakazawa, Yukihiro; Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Miki, Daisuke; Shimamoto, Ko; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    An endogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which has recently been recognized as the dsRNA virus Oryza sativa endornavirus (OsEV), is found in many strains of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Small RNAs derived from OsEV dsRNA were detected, indicating that the RNA silencing machinery recognizes OsEV dsRNA. The existence of OsEV in knock-down (KD) lines of five genes of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (OsRDR1-OsRDR5) or two genes of Dicer-like protein (OsDCL2 or OsDCL3a) was examined to characterize the relationship between the host RNA silencing system and the propagation of this dsRNA virus. OsEV was not detected in OsRDR4-KD or OsDCL2-KD T(1) lines. We attempted to introduce OsEV into these KD lines by crossing them with OsEV-carrying plants because of the efficient transmission of OsEV to F(1) plants via pollen or ova. All OsRDR4-KD but only some OsDCL2-KD F(1) plants contained OsEV. Some OsDCL2-KD F(1) plants consisted of OsEV-carrying and OsEV-free cells. These results suggest that the maintenance of OsEV is unstable in OsDCL2-KD plants. Furthermore, the amount of OsEV-derived small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) in the OsDCL2-KD plants increased relative to the wild type. This increased level of vsiRNA may cause OsEV instability during cell division.

  13. Constraints on mantle evolution from 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions of Archean ultramafic rocks from southern West Greenland (3.8 Ga) and Western Australia (3.46 Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Victoria C.; Nutman, Allen P.; Esat, Tezer M.

    2002-07-01

    Initial 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions for geochronologically and geologically well -constrained 3.8-Ga spinel peridotites from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex of southern West Greenland and chromite separates from 3.46-Ga komatiites from the Pilbara region of Western Australia have been determined to investigate the osmium isotopic evolution of the early terrestrial mantle. The measured compositions of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.10262 ± 2, from an olivine separate, and 0.10329 ± 3, for a spinel separate from ˜3.8-Ga peridotite G93/42, are the lowest yet reported from any terrestrial sample. The corrections for in situ decay over 3.8 Ga for these low Re/Os phases are minimal and change the isotopic compositions by only 0.5 and 2.2% for the spinel and the olivine, respectively, resulting in 187Os/ 188Os (3.8 Ga) = 0.1021 ± 0.0002 and 0.1009 ± 0.0002, respectively. These data extend direct measurement of Os isotopic compositions to much earlier periods of Earth history than previously documented and provide the best constraints on the Os isotopic composition of the early Archean terrestrial mantle. Analyses of Pilbara chromites yield 3.46-Ga mantle compositions of 0.1042 ± 0.0002 and 0.1051 ± 0.0002. These new data, combined with published initial Os isotopic compositions from late Archean and early Proterozoic samples, are compatible with the mantle, or at least portions of it, evolving from a solar system initially defined by meteorites to a modern composition of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.1296 ± 0.0008 as previously suggested from peridotite xenolith data ( Meisel et al., 2001); the associated 187Re/ 188Os(0) = 0.435 ± 0.005. Thus, chondritic 187Os/ 188Os compositions were a feature of the upper mantle for at least 3.8 billion years, requiring chondritic Re/Os ratios to have been a characteristic of the very early terrestrial mantle. In contrast, nonchondritic initial compositions of some Archean komatiites demonstrate that Os isotopic heterogeneity is an ancient feature

  14. Both OsRecQ1 and OsRDR1 Are Required for the Production of Small RNA in Response to DNA-Damage in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Kobayashi, Kappei; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi

    2013-01-01

    Small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways play important roles in the regulation of development, genome stability and various stress responses in many eukaryotes. Recently, a new type of small interfering RNAs (qiRNAs) approximately 20–21 nucleotides long in Neurospora crassa have been shown to mediate gene silencing in the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. However, the mechanism for RNA silencing in the DDR pathway is largely unknown in plants. Here, we report that a class of small RNAs (qiRNAs) derived from rDNA was markedly induced after treatment by DNA-damaging agents [ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS and UV-C)], and that aberrant RNAs (aRNAs) as precursors were also highly induced after the DNA damage treatment in rice. However, these RNAs were completely abolished in OsRecQ1 (RecQ DNA helicase homologue) and OsRDR1 (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase homologue) mutant lines where either gene was disrupted by the insertion of rice retrotransposon Tos17 after the same treatment. DNA damage resulted in a more significant increase in cell death and a more severe inhibition of root growth in both mutant lines than in the WT. Together, these results strongly suggest that both OsRecQ1 and OsRDR1 play a pivotal role in the aRNA and qiRNA biogenesis required for the DDR and repair pathway in rice, and it may be a novel mechanism of regulation to the DDR through the production of qiRNA in plants. PMID:23383126

  15. High Level Community Perspective of VxOs and Their Science Expectations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangeway, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years NASA has initiated a program to develop a set of Virtual Observatories (VxOs, where the “x” represents a discipline, such as the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory, or VMO). From a high level perspective the VxOs fulfill an important, if not essential, role in fulfilling NASA’s open data policy. VxOs are envisaged as being portals for access to many different types and sources of data, thereby removing the need for an individual to access separate data sources, with different query and data transfer mechanisms. New missions are expected to develop Project Data Management Plans that adhere to NASA’s open data policy, and the VxOs are clearly a mechanism to ensure that data are disseminated to as large a community as possible. That being said, there are some concerns. First, a mission cannot rely on a VxO being present, as a VxO’s existence depends on programmatic decisions separate from mission-specific programmatic decisions. Second, since early in a mission, much of the expertise needed to interpret the data resides within the mission science team, the VxO may not have enough resources to disseminate the necessary knowledge. Independent scientists may consequently find themselves using the primary mission data source, rather than going through the VxO. This leads to a secondary concern with VxOs, which is the need for extensive metadata to characterize and catalog the data. Early in a mission, while all parties may have the best of intentions, there will in all likelihood be insufficient time and resources to develop the necessary metadata for the VxOs. This can be partially mitigated through the adoption of an incremental approach to metadata development for the VxO. But, since many of the properties of the mission, its instruments, and the data they provide will not be fully understood until well into the mission, it is likely that VxOs will have greatest utility for mature missions. One last aspect of VxOs comes from the user

  16. Heteroleptic [Os(H)(CO)(N(∧)N)(tpp)2](+) and [Os(Cl)(CO)(N(∧)N)(tpp)2](+) complexes - comparative studies of their luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Kamecka, Anna; Suwińska, Kinga; Kapturkiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-10-19

    Two series of cationic heteroleptic osmium(ii) complexes with a coordinated CO molecule, a chloride Cl(-) or hydride H(-) anion, two monodentate triphenylphosphine (tpp) ligands and one bidentate α-dimine (N(∧)N) ligand were prepared from an OsCl2(CO)2(tpp)2 precursor. The investigated complexes, available in the form of PF6(-) salts, have been identified by means of FT-IR, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Their photophysical properties have been investigated in dichloromethane solutions at room temperature and 1 : 1 ethanol-methanol matrices at 77 K. The investigated complexes exhibit metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) phosphorescence with the emission characteristics distinctly affected by the nature of coordinated α-diimine N(∧)N and Cl(-) or H(-) ligands. Franck-Condon emission spectral band shape analyses and DFT/TD-DFT calculations have been applied to obtain more detailed insight into the nature of emissive (3)*[Os(H)(CO)(N(∧)N)(tpp)2](+) and (3)*[Os(Cl)(CO)(N(∧)N)(tpp)2](+) species.

  17. Heterologous expression of rice calnexin (OsCNX) confers drought tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Naqvi, Afsar Raza

    2013-09-01

    Calnexin (CNX) is an integral membrane protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is a critical component of ER quality control machinery. It acts as a chaperone and ensures proper folding of newly synthesised glycoproteins. CNX shares a considerable homology with its luminal counterpart calreticulin (CRT). Together, they constitute CNX/CRT cycle which is imperative for proper folding of nascent proteins. CNX deficient organisms develop severe complications because of improper folding of proteins and consequently ER stress. CNX maintains calcium homeostasis by binding to the Ca(2+) which is a central node in various signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of cytoplasmic tail of CNX controls the sarco endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and thus the movement of Ca(2+) in and out of its store-house, i.e. ER. Our studies on Oryza sativa CNX (OsCNX) reveal constitutive expression at various developmental stages and various tissues, thereby proving its requirement throughout the plant development. Further, its expression under various stress conditions gives an insight of the crosstalk existing between ER stress and abiotic stress signaling. This was confirmed by heterologous expression of OsCNX (OsCNX-HE) in tobacco and the OsCNX-HE lines were observed to exhibit better germination under mannitol stress and survival under dehydration stress conditions. The dehydration tolerance conferred by OsCNX appears to be ABA-dependent pathway.

  18. OsNRAMP5 contributes to manganese translocation and distribution in rice shoots

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lejing; Hu, Jintao; Zhang, Xing; Lu, Kai; Dong, Huaxia; Wang, Dujun; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Huang, Chao-Feng; Lian, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plants playing an important role in many physiological functions. OsNRAMP5 is a major transporter responsible for Mn and cadmium uptake in rice, but whether it is involved in the root-to-shoot translocation and distribution of these metals is unknown. In this work, OsNRAMP5 was found to be highly expressed in hulls. It was also expressed in leaves but the expression level decreased with leaf age. High-magnification observations revealed that OsNRAMP5 was enriched in the vascular bundles of roots and shoots especially in the parenchyma cells surrounding the xylem. The osnramp5 mutant accumulated significantly less Mn in shoots than the wild-type plants even at high levels of Mn supply. Furthermore, a high supply of Mn could compensate for the loss in the root uptake ability in the mutant, but not in the root-to-shoot translocation of Mn, suggesting that the absence of OsNRAMP5 reduces the transport of Mn from roots to shoots. The results suggest that OsNRAMP5 plays an important role in the translocation and distribution of Mn in rice plants in addition to its role in Mn uptake. PMID:24963001

  19. OsNRAMP5 contributes to manganese translocation and distribution in rice shoots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lejing; Hu, Jintao; Zhang, Xing; Lu, Kai; Dong, Huaxia; Wang, Dujun; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Huang, Chao-Feng; Lian, Xingming

    2014-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plants playing an important role in many physiological functions. OsNRAMP5 is a major transporter responsible for Mn and cadmium uptake in rice, but whether it is involved in the root-to-shoot translocation and distribution of these metals is unknown. In this work, OsNRAMP5 was found to be highly expressed in hulls. It was also expressed in leaves but the expression level decreased with leaf age. High-magnification observations revealed that OsNRAMP5 was enriched in the vascular bundles of roots and shoots especially in the parenchyma cells surrounding the xylem. The osnramp5 mutant accumulated significantly less Mn in shoots than the wild-type plants even at high levels of Mn supply. Furthermore, a high supply of Mn could compensate for the loss in the root uptake ability in the mutant, but not in the root-to-shoot translocation of Mn, suggesting that the absence of OsNRAMP5 reduces the transport of Mn from roots to shoots. The results suggest that OsNRAMP5 plays an important role in the translocation and distribution of Mn in rice plants in addition to its role in Mn uptake. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Oxygen interaction with hexagonal OsB2 at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Kata, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Pawel; Lis, Jerzy; Qin, Nan; T-Raissi, Ali

    2016-08-10

    The stability of ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 powder at high temperature with oxygen presence has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, EDS, and high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscopy and XRD. Results of the study revealed that OsB2 ceramics interact readily with oxygen present in reducing atmosphere, especially at high temperature and produces boric acid, which decomposes on the surface of the powder resulting in the formation of boron vacancies in the hexagonal OsB2 lattice as well as changes in the stoichiometry of the compound. It was also found that under low oxygen partial pressure, sintering of OsB2 powders occurred at a relatively low temperature (900°C). Finally, hexagonal OsB2 ceramic is prone to oxidation and it is very sensitive to oxygen partial pressures, especially at high temperatures.

  1. OsMADS26 Negatively Regulates Resistance to Pathogens and Drought Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Giang Ngan; Richaud, Frédérique; Parizot, Boris; Mai, Chung Duc; Bès, Martine; Bourrié, Isabelle; Meynard, Donaldo; Beeckman, Tom; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Manabu, Ishitani; Brugidou, Christophe; Nang Do, Vinh; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Gantet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Functional analyses of MADS-box transcription factors in plants have unraveled their role in major developmental programs (e.g. flowering and floral organ identity) as well as stress-related developmental processes, such as abscission, fruit ripening, and senescence. Overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa) MADS26 gene in rice has revealed a possible function related to stress response. Here, we show that OsMADS26-down-regulated plants exhibit enhanced resistance against two major rice pathogens: Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae. Despite this enhanced resistance to biotic stresses, OsMADS26-down-regulated plants also displayed enhanced tolerance to water deficit. These phenotypes were observed in both controlled and field conditions. Interestingly, alteration of OsMADS26 expression does not have a strong impact on plant development. Gene expression profiling revealed that a majority of genes misregulated in overexpresser and down-regulated OsMADS26 lines compared with control plants are associated to biotic or abiotic stress response. Altogether, our data indicate that OsMADS26 acts as an upstream regulator of stress-associated genes and thereby, a hub to modulate the response to various stresses in the rice plant. PMID:26424158

  2. Ectopic Expression of OsSta2 Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Juyoung; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter. The OsSta2-Ox plants were salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage, based on our calculations of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll concentrations, and survival rates. Under normal paddy field conditions, the Ox plants were somewhat shorter than the WT control but had improved agronomic traits such as higher total grain yield. They were also more tolerant to osmotic stress and hypersensitive to abscisic acid. Based on all of these results, we suggest that OsSta2 has important roles in determining yields as well as in conferring tolerance to salt stresses. PMID:28344585

  3. Oxygen interaction with hexagonal OsB2 at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Kata, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Pawel; Lis, Jerzy; Qin, Nan; T-Raissi, Ali

    2016-08-10

    The stability of ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 powder at high temperature with oxygen presence has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM, EDS, and high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscopy and XRD. Results of the study revealed that OsB2 ceramics interact readily with oxygen present in reducing atmosphere, especially at high temperature and produces boric acid, which decomposes on the surface of the powder resulting in the formation of boron vacancies in the hexagonal OsB2 lattice as well as changes in the stoichiometry of the compound. It was also found that under low oxygen partial pressure, sintering of OsB2 powders occurred at a relatively low temperature (900°C). Finally, hexagonal OsB2 ceramic is prone to oxidation and it is very sensitive to oxygen partial pressures, especially at high temperatures.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, bonding, and properties of (Ba6O)(OsN3)2.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Carsten L; Wedig, Ulrich; Dinnebier, Robert; Jansen, Martin

    2008-11-13

    The new barium nitridoosmate oxide (Ba(6)O)(OsN(3))(2) was prepared by reacting elemental barium and osmium (3:1) in nitrogen at 815-830 degrees C. The crystal structure of (Ba(6)O)(OsN(3))(2) as determined by laboratory powder X-ray diffraction (R3, No 148: a = b = 8.112(1) A, c = 17.390(1) A, V = 991.0(1) A(3), Z = 3), consists of sheets of trigonal OsN(3) units and trigonal-antiprismatic Ba(6)O groups, and is structurally related to the "313 nitrides" AE(3)MN(3) (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba, M = V-Co, Ga). Density functional calculations, using a hybrid functional, likewise indicate the existence of oxygen in the Ba(6) polyhedra. The oxidation state 4+ of osmium is confirmed, both by the calculations and by XPS measurements. The bonding properties of the OsN(3)(5-) units are analyzed and compared to the Raman spectrum. The compound is paramagnetic from room temperature down to T = 10 K. Between room temperature and 100 K it obeys the Curie-Weiss law (mu = 1.68 mu(B)). (Ba(6)O)(OsN(3))(2) is semiconducting with a good electronic conductivity at room temperature (8.74x10(-2) ohms(-1) cm(-1)). Below 142 K the temperature dependence of the conductivity resembles that of a variable-range hopping mechanism.

  5. OsLBD3-7 Overexpression Induced Adaxially Rolled Leaves in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Shao, Qinghao; Liu, Jun; Liu, Bin; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate leaf rolling enhances erect-leaf habits and photosynthetic efficiency, which consequently improves grain yield. Here, we reported the novel lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) gene OsLBD3-7, which is involved in the regulation of leaf rolling. OsLBD3-7 works as a transcription activator and its protein is located on the plasma membrane and in the nucleus. Overexpression of OsLBD3-7 leads to narrow and adaxially rolled leaves. Microscopy of flag leaf cross-sections indicated that overexpression of OsLBD3-7 led to a decrease in both bulliform cell size and number. Transcriptional analysis showed that key genes that had been reported to be negative regulators of bulliform cell development were up-regulated in transgenic plants. These results indicated that OsLBD3-7 might acts as an upstream regulatory gene of bulliform cell development to regulate leaf rolling, which will give more insights on the leaf rolling regulation mechanism. PMID:27258066

  6. Haemangiosarcoma of the os penis in a dog: The most common neoplasm of the canine penis.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Richard K; Kirberger, Robert M; Janse van Rensberg, Drienie D Didi

    2014-08-21

    A castrated 9-year-old intact male boerboel cross-breed dog was presented with a month-long history of stranguria. On physical examination, a mass was noted at the caudal extremity of the os penis. Haematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis were all unremarkable. Abdominal and urethral ultrasound demonstrated an enlarged bladder and a dilated urethra, which was followed to the caudal extremity of the os penis. A hyperechoic, roughly spherical,vascularised mass was noted at the caudal os penis, which resulted in obstruction of the penile urethra. Radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass with osteolysis of the os penis. Cytology suggested an osteosarcoma. Treatment included amputation of the penis and adjuvant doxorubicin with carboplatin. Histopathology of the penis confirmed a haemangiosarcoma. The patient survived for 20 months. This is only the second published case report describing a penile haemangiosarcoma, and the first published report demonstrating the treatment and outcome of a case of haemangiosarcoma of the os penis. Based on published and unpublished reports, haemangiosarcoma appears to be the most common neoplasm of the canine penis.

  7. OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter required for efficient translocation of iron in rice.

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ueno, Daisei; Mitani, Namiki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters represent a large family in plants, but their functions are poorly understood. Here, we report the function of a rice (Oryza sativa) MATE gene (Os03g0216700, OsFRDL1), the closest homolog of barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvAACT1 (aluminum [Al]-activated citrate transporter 1), in terms of metal stress (iron [Fe] deficiency and Al toxicity). This gene was mainly expressed in the roots and the expression level was not affected by either Fe deficiency or Al toxicity. Knockout of this gene resulted in leaf chlorosis, lower leaf Fe concentration, higher accumulation of zinc and manganese concentration in the leaves, and precipitation of Fe in the root's stele. The concentration of citrate and ferric iron in the xylem sap was lower in the knockout line compared to the wild-type rice. Heterologous expression of OsFRDL1 in Xenopus oocytes showed transport activity for citrate. Immunostaining showed that OsFRDL1 was localized at the pericycle cells of the roots. On the other hand, there was no difference in the Al-induced secretion of citrate from the roots between the knockout line and the wild-type rice. Taken together, our results indicate that OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter localized at the pericycle cells, which is necessary for efficient translocation of Fe to the shoot as a Fe-citrate complex.

  8. Silencing OsSLR1 enhances the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Luo, Ting; Wang, Wanwan; Cao, Tiantian; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-10-01

    DELLA proteins, negative regulators of the gibberellin (GA) pathway, play important roles in plant growth, development and pathogen resistance by regulating multiple phytohormone signals. Yet, whether and how they regulate plant herbivore resistance remain unknown. We found that the expression of the rice DELLA gene OsSLR1 was down-regulated by an infestation of female adults of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. On one hand, OsSLR1 positively regulated BPH-induced levels of two mitogen-activated protein kinase and four WRKY transcripts, and of jasmonic acid, ethylene and H2 O2 . On the other hand, silencing OsSLR1 enhanced constitutive levels of defence-related compounds, phenolic acids, lignin and cellulose, as well as the resistance of rice to BPH in the laboratory and in the field. The increased resistance in rice with silencing of OsSLR1 is probably due to impaired JA and ethylene pathways, and, at least in part, to the increased lignin level and mechanical hardness of rice leaf sheaths. Our findings illustrate that OsSLR1, acting as an early negative regulator, plays an important role in regulating the resistance of rice to BPH by activating appropriate defence-related signalling pathways and compounds. Moreover, our data also provide new insights into relationships between plant growth and defence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. OsABCB14 functions in auxin transport and iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanxia; Zhang, Saina; Guo, Haipeng; Wang, Suikang; Xu, Ligen; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Chen, Fan; Geisler, Markus; Qi, Yanhua; Jiang, De An

    2014-07-01

    Members of the ATP Binding Cassette B/Multidrug-Resistance/P-glyco-protein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) subfamily were shown to function primarily in Oryza sativa (rice) auxin transport; however, none of the rice ABCB transporters have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe that a knock-down of OsABCB14 confers decreased auxin concentrations and polar auxin transport rates, conferring insensitivity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). OsABCB14 displays enhanced specific auxin influx activity in yeast and protoplasts prepared from rice knock-down alleles. OsABCB14 is localized at the plasma membrane, pointing to an important directionality under physiological conditions. osabcb14 mutants were surprisingly found to be insensitive to iron deficiency treatment (-Fe). Their Fe concentration is higher and upregulation of Fe deficiency-responsive genes is lower in osabcb14 mutants than in wild-type rice (Nipponbare, NIP). Taken together, our results strongly support the role of OsABCB14 as an auxin influx transporter involved in Fe homeostasis. The functional characterization of OsABCB14 provides insights in monocot auxin transport and its relationship to Fe nutrition. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Structural and superconducting properties of RbOs2O6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogacki, Krzysztof; Schuck, Götz; Bukowski, Zbigniew; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Karpinski, Janusz

    2008-04-01

    Single crystals of RbOs2O6 have been grown from Rb2O and Os in sealed quartz ampoules. The crystal structure has been identified at room temperature as cubic with the lattice constant a=10.1242(12)Å . The anisotropy of the tetrahedral and octahedral networks is lower and the displacement parameters of alkali metal atoms are smaller than those for KOs2O6 , so the “rattling” of the alkali atoms in RbOs2O6 is less pronounced. The superconducting properties of RbOs2O6 in the mixed state have been described well within the London approach and the Ginzburg Landau parameter κ(0)≅31 has been derived from the reversible magnetization. This parameter is field dependent and changes at low temperatures from κ≅22 (low fields) to κ≅31 at Hc2 . The thermodynamic critical field Hc(0)=1.3kOe and the superconducting gap 2Δo/kBTc≅3.2 have been estimated. These results, together with the slightly different Hc2(T) dependence obtained for crystals and polycrystalline RbOs2O6 , evidently prove that this compound is a weak-coupling BCS-type superconductor close to the dirty limit.

  11. OsJAZ9 acts as a transcriptional regulator in jasmonate signaling and modulates salt stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Ye, Haiyan; Yao, Ruifeng; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-03-01

    The basic functions of plant-specific TIFY proteins as transcriptional regulators have been reported in plants. Some TIFY genes are responsive to abiotic stresses, but the functions of these genes in stress tolerance have seldom been reported. OsJAZ9 is a member of the JAZ subfamily which belongs to the TIFY gene family in rice (Oryza sativa). Suppression of OsJAZ9 resulted in reduced salt tolerance. The altered salt tolerance was mainly due to changes in ion (especially K(+)) homeostasis, which was supported by the altered expression levels of several ion transporter genes. The OsJAZ9-suppression rice plants showed increased sensitivity to jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. OsJAZ9 interacts with OsCOI1a, a component of the SCF(COI1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, in a coronatine-dependent manner, suggesting that OsJAZ9 is involved in the regulation of JA signaling. OsJAZ9 interacts with several bHLH transcription factors including OsbHLH062 via the Jas domain. OsbHLH062 can bind to an E-box in the promoters of the ion transporter genes such as OsHAK21, and most of these ion transporter genes are responsive to JA treatment. We found that OsJAZ9 can also interact with OsNINJA, a rice homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptional repressor NINJA in JA signaling. Both OsJAZ9 and OsNINJA (Novel Interactor of JAZ) repressed OsbHLH062-mediated transcription activation. These results together suggest that OsJAZ9 acts as a transcriptional regulator by forming a transcriptional regulation complex with OsNINJA and OsbHLH to fine tune the expression of JA-responsive genes involved in salt stress tolerance in rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfide and whole rock Re-Os systematics of eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Slave Craton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Creaser, Robert A.; Pearson, Norm J.; Simonetti, Stefanie S.; Heaman, Larry M.; Griffin, William L.; Stachel, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    We characterized single sulfides in eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Diavik kimberlites (central Slave Craton, Canada) with regard to their petrography, major-element composition and Re-Os isotope systematics. Together with trace-element and Re-Os isotope compositions of whole rocks, these data allow identification of the major Re-Os host phases and provide constraints on the origin(s) of sulfides in these samples. The majority of sulfide minerals contain 8 to 28 at.% Ni, with intragranular sulfides having on average significantly lower contents (~ 6 at.%) than intergranular sulfides (~ 12 at.%). These high Ni-sulfides are not in equilibrium with an eclogitic assemblage and were likely introduced from a peridotitic source subsequent to eclogite formation. In contrast, their Re-Os abundances and Re/Os ratios (average ~ 825 ppb, 190 ppb and 10, respectively) overlap those of primary eclogitic sulfides. These conflicting compositional characteristics may document open-system disequilibrium processes accompanying the introduction of sulfides into eclogites. The general association of high 187Os/ 188Os with high 187Re/ 188Os of sulfides in three low-temperature eclogite xenoliths suggests that the addition is not young. In contrast, sulfides in a high-temperature eclogite plot on a ~ 90 Ma errorchron with radiogenic initial 187Os/ 188Os, perhaps indicative of young introduction of sulfides from a deep enriched source. Sulfides in a single pyroxenite xenolith have Ni, Re and Os contents intermediate between pristine eclogitic and peridotitic sulfides, and correlated Re-Os isotope systematics defining an age of 1.84 ± 0.14 Ga with a radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os i (0.16 ± 0.01). The age and 187Os/ 188Os i are identical to those obtained for eclogitic sulfide inclusions in diamonds from Diavik, thus supporting a link between eclogite and pyroxenite formation. Several eclogite and pyroxenite whole rocks show evidence for addition of secondary sulfides, but many plot

  13. Two rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, are involved in transport and providing tolerance to boron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Mosa, Kareem A; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is responsible for low cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. In this report, we characterized two rice genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, for their involvement in B permeability and tolerance. Transcript analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 were downregulated in shoots and strongly upregulated in rice roots by high B treatment. Expression of both OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in yeast HD9 strain lacking Fps1, ACR3, and Ycf1 resulted in an increased B sensitivity. Furthermore, yeast HD9 strain expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 accumulated significantly higher B as compared to empty vector control, which suggests their involvement in B transport. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis imparted higher tolerance under B toxicity. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 showed significantly higher biomass production and greater root length, however there was no difference in B accumulation in long term uptake assay. Short-term uptake assay using tracer B (¹⁰B) in shoots and roots demonstrated increased ¹⁰B accumulation in Arabidopsis lines expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, compare to wild type control plants. Efflux assay of B in the roots showed that ¹⁰B was effluxed from the Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsPIP2;4 or OsPIP2;7 during the initial 1-h of assay. These data indicate that OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 are involved in mediating B transport in rice and provide tolerance via efflux of excess B from roots and shoot tissues. These genes will be highly useful in developing B tolerant crops for enhanced yield in the areas affected by high B toxicity.

  14. OsLBD37 and OsLBD38, two class II type LBD proteins, are involved in the regulation of heading date by controlling the expression of Ehd1 in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaonan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zhang, Huan; Chen, Liping; Cai, Maohong; Wang, Jiachang; Chai, Juntao; Wu, Fuqing; Cheng, Zhijun; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Wan, Jianmin

    2017-03-22

    LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors which are involved in many biological process of plant development, including lateral organ development, photomorphogenesis, pathogen response, pollen development and plant regeneration. Here, we report new functions of LBD proteins that participate in the regulation of heading date and yield in rice. OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 are two class II type LBD proteins, function as transcriptional activators. Overexpression of OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 separately causes delayed heading date and increased yield. Both OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 are expressed in rhythmic pattern, and their proteins are localized in the nucleus. Further analysis revealed that OsLBD37 and OsLBD38 delayed heading date by down-regulating the expression of the florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1 through key regulator of heading date Ehd1. These data indicates that OsLBD37 and OsLBD38, may function as novel regulators of heading date and crop yield in rice.

  15. The g-factor of the K = 25 isomer in /sup 182/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, A.; Broude, C.; Bruce, A.; Dafni, E.; Fallon, P.; Goldring, G.; Hass, M; Nyberg, J.; Roberts, J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Sletten, G.; Twin, P.

    1988-01-01

    The g-factor of the K = I = 25, 120 ns isomer in /sup 182/Os has been measured by observing the angular precession of the decay /gamma/-rays in an external magnetic field. Our preliminary result is g = 0.46(5). Comparing this result to predictions based on experimental g-factors of single-particle Nilsson orbitals in this mass region suggests equal contributions of neutron and proton spin to the total spin of I = 25. An attempt has also been undertaken to measure the quadrupole moment of this level by observing the time-dependent quadrupole interaction pattern of Os nuclei recoiling into an Os single crystal. The analysis of the quadrupole moment measurement, as well as a more detailed analysis of the g-factor measurement, is now in progress. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Q-I/IIA-OS formula for predicting left atrial pressure in mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yiğitbaşi, Ömer; Nalbantgil, İstemi; Birand, Ahmet; Terek, Ahmet

    1970-01-01

    The relation of the phonocardiographic time intervals (Q-I) and (IIA-OS) and the use of two formulas (Q-I, IIA-OS difference versus their ratio) for estimation of left atrial pressure were investigated in 70 cases of pure mitral stenosis. It was noted that, in cases with normal blood pressure and pluse rate, there was a fair correlation of the two intervals to left atrial pressure. In our studies the best correlation was obtained by using the ratio of these two intervals (Q-I)/(IIA-OS). These results indicate that it is possible to use a new formula and equation that are dependable for phonocardiographic evaluation of left atrial pressure. PMID:5433316

  17. Structure of the K{sup {pi}} = 4{sup +} bands in {sup 186,188}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A. A.; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Wong, J.; Bettermann, L.; Braun, N.; Burke, D. G.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.

    2009-01-28

    The structures of {sub 3}{sup +} states in Os have been debated over several decades. Based on measured B(E2) values they were interpreted in {sup 186-192}Os as K{sup {pi}} = 4{sup +} two-phonon vibrations, whereas inelastic scattering, and (t,{alpha}) work imply a hexadecapole phonon description. To clarify the nature of these K{sup {pi}} = 4{sup +} bands in {sup 186,188}Os, we performed a ({sup 3}He,d) reaction on {sup 185,187}Re targets using 30 MeV {sup 3}He beams and a Q3D spectrograph. Absolute cross sections were obtained for excited states up to 3 MeV at 9 angles from 5 deg. to 50 deg. Results indicate a significant (5/2){sup +}[402]{sub {pi}}+(3/2){sup +}[402]{sub {pi}} component in agreement with quasiparticle phonon model predictions for a single hexadecapole phonon structure.

  18. Non-Circadian Expression Masking Clock-Driven Weak Transcription Rhythms in U2OS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Symul, Laura; Shostak, Anton; Fischer, Tamás; Naef, Felix; Brunner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    U2OS cells harbor a circadian clock but express only a few rhythmic genes in constant conditions. We identified 3040 binding sites of the circadian regulators BMAL1, CLOCK and CRY1 in the U2OS genome. Most binding sites even in promoters do not correlate with detectable rhythmic transcript levels. Luciferase fusions reveal that the circadian clock supports robust but low amplitude transcription rhythms of representative promoters. However, rhythmic transcription of these potentially clock-controlled genes is masked by non-circadian transcription that overwrites the weaker contribution of the clock in constant conditions. Our data suggest that U2OS cells harbor an intrinsically rather weak circadian oscillator. The oscillator has the potential to regulate a large number of genes. The contribution of circadian versus non-circadian transcription is dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and may determine the apparent complexity of the circadian transcriptome. PMID:25007071

  19. Os odontoideum with bipartite atlas and segmental instability: a case report.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Philipp, Helmut; Meusburger, Berthold; Benedetto, Karl-Peter

    2006-10-01

    We report on the case of a 15-year-old adolescent who presented with a transient paraplegia and hyposensibility of the upper extremities after sustaining a minor hyperflexion trauma to the cervical spine. Neuroimaging studies revealed atlantoaxial dislocation and ventral compression of the rostral spinal cord with increased cord signal at C1/C2 levels caused by an os odontoideum, as well as anterior and posterior arch defects of the atlas. The patient underwent closed reduction and posterior atlantoaxial fusion. We describe the association of an acquired instability secondary to an os odontoideum with an anteroposterior spondyloschisis of the atlas and its functional result after 12 months. The rare coincidence of both lesions indicates a multiple malformation of the upper cervical spine and supports the theory of an embryologic genesis of os odontoideum.

  20. Evolution of the X(5) critical-point symmetry in rotating {\\mathbf {^{176}Os}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X.; Zhu, L. H.; Wu, X. G.; He, C. Y.; Pan, B.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L.; Li, X. Q.; Liu, Y.; Ding, H. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Sun, H. B.; Li, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    Lifetimes of excited states above 10+ in the yrast band in 176Os have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method, via the fusion evaporation reaction {^{152}Sm(^{28}Si, 4{{\\it n}})^{176}Os}. Lifetimes of states over 12+ were measured for the first time. The deduced transitional quadruple moments (Qt), together with the previous data using a recoil distance method, are compared with theoretical calculations based on the X(5) model and the interaction boson model. For the states below spin 10+, the data of previous work support an X(5)-like structure, but for the states above 10+, the value of Qt remains almost constant, being the characteristic of a symmetric rotor. The present result suggests that the shape of the nucleus 176Os changes from X(5) critical-point symmetry to an axially deformed rotor with increasing spin.

  1. Dilution effects on the antiferromagnetic Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Kawabata, J.; Yamada, Y.; Muro, Y.; Takabatake, T.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the effects of dilution of Ce sublattice on the unusual antiferromagnetic (AFM) order in the Kondo semiconductor CeOs2Al10 at 28.5 K by the magnetic, transport and specific-heat measurements of single crystals of Ce1-zLazOs2Al10. The effective magnetic moment and paramagnetic Curie temperature hardly change with z up to 0.5, indicating that the 4f state remains unchanged at high temperatures. The suppression of the Néel temperature TN is much weaker than that in 5d hole doped system, Ce(Os1-yRey)2Al10. Therefore, the AFM interaction is robust against the violation of the coherent Ce sublattice. The activation energy in the resistivity decreases in parallel with TN, confirming the argument that the presence of the c-f hybridization gap is a requisite for the unusual AFM order in this system.

  2. Treatment of os odontoideum in a patient with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Akpolat, Yusuf T; Fegale, Ben; Cheng, Wayne K

    2015-08-01

    Severe atlantoaxial instability due to os odontoideum in a patient with spastic cerebral palsy has not been well described. There is no consensus on treatment, particularly with regard to conservative or surgical options. Our patient was a 9-year-old girl with spastic cerebral palsy and unstable os odontoideum as an incidental finding. During the waiting period for elective surgical treatment, the patient developed respiratory compromise. Surgery was performed to reduce the subluxation and for C1-C2 arthrodesis and the girl regained baseline respiratory function. A CT scan was obtained 1 year after the initial surgery and revealed adequate maintenance of reduction and patency of the spinal canal. This patient highlights the fact that unstable os odontoideum can cause mortality due to respiratory distress in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. This is an important factor in deciding treatment options for cerebral palsy patients with low functional demand. We review the relevant literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Redox-responsive molecular switches based on azoterpyridine-bridged Ru/Os complexes.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Tetsuo; Otsuki, Joe; Araki, Koji

    2002-01-04

    Three new terpyridine-based dinuclear complexes, [(tpy)Ru(azotpy)Ru(tpy)]4+ (tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, azotpy = bis[2,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-4-pyridyl]diazene), [(tpy)Os(azotpy)Os(tpy)]4+, and [(tpy)Ru(azotpy)Os(tpy)]4+ were prepared and their electrochemical and photophysical properties investigated. The bridging ligand, azotpy, in these complexes is reduced at less negative potentials than the unsubstituted tpy ligand. These complexes exhibit absorption bands due to the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions both to the unsubstituted tpy ligand and the bridging azotpy ligand, the latter absorption being observed at the lower energy side of the former. These observations are consistent with the lower lying pi* level of the azotpy ligand than that of the tpy ligand. These complexes are nonluminescent, since the excited electron is trapped in this lower lying pi* level of the azotpy ligand in the excited state. Reduction of this bridging ligand by constant potential electrolysis renders the shape of absorption spectra for these complexes nearly identical to those of the parent complexes, [M(tpy)2]2+ (M = Ru, Os). In this reduced state, the homodinuclear Os complex becomes luminescent at room temperature, whereas the homodinuclear Ru complex becomes luminescent at 77 K, thus establishing their photoswitching behavior. The reduced heterodinuclear complex exhibits luminescence from the Os center, which is sensitized by the Ru center in the same molecule as evidenced by the excitation spectra. Thus, the intramolecular energy transfer can be switched on and off by the redox reaction of the bridging component.

  4. Overexpression of the OsERF71 Transcription Factor Alters Rice Root Structure and Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Jung, Harin; Jang, Geupil; Jeong, Jin Seo; Kim, Youn Shic; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Do Choi, Yang; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2016-09-01

    Plant responses to drought stress require the regulation of transcriptional networks via drought-responsive transcription factors, which mediate a range of morphological and physiological changes. AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to act as key regulators of drought resistance transcriptional networks; however, little is known about the associated molecular mechanisms that give rise to specific morphological and physiological adaptations. In this study, we functionally characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) drought-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor OsERF71, which is expressed predominantly in the root meristem, pericycle, and endodermis. Overexpression of OsERF71, either throughout the entire plant or specifically in roots, resulted in a drought resistance phenotype at the vegetative growth stage, indicating that overexpression in roots was sufficient to confer drought resistance. The root-specific overexpression was more effective in conferring drought resistance at the reproductive stage, such that grain yield was increased by 23% to 42% over wild-type plants or whole-body overexpressing transgenic lines under drought conditions. OsERF71 overexpression in roots elevated the expression levels of genes related to cell wall loosening and lignin biosynthetic genes, which correlated with changes in root structure, the formation of enlarged aerenchyma, and high lignification levels. Furthermore, OsERF71 was found to directly bind to the promoter of OsCINNAMOYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1, a key gene in lignin biosynthesis. These results indicate that the OsERF71-mediated drought resistance pathway recruits factors involved in cell wall modification to enable root morphological adaptations, thereby providing a mechanism for enhancing drought resistance.

  5. Genistein modulates the effects of parathyroid hormone in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Fang; Wong, Man-Sau

    2006-06-01

    Genistein and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are anabolic agents that stimulate bone formation through their direct actions in osteoblastic cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether genistein modulates the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition. The present results showed that genistein (10(-8) to 10(-6) m) induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoprotegrin (OPG) expression in SaOS-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects could be completely abolished by co-treatment with oestrogen antagonist ICI 182780 (7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfonyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17beta-diol). Genistein (at 1 microM) could stimulate the mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). As OPG and RANKL are known to modulate osteoclastogenesis, the ability of genistein to modulate OPG and RANKL expression in SaOS-2 cells suggested that it might modulate osteoclastogenesis through its direct actions on osteoblastic cells. PTH (at 10 nM) stimulated ALP activity, induced RANKL mRNA expression and suppressed OPG mRNA expression in SaOS-2 cells, confirming its bi-directional effects on osteoblastic cells. Pre-treatment of SaOS-2 cells with genistein and oestrogen not only enhanced PTH-induced ALP activity, but also attenuated PTH up regulation of RANKL mRNA expression and PTH down regulation of OPG mRNA expression. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that genistein could modulate the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition.

  6. Re-Os isotopic systematics of primitive lavas from the Lassen region of the Cascade arc, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, L.E.; Brandon, A.D.; Clynne, M.A.; Walker, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium isotopic systematics of primitive calc-alkaline lavas from the Lassen region appear to be controlled by mantle wedge processes. Lavas with a large proportion of slab component have relatively low Re and Os abundances, and have radiogenic Os and mid ocean ridge basalt-like Sr and Pb isotopic compositions. Lavas with a small proportion of slab component have higher Re and Os elemental abundances and display mantle-like Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. Assimilation with fractional crystallization can only generate the Re-Os systematics of the Lassen lavas from a common parent if the distribution coefficient for Re in sulfide is ~40-1100 times higher than most published estimates and if most incompatible element abundances decrease during differentiation. High Re/Os ratios in mid ocean ridge basalts makes subducted oceanic crust a potential source of radiogenic Os in volcanic arcs. The slab beneath the southernmost Cascades is estimated to have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 1.4. Mixing between a slab component and mantle wedge peridotite can generate the Os isotopic systematics of the Lassen lavas provided the slab component has a Sr/Os ratio of ~7.5X105 and Os abundances that are 100-600 times higher than mid ocean ridge basalts. For this model to be correct, Os must be readily mobilized and concentrated in the slab component, perhaps as a result of high water and HCl fugacities in this subduction environment. Another possible mechanism to account for the correlation between the magnitude of the subduction geochemical signature and Os isotopic composition involves increasing the stability of an Os-bearing phase in mantle wedge peridotites as a result of fluxing with the slab component. Melting of such a source could yield low Os magmas that are more susceptible to crustal contamination, and hence have more radiogenic Os isotopic compositions, than magmas derived from sources with a smaller contribution from the slab. Thus, the addition of the

  7. Strongly gapped spin-wave excitation in the insulating phase of NaOsO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, S.; Vale, J. G.; Bogdanov, N.; Donnerer, C.; Pincini, D.; Moretti Sala, M.; Liu, X.; Upton, M. H.; Casa, D.; Shi, Y. G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamaura, K.; Hill, J. P.; van den Brink, J.; McMorrow, D. F.; Christianson, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    NaOsO3 hosts a rare manifestation of a metal-insulator transition driven by magnetic correlations, placing the magnetic exchange interactions in a central role. We use resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to directly probe these magnetic exchange interactions. A dispersive and strongly gapped (58 meV) excitation is observed, indicating appreciable spin-orbit coupling in this 5 d3 system. The excitation is well described within a minimal model Hamiltonian with strong anisotropy and Heisenberg exchange (J1=J2=13.9 meV ). The observed behavior places NaOsO3 on the boundary between localized and itinerant magnetism.

  8. Strongly gapped spin-wave excitation in the insulating phase of NaOsO3

    DOE PAGES

    Calder, S.; Vale, J. G.; Bogdanov, N.; ...

    2017-01-23

    NaOsO3 hosts a rare manifestation of a metal-insulator transition driven by magnetic correlations, placing the magnetic exchange interactions in a central role. We use resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to directly probe these magnetic exchange interactions. A dispersive and strongly gapped (58 meV) excitation is observed indicating appreciable spin-orbit coupling in this 5d3 system. The excitation is well described within a minimal model Hamiltonian with strong anisotropy and Heisenberg exchange (J1 = J2 = 13.9 meV). As a result, the observed behavior places NaOsO3 on the boundary between localized and itinerant magnetism.

  9. Os odontoideum in wolcott-rallison syndrome: a case series of 4 patients.

    PubMed

    Dias, R P; Buchanan, C R; Thomas, N; Lim, S; Solanki, G; Connor, S E J; Barrett, T G; Kapoor, R R

    2016-02-10

    Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome is the commonest cause of neonatal diabetes in consanguineous families. It is associated with liver dysfunction, epiphyseal dysplasia, and developmental delay. It is caused by mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 3 (EIF2AK3).We report 4 children with WRS and Os Odontoideum resulting in significant neurological compromise. This cervical spine abnormality has not previously been described in this syndrome. This additional evidence broadens the clinical spectrum of this syndrome and confirms the role of EIF2AK3 in skeletal development. Furthermore, Os Odontoideum needs to be actively screened for in WRS patients to prevent neurological and respiratory compromise.

  10. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  11. High pressure structural phase transition of osmium nitride (OsN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Madhu; Abdul Shukoor, V.; Dubey, Ritu; Singh, Sadhna

    2015-05-01

    The structural phase transition and relative volume change of OsN compound has been investigated by means of interaction potential model (IPM) which consists of Coulomb interaction, three-body interaction (TBI), van der Waal interaction (vdW) and short range overlap repulsive interactions up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the OsN transforms from zinc-blende structure (B3) to rock-salt structure (B1) at 87.0 GPa. The second order elastic constants are also investigated. These results are compared with available results.

  12. New supersymmetric quartet of nuclei: {sup 192,193}Os-{sup 193,194}Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Frank, A.; Barea, J.; Graw, G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Jolie, J.

    2009-01-28

    We present evidence for the existence of a new supersymmetric quartet of nuclei in the A{approx}190 mass region. The analysis is based on new experimental information on the odd-odd nucleus {sup 194}Ir from transfer and neutron capture reactions. The new data allow the identification of a new supersymmetric quartet, consisting of the {sup 192,193}Os and {sup 193,194}Ir nuclei. We make explicit predictions for {sup 193}Os, and suggest that its spectroscopic properties be measured in dedicated experiments. Finally, we study correlations between different transfer reactions.

  13. Symptomatic Os Subtibiale Associated with Chronic Pain Around the Medial Malleolus in a Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Alexandar A; Georgiev, Georgi P; Landzhov, Boycho V; Slavchev, Svetoslav A; Dimitrova, Iva N; Ovtscharoff, Wladimir А

    2016-03-01

    An os subtibiale is a rare accessory bone located below or behind the medial malleolus. Herein we present a rare case of a painful os subtibiale in a young triathlete who presented with pain, redness and swelling below his left medial malleolus. Plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a well-defined oval bone distal to the left medial malleolus. After conservative treatment failed, the ossicle was excised in an open surgery with complete resolution of symptoms. This case report emphasizes the need for clinical awareness of different anatomical variations of the bones of the foot.

  14. 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry: age dating with permil precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Recently, 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry, a new dating method combining ideas of nuclear astrophysics with geochronology, has successfully been used to calculate two-point-isochron (TPI) ages for Devonian black gas shales using the isotopic signature of an r-process geochronometer as one data point in a TPI diagram [1]. Based upon a nuclear production ratio 187Re/188Os = 5.873, TPI ages were calculated for 12 SDO-1 (Devonian Ohio Shale, Appalachian Basin) aliquants, for which repeated Re-Os measurements are reported in the literature [2]. TPI ages range from 384.5 ± 2.7 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.29413 ± 0.00023) to 387.7 ± 2.1 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0.29407 ± 0.00019) with a mean of 386.67 ± 1.79 Ma). The result is consistent with the isochronous age from the 12 aliquants alone (386 ± 16 Ma, 187Os/188Osi = 0.31±0.31), which is bracketed by U-Pb ages for the Belpre Ash (381.1 ± 3.3 Ma) and the Tioga Ash bed (390.0 ± 2.5 Ma) [3] from the Appalachian Basin. Hence, SDO-1 can be assigned to the Givetian stage (varcus-zone) of the Middle Devonian, close to the Eifelian/Givetian boundary (using the time-scale of [3] or [4]). If an age is calculated from an isochron diagram for the 12 aliquants including the nuclear geochronometer, a permil precision can be achieved, an interesting feature with respect to any effort towards calibrating the Geologic Timescale. Additionally, a Th/U evolution (or: Th/U-time) diagram can be plotted using U-Pb zircon age data and Th/U ratios from volcanic rocks and ashes reported in the literature [3] for specific Devonian samples from the Appalachian Basin. Since the Re-Os age obtained for SDO-1 can also be connected to its Th/U ratio, it turns out, that Th/U ratios might be helpful age indicators, as demonstrated for the Devonian using the U-Pb and Re-Os datasets. [1] Roller (2015), GSA Abstr. with Programs 47, #248-14. [2] Du Vivier et al. (2014), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 389, 23 - 33. [3] Tucker et al. (1998), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett

  15. OsSRT1 is involved in rice seed development through regulation of starch metabolism gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Yue; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2016-07-01

    OsSRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, closely related to the human SIRT6 that plays key roles in genome stability and metabolic homeostasis. In this work, we investigated the role of OsSRT1 in rice seed development. Down-regulation of OsSRT1 induced higher expression of Rice Starch Regulator1 (RSR1) and amylases genes in developing seeds, which resulted in a decrease of starch synthesis and an increase of starch degradation, leading to abnormal seed development. ChIP assay showed that OsSRT1 was required to reduce histone H3K9 acetylation on starch metabolism genes and transposons in developing seeds. In addition, OsSRT1 was detected to directly bind to starch metabolism genes such as OsAmy3B, OsAmy3E, OsBmy4, and OsBmy9. Our results suggested that OsSRT1-mediated histone deacetylation is involved in starch accumulation and transposon repression to regulate normal seed development.

  16. Expression analysis and functional characterization of the monosaccharide transporters, OsTMTs, involving vacuolar sugar transport in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Il; Burla, Bo; Lee, Dae-Woo; Ryoo, Nayeon; Hong, Soon-Kwan; Kim, Hyun-Bi; Eom, Joon-Seob; Choi, Sang-Bong; Cho, Man-Ho; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Martinoia, Enrico; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2010-05-01

    In Arabidopsis, the compartmentation of sugars into vacuoles is known to be facilitated by sugar transporters. However, vacuolar sugar transporters have not been studied in detail in other plant species. To characterize the rice (Oryza sativa) tonoplast monosaccharide transporters, OsTMT1 and OsTMT2, we analysed their subcellular localization using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression patterns using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and in situ hybridization analysis, and assessed sugar transport ability using isolated vacuoles. Expression of OsTMT-GFP fusion protein in rice and Arabidopsis revealed that the OsTMTs localize at the tonoplast. Analyses of OsTMT promoter-GUS transgenic rice indicated that OsTMT1 and OsTMT2 are highly expressed in bundle sheath cells, and in vascular parenchyma and companion cells in leaves, respectively. Both genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the vascular tissues of roots, the palea/lemma of spikelets, and in the main vascular tissues and nucellar projections on the dorsal side of the seed coats. Glucose uptake studies using vacuoles isolated from transgenic mutant Arabidopsis (tmt1-2-3) expressing OsTMT1 demonstrated that OsTMTs are capable of transporting glucose into vacuoles. Based on expression analysis and functional characterization, our present findings suggest that the OsTMTs play a role in vacuolar glucose storage in rice.

  17. OsHK3 is a crucial regulator of abscisic acid signaling involved in antioxidant defense in rice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Qin, Tingting; Wang, Yao; Dong, Wen; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the role of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) histidine kinase OsHK3 in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense was investigated. Treatments with ABA, H2 O2 , and polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced the expression of OsHK3 in rice leaves, and H2 O2 is required for ABA-induced increase in the expression of OsHK3 under water stress. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsHK3 is located in the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. The transient expression analysis and the transient RNA interference test in rice protoplasts showed that OsHK3 is required for ABA-induced upregulation in the expression of antioxidant enzymes genes and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further analysis showed that OsHK3 functions upstream of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase OsDMI3 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase OsMPK1 to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes in ABA signaling. Moreover, OsHK3 was also shown to regulate the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase genes, OsrbohB and OsrbohE, and the production of H2 O2 in ABA signaling. Our data indicate that OsHK3 play an important role in the regulation of ABA-induced antioxidant defense and in the feedback regulation of H2 O2 production in ABA signaling. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts. PMID:24790323

  19. Unravelling the effects of melt depletion and secondary infiltration on mantle Re-Os isotopes beneath the French Massif Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.; Schiano, P.; Rogers, N. W.; Alard, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Mont Briançon, French Massif Central, retain evidence for multiple episodes of melt depletion and melt/fluid infiltration (metasomatism). Evidence for primary melt depletion is still preserved in the co-variation of bulk-rock major elements (MgO 38.7-46.1 wt.%; CaO 0.9-3.6 wt.%), and many samples yield unradiogenic bulk-rock Os isotope ratios ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.11541-0.12626). However, many individual xenoliths contain interstitial glasses and melt inclusions that are not in equilibrium with the major primary minerals. Incompatible trace element mass balance calculations demonstrate that metasomatic components comprise a significant proportion of the bulk-rock budget for these elements in some rocks, ranging to as much as 25% of Nd and 40% of Sr Critically, for Re-Os geochronology, melt/fluid infiltration is accompanied by the mobilisation of sulfide. Consequently, bulk-rock isotope measurements, whether using lithophile (e.g. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd) or siderophile (Re-Os) based isotope systems, may only yield a perturbed and/or homogenised average of these multiple events. Osmium mass balance calculations demonstrate that bulk-rock Os in peridotite is dominated by contributions from two populations of sulfide grain: (i) interstitial, metasomatic sulfide with low [Os] and radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os, and (ii) primary sulfides with high [Os] and unradiogenic 187Os/ 188Os, which have been preserved within host silicate grains and shielded from interaction with transient melts and fluid. The latter can account for >97% of bulk-rock Os and preserve geochronological information of the melt from which they originally precipitated as an immiscible liquid. The Re-depletion model ages of individual primary sulfide grains preserve evidence for melt depletion beneath the Massif Central from at least 1.8 Gyr ago despite the more recent metasomatic event(s).

  20. A rice F-box gene, OsFbx352, is involved in glucose-delayed seed germination in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2012-01-01

    F-box proteins play diverse roles in regulating numerous physiological processes in plants. This study isolated a gene (OsFbx352) from rice encoding an F-box domain protein and characterized its role in seed germination. Expression of OsFbx352 was upregulated by abscisic acid (ABA). The transcripts of OsFbx352 were increased upon imbibition of rice seeds and the increase was markedly suppressed by glucose. Germination of seeds with overexpression of OsFbx352 was less suppressed by glucose than that of wild-type seeds, while glucose had greater inhibition for germination of seeds with knockdown of OsFbx352 by RNA interference (RNAi) than that of wild-type seeds. The differential response of germination of the transgenic and wild-type seeds to glucose may be accounted for by differences in ABA content among overexpressing, RNAi, and wild-type seeds such that overexpression of OsFbx352 and knockdown of OsFbx352 led to lower and higher ABA contents, respectively, than that of wild-type seeds in the presence of glucose. Overexpression of OsFbx352 led to a reduction in expression of genes responsible for ABA synthesis (OsNced2, OsNced3) and an increase in expression of genes encoding ABA catabolism (OsAba-ox2, OsAba-ox3) in the presence of glucose. These findings indicate that OsFbx352 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of glucose-induced suppression of seed germination by targeting ABA metabolism. PMID:22859682

  1. A detrital model for the origin of gold and sulfides in the Witwatersrand basin based on Re-Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Titley, Spencer; Walshe, John

    2001-07-01

    The Re-Os systematics of gold and sulfides from the Witwatersrand basin were utilized to determine whether the gold is detrital or was introduced by hydrothermal solutions from outside the basin. Gold from a gravity concentrate from the Western Areas Gold Plant and gold from the Vaal Reef have very high Os concentrations of approximately 73 to 10000 ppb and 3 to 32 ppb Re, resulting in 187Re/ 188Os ratios of 0.010 to 0.185. The gold has subchondritic 187Os/ 188Os ratios between 0.1056 to 0.1099 and an average value of 0.1067. Rhenium depletion ages (T RD) range from 3.5 Ga to 2.9 Ga, with a median age of 3.3 Ga. Pyrite from the Vaal Reef have Os concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 0.68 ppb, Re concentrations of 1.7 to 2.8 ppb and 187Re/ 188Os ratios of approximately 14 to 87. The pyrite samples have measured 187Os/ 188Os ratios of 0.84 to 4.7 and define an isochron with an age of 2.99 ± 0.11 Ga (MSWD = 0.77). The Os isotopic data from the direct measurement of gold preclude introduction of gold to the Witwatersrand basin from crustally derived metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids between 2.7 to 2.0 Ga. The unradiogenic 187Os/ 188Os ratios, old T RD ages of the Western Areas and Vaal Reef gold samples, as well as the contemporaneously old age of the Vaal Reef pyrite are consistent with detrital deposition of gold during the formation of the Witswatersrand basin. The Os data will allow for minor hydrothermal remobilization and/or overprinting of hydrothermal gold on preexisting detrital gold grains but does not support the introduction of gold solely by hydrothermal fluids.

  2. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  3. Re-Os Isotopic Constraints on the Chemical Evolution and Differentiation of the Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Walker, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The (187)Re-187Os isotopic systematics of SNC meteorites, thought to be from Mars, provide valuable information regarding the chemical processes that affected the Martian mantle, particularly with regard to the relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE). Previously published data (Birck and Allegre 1994, Brandon et al. 2000), and new data obtained since these studies, indicate that the HSE and Os isotopic composition of the Martian mantle was primarily set in its earliest differentiation history. If so, then these meteorites provide key constraints on the processes that lead to variation in HSE observed in not only Mars, but also Earth, the Moon and other rocky bodies in the Solar System. Processes that likely have an effect on the HSE budgets of terrestrial mantles include core formation, magma ocean crystallization, development of juvenile crust, and the addition of a late veneer. Each of these processes will result in different HSE variation and the isotopic composition of mantle materials and mantle derived lavas. Two observations on the SNC data to present provide a framework for which to test the importance of each of these processes. First, the concentrations of Re and Os in SNC meteorites indicate that they are derived from a mantle that has similar concentrations to the Earth's mantle. Such an observation is consistent with a model where a chondritic late veneer replenished the Earth and Martian mantles subsequent to core formation on each planet. Alternative models to explain this observation do exist, but will require additional data to test the limitations of each. Second, Re-Os isotopic results from Brandon et al. (2000) and new data presented here, show that initial yos correlates with variations in the short-lived systems of (182)Hf- (182)W and (142)Sm-142Nd in the SNC meteorites (epsilon(sub W) and epsilon(sub 142Nd)). These systematics require an isolation of mantle reservoirs during the earliest differentiation history of Mars, and

  4. Effects of chemical pressure on the magnetic ground states of the osmate double perovskites SrCaCoOs6 and Ca2CoOsO6

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Ryan; Yan, Jiaqiang; McGuire, Michael A.; Freeland, John W.; Haskel, Daniel; Woodward, Patrick M.

    2015-09-21

    The magnetic ground state in the double perovskite system Sr2-xCaxCoOsO6 changes from an antiferromagnet (x=0), to a spin glass (x=1), to a ferrimagnet (x=2) as the Ca content increases. Moreover, this crossover is driven by chemical pressure effects that control the relative strength of magnetic exchange interactions. The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetism of SrCaCoOsO6 and Ca2CoOsO6 are investigated and compared with Sr2CoOsO6. Both compounds adopt a monoclinic crystal structure with rock-salt ordering of Co2+ and Os6+ and a-a-b+ octahedral tilting, but the average Co–O–Os bond angle evolves from 158.0(3) in SrCaCoOsO6 to 150.54(9)° in Ca2CoOsO6 as the smaller Ca2+ ion replaces Sr2+. And while this change may seem minor, it has a profound effect on the magnetism, changing the magnetic ground state from antiferromagnetic in Sr2CoOsO6 (TN1=108K, TN2=70K), to a spin glass in SrCaCoOsO6 (Tf1=32K, Tf2=13K), to ferrimagnetic in Ca2CoOsO6 (TC=145K). Finally, in the first two compounds the observation of two transitions is consistent with weak coupling between the Co and Os sublattices.

  5. OsMYC2, an essential factor for JA-inductive sakuranetin production in rice, interacts with MYC2-like proteins that enhance its transactivation ability

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of sakuranetin, a flavonoid anti-fungal phytoalexin that occurs in rice, is highly dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) signalling and induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. We previously identified OsNOMT, which encodes naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT); NOMT is a key enzyme for sakuranetin production. Although OsNOMT expression is induced by JA treatment, the regulation mechanism that activates the biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that JA-inducible basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor OsMYC2 drastically enhances the activity of the OsNOMT promoter and is essential for JA-inducible sakuranetin production. In addition, we identified 2 collaborators of OsMYC2, OsMYC2-like protein 1 and 2 (OsMYL1 and OsMYL2) that further activated the OsNOMT promoter in synergy with OsMYC2. Physical interaction of OsMYC2 with OsMYL1 and OsMYL2 further supported the idea that these interactions lead to the enhancement of the transactivation activity of OsMYC2. Our results indicate that JA signalling via OsMYC2 is reinforced by OsMYL1 and OsMYL2, resulting in the inductive production of sakuranetin during defence responses in rice. PMID:28067270

  6. Os-Ru-Ir and Os-(Ru)-Ir-Pt mineral phases from iron quartzites and weathered rocks of the Mikhailovka and Staryi Oskol KMA iron regions, central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, N. M.; Ponamareva, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Numerous natural Os-Ir-Ru and Os-Ir-Ru-Pt alloys have been found in iron quartzites and their weathered rocks. The Ir-Os alloys in the Mikhailovka and Staryi Oskol KMA iron regions are characterized by the densest hexagonal packing. Almost all of them contain a low amount of Fe and Ni at a relatively higher amount of Pt, Ru, and, locally, Rh. The highest Rh contents are typical of minerals with Ir dominant over Os or with a high Pt content.

  7. Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic systematics of the Archean Kolar schist belt, Karnataka, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.; Rajamani, V.; Horan, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    The Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic compositions of mafic and ultramafic amphibolites, gold ores, and granitic gneisses of the circa 2700 Ma Kolar schist belt are reported which reveal at least two episodes of postmagmatic alteration that affected these systems. The Re-Os isotopic systematics of many of the belt rocks indicate that Os was introduced to the area via fluids that carried very radiogenic Os, probably from ancient crust. The Rb-Sr systematics of most of these rocks indicate that the alteration event probably occurred no later than the early Proterozoic. Samples of several komatiitic amphibolites have very Os-187-depleted compositions, indicating that open-system behavior also occurred at a much later time than the late Archean or early Proterozoic. The results suggest that the Re-Os system may have only limited utility for geochronologic applications in regions for which postcrystallization noble metal mineralization is evident.

  8. Latinas/os in Community College Developmental Education: Increasing Moments of Academic and Interpersonal Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Santos, Ryan E.; Alonso, LLuliana; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Latinas/os in community college English and math developmental education courses. Critical race theory in education and the theory of validation serve as guiding frameworks. The authors find that institutional agents provide academic validation by emphasizing high expectations, focusing on social…

  9. AquaCrop-OS: A tool for resilient management of land and water resources in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozovic, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Raes, Dirk; Steduto, Pasquale; Fereres, Elias; Hsiao, Theodore C.

    2017-04-01

    Water managers, researchers, and other decision makers worldwide are faced with the challenge of increasing food production under population growth, drought, and rising water scarcity. Crop simulation models are valuable tools in this effort, and, importantly, provide a means of quantifying rapidly crop yield response to water, climate, and field management practices. Here, we introduce a new open-source crop modelling tool called AquaCrop-OS (Foster et al., 2017), which extends the functionality of the globally used FAO AquaCrop model. Through case studies focused on groundwater-fed irrigation in the High Plains and Central Valley of California in the United States, we demonstrate how AquaCrop-OS can be used to understand the local biophysical, behavioural, and institutional drivers of water risks in agricultural production. Furthermore, we also illustrate how AquaCrop-OS can be combined effectively with hydrologic and economic models to support drought risk mitigation and decision-making around water resource management at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and highlight future plans for model development and training. T. Foster, et al. (2017) AquaCrop-OS: An open source version of FAO's crop water productivity model. Agricultural Water Management. 181: 18-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.015.

  10. Latina/os Leaving Legacies: The Experiences of California Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vinicio Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of Latina/o leadership in community colleges through in-depth interviews of current community college executive administrators. The portraits of the subjects offer a blueprint to Latina/os who have similar career aspirations; and more succinctly, provide insight…

  11. The rice OsLpa1 gene encodse a novel protein involved in phytic acid metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rice low phytic acid 1 (OsLpa1) gene was originally identified using a forward genetics approach. Mutation of this gene resulted in a 45% reduction in rice seed phytic acid with a molar-equivalent increase in inorganic phosphorus; however, the rice lpa1 mutant does not appear to differ significa...

  12. The knockdown of OsVIT2 and MIT affects iron localization in rice seed.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Khurram; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Akhtar, Shamim; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-11-20

    The mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake in plants has been extensively characterized, but little is known about how Fe transport to different subcellular compartments affects Fe localization in rice seed. Here, we discuss the characterization of a rice vacuolar Fe transporter 2 (OsVIT2) T-DNA insertion line (osvit2) and report that the knockdown of OsVIT2 and mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT) expression affects seed Fe localization. osvit2 plants accumulated less Fe in their shoots when grown under normal or excess Fe conditions, while the accumulation of Fe was comparable to that in wild-type (WT) plants under Fe-deficient conditions. The accumulation of zinc, copper, and manganese also changed significantly in the shoots of osvit2 plants. The growth of osvit2 plants was also slow compared to that of WT plants. The concentration of Fe increased in osvit2 polished seeds. Previously, we reported that the expression of OsVIT2 was higher in MIT knockdown (mit-2) plants, and in this study, the accumulation of Fe in mit-2 seeds decreased significantly. These results suggest that vacuolar Fe trafficking is important for plant Fe homeostasis and distribution, especially in plants grown in the presence of excess Fe. Moreover, changes in the expression of OsVIT2 and MIT affect the concentration and localization of metals in brown rice as well as in polished rice seeds.

  13. The contribution of O.S. Vialov to the development of ichnological classification and nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palii, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work highlights the role of O.S. Vialov, an outstanding Soviet geologist and paleontologist, and Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, in the creation and development of classification and nomenclature of fossil traces left by organisms.

  14. Examining Education for Latinas/os in Chicago: A CRT/LatCrit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Erica R.; de Bradley, Ann Aviles

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the sociopolitical context of education policy, particularly as it relates to Latina/o education. The authors highlight the status of Latinas/os within the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to examine the impact of education policy designed to benefit few and disenfranchise most. They draw attention to the injustices of Latinas/os…

  15. Latinas/os in Community College Developmental Education: Increasing Moments of Academic and Interpersonal Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Solorzano, Daniel G.; Santos, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Latinas/os in community college English and math developmental education courses. Critical race theory in education and the theory of validation serve as guiding frameworks. The authors find that institutional agents provide academic validation by emphasizing high expectations, focusing on social…

  16. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  17. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob; Mueller, Martin; Gao, Huili; Radovic, Miladin; Cullen, David A.

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics.

  18. Anisotropic type-I superconductivity and anomalous superfluid density in OsB2

    DOE PAGES

    Bekaert, Jonas; Vercauteren, S.; Aperis, A.; ...

    2016-10-12

    Here, we present a microscopic study of superconductivity in OsB2, and discuss the origin and characteristic length scales of the superconducting state. From first-principles we show that OsB2 is characterized by three different Fermi sheets, and we prove that this fermiology complies with recent quantum-oscillation experiments. Using the found microscopic properties, and experimental data from the literature, we employ Ginzburg-Landau relations to reveal that OsB2 is a distinctly type-I superconductor with a very low Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ—a rare property among compound materials. We show that the found coherence length and penetration depth corroborate the measured thermodynamic critical field. Moreover, ourmore » calculation of the superconducting gap structure using anisotropic Eliashberg theory and ab initio calculated electron-phonon interaction as input reveals a single but anisotropic gap. The calculated gap spectrum is shown to give an excellent account for the unconventional behavior of the superfluid density of OsB2 measured in experiments as a function of temperature. This reveals that gap anisotropy can explain such behavior, observed in several compounds, which was previously attributed solely to a two-gap nature of superconductivity.« less

  19. The proteome profile of the human osteosarcoma U2OS cell line.

    PubMed

    Niforou, Katerina M; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Vougas, Konstantinos; Kittas, Christos; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Tsangaris, George T

    2008-01-01

    The human osteosarcoma U2OS cell line is one of the first generated cell lines and is used in various areas of biomedical research. Knowledge of its protein expression is limited and no comprehensive study on the proteome of this cell line has been reported to date. Proteomics technology was used in order to analyse the proteins of the U2OS cell line. Total protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI--MS-MS following in-gel digestion with trypsin and, finally, protein identification was carried out by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and post source decay (PSD), respectively. Approximately 3,000 spots were excised from two 2-DE gels and were analysed, resulting in the identification of 237 different gene products. The majority of the identified proteins were enzymes, regulatory proteins and RNA-associated proteins, while leukocyte markers and oncogenes were also present. Our findings include 11 protooncogenes (FKBP4, SRC8, PSD10, FUBP1, PARK7, NPM, PDIA1, OXRP, SET, TCTP and GRP75) related to the cancerous state of the U2OS cell line. The U2OS 2-DE database provides the basis for future protein studies.

  20. Rice putative methyltransferase gene OsTSD2 is required for root development involving pectin modification

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Lianghuan; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Yangyang; Fang, Chuanying; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Xianqing; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Pectin synthesis and modification are vital for plant development, although the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of the OsTSD2 gene, which encodes a putative methyltransferase in rice. All three independent T-DNA insertion lines of OsTSD2 displayed dwarf phenotypes and serial alterations in different zones of the root. These alterations included abnormal cellular adhesion and schizogenous aerenchyma formation in the meristematic zone, inhibited root elongation in the elongation zone, and higher lateral root density in the mature zone. Immunofluorescence (with LM19) and Ruthenium Red staining of the roots showed that unesterified homogalacturonan (HG) was increased in Ostsd2 mutants. Biochemical analysis of cell wall pectin polysaccharides revealed that both the monosaccharide composition and the uronic acid content were decreased in Ostsd2 mutants. Increased endogenous ABA content and opposite roles performed by ABA and IAA in regulating cellular adhesion in the Ostsd2 mutants suggested that OsTSD2 is required for root development in rice through a pathway involving pectin synthesis/modification. A hypothesis to explain the relationship among OsTSD2, pectin methylesterification, and root development is proposed, based on pectin’s function in regional cell extension/division in a zone-dependent manner. PMID:27497286

  1. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  2. Posterior Endoscopic Excision of Os Trigonum in Professional National Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Moez S; Roche, Andy; Brodrick, Anna; Williams, R Lloyd; Calder, James D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have compared the outcomes after open and endoscopic excision of an os trigonum in patients of mixed professions. No studies have compared the differences in outcomes between the 2 procedures in elite ballet dancers. From October 2005 to February 2010, 35 professional ballet dancers underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum of the ankle after a failed period of nonoperative treatment. Of the 35 patients, 13 (37.1%) underwent endoscopic excision and 22 (62.9%) open excision. We compared the outcomes, complications, and time to return to dancing. The open excision group experienced a significantly greater incidence of flexor hallucis longus tendon decompression compared with the endoscopic group. The endoscopic release group returned to full dance earlier at a mean of 9.8 (range 6.5 to 16.1) weeks and those undergoing open excision returned to full dance at a mean of 14.9 (range 9 to 20) weeks (p = .001). No major complications developed in either group, such as deep infection or nerve or vessel injury. We have concluded that both techniques are safe and effective in the treatment of symptomatic os trigonum in professional ballet dancers. Endoscopic excision of the os trigonum offers a more rapid return to full dance compared with open excision. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Latinas/os in Community College Developmental Education: Increasing Moments of Academic and Interpersonal Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Santos, Ryan E.; Alonso, LLuliana; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Latinas/os in community college English and math developmental education courses. Critical race theory in education and the theory of validation serve as guiding frameworks. The authors find that institutional agents provide academic validation by emphasizing high expectations, focusing on social…

  4. Especially Social: Exploring the Use of an iOS Application in Special Needs Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campigotto, Rachelle; McEwen, Rhonda; Epp, Carrie Demmans

    2013-01-01

    A five-month exploratory study was conducted with iOS mobile devices in two Toronto area schools with students in grades 7 through 12. Both classrooms were identified as Special Education classes by the Ontario Ministry of Education, and each student was identified as having exceptionalities requiring additional support and differentiation within…

  5. The Process of Conscientization: Xicanas(os) Experience in Claiming Authentic Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berta-Avila, Margie

    Oppression in the United States can be described as a mental/spiritual and social/material domination that is fueled by manipulation and alienation. Manipulation and alienation play a prominent role in the lives of Xicanas/os (a broadening of the term "Chicana/o" to include all indigenous peoples in the United States and Latin America)…

  6. Anisotropic type-I superconductivity and anomalous superfluid density in OsB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, J.; Vercauteren, S.; Aperis, A.; Komendová, L.; Prozorov, R.; Partoens, B.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a microscopic study of superconductivity in OsB2, and discuss the origin and characteristic length scales of the superconducting state. From first-principles we show that OsB2 is characterized by three different Fermi sheets, and we prove that this fermiology complies with recent quantum-oscillation experiments. Using the found microscopic properties, and experimental data from the literature, we employ Ginzburg-Landau relations to reveal that OsB2 is a distinctly type-I superconductor with a very low Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ —a rare property among compound materials. We show that the found coherence length and penetration depth corroborate the measured thermodynamic critical field. Moreover, our calculation of the superconducting gap structure using anisotropic Eliashberg theory and ab initio calculated electron-phonon interaction as input reveals a single but anisotropic gap. The calculated gap spectrum is shown to give an excellent account for the unconventional behavior of the superfluid density of OsB2 measured in experiments as a function of temperature. This reveals that gap anisotropy can explain such behavior, observed in several compounds, which was previously attributed solely to a two-gap nature of superconductivity.

  7. Flux-Line Lattice Distortion in PrOs4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxley, A. D.; Measson, M.-A.; Izawa, K.; Dewhurst, C. D.; Cubitt, R.; Grenier, B.; Sugawara, H.; Flouquet, J.; Matsuda, Y.; Sato, H.

    2004-10-01

    We report that the flux-line lattice in the cubic superconductor Pr(Os4Sb12 is strongly distorted from an ideal hexagonal lattice at very low temperatures in a small applied field. We attribute this to the presence of gap nodes in the superconducting state on at least some Fermi-surface sheets.

  8. Metal bioaccumulation and effects biomarkers in mussels caged in the Athabasca OS mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilote, M.; André, C.; Turcotte, P.; Gagné, F.; Gagnon, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Athabasca oil-sand (OS) deposit area is the largest world's known stock of crude bitumen and the third-largest proven crude oil reserve. Mining activity is well known to release associated contaminants, such as metals, and causes potential risk to the environment and aquatic life. The purpose of this study aimed to determine the impacts of OS mining on water quality and mussels in the area of Fort McMurray, Northern Alberta (Canada), for 2 consecutive years which showed different river water flow and metals coefficient of distribution. Autochthonous mussels (Pyganodon grandis) were placed in cages and in-situ exposed in the Athabasca R. for 4 weeks. Thereafter, metals and inorganic elements, including rare earth elements, were analyzed in water, and mussel gills and digestive glands to evaluate bioaccumulation, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and determine the resulting effects by measuring biomarkers of stress. This study clearly shows high bioaccumulation of Be (2012), V, Ni and Pb (2013) in mussel digestive glands in the Steepbank R. which flows directly of OS mining area than at the reference site, while Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo (2012) and Ni (2013) were significantly higher in mussel gills which shows different pathways of exposure for V and Ni. Metals exposure consequently impacted metallothionein and lipid peroxidation (oxidative tissues damage) in mussel. These results confirm that some metals and inorganic elements are bioavailable in mussel tissues, which was associated to metal detoxification and oxidative stress in mussels located downstream OS mining area.

  9. Positioning and Latinas/os: A Study of Small-Group Interactions in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Leiva, Carlos Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This study explores social interaction and mathematics performance, especially regarding how bilingual Latino/a students' positioning and participation evolved as they interacted with others in mathematics problem solving. Historically, Latinas/os have faced segregation in different ways that affect the quality of their social interactions…

  10. OS3D/GIMRT software for modeling multicomponent-multidimensional reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    CI Steefel; SB Yabusaki

    2000-05-17

    OS3D/GIMRT is a numerical software package for simulating multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. The package consists of two principal components: (1) the code OS3D (Operator Splitting 3-Dimensional Reactive Transport) which simulates reactive transport by either splitting the reaction and transport steps in time, i.e., the classic time or operator splitting approach, or by iterating sequentially between reactions and transport, and (2) the code GIMRT (Global Implicit Multicomponent Reactive Transport) which treats up to two dimensional reactive transport with a one step or global implicit approach. Although the two codes do not yet have totally identical capabilities, they can be run from the same input file, allowing comparisons to be made between the two approaches in many cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed more fully below, but in general OS3D is designed for simulation of transient concentration fronts, particularly under high Peclet number transport conditions, because of its use of a total variation diminishing or TVD transport algorithm. GIMRT is suited for simulating water-rock alteration over long periods of time where the aqueous concentration field is at or close to a quasi-stationary state and the numerical transport errors are less important. Where water-rock interaction occurs over geological periods of time, GIMRT may be preferable to OS3D because of its ability to take larger time steps.

  11. Quantum mechanical effects in tilted axis rotation in {sup 182}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Yukio; Horibata, Takatoshi

    2010-05-12

    We performed the three-dimensional cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculation for {sup 182}Os. A family of states obtained by the calculation are expected to be the t-band with K = 8. We suggest a quantum mechanical mechanism which is responsible for the occurrence of a signature splitting in the t-band.

  12. Lifetimes of the first excited 2{sup +} states in {sup 176,178,180}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, O.; Melon, B.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Jolie, J.; Christen, S.; Saha, B.; Zell, K.O.; Heidemann, M.; Petkov, P.; Tonev, D.

    2005-09-01

    By use of the pulsed-beam technique, the lifetimes of the first excited 2{sup +} states in {sup 176,178}Os were measured for the first time and the lifetime of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state in {sup 180}Os was determined to a greater accuracy. In addition, for {sup 178}Os, a recoil-distance Doppler-shift experiment and an experiment to measure the nuclear deorientation effect that is due to the hyperfine interactions were also performed. The results obtained from this measurement are consistent with the lifetime value extracted by means of the pulsed-beam experiment. As well, the lifetimes of two I{sup {pi}}=7{sup -} isomers in {sup 180}Os were determined more accurately. Together with previously published data for the even-even osmium isotopes, the newly determined B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) transition strengths show a maximum value at the N=104 midshell. This maximum corresponds to the simple expectation of the N{sub {pi}}N{sub {nu}} rule of the interacting boson approximation (IBA) but remains to be explained by microscopic models.

  13. Transposon Ac/Ds-induced chromosomal rearrangements at the rice OsRLG5 locus

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Piao, Hai Long; Je, Byoung Il; Park, Soon Ju; Park, Su Hyun; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Jian Bo; Peterson, Thomas; Han, Chang-deok

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pairs of closely-linked Ac/Ds transposable elements can induce various chromosomal rearrangements in plant genomes. To study chromosomal rearrangements in rice, we isolated a line (OsRLG5-161) that contains two inversely-oriented Ds insertions in OsRLG5 (Oryza sativa Receptor like kinase Gene 5). Among approximately 300 plants regenerated from OsRLG5-161 heterozygous seeds, 107 contained rearrangements including deletions, duplications and inversions of various sizes. Most rearrangements were induced by previously identified alternative transposition mechanism. Furthermore, we also detected a new class of rearrangements that contain juxtaposed inversions and deletions on the same chromosome. We propose that these novel alleles were generated by a previously unreported type of alternative transposition reactions involving the 5′ and 3′ termini of two inversely-oriented Ds elements located on the same chromatid. Finally, 11% of rearrangements contained inversions resulting from homologous recombination between the two inverted Ds elements in OsRLG5-161. The high frequency inheritance and great variety of rearrangements obtained suggests that the rice regeneration system results in a burst of transposition activity and a relaxation of the controls which normally limit the transposition competence of individual Ds termini. Together, these results demonstrate a greatly enlarged potential of the Ac/Ds system for plant chromosome engineering. PMID:21965541

  14. Transposon Ac/Ds-induced chromosomal rearrangements at the rice OsRLG5 locus.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Piao, Hai Long; Je, Byoung Il; Park, Soon Ju; Park, Su Hyun; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Jian Bo; Peterson, Thomas; Han, Chang-deok

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pairs of closely-linked Ac/Ds transposable elements can induce various chromosomal rearrangements in plant genomes. To study chromosomal rearrangements in rice, we isolated a line (OsRLG5-161) that contains two inversely-oriented Ds insertions in OsRLG5 (Oryza sativa Receptor like kinase Gene 5). Among approximately 300 plants regenerated from OsRLG5-161 heterozygous seeds, 107 contained rearrangements including deletions, duplications and inversions of various sizes. Most rearrangements were induced by previously identified alternative transposition mechanism. Furthermore, we also detected a new class of rearrangements that contain juxtaposed inversions and deletions on the same chromosome. We propose that these novel alleles were generated by a previously unreported type of alternative transposition reactions involving the 5' and 3' termini of two inversely-oriented Ds elements located on the same chromatid. Finally, 11% of rearrangements contained inversions resulting from homologous recombination between the two inverted Ds elements in OsRLG5-161. The high frequency inheritance and great variety of rearrangements obtained suggests that the rice regeneration system results in a burst of transposition activity and a relaxation of the controls which normally limit the transposition competence of individual Ds termini. Together, these results demonstrate a greatly enlarged potential of the Ac/Ds system for plant chromosome engineering. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Especially Social: Exploring the Use of an iOS Application in Special Needs Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campigotto, Rachelle; McEwen, Rhonda; Epp, Carrie Demmans

    2013-01-01

    A five-month exploratory study was conducted with iOS mobile devices in two Toronto area schools with students in grades 7 through 12. Both classrooms were identified as Special Education classes by the Ontario Ministry of Education, and each student was identified as having exceptionalities requiring additional support and differentiation within…

  16. Overexpression of a Chimeric Gene, OsDST-SRDX, Improved Salt Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Huifang; Ye, Wenxing; Liu, Yanrong; Li, Dayong; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Wanjun

    2016-01-01

    The Drought and Salt Tolerance gene (DST) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor, which negatively regulates salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). Phylogenetic analysis of six homologues of DST genes in different plant species revealed that DST genes were conserved evolutionarily. Here, the rice DST gene was linked to an SRDX domain for gene expression repression based on the Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) to make a chimeric gene (OsDST-SRDX) construct and introduced into perennial ryegrass by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of the OsDST-SRDX in transgenic plants were tested by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines overexpressing the OsDST-SRDX fusion gene showed obvious phenotypic differences and clear resistance to salt-shock and to continuous salt stresses compared to non-transgenic plants. Physiological analyses including relative leaf water content, electrolyte leakage, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, H2O2 content and sodium and potassium accumulation indicated that the OsDST-SRDX fusion gene enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic perennial ryegrass by altering a wide range of physiological responses. To our best knowledge this study is the first report of utilizing Chimeric Repressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) in turfgrass and forage species for salt-tolerance improvement. PMID:27251327

  17. Positioning and Latinas/os: A Study of Small-Group Interactions in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Leiva, Carlos Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This study explores social interaction and mathematics performance, especially regarding how bilingual Latino/a students' positioning and participation evolved as they interacted with others in mathematics problem solving. Historically, Latinas/os have faced segregation in different ways that affect the quality of their social interactions…

  18. OS2: Oblivious similarity based searching for encrypted data outsourced to an untrusted domain

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Mahmood; Khattak, Asad Masood; Ramzan, Naeem

    2017-01-01

    Public cloud storage services are becoming prevalent and myriad data sharing, archiving and collaborative services have emerged which harness the pay-as-you-go business model of public cloud. To ensure privacy and confidentiality often encrypted data is outsourced to such services, which further complicates the process of accessing relevant data by using search queries. Search over encrypted data schemes solve this problem by exploiting cryptographic primitives and secure indexing to identify outsourced data that satisfy the search criteria. Almost all of these schemes rely on exact matching between the encrypted data and search criteria. A few schemes which extend the notion of exact matching to similarity based search, lack realism as those schemes rely on trusted third parties or due to increase storage and computational complexity. In this paper we propose Oblivious Similarity based Search (OS2) for encrypted data. It enables authorized users to model their own encrypted search queries which are resilient to typographical errors. Unlike conventional methodologies, OS2 ranks the search results by using similarity measure offering a better search experience than exact matching. It utilizes encrypted bloom filter and probabilistic homomorphic encryption to enable authorized users to access relevant data without revealing results of search query evaluation process to the untrusted cloud service provider. Encrypted bloom filter based search enables OS2 to reduce search space to potentially relevant encrypted data avoiding unnecessary computation on public cloud. The efficacy of OS2 is evaluated on Google App Engine for various bloom filter lengths on different cloud configurations. PMID:28692697

  19. [Treatment of ejaculation disorders by midodrine (Gutron) per os. Retrospective study of about 16 subjects].

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Dauphin, A; Rigot, J M; Thevenon, A

    2005-02-01

    We evaluate the efficiency and side effects of midodrine in the treatment of sperm transport disturbances. This retrospective study concerned patients addressed in Andrologia Department between 1995 and 2002 for treatment of sperm transport disturbances by administration of Midodrine per os (from 2.5 to 20 mg). Anterograde and retrogrades ejaculates (in urine sample) were examined. Sixteen patients (middle age of 36 years) were included: 12 neurologic lesions (central or peripheral, with 3 diabetes), four post-surgical (urologic and digestive) ejaculatory incompetence. One patient obtained anterior and retrograde ejaculation, two patients obtained anterior ejaculation and six retrograde ejaculations by midodrine per os. This treatment was inefficient in eight subjects. Side effects were exceptional. We obtained anterior or retrograde ejaculation in half of our population. The success was more important in patients with central neurologic injuries, diabetes or post-surgical troubles. In peripheral neurologic injuries, midodrine per os (maximal dose of 20 mg) was ineffective. Our study demonstrates the efficiency and good tolerance of midodrine per os for treatment of sperm transport disturbances.

  20. Thermodynamics and superconductivity of Th7(Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir)3 system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James L; Lashley, Jason C; Volz, Heather M; Fisher, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Expanding the temperature range of previous specific-heat measurements on the Th7(Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir)3 system, we measure the effect of transition-metal substitution on total entropy (S{sub 298 k}), electronic specific heat ({gamma}), and Debye temperature ({Theta}D). In addition we measure the pressure dependence, up to 10 kbar, of the superconducting transition.

  1. Lithium dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase investigation using OsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zier, Martin; Scheiba, Frieder; Oswald, Steffen; Thomas, Jürgen; Goers, Dietrich; Scherer, Torsten; Klose, Markus; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Osmium tetroxide (OsO4) staining, commonly used to enhance scattering contrast in electron microscopy of biologic tissue and polymer blends, has been adopted for studies of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries. OsO4 shows a coordinated reaction with components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and lithium dendrites, thereby increasing material contrast for scanning electron microscopy investigations. Utilizing the high affinity of lithium metal to react with osmium tetroxide it was possible to localize even small lithium deposits on graphite electrodes. In spite of their reaction with the OsO4 fume, the lithium dendrite morphology remains almost untouched by the staining procedure, offering information on the dendrite growth process. Correlating the quantity of osmium detected with the amount of residual ("dead") lithium of a discharged electrode, it was possible to obtain a practical measure for lithium plating and stripping efficiencies. EDX mappings allowed for a localization of electrochemically stripped lithium dendrites by their residual stained SEI shells. Cross sections, prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) of cycled graphite electrodes treated with OsO4, revealed important information about deposition and distribution of metallic lithium and the electrolyte reduction layer across the electrode.

  2. Re-Os geochronology of Arctic black shales to evaluate the Anisian-Ladinian boundary and global faunal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangping; Hannah, Judith L.; Stein, Holly J.; Bingen, Bernard; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron; Weitschat, Wolfgang; Mørk, Atle; Weiss, Hermann M.

    2009-11-01

    Boreal and Tethyan faunas differ throughout the Triassic, limiting the use of biostratigraphy for global correlation. Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of organic-rich black shales, calibrated with existing biostratigraphy, provides a new means to establish correlations of global fauna using absolute time. Here we present Re-Os radiometric ages for Middle Triassic organic-rich shales from two biostratigraphically defined sections at Svalbard and the Svalis Dome in the Barents Sea. Mature black shales from Svalbard, inferred to be Middle to Late Anisian, define a 241.2 ± 2.2 Ma isochron with an initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.831 ± 0.025, the highest seawater Os isotope ratio yet recorded between the Cambrian and Lower Jurassic. Svalis Dome shales in the uppermost Anisian yield a 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma age and initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.679 ± 0.020. The higher initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for Svalbard shales most likely reflects global seawater at the time of deposition, whereas the lower initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio for the Svalis Dome may represent seawater with limited communication to the open ocean, as suggested by the ratio of trace metal abundances and total organic carbon contents. These age data indicate a maximum age of 239.3 ± 2.7 Ma for the Anisian-Ladinian boundary in the Arctic Boreal realm. This age agrees with the proposed boundary in the Tethyan realm, 240 to 243 Ma, and thus confirms the correlations between Boreal and Tethys based on biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Our study affirms that Re-Os geochronology of black shale is a reliable method for obtaining depositional ages and establishing biostratigraphic correlations between paleogeographically separated regions.

  3. The Crystal Structure of the Plant Small GTPase OsRac1 Reveals Its Mode of Binding to NADPH Oxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kosami, Ken-ichi; Ohki, Izuru; Nagano, Minoru; Furuita, Kyoko; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Kawano, Yoji; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Ko; Kojima, Chojiro

    2014-01-01

    Rac/Rop proteins are Rho-type small GTPases that act as molecular switches in plants. Recent studies have identified these proteins as key components in many major plant signaling pathways, such as innate immunity, pollen tube growth, and root hair formation. In rice, the Rac/Rop protein OsRac1 plays an important role in regulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase OsRbohB during innate immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which OsRac1 regulates OsRbohB remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of OsRac1 complexed with the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate at 1.9 Å resolution; this represents the first active-form structure of a plant small GTPase. To elucidate the ROS production in rice cells, structural information was used to design OsRac1 mutants that displayed reduced binding to OsRbohB. Only mutations in the OsRac1 Switch I region showed attenuated interactions with OsRbohB in vitro. In particular, Tyr39 and Asp45 substitutions suppressed ROS production in rice cells, indicating that these residues are critical for interaction with and activation of OsRbohB. Structural comparison of active-form OsRac1 with AtRop9 in its GDP-bound inactive form showed a large conformational difference in the vicinity of these residues. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of the immune response through OsRac1 and the various cellular responses associated with plant Rac/Rop proteins. PMID:25128531

  4. Re-Os isotope and platinum group elements of a FOcal ZOne mantle source, Louisville Seamounts Chain, Pacific ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Hanyu, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Senda, Ryoko; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fitton, Godfrey; Williams, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC) is, besides the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, one of the longest-lived hotspot traces. We report here the first Re-Os isotope and platinum group element (PGE) data for Canopus, Rigil, and Burton Guyots along the chain, which were drilled during IODP Expedition 330. The LSC basalts possess (187Os/188Os)i = 0.1245-0.1314 that are remarkably homogeneous and do not vary with age. A Re-Os isochron age of 64.9 ± 3.2 Ma was obtained for Burton seamount (the youngest of the three seamounts drilled), consistent with 40Ar-39Ar data. Isochron-derived initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1272 ± 0.0008, together with data for olivines (0.1271-0.1275), are within the estimated primitive mantle values. This (187Os/188Os)i range is similar to those of Rarotonga (0.124-0.139) and Samoan shield (0.1276-0.1313) basalts and lower than those of Cook-Austral (0.136-0.155) and Hawaiian shield (0.1283-0.1578) basalts, suggesting little or no recycled component in the LSC mantle source. The PGE data of LSC basalts are distinct from those of oceanic lower crust. Variation in PGE patterns can be largely explained by different low degrees of melting under sulfide-saturated conditions of the same relatively fertile mantle source, consistent with their primitive mantle-like Os and primordial Ne isotope signatures. The PGE patterns and the low 187Os/188Os composition of LSC basalts contrast with those of Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) tholeiites. We conclude that the Re-Os isotope and PGE composition of LSC basalts reflect a relatively pure deep-sourced common mantle sampled by some ocean island basalts but is not discernible in the composition of OJP tholeiites.

  5. Posterior tibial tendon impingement due to os subtibiale: a case report and up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Turan, Adil; Kose, Ozkan; Acar, Baver; Unal, Melih

    2017-05-01

    Os subtibiale is a rare accessory ossicle located at the tip of the medial malleolus. Although this small ossicle usually has no clinical significance, in some cases it may be a source of ankle pain. Symptomatic os subtibiale is an extremely rare diagnosis, and few cases have been reported to date. The case presented is of a 35-year-old female patient with symptomatic os subtibiale, with a discussion of the diagnosis, clinical findings, and treatment options.

  6. Functional identification of a rice ent-kaurene oxidase, OsKO2, using the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Wook; Lin, Fengqiu; Katsumata, Takumi; Sugai, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Sho; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Okada, Kazunori; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2008-12-01

    Rice ent-kaurene oxidase 2 (OsKO2) perhaps functions in the early steps of gibberellin biosynthesis. We found that microsomes from the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris expressing both OsKO2 and a fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) reductase converted ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. This is direct evidence that OsKO2 is involved in the sequential oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in gibberellin biosynthesis in rice.

  7. Distortion, interaction, and conceptual DFT perspectives of MO4-alkene (M = Os, Re, Tc, Mn) cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H

    2009-02-20

    The reaction pathways (including the transition states) of ethylene addition to osmium tetroxide (OsO(4), and amine ligated), rhenate (ReO(4)(-)), technetate (TcO(4)(-)), and permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) have been studied by qualitative and quantitative analyses. Distortion/interaction and absolutely localized energy decomposition analyses provide new insights into why the (3 + 2) pathway is highly preferred over the (2 + 2) pathway, the origin of rate enhancement from ligated base, and reactivity differences between OsO(4), ReO(4)(-), TcO(4)(-), and MnO(4)(-). The (2 + 2) transition state has a much larger barrier than the (3 + 2) transition state because (1) the Os-O bond is stretched significantly resulting in a larger distortion energy (DeltaE(d)(double dagger)) value and (2) the transition state interaction energy (DeltaE(i)(double dagger)) is destabilizing due to large exchange repulsions overwhelming stabilizing charge-transfer terms. Base ligation lowers osmium tetroxide and ethylene distortion energies due to the ground-state O-Os-O angle being predistorted from 110 degrees to 103 degrees. Because MO(4) distortion energies are comparable, reactivity differences between OsO(4), ReO(4)(-), TcO(4)(-), and MnO(4)(-) is shown to be a function of ethylene to MO(4) charge-transfer. This interaction also dictates the position of the transition state along the reaction coordinate and corresponds to the onset of a stabilizing DeltaE(i)(double dagger) value. The conceptual DFT hardness profile and hardness response show that the (3 + 2) reaction pathway may be classified as an "allowed" pathway while the (2 + 2) reaction coordinate is best designated as "forbidden".

  8. Penta- and tetracarbonyls of Ru, Os, and Hs: Electronic structure, bonding, and volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershina, V.; Iliaš, M.

    2017-05-01

    Calculations of the electronic structures and properties of M(CO)5 and M(CO)4, where M = Ru, Os, and Hs, have been performed using a variety of relativistic methods such as density functional theory and Dirac-Coulomb correlated ones implemented in program packages such as ADF, DIRAC, and ReSpect. The obtained results show that trends in spectroscopic properties of the M(CO)5 species in group 8 follow the same pattern as that of other compounds of group 4 through group 8 elements. The calculated first M-CO bond dissociation energy (FBDE) of Hs(CO)5 turned out to be significantly weaker than that of Os(CO)5. This was obtained both at the scalar relativistic and spin-orbit levels of theory. The reason for that is the relativistic destabilization and the expansion of the 6d AOs, responsible for weaker σ-forth and π-back donations in the Hs compound. Thus, the FBDEs of M(CO)5 have a Λ-shape behavior in the row Ru-Os-Hs. The non-relativistic FBDEs steadily increase in this row. Using the results of the molecular calculations and a molecule-slab dispersion interaction model, the volatility of the group-8 carbonyls was estimated as adsorption enthalpies, ΔHads, on surfaces of quartz and Teflon used in gas-phase chromatography experiments. It was found that Hs(CO)5 should be almost as volatile as the homologs; however, its interaction strength with these surfaces should be somewhat larger than that of both Ru(CO)5 and Os(CO)5, while the M(CO)4 (M = Ru, Os, and Hs) molecules should be non-volatile. It will, therefore, be difficult to distinguish between group-8 M(CO)5 species by measurements of their volatility as ΔHads on inert surfaces with error bars of ˜4 kJ/mol.

  9. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Mengmeng; Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  10. Functions of OsBZR1 and 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signaling in rice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Zhang, Li-Ying; Gampala, Srinivas S.; Zhu, Sheng-Wei; Song, Wen-Yuan; Chong, Kang; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) are essential growth hormones found throughout the plant kingdom. BR bind to the receptor kinase BRI1 on the cell surface to activate a signal transduction pathway that regulates nuclear gene expression and plant growth. To understand the downstream BR signaling mechanism in rice, we studied the function of OsBZR1 using reverse genetic approaches and identified OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Suppressing OsBZR1 expression by RNAi resulted in dwarfism, erect leaves, reduced BR sensitivity, and altered BR-responsive gene expression in transgenic rice plants, demonstrating an essential role of OsBZR1 in BR responses in rice. Moreover, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified 14-3-3 proteins as OsBZR1-interacting proteins. Mutation of a putative 14-3-3-binding site of OsBZR1 abolished its interaction with the 14-3-3 proteins in yeast and in vivo. Such mutant OsBZR1 proteins suppressed the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis bri1–5 mutant and showed an increased nuclear distribution compared with the wild-type protein, suggesting that 14-3-3 proteins directly inhibit OsBZR1 function at least in part by reducing its nuclear localization. These results demonstrate a conserved function of OsBZR1 and an important role of 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in rice. PMID:17699623

  11. New insights into the Re-Os systematics of sub-continental lithospheric mantle from in situ analysis of sulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alard, Olivier; Griffin, William L.; Pearson, Norman J.; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2002-10-01

    The Os isotopic compositions of mantle rocks generally are considered to be established during melt-depletion events and to be robust to subsequent disturbances (e.g. metasomatism). Consequently, Os isotopes are used to date the main melting event that a mantle section has undergone, i.e. transformation of fertile asthenospheric material into a depleted, buoyant lithosphere. However, Os resides almost entirely in Fe-Ni-Cu sulphides, which can be very mobile under mantle conditions. In situ laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS measurement of Re/Os isotopic ratios in sulphides from spinel peridotite xenoliths demonstrates that whole-rock Os-isotope signatures record the mixing of multiple sulphide populations. Sulphides residual after melting events have unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions reflecting ancient melt depletion; those introduced by later metasomatism events contain more radiogenic Os. Therefore, the whole-rock Os isotopic signature can be strongly altered by metasomatic processes, and studies of mantle-derived xenoliths show that such disturbance is quite common in the lithospheric mantle. Because melt-depletion ages estimated from individual sulphide inclusions are systematically older than those obtained from whole-rock analysis, caution is essential in the interpretation of the Os model ages derived from whole-rock analysis, and their use and abuse in geodynamic models. This work suggests that sulphide could become a key phase in unravelling the formation and evolution of the lithosphere.

  12. MADS-box transcription factor OsMADS25 regulates root development through affection of nitrate accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant's responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice.

  13. OsMYB511 encodes a MYB domain transcription activator early regulated by abiotic stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, P; Chen, H; Mu, R; Yuan, X; Zhang, H S; Huang, J

    2015-08-14

    The MYB-domain proteins exist universally across diverse organisms and regulate numerous processes during the plant life cycle. In the present research, a full-length MYB gene OsMYB511 was identified from rice seedlings through microarray data. Induction of OsMYB511 by cold stress was dramatic in japonica cultivar Jiucaiqing as compared to indica IR26. In addition to cold, OsMYB511 was also markedly induced by osmotic stress, high temperature, and exogenous ABA, suggesting that OsMYB511 is a multiple-stress responsive gene in rice. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that OsMYB511 was highly expressed in rice panicles at earlier development stage. Interestingly, OsMYB511 expression is fully subjected to circadian rhythm regulation. The subcellular localization and yeast hybrid assay suggested that OsMYB511 is nucleus-localized transcription activator. Deletion analysis suggested that trans-activation activity of OsMYB511 relied on its C-terminus. Co-expression analysis revealed additional 2 MYB genes co-expressed with OsMYB511, implying that these MYB genes might coordinately regulate stress responses in rice.

  14. Independent ordering of two interpenetrating magnetic sublattices in the double perovskite Sr2CoOsO6.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Ryan; Mishra, Rohan; Restrepo, Oscar D; Ball, Molly R; Windl, Wolfgang; Wurmehl, Sabine; Stockert, Ulrike; Büchner, Bernd; Woodward, Patrick M

    2013-12-18

    The insulating, fully ordered, double perovskite Sr2CoOsO6 undergoes two magnetic phase transitions. The Os(VI) ions order antiferromagnetically with a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 0) below TN1 = 108 K, while the high-spin Co(II) ions order antiferromagnetically with a propagation vector k = (1/2, 0, 1/2) below TN2 = 70 K. Ordering of the Os(VI) spins is accompanied by a structural distortion from tetragonal I4/m symmetry to monoclinic I2/m symmetry, which reduces the frustration of the face centered cubic lattice of Os(VI) ions. Density functional theory calculations show that the long-range Os-O-Co-O-Os and Co-O-Os-O-Co superexchange interactions are considerably stronger than the shorter Os-O-Co interactions. The poor energetic overlap between the 3d orbitals of Co and the 5d orbitals of Os appears to be responsible for this unusual inversion in the strength of short and long-range superexchange interactions.

  15. Hexagonal OsB2 reduction upon heating in H2 containing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Payzant, E. Andrew

    2014-10-23

    The stability of hexagonal ReB2 type OsB2 powder upon heating under reforming gas was investigated. Pure Os metal particles were detected by powder X-ray diffraction starting at 375⁰ C and complete transformation of OsB2 to metallic Os was observed at 725⁰ C. The mechanisms of precipitation of metallic Os is proposed and changes in the lattice parameters of OsB2 upon heating are analysed in terms of the presence of oxygen or water vapour in the heating chamber. Previous studies suggested that Os atoms possess (0) valence, while B atoms possess both (+3) and ( 3) valences in the alternating boron/osmium sheet structure of hexagonal (P63/mmc, No. 194) OsB2; if controllable method for Os removal from the lattice could be found, the opportunity would arise to form two-dimensional (2D) layers consisting of pure B atoms.

  16. The 2′-O-methyladenosine nucleoside modification gene OsTRM13 positively regulates salt stress tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youmei; Li, Dongqin; Gao, Junbao; Li, Xukai; Zhang, Rui; Jin, Xiaohuan; Hu, Zhen; Zheng, Bo; Persson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stress induces changes of modified nucleosides in tRNA, and these changes can influence codon–anticodon interaction and therefore the translation of target proteins. Certain nucleoside modification genes are associated with regulation of stress tolerance and immune response in plants. In this study, we found a dramatic increase of 2′-O-methyladenosine (Am) nucleoside in rice seedlings subjected to salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. We identified LOC_Os03g61750 (OsTRM13) as a rice candidate methyltransferase for the Am modification. OsTRM13 transcript levels increased significantly upon salt stress and ABA treatment, and the OsTrm13 protein was found to be located primarily to the nucleus. More importantly, OsTRM13 overexpression plants displayed improved salt stress tolerance, and vice versa, OsTRM13 RNA interference (RNAi) plants showed reduced tolerance. Furthermore, OsTRM13 complemented a yeast trm13Δ mutant, deficient in Am synthesis, and the purified OsTrm13 protein catalysed Am nucleoside formation on tRNA-Gly-GCC in vitro. Our results show that OsTRM13, encoding a rice tRNA nucleoside methyltransferase, is an important regulator of salt stress tolerance in rice. PMID:28369540

  17. OsSLI1, a homeodomain containing transcription activator, involves abscisic acid related stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Duan, Min; Liao, Jiakai; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Hui; Feng, Jiejie; Huang, Ji; Zhang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper type I (HD-Zip I) proteins are involved in the regulation of plant development and response to environmental stresses. In this study, OsSLI1 (Oryza sativa stress largely induced 1), encoding a member of the HD-Zip I subfamily, was isolated from rice. The expression of OsSLI1 was dramatically induced by multiple abiotic stresses and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). In silico sequence analysis discovered several cis-acting elements including multiple ABREs (ABA-responsive element binding factors) in the upstream promoter region of OsSLI1. The OsSLI1-GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of rice protoplast cells and the transcriptional activity of OsSLI1 was confirmed by the yeast hybrid system. Further, it was found that OsSLI1 expression was enhanced in an ABI5-Like1 (ABL1) deficiency rice mutant abl1 under stress conditions, suggesting that ABL1 probably negatively regulates OsSLI1 gene expression. Moreover, it was found that OsSLI1 was regulated in panicle development. Taken together, OsSLI1 may be a transcriptional activator regulating stress-responsive gene expression and panicle development in rice.

  18. OsLOX2, a rice type I lipoxygenase, confers opposite effects on seed germination and longevity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiexue; Cai, Maohong; Long, Qizhang; Liu, Linglong; Lin, Qiuyun; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Saihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Rice production and seed storage are confronted with grain deterioration and loss of seed viability. Some members of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family function in degradation of storage lipids during the seed germination, but little is known about their influence on seed longevity during storage. We characterized the role of rice OsLOX2 gene in seed germination and longevity via over-expression and knock-down approaches. Abundant expression of OsLOX2 was detected in panicles, roots, and stems, but not in leaves. Moreover, OsLOX2 was highly induced during germination. OsLOX2 protein, located in the cytoplasm, showed a wide range of temperature adaptation (20-50 °C) and a substrate preference to linoleic acid. Lines over-expressing OsLOX2 showed accelerated seed germination under normal condition and lower seed viability after accelerated aging. RNA interference (RNAi) of OsLOX2 caused delayed germination and enhanced seed longevity. RNAi lines with strongly repressed OsLOX2 activity completely lost the capability of germination after accelerated aging. More lipid hydroperoxide were found in OE15 than the control, but less in RNAi lines than in the WT Nipponbare. Therefore, OsLOX2 acts in opposite directions during seed germination and longevity during storage. Appropriate repression of the OsLOX2 gene may delay the aging process during the storage without compromising germination under normal conditions.

  19. The ethylene response factor OsERF109 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanwen; Yang, Dexin; Zhou, Shirong; Gu, Juntao; Wang, Fengru; Dong, Jingao; Huang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Drought is an important factor limiting plant development and crop production. Dissecting the factors involved in this process is the key for enhancement of plant tolerance to drought stress by genetic approach. Here, we evaluated the regulatory function of a novel rice ethylene response factor (ERF) OsERF109 in drought stress. Expression of OsERF109 was rapidly induced by stress and phytohormones. Subcellular localization and transactivation assay demonstrated that OsERF109 was localized in nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Transgenic plants overexpressing (OE) and knockdown with RNA interfering (RI) OsERF109 exhibited significantly reduced and improved drought resistance, respectively, indicating that OsERF109 negatively regulates drought resistance in rice. Furthermore, measurement by gas chromatography showed that ethylene contents were less in OE while more in RI lines than these in wild types, supporting the data of drought tolerance and water loss in transgenic lines. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also proved the regulation of OsERF109 in the expression of OSACS6, OSACO2, and OsERF3, which have been identified to play important roles in ethylene biosynthesis. Based on these results, our data evidence that OsERF109 regulates drought resistance by affecting the ethylene biosynthesis in rice. Overall, our study reveals the negative role of OsERF109 in ethylene biosynthesis and drought tolerance in rice.

  20. Re-Os geochronology on sulfides from the Tudun Cu-Ni sulfide deposit, Eastern Tianshan, and its geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minfang; Wang, Wei; Gutzmer, Jens; Liu, Kun; Li, Chao; Michałak, Przemysław P.; Xia, Qinlin; Guo, Xiaonan

    2015-11-01

    The Tudun deposit is a medium-sized Cu-Ni sulfide deposit, located at the westernmost edge of the Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan, NW China. Sulfide separates including pentlandite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite from the Tudun deposit, contain Re, common Os and 187Os ranging from 40.46 to 201.2, 0.8048 to 6.246 and 0.1709 to 0.9977 ppb, respectively. They have very low 187Os/188Os ratios of 1.224-2.352. The sulfides yield a Re-Os isochron age of 270.0 ± 7.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), consistent within uncertainty with the SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age for the Tudun mafic intrusion (gabbro) of 280.0 ± 3.0 Ma. The calculated initial 187Os/188Os ratio is 0.533 ± 0.022, and γOs values range from 283 to 307, with a mean of 297, indicating significant crustal contamination of the parent melt prior to sulfide saturation. The Tudun deposit shares the same age and Re-Os isotopic compositions with other orthomagmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits in Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt, suggesting that they have formed in Early Permian.

  1. In situ Re-Os isotopic analysis of platinum-group minerals from the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt, eastern Cuba): implications for the origin of Os-isotope heterogeneities in podiform chromitites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; González-Jiménez, José María; Gervilla, Fernando; Garrido, Carlos J.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.

    2011-06-01

    Chromitite pods in the Mayarí-Cristal ophiolitic massif (eastern Cuba) were formed in the Late Cretaceous when island arc tholeiites and MORB-like back-arc basin basalts reacted with residual mantle peridotites and generated chromite-rich bodies enclosed in dunite envelopes. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the podiform chromitites exhibit important Os-isotope heterogeneities at the kilometric, hand sample and thin section scales. 187Os/188Os calculated at the time of chromitite crystallization (~90 Ma) ranges between 0.1185 and 0.1295 (γOs = -7.1 to +1.6, relative to enstatite chondrite), and all but one PGM have subchondritic 187Os/188Os. Grains in a single hand sample have initial 187Os/188Os that spans from 0.1185 to 0.1274, and in one thin section it varies between 0.1185 and 0.1232 in two PGM included in chromite which are only several millimeters apart. As the Os budget of a single micrometric grain derives from a mantle region that was at least several m3 in size, the variable Os isotopic composition of PGM in the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites probably reflects the heterogeneity of their mantle sources on the 10-100 m scale. Our results show that this heterogeneity was not erased by pooling and mingling of individual melt batches during chromitite crystallization but was transferred to the ore deposits on mineral scale. The distribution of the Os model ages calculated for PGM shows four main peaks, at ~100, 500, 750 and 1,000 Ma. These variable Os model ages reflect the presence of different depleted domains in the oceanic (Pacific-related) upper mantle of the Greater Antilles paleo-subduction zone. The concordance between the age of crystallization of the Mayarí-Cristal chromitites and the most recent peak of the Os model age distribution in PGM supports that Os in several grains was derived from fertile domains of the upper mantle, whose bulk Os isotopic composition is best approximated by that of enstatite chondrites; on the other hand, most PGM are

  2. Syntheses, structures and redox properties of some complexes containing the Os(dppe)Cp* fragment, including [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bondCC triple bond C)].

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael I; Costuas, Karine; Davin, Thomas; Halet, Jean-François; Kramarczuk, Kathy A; Low, Paul J; Nicholson, Brian K; Perkins, Gary J; Roberts, Rachel L; Skelton, Brian W; Smith, Mark E; White, Allan H

    2007-12-14

    The sequential conversion of [OsBr(cod)Cp*] (9) to [OsBr(dppe)Cp*] (10), [Os([=C=CH2)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([11]PF6), [Os(C triple bond CH)(dppe)Cp*] (12), [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2{mu-(=C=CH-CH=C=)}][PF6]2 ([13](PF6)2) and finally [{Os(dppe)Cp*}(2)(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (14) has been used to make the third member of the triad [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The molecular structures of []PF6, 12 and 14, together with those of the related osmium complexes [Os(NCMe)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([15]PF6) and [Os(C triple bond CPh)(dppe)Cp*] (16), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Comparison of the redox properties of 14 with those of its iron and ruthenium congeners shows that the first oxidation potential E1 varies as: Fe approximately Os < Ru. Whereas the Fe complex has been shown to undergo three sequential 1-electron oxidation processes within conventional electrochemical solvent windows, the Ru and Os compounds undergo no fewer than four sequential oxidation events giving rise to a five-membered series of redox related complexes [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C4)]n+ (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), the osmium derivatives being obtained at considerably lower potentials than the ruthenium analogues. These results are complimented by DFT and DT DFT calculations.

  3. Density functional theory study of structural, electronic, and thermal properties of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os and PtPd X (X = Ir, Os, and Rh) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, Ahmed; Muhammad, Zafar; M, Shakil; M, A. Choudhary

    2016-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os metals and their alloys PtPdX (X = Ir, Os and Rh) are studied systematically using ab initio density functional theory. The groundstate properties such as lattice constant and bulk modulus are calculated to find the equilibrium atomic position for stable alloys. The electronic band structure and density of states are calculated to study the electronic behavior of metals on making their alloys. The electronic properties substantiate the metallic behavior for all studied materials. The firstprinciples density functional perturbation theory as implemented in quasi-harmonic approximation is used for the calculations of thermal properties. We have calculated the thermal properties such as the Debye temperature, vibrational energy, entropy and constant-volume specific heat. The calculated properties are compared with the previously reported experimental and theoretical data for metals and are found to be in good agreement. Calculated results for alloys could not be compared because there is no data available in the literature with such alloy composition.

  4. Overexpression of OsRecQl4 and/or OsExo1 enhances DSB-induced homologous recombination in rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Ik; Abe, Kiyomi; Osakabe, Keishi; Endo, Masaki; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Saika, Hiroaki; Shimada, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2012-12-01

    During homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in eukaryotes, an initial step is the creation of a 3'-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang via resection of a 5' end. Rad51 polymerizes on this ssDNA to search for a homologous sequence, and the gapped sequence is then repaired using an undamaged homologous DNA strand as template. Recent studies in eukaryotes indicate that resection of the DSB site is promoted by the cooperative action of RecQ helicase family proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM) in mammals or Sgs1 in yeast, and exonuclease 1 (Exo1). However, the role of RecQ helicase and exonuclease during the 5'-resection process of HR in plant cells has not yet been defined. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of rice proteins OsRecQl4 (BLM counterpart) and/or OsExo1 (Exo1 homolog) can enhance DSB processing, as evaluated by recombination substrate reporter lines in rice. These results could be applied to construct an efficient gene targeting system in rice.

  5. Highly siderophile element abundances and Re-Os model ages of pyroxenite layers from the Lanzo peridotite (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawronski, T.; Becker, H.

    2011-12-01

    Mantle pyroxenites provide direct evidence for mantle heterogeneity and magma transport in the mantle. These rocks may form by crystal accumulation at high pressures from mantle derived magmas, melt-peridotite- reaction or partial melting of basic rocks in the mantle[1]. Pyroxenites indicate changes in 187Os/188Os during magma transport in the mantle [2] and have been suggested as a potential source reservoir for 186Os enriched picrites and komatiites [3]. In order to address these issues and the budget of the highly siderophile element (HSE) in the mantle, more 187Os/188Os and HSE abundance data must be acquired. The Lanzo peridotite body consists of spinel and plagioclase facies peridotites that may represent a fossil lithosphere-asthenosphere transition uplifted during rifting of the Thetyan realm [4]. The peridotites contain layers of spinel-and plagioclase-bearing websterite, clinopyroxenites and orthopyroxenites of up to several dm in thickness. Abundances of highly siderophile elements in the pyroxenites display no correlation with Al2O3, CaO and Na2O. Aluminum rich clinopyroxenites show enrichment of Pt, Pd, Au and Re over Os, Ir, and Rh, and initial γOs (200 Ma) of +25 to +150. Concentrations of Pt, Pd, Au and Re in clinopyroxenites from Lanzo, however, are only occasionally higher than estimates for primitive mantle values. Aluminum poor websterites are less depleted in Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and display less enrichment of incompatible HSE, with γOs (200 Ma) of -2 to +43, reflecting a smaller contribution from melt enriched in incompatible HSE. Most pyroxenites are correlated in a Re-Os isochron diagram and yield an errorchron date of 1149±90 Ma (187Os/188Osi = 0,1286±0.0067). The significance of this date is not clear because the pyroxenites also display a weak correlation in a 187Os/188Os-1/Os diagram. Re-Os model ages of individual pyroxenites (relative to primitive mantle evolution) show more scatter and range mostly between 0.1 and 1.6 Ga. It appears

  6. Resolving mantle and magmatic processes in basalts from the Cameroon volcanic line using the Re-Os isotope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.; Barfod, D. N.; Schiano, P.; Vlastélic, I.; Halliday, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    This study presents major-, trace element and Re-Os isotope and elemental data for young alkaline basalts (< 10 Ma) from oceanic (Annobon, S. Tomé, Principe), continental (Manengouba) and continent-oceanic boundary (COB, Mt. Cameroon) sectors of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). The CVL is a chain of Tertiary to recent, transitional to strongly alkaline intraplate volcanoes extending from the south Atlantic island of Annobon to the continental interior of West Africa (Biu Plateau). The basalts from the oceanic sector display a range of initial 187Os/188Os ratios between 0.128 and 0.190 and those from the COB and continental sector range between 0.142 and 0.560. The samples with high 206Pb/204Pb (e.g. ratios > 20) possess 187Os/188Os isotope compositions between 0.14 and 0.18 (e.g., basalts from Mt Cameroon and Sao Tomé) which reflect the chemical characteristics that are more likely to be primary features of CVL, and are close to the value of 0.153 attributed to the HIMU end-member (Tubuai-Mangaia). However, most of the lavas from the continental sector show highly radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratios (0.36 to 0.56) that are outside the range previously observed for ocean island basalts, with shifts to radiogenic Os isotope compositions accompanied by less radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb and increasing SiO2 contents. The increase in 187Os/188Os is also associated with the decrease of Os, Ni, MgO and phenocryst abundances. These data can be explained by fractional crystallisation and assimilation of continental crust by the ascending magma. The systematic shift to unradiogenic lead isotope compositions from the COB into the oceanic sector is positively correlated with variations in 187Os/188Os isotope composition (from 0.140 to 0.128). At first sight this covariation might be attributed to the mixing of HIMU material with the ambient upper mantle (DMM). However, there is a clear covariation of the Os isotope and elemental composition, best explained with contamination of

  7. Suppression of OsRAD51D results in defects in reproductive development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Kim, Woo Taek

    2014-07-01

    The cellular roles of RAD51 paralogs in somatic and reproductive growth have been extensively described in a wide range of animal systems and, to a lesser extent, in Arabidopsis, a dicot model plant. Here, the OsRAD51D gene was identified and characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocot model crop. In the rice genome, three alternative OsRAD51D mRNA splicing variants, OsRAD51D.1, OsRAD51D.2, and OsRAD51D.3, were predicted. Yeast two-hybrid studies, however, showed that only OsRAD51D.1 interacted with OsRAD51B and OsRAD51C paralogs, suggesting that OsRAD51D.1 is a functional OsRAD51D protein in rice. Loss-of-function osrad51d mutant rice plants displayed normal vegetative growth. However, the mutant plants were defective in reproductive growth, resulting in sterile flowers. Homozygous osrad51d mutant flowers exhibited impaired development of lemma and palea and contained unusual numbers of stamens and stigmas. During early meiosis, osrad51d pollen mother cells (PMCs) failed to form normal homologous chromosome pairings. In subsequent meiotic progression, mutant PMCs represented fragmented chromosomes. The osrad51d pollen cells contained numerous abnormal micro-nuclei that resulted in malfunctioning pollen. The abnormalities of heterozygous mutant and T2 Ubi:RNAi-OsRAD51D RNAi-knock-down transgenic plants were intermediate between those of wild type and homozygous mutant plants. The osrad51d and Ubi:RNAi-OsRAD51D plants contained longer telomeres compared with wild type plants, indicating that OsRAD51D is a negative factor for telomere lengthening. Overall, these results suggest that OsRAD51D plays a critical role in reproductive growth in rice. This essential function of OsRAD51D is distinct from Arabidopsis, in which AtRAD51D is not an essential factor for meiosis or reproductive development. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIFff14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a Yeast one Hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bi...

  9. Crystal Growth, Structures, and Properties of the Complex Borides, LaOs 2 Al 2 B and La 2 Os 2 AlB 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Han, Fei; Im, Jino; Chung, Duck Young; Freeman, Arthur J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-08-17

    Single crystals of two novel quaternary metal borides, LaOs2Al2B and La2Os2AlB2, have been grown from La/Ni eutectic fluxes. LaOs2Al2B crystallizes in tetragonal space group P4/mmm with the CeCr2Si2C-type structure, and lattice parameters a = 4.2075(6) angstrom and c = 5.634(1) angstrom. La2Os2AlB2 exhibits a new crystal structure in monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice parameters a = 16.629(3) angstrom, b = 6.048(1) angstrom, c = 10.393(2) angstrom, and beta = 113.96(3)degrees. Both structures are three-dimensional frameworks with unusual coordination (for solid-state compounds) of the boron atoms by transition metal atoms. The boron atom is square planar in LaOs2Al2B, whereas it exhibits linear and T-shaped geometries in La2Os2AlB2. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal poor metal behavior (rho(30)0 (K) similar to 900 mu Omega cm) for La2Os2AlB2, consistent with the electronic band structure calculations, which also predict a metallic character for LaOs2Al2B.

  10. Genome-Wide Targets Regulated by the OsMADS1 Transcription Factor Reveals Its DNA Recognition Properties1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khanday, Imtiyaz; Das, Sanjukta; Chongloi, Grace L; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    OsMADS1 controls rice (Oryza sativa) floral fate and organ development. Yet, its genome-wide targets and the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcription regulator controlling developmental gene expression are unknown. We identify 3112 gene-associated OsMADS1-bound sites in the floret genome. These occur in the vicinity of transcription start sites, within gene bodies, and in intergenic regions. Majority of the bound DNA contained CArG motif variants or, in several cases, only A-tracts. Sequences flanking the binding peak had a higher AT nucleotide content, implying that broader DNA structural features may define in planta binding. Sequences for binding by other transcription factor families like MYC, AP2/ERF, bZIP, etc. are enriched in OsMADS1-bound DNAs. Target genes implicated in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cellular processes, and hormone metabolism were enriched. Combining expression data from OsMADS1 knockdown florets with these DNA binding data, a snapshot of a gene regulatory network was deduced where targets, such as AP2/ERF and bHLH transcription factors and chromatin remodelers form nodes. We show that the expression status of these nodal factors can be altered by inducing the OsMADS1-GR fusion protein and present a model for a regulatory cascade where the direct targets of OsMADS1, OsbHLH108/SPT, OsERF034, and OsHSF24, in turn control genes such as OsMADS32 and OsYABBY5. This cascade, with other similar relationships, cumulatively contributes to floral organ development. Overall, OsMADS1 binds to several regulatory genes and, probably in combination with other factors, controls a gene regulatory network that ensures rice floret development. PMID:27457124

  11. Rice Shaker Potassium Channel OsKAT1 Confers Tolerance to Salinity Stress on Yeast and Rice Cells1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Toshihiro; Kitamoto, Hiroko K.; Nakamura, Atsuko; Fukuda, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    We screened a rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’) full-length cDNA expression library through functional complementation in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to find novel cation transporters involved in salt tolerance. We found that expression of a cDNA clone, encoding the rice homolog of Shaker family K+ channel KAT1 (OsKAT1), suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of yeast strain G19 (Δena1–4), which lacks a major component of Na+ efflux. It also suppressed a K+-transport-defective phenotype of yeast strain CY162 (Δtrk1Δtrk2), suggesting the enhancement of K+ uptake by OsKAT1. By the expression of OsKAT1, the K+ contents of salt-stressed G19 cells increased during the exponential growth phase. At the linear phase, however, OsKAT1-expressing G19 cells accumulated less Na+ than nonexpressing cells, but almost the same K+. The cellular Na+ to K+ ratio of OsKAT1-expressing G19 cells remained lower than nonexpressing cells under saline conditions. Rice cells overexpressing OsKAT1 also showed enhanced salt tolerance and increased cellular K+ content. These functions of OsKAT1 are likely to be common among Shaker K+ channels because OsAKT1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) KAT1 were able to complement the salt-sensitive phenotype of G19 as well as OsKAT1. The expression of OsKAT1 was restricted to internodes and rachides of wild-type rice, whereas other Shaker family genes were expressed in various organs. These results suggest that OsKAT1 is involved in salt tolerance of rice in cooperation with other K+ channels by participating in maintenance of cytosolic cation homeostasis during salt stress and thus protects cells from Na+. PMID:17586689

  12. OsIRO2 is responsible for iron utilization in rice and improves growth and yield in calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko N; Kobayashi, Takanori; Aung, May Sann; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-04-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency, a worldwide agricultural problem on calcareous soil with low Fe availability, is also a major human nutritional deficit. Plants induce Fe acquisition systems under conditions of low Fe availability. Previously, we reported that an Fe-deficiency-inducible basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, OsIRO2, is responsible for regulation of the genes involved in Fe homeostasis in rice. Using promoter-GUS transformants, we showed that OsIRO2 is expressed throughout a plant's lifetime in a spatially and temporally similar manner to the genes OsNAS1, OsNAS2 and TOM1, which is involved in Fe absorption and translocation. During germination, OsIRO2 expression was detected in embryos. OsIRO2 expression in vegetative tissues was restricted almost exclusively to vascular bundles of roots and leaves, and to the root exodermis under Fe-sufficient conditions, and expanded to all tissues of roots and leaves in response to Fe deficiency. OsIRO2 expression was also detected in flowers and developing seeds. Plants overexpressing OsIRO2 grew better, and OsIRO2-repressed plants showed poor growth compared to non-transformant rice after germination. OsIRO2 overexpression also resulted in improved tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. In addition to increased Fe content in shoots, the overexpression plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe in seeds than non-transformants when grown on calcareous soil. These results suggest that OsIRO2 is synchronously expressed with genes involved in Fe homeostasis, and performs a crucial function in regulation not only of Fe uptake from soil but also Fe transport during germination and Fe translocation to grain during seed maturation.

  13. Genetic transformation and analysis of rice OsAPx2 gene in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingjie; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2012-01-01

    The OsAPx2 gene from rice was cloned to produce PBI121::OsAPx2 dual-expression plants, of which expression level would be increasing under stressful conditions. The enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the leaves and roots of the plants increased with increasing exposure time to different sodium chloride (NaCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))concentrations, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis. The increased enzyme yield improved the ability of the plants to resist the stress treatments. The OsAPx2 gene was localized in the cytoplasm of epidermal onion cells as indicated by the instantaneous expression of green fluorescence. An 80% regeneration rate was observed in Medicago sativa L. plants transformed with the OsAPx2 gene using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as indicated by specific primer PCR. The OsAPx2 gene was expressed at the mRNA level and the individual M. sativa (T#1,T#2,T#5) were obtained through assaying the generation of positive T2 using RNA gel blot analysis. When the seeds of the wild type (WT) and the T2 (T#1,T#5) were incubated in culture containing MS with NaCl for 7 days, the results as shown of following: the root length of transgenic plant was longer than WT plants, the H(2)O(2) content in roots of WT was more than of transgenic plants, the APX activity under stresses increased by 2.89 times compared with the WT, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the WT was higher than the transgenic plants, the leaves of the WT turned yellow, but those of the transgenic plants remained green and remained healthy. The chlorophyll content in the WT leaves was less than in the transgenic plants, after soaking in solutions of H(2)O(2), sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)). Therefore, the OsAPx2 gene overexpression in transgenic M. sativa improves the removal of H(2)O(2) and the salt-resistance compared with WT plants. A novel strain of M. sativa carrying a salt-resistance gene was obtained.

  14. Genetic Transformation and Analysis of Rice OsAPx2 Gene in Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingjie; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2012-01-01

    The OsAPx2 gene from rice was cloned to produce PBI121::OsAPx2 dual-expression plants, of which expression level would be increasing under stressful conditions. The enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the leaves and roots of the plants increased with increasing exposure time to different sodium chloride (NaCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)concentrations, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis. The increased enzyme yield improved the ability of the plants to resist the stress treatments. The OsAPx2 gene was localized in the cytoplasm of epidermal onion cells as indicated by the instantaneous expression of green fluorescence. An 80% regeneration rate was observed in Medicago sativa L. plants transformed with the OsAPx2 gene using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as indicated by specific primer PCR. The OsAPx2 gene was expressed at the mRNA level and the individual M. sativa (T#1,T#2,T#5) were obtained through assaying the generation of positive T2 using RNA gel blot analysis. When the seeds of the wild type (WT) and the T2 (T#1,T#5) were incubated in culture containing MS with NaCl for 7 days, the results as shown of following: the root length of transgenic plant was longer than WT plants, the H2O2 content in roots of WT was more than of transgenic plants, the APX activity under stresses increased by 2.89 times compared with the WT, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the WT was higher than the transgenic plants, the leaves of the WT turned yellow, but those of the transgenic plants remained green and remained healthy. The chlorophyll content in the WT leaves was less than in the transgenic plants, after soaking in solutions of H2O2, sodium sulfite (Na2SO3), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Therefore, the OsAPx2 gene overexpression in transgenic M. sativa improves the removal of H2O2 and the salt-resistance compared with WT plants. A novel strain of M. sativa carrying a salt-resistance gene was obtained. PMID:22848448

  15. Constraints on the origin of Os-isotope disequilibrium in included and interstitial sulfides in mantle peridotites: Implications for the interpretation of Os-isotope signatures in MORB and Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of isotope variations in basalts to probe the composition and evolution of the mantle is predicated on the assumption of local (i.e., grain-scale) isotopic equilibrium during mantle melting (Hofmann & Hart, 1978). However, several studies report Os-isotope disequilibrium in distinct populations of sulfides in some peridotites. In principle, grain-scale isotopic heterogeneity could reflect variable radiogenic ingrowth in ancient sulfides with variable Re/Os, or partial re-equilibration of low-Re/Os sulfides with high-Re/Os silicate phases along grain boundaries during mantle melting (e.g., Alard et al., 2005). Both cases require that sulfides fail to maintain isotopic equilibrium with neighboring phases over geologically long ( Ga) time scales. The preservation of Os-isotope disequilibrium in peridotites has been ascribed to the armoring effect of low-[Os] silicates, which limit diffusive exchange between isolated Os-rich phases. This raises the prospect that peridotite-derived melts may not inherit the Os-isotope composition of their source. The timescale required for diffusive equilibration between separate sulfide grains or between Os-rich sulfides and Os-poor silicates is a function of average sulfide size and spacing, Os diffusivity in armoring silicate minerals, and Os partitioning between silicate and sulfide phases. For typical sulfide abundances and sizes in mantle peridotites, neighboring sulfides are expected to re-equilibrate in less than a few 10s of m.y. at adiabatic mantle temperatures, even for very high (>106) sulfide/silicate KD values. Maintenance of disequilibrium requires very large sulfides (>100 um) separated by several mm and diffusion rates (D < 10-20 m2/s) slower than for most other elements in olivine. Equilibration timescales between sulfides and surrounding silicates are similar, so that large-scale isotopic disequilibrium between sulfides and silicates is also unlikely within the convecting mantle. Instead, observed grain

  16. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a novel Os(II)-supported tungstoarsenate [HAsW{sub 7}O{sub 28}Os(dmso){sub 3}]{sup 6-}

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Lihua Li Bao; Wu Lixin Shao Kuizhan; Su Zhongmin

    2009-01-15

    Reaction of tri-lacunary Keggin tungstoarsenate with osmium complex Os(dmso){sub 4}Cl{sub 2} under mild condition led to the formation of a novel Os (II)-supported tungstoarsenate Na{sub 5}(NH{sub 4})[HAsW{sub 7}O{sub 28}Os(dmso){sub 3}].15H{sub 2}O (1a). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that compound 1a crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c (no. 14) with a=14.9166(12) A, b=23.6935(19) A, c=16.5349(14) A, {beta}=92.7950(10){sup o}, V=5836.9(8) A{sup 3}, Z=4 with R{sub 1}=0.0453. The crystal structure reveals two features: (1) the polyanion [HAsW{sub 7}O{sub 28}Os(dmso){sub 3}]{sup 6-} (1) consists of a Os(dmso){sub 3} unit linked to a tungstoarsenate fragment {l_brace}HAsW{sub 7}O{sub 28}{r_brace} via two Os-O-W bonds and one Os-O-As bond resulting in an assembly with C{sub s} symmetry, which represents a novel mode of Os-coordination to a polyoxoanion framework; (2) 3D architecture assembled by the polyanion 1 and sodium linkers. In addition, the compound 1a was well characterized by the multinuclear NMR ({sup 13}C, {sup 1}H), IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). - Graphical abstract: A new tungstoarsenate containing a Os(dmso){sub 3} unit [HAsW{sub 7}O{sub 28}Os(dmso){sub 3}]{sup 6-} (1) has been synthesized using [HAsW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sup 8-} as polyanion precursor and structurally characterized.

  17. The partitioning of Pt-Re-Os between solid and liquid metal in the Fe-Ni-S system at high pressure: Implications for inner core fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiromi; Ohtani, Eiji; Terasaki, Hidenori; Ito, Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Coupled 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os enrichments of plume-derived lavas have been suggested to reflect contributions of materials from the outer core ( Brandon et al., 1998). This hypothesis is based on the assumption that the Earth's liquid outer core has high Pt/Os and slightly high Re/Os ratios as a result of the crystallization of the solid inner core, and shows coupled enrichments in the 186Os/ 188Os and 187Os/ 188Os ratios, reflecting the decay of 190Pt and 187Re to 186Os and 187Os, respectively. Partitioning experiments of Pt-Re-Os between solid and liquid metal were performed at 5-20 GPa and 1250-1400 °C, to examine the effects of pressure in the Fe-Ni-S system. The ratios ( DOs/ DPt, DOs/ DRe) of measured partition coefficients of Pt, Re and Os are almost constant with increasing pressure. DOs/ DPt increases significantly, whereas DOs/ DRe decreases, with increasing sulphur content in the liquid metal. On the basis of the present experimental results, it is unlikely that the required Pt-Re-Os fractionation is generated during inner core crystallization, assuming that the light element in the Earth's core is sulphur.

  18. 32 CFR 1630.17 - Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all military service (separated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-O-S: Conscientious objector to all... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.17 Class 1-O-S: Conscientious... (including their reserve components) by reason of conscientious objection to participation in both...

  19. Roles of pollen-specific boron efflux transporter, OsBOR4, in the rice fertilization process.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Saito, Akihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Kasai, Koji; Sato, Yutaka; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Toru

    2013-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 was the first boron (B) transporter identified in living systems. There are four AtBOR1-like genes, OsBOR1, 2, 3 and 4, present in the rice genome. We characterized the activity, expression and physiological function of OsBOR4. OsBOR4 is an active efflux transporter of B. Quantitative PCR analysis and OsBOR4 promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion revealed that OsBOR4 was both highly and specifically expressed in pollen. We obtained five Tos17 insertion mutants of osbor4. The pollen grains were viable and development of floral organs was normal in the homozygous osbor4 mutants. We observed that in all Tos17 insertion lines tested, the frequency of osbor4 homozygous plants was lower than expected in the progeny of self-fertilized heterozygous plants. These results establish that OsBOR4 is essential for normal reproductive processes. Pollen from osbor4 homozygous plants elongated fewer tubes on wild-type stigmas, and tube elongation of mutant pollen was less efficient compared with the wild-type pollen, suggesting reduced competence of osbor4 mutant pollen. The reduced competence of mutant pollen was further supported by the crosses of independent Tos17-inserted alleles of OsBOR4. Our results suggest that OsBOR4, a boron efflux transporter, is required for normal pollen germination and/or tube elongation.

  20. Ectopic expression of Pokkali phosphoglycerate kinase-2 (OsPGK2-P) improves yield in tobacco plants under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohit; Karan, Ratna; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Our results indicate that OsPGK2a-P gene is differentially regulated in contrasting rice cultivars under stress and its overexpression confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK; EC = 2.7.2.3) plays a major role for ATP production during glycolysis and 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate production to participate in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation in plants. Whole genome analysis of rice reveals the presence of four PGK genes (OsPgks) on different chromosomes. Comparative expression analysis of OsPgks in rice revealed highest level of transcripts for OsPgk2 at most of its developmental stages. Detailed characterization of OsPgk2 transcript and protein showed that it is strongly induced by salinity stress in two contrasting genotypes of rice, i.e., cv IR64 (salt sensitive) and landrace Pokkali (salt tolerant). Ectopic expression of OsPgk2a-P (isolated from Pokkali) in transgenic tobacco improved its salinity stress tolerance by higher chlorophyll retention and enhanced proline accumulation, besides maintaining better ion homeostasis. Ectopically expressing OsPgk2a-P transgenic tobacco plants showed tall phenotype with more number of pods than wild-type plants. Therefore, OsPgk2a-P appears to be a potential candidate for increasing salinity stress tolerance and enhanced yield in crop plants.

  1. The rice (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase (OsTPS3) accounts for the major inducible volatile sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ai-Xia; Xiang, Cai-Yu; Li, Jian-Xu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hu, Wen-Li; Wang, Ling-Jian; Lou, Yong-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2007-06-01

    Terpenoids serve as both constitutive and inducible defense chemicals in many plant species, and volatile terpenes participate in plant a indirect defense by attracting natural enemies of the herbivores. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome contains about 50 genes encoding putative terpene synthases (TPSs). Here we report that two of the rice sesquiterpene synthase genes, OsTPS3 and OsTPS13, encode (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase and (E,E)-farnesol synthase, respectively. In vitro, the recombinant protein of OsTPS3 catalyzed formation of (E)-beta-caryophyllene and several other sesquiterpenes, including beta-elemene and alpha-humulene, all being components of inducible volatiles of rice plants. The transcript levels of OsTPS3 exhibit a circadian rhythm of fluctuation, and its expression was also greatly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In addition, expression of OsTPS3 in transgenic plants of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in emitting high quantities of OsTPS3 products. We also overexpressed OsTPS3 in rice plants which then produced more (E)-beta-caryophyllene after MeJA treatment. Finally, we found that the MeJA-treated transgenic rice plants attracted more parasitoid wasps of Anagrus nilaparvatae than the wild-type. These results demonstrate that OsTPS3, an enzyme catalyzing the formation of volatile sesquiterpenes, plays a role in indirect defense of rice plants.

  2. Spin-orbit coupling controlled ground state in Sr2ScOsO6

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Fishman, R. S.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we report neutron scattering experiments which reveal a large spin gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum of weakly-monoclinic double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6. The spin gap is demonstrative of appreciable spin-orbit-induced anisotropy, despite nominally orbitally-quenched 5d3Os5+ ions. The system is successfully modeled including nearest neighbor interactions in a Heisenberg Hamiltonian with exchange anisotropy. We find that the presence of the spin-orbit-induced anisotropy is essential for the realization of the type I antiferromagnetic ground state. Finally, this demonstrates that physics beyond the LS or JJ coupling limits plays an active role in determining the collective properties of 4d3 and 5d3more » systems and that theoretical treatments must include spin-orbit coupling.« less

  3. X11---A graphic interface in the OS-9 real-time environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, A. )

    1990-08-01

    X11 is a graphic window manager developed as a joint project of the Masschusetts Institute of Technology and Digital Equipment Corporation. It represents a widely available platform to develop distributed graphic applications using TCP/IP and DECNET. Microware's OS-9 is a real-time operating system widely used inside the physics community. The marriage between OS-9 and X11 should be seen as an attempt to stabilize a wise, open and accepted platform in the physics world to do real-time programming as well as line graphic output. Choosing X11 as our graphic environment should allow applications to run virtually without changes for several years but still be able to use the latest and fastest CPUs/architectures.

  4. Nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells on rhombic µ-pillars.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Melanie; Stannard, Cleo; Anselme, Karine; Rühe, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    It has been previously shown that osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells respond to micropillared surfaces consisting of poly-L-lactic acid with strong deformation of the cell body and nucleus. Until now, cell nucleus deformation of SaOs-2 cells was only studied by exposing them to square shaped micropillars in an isotropic pattern. Here we report on experiments of the cell nucleus response of such cells to rhombic structures of different topographies generated from a rubbery polymer, namely poly(n-butyacrylate). It is observed that cells orientate themselves perpendicular to the long axis of the rhombi. While their spreading on the surface is not influenced by the opening angle of the structures, rhombic structures with sharper angles induce stronger deformation of the cells and accordingly more elongated nuclei.

  5. An iOS Framework for the Indivo X Personally Controlled Health Record.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Pascal B; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The Indivo X personally controlled health record creates a channel between researchers and the patient/subject in several large scale projects. Indivo enables patients to access their health data through a web interface and, as an "apps platform", can be extended in functionality. Patient-facing apps, such as a medication list, may improve the data flow between researcher and patient, in both directions, and as such provide better data for the researcher and immediate benefit for the patient. However, research projects in general do not allocate large funds to patient facing apps, let alone a mobile interface. Thus we have created a framework that greatly simplifies connecting an iOS app to an Indivo X server. Our open-source framework enables novel as well as experienced iOS developers to build mobile interfaces for their research subjects, taking advantage of Indivo X.

  6. Correlation between microstructure and thermionic electron emission from Os-Ru thin films on dispenser cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzentruber, Phillip D.; John Balk, Thomas; Effgen, Michael P.

    2014-07-01

    Osmium-ruthenium films with different microstructures were deposited onto dispenser cathodes and subjected to 1000 h of close-spaced diode testing. Tailored microstructures were achieved by applying substrate biasing during deposition, and these were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy before and after close-spaced diode testing. Knee temperatures determined from the close-spaced diode test data were used to evaluate cathode performance. Cathodes with a large (10-11) Os-Ru film texture possessed comparatively low knee temperatures. Furthermore, a low knee temperature correlated with a low effective work function as calculated from the close-spaced diode data. It is proposed that the formation of strong (10-11) texture is responsible for the superior performance of the cathode with a multilayered Os-Ru coating.

  7. The origin of hyperferroelectricity in LiBO3 (B = V, Nb, Ta, Os)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Ren, Xinguo; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of LiBO3 (B = V, Nb, Ta, Os) are investigated via first-principles methods. We show that LiBO3 belong to the recently proposed hyperferroelectrics (hyperFEs), i.e., they all have unstable longitudinal optic phonon modes. Especially, the ferroelectric-like instability in the metal LiOsO3, whose optical dielectric constant goes to infinity, is a limiting case of hyperFEs. Via an effective Hamiltonian, we further show that, in contrast to normal proper ferroelectricity, in which the ferroelectric instability usually comes from long-range coulomb interactions, the hyperFE instability is due to the structure instability driven by short-range interactions. This could happen in systems with large ion size mismatches, which therefore provides a useful guidance in searching for novel hyperFEs. PMID:27694996

  8. An embedded EEG analyzing system based on muC/os-II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqiang; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhongguo; Yin, Cong

    2007-01-01

    An EEG analyzing system based on Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) and muC/os-II real time operating system is discussed in this paper. The detailed system design including the producing of event signals and the synchronization between event signals and EEG signals is described. The details of data acquisition, data preprocessing, data transmitting through USB and system configurations are also contained in the system design. In this paper the design of high capability amplifier and the software of embedded subsystem are discussed. Also the design of realizing multi-task system in muC/os-II, the definition of communicating protocols between PC and the equipment and the detail configurations of USB are given out. The final test shows that the filter behaviors of this equipment are feasible.

  9. OsSDS is essential for DSB formation in rice meiosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Ji, Jianhui; Tang, Ding; Wang, Hongjun; Shen, Yi; Shi, Wenqing; Li, Yafei; Tan, Xuelin; Cheng, Zhukuan; Luo, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    SDS is a meiosis specific cyclin-like protein and required for DMC1 mediated double-strand break (DSB) repairing in Arabidopsis. Here, we found its rice homolog, OsSDS, is essential for meiotic DSB formation. The Ossds mutant is normal in vegetative growth but both male and female gametes are inviable. The Ossds meiocytes exhibit severe defects in homologous pairing and synapsis. No γH2AX immunosignals in Ossds meiocytes together with the suppression of chromosome fragmentation in Ossds-1 Osrad51c, both provide strong evidences that OsSDS is essential for meiotic DSB formation. Immunostaining investigations revealed that meiotic chromosome axes are normally formed but both SC installation and localization of recombination elements are failed in Ossds. We suspected that this cyclin protein has been differentiated pretty much between monocots and dicots on its function in meiosis.

  10. 121Sb-NMR Knight shift study of filled skutterudite CeOs4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogi, M.; Niki, H.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2012-12-01

    We carried out an 121Sb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement on CeOs4Sb12 to investigate its electric state. The precise temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shift was obtained by using an aligned powdered sample and NQR parameters. The T dependence of the Knight shift below 300 K can not be explained by the c-f hybridization gap model with 2D = 3000 K and 2Δ = 320 K obtained by the 1/T1. This result indicates that there is q-dependence in the gap. It was revealed that a ferromagnetic correlation develops with decreasing temperature below 50 K from an increase of the Knight shift. Considering this result and previous 1/T1 measurements, there are both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic fluctuations in CeOs4Sb12.

  11. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2KOsB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  12. Spin-orbit coupling controlled ground state in Sr2ScOsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Fishman, R. S.; Calder, S.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Lumsden, M. D.; Woodward, P. M.; Christianson, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    We report neutron scattering experiments which reveal a large spin gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum of weakly-monoclinic double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6 . The spin gap is demonstrative of appreciable spin-orbit-induced anisotropy, despite nominally orbitally-quenched 5 d3Os5 + ions. The system is successfully modeled including nearest neighbor interactions in a Heisenberg Hamiltonian with exchange anisotropy. We find that the presence of the spin-orbit-induced anisotropy is essential for the realization of the type I antiferromagnetic ground state. This demonstrates that physics beyond the LS or JJ coupling limits plays an active role in determining the collective properties of 4 d3 and 5 d3 systems and that theoretical treatments must include spin-orbit coupling.

  13. Microscopic structure of low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Iudice, N.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2008-11-15

    The phonon and quasiparticle structure of the low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os is investigated within the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model. An overall agreement with the data is obtained for energies and transitions. The properties of the 0{sup +} states are found to be correlated with the evolution of the nuclear shape toward the {gamma}-soft region. Special attention is devoted at the 4{sub 3}{sup +} state. This state is found to be composed of a large double-{gamma} phonon component coexisting with an even larger one-phonon hexadecapole piece. Such a mixed phonon structure explains the observed, apparently contradictory, properties of the 4{sub 3}{sup +} states in Os isotopes.

  14. The origin of hyperferroelectricity in LiBO3 (B = V, Nb, Ta, Os)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Ren, Xinguo; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin

    2016-10-01

    The electronic and structural properties of LiBO3 (B = V, Nb, Ta, Os) are investigated via first-principles methods. We show that LiBO3 belong to the recently proposed hyperferroelectrics (hyperFEs), i.e., they all have unstable longitudinal optic phonon modes. Especially, the ferroelectric-like instability in the metal LiOsO3, whose optical dielectric constant goes to infinity, is a limiting case of hyperFEs. Via an effective Hamiltonian, we further show that, in contrast to normal proper ferroelectricity, in which the ferroelectric instability usually comes from long-range coulomb interactions, the hyperFE instability is due to the structure instability driven by short-range interactions. This could happen in systems with large ion size mismatches, which therefore provides a useful guidance in searching for novel hyperFEs.

  15. Rice OsSIPK and its orthologs: a "central master switch" for stress responses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Kubo, Akihiro; Rakwal, Randeep

    2009-02-13

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a central role in controlling a vast array of plant biochemical and physiological processes. It is regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three kinases phosphorylate and activate each other. Over the past years, several plants MAPKs have been identified and characterized. Of these, rice OsSIPK (Salicylic acid (SA)-Induced Protein Kinase) and its orthologs in other plants are of particular interest. A large body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of SIPKs in fine-tuned regulation of the plant responses to ozone, wounding, SA, and jasmonic acid (JA). Interestingly, their function appears to be conserved across reference plants, such as rice, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. In this minireview, we discuss the recent progress on rice OsSIPK and its orthologs as a "central master switch" for mediating plant responses against ozone, wounding, and JA as examples.

  16. [A malformation to know: os odontoideum. Report on two pediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Cherradi Lachhab, I; Dafiri, R

    2014-04-01

    The os odontoideum, or mobile odontoid apophysis, is a malformation of the cervico-occipital hinge caused by missing unity in the ossification center of the dens on the body of the axis. This malformation induces atloaxial instability and exposes the subject to the risk of bulbar-medullary compression. The true incidence of this condition is difficult to determine because many cases are asymptomatic. The pathogenesis is discussed. Congenital and traumatic theories have been advanced. Clinically, the defect can be discovered incidentally or revealed by neck pain, a stiff neck, dizziness, or deficient syndrome. CT and MRI imaging can detect the defects, and allow one to study the impact on the contents of the spinal canal and detect lesions. We report two new os odontoideum observations in children aged 5 and 14 years who were referred for equilibrium disorders and tetraparesis, respectively.

  17. Collagen with simvastatin promotes cell metabolism in osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suthanthiran, Thanga Kumaran; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Nagarathinam, Umamaheswari; Arun, K V; Srinivasan, N

    2012-08-01

    Simvastatin (SMV) is one of the cholesterol-lowering pharmacological drugs. Recent studies demonstrate that it has a bone stimulatory effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of SMV along with collagen membrane on osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and also to standardize the dosage of SMV to be incorporated into the collagen membrane to achieve regeneration. SMV at doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg was incorporated into the collagen membrane and cell metabolism was assessed by (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay for 24 h. SMV enhanced cell metabolism dose dependently at 24-h time and the maximum effect was obtained at a concentration of 1.5 mg of SMV. These results indicate that collagen with 1.5 mg SMV exhibits positive effect on cell metabolism of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

  18. Stress response of OsETHE1 is altered in response to light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Sopory, Sudhir K

    2014-01-01

    ETHYLMALONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PROTEIN1 (ETHE1), encoding sulfur dioxygenase activity is believed to be an important candidate in sulfur metabolism, where it is involved in amino acid catabolism during carbohydrate starvation and embryo development as seen in Arabidopsis thaliana. OsETHE1, an ETHE1-encoding gene from rice, is in fact induced in response to abiotic stresses, condition which affects nutritional status of the plant, reflecting the need for nutrient remobilization. Sulfur reduction and assimilation are believed to be light-dependent processes and so the genes involved in sulfur oxidation must also be investigated for light-dependent regulatory effects. To this end, we show that the stress response of OsETHE1 is dependent on light and that darkness largely suppresses the stress response of this gene. However, the observed regulatory effect is intricate, varying according to the stress imposed; thereby suggesting the involvement of various aspects of signaling in this process.

  19. Re sbnd Os isotope systematics of HIMU and EMII oceanic island basalts from the south Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauri, Erik H.; Hart, Stanley R.

    1993-01-01

    The Re sbnd Os and complementary Sr, Nd and Pb systematics of 24 oceanic island basalts from the islands of Savaii, Tahaa, Rarotonga, Rurutu, Tubuai and Mangaia are investigated. Re concentrations range from 100 to 1621 ppt (parts per trillion), while Os concentrations vary from 26 to 750 ppt. The Re and Os concentration variations suggest that fractionation and accumulation of olivine, or a low Re/Os phase in conjunction with olivine, is important in determining the Os concentration and the Re/Os ratio of the erupted basalt. 187Os 186Os in EMII basalts from Samoa and Tahaa varies from 1.0261 to 1.1275. These ratios are mostly within estimates for depleted upper mantle, and do not constrain the involvement of recycled continental crust in the origin of the EMII signature. 187Os 186Os ratios in HIMU basalts from Rurutu, Tubuai and Mangaia range from 1.1159 to 1.2473, and provide strong evidence for the role of subducted oceanic crust in the HIMU source. The Pb sbnd Pb systematics constrain the range of possible ages and 238U 204Pb and Th/U ratios of the subducted crust; this crust is estimated to pass through the subduction zone with Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd, Lu/Hf and Th/U ratios similar to fresh MORB. The homogeneity of the Os isotopic compositions in the Tubuai and Mangaia basalts indicates that interaction of these basalts with low 187Os 186Os mantle had an insignificant effect on the Os isotopic composition of the erupted magmas. This requires a network of channels, veins or cracks capable of delivering melt from the source region (plume) to the surface fast enough to avoid interaction with the depleted upper mantle and the oceanic lithosphere. The possible identification of the HIMU signature (high 206Pb 204Pb , low 87Sr 86Sr ) with recycled oceanic crust suggests the possible presence of segments of recycled crust, with independent histories, in other oceanic mantle sources, including that of some mid-ocean ridge basalts.

  20. New insights from old spherules: Os-W isotope and HSE evidence for Paleoarchean meteorite bombardment of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, T.; Luguet, A. A.; Koeberl, C.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: Although still debated, spherule beds in the Barberton Mountain Land (~3.4 Ga) are suspected to represent remnants of impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [e.g. 1]. Such deposits provide the only window into the late stages of the heavy meteorite bombardment on Earth as their source craters have long since been obliterated. In order to identify a possible meteoritic component and, if successful, to discuss potential projectile materials, we are performing a detailed Os-W isotope as well as HSE abundance study on spherule layers from the recently drilled ICDP BARB5 core (grid location 25°30`50.76``S, 31°33`10.08``E). Samples and Methods: Samples were taken from a spherule-containing meta-sedimentary core section discovered between 510 and 512 m depth. About 100 mg of homogenized sample powders were spiked with a mixed 190Os, 185Re, 191Ir and 194Pt tracer and treated in a high pressure asher using inverse aqua regia, followed by conventional extraction schemes for Os and the other HSEs [4]. Chemical and Os isotope measurements (via N-TIMS) were performed in Vienna, whereas HSE measurements were undertaken via ICP MS in Bonn. Results and Discussion: Our preliminary Os isotope data reveal a trend between samples exhibiting high spherule to matrix ratios (187Os/188Os ~0.106 and Os ~0.4 ppm) and samples with lower ones (187Os/188Os up to ~0.304 and Os ~0.008 ppm). Notably, the most unradiogenic samples exhibit carbonaceous-chondrite-like initial 187Os/188Os and HSE ratios, whereas all other samples are clear non-chondritic. These findings support an extraterrestrial contribution in the spherules and can be interpreted compared to conclusions drawn from a Cr isotope study performed on similar samples [3], possibly representing a different impact event and favouring a chondritic projectile. However, further considerations based on precise Os/W ratio determinations and high-precision 182W isotope data, will be presented at the

  1. Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates submergence-dependent root hair development in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Liu, Jingmiao; Han, Chang-Deok

    2013-08-01

    By using a forward genetic approach, a formin homology 1 gene (OsFH1) was identified as a critical regulator of rice root hair development. The phenotypic effect of OsFH1 on root hair development was verified by using three independent mutants, one point mutation and two T-DNA insertions. The study showed that OsFH1 is required for the elongation of root-hairs. However, Osfh1 exhibited growth defect of root hairs only when roots were grown submerged in solution. To understand how OsFH1 impinges on plant responses to root submergence, the growth responses of Osfh1 root hairs to anoxia, carbohydrate supplementation and exogenous hormones (auxin and ethylene) and nutrients (Fe and Pi) were examined. However, none of these treatments rescued the growth defects of Osfhl1 root hairs. This study demonstrates that OsFH1 could be involved in preventing submergence-induced inhibition of root hair growth.

  2. Optimization techniques for FORTRAN 4 (G and H) programs written for the IBM 360 under OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A fairly complete list is reported of programming techniques which are available to the programmer for optimizing the execution time of production programs written in FORTRAN IV (G and H) for the IBM 360 under OS. After the program has been complied under FORTRAN H, OPT=2, then the process of actually changing code begins. The bulk of execution time of FORTRAN programs can almost always be attributed to a few loops, and primary consideration is given to these.

  3. NQRS Data for C10H11BrOS (Subst. No. 1240)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H11BrOS (Subst. No. 1240)

  4. Comment on ''Low-frequency anomaly in /sup 172/Os moment of inertia''

    SciTech Connect

    Pauling, L.

    1988-02-01

    I suggest that the anomaly at I = 6/sup +/ in the ground-state band of /sup 172/Os results from the increase from two to three in the difference in nucleon number of the revolving cluster when I increases to I+2, and that the yrast cusp at I = 16/sup +/ corresponds to the change in structure from one revolving cluster to two revolving clusters. Values of the electric quadrupole moment are predicted.

  5. Rice Phytochrome B (OsPhyB) Negatively Regulates Dark- and Starvation-Induced Leaf Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Weilan; Kim, Eun-Young; Han, Su-Hyun; Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2015-01-01

    Light regulates leaf senescence and light deprivation causes large-scale transcriptional reprogramming to dismantle cellular components and remobilize nutrients to sink organs, such as seeds and storage tissue. We recently reported that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Phytochrome-Interacting Factor4 (PIF4) and PIF5 promote dark-induced senescence and natural senescence by directly activating the expression of typical senescence-associated genes (SAGs), including ORESARA1 (ORE1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3). In contrast, phytochrome B (PhyB) inhibits leaf senescence by repressing PIF4 and PIF5 at the post-translational level. Although we found how red light signaling represses leaf senescence in Arabidopsis, it remains unknown whether PhyB and/or PhyA are involved in leaf senescence in rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that rice phyB knockout mutants (osphyB-1, -2, and -3) exhibited an early senescence phenotype during dark-induced senescence, but an osphyA knockout mutant (osphyA-3) senesced normally. The RT-qPCR analysis revealed that several senescence-associated genes, including OsORE1 and OsEIN3, were significantly up-regulated in osphyB-2 mutants, indicating that OsPhyB also inhibits leaf senescence, like Arabidopsis PhyB. We also found that leaf segments of osphyB-2 senesced faster even under light conditions. Supplementation with nitrogen compounds, such as KNO3 and NH4NO3, rescued the early senescence phenotype of osphyB-2, indicating that starvation is one of the major signaling factors in the OsPhyB-dependent leaf senescence pathway. PMID:27135344

  6. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  7. Different titanium surfaces modulate the bone phenotype of SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Postiglione, L; Di Domenico, G; Ramaglia, L; di Lauro, A E; Di Meglio, F; Montagnani, S

    2004-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium implants presenting a relatively smooth, machined surface or a roughened endosseous surface show a large percentage of clinical success. Surface properties of dental implants seem to affect bone cells response. Implant topography appears to modulate cell growth and differentiation of osteoblasts affecting the bone healing around the titanium implant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 1cm diameter and 1mm thick titanium disks on cellular morphology, adhesion and bone phenotypic expression of human osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2. SaOS-2 cells were cultured on commercially 1 cm pure titanium disks with three different surface roughness: smooth (S), sandblasted (SB) and titanium plasma sprayed (TPS). Differences in the cellular morphology were found when they were grown on the three different surfaces. An uniform monolayer of cells recovered the S surface, while clusters of multilayered irregularly shaped cells were distributed on the rough SB and TPS surfaces. The adhesion of SaOS-2 cells, as measured after 3h of culture, was not affected by surface roughness. ECM components such as Collagen I (CoI), Fibronectin (FN), Vitronectin (VN) and Tenascin (TN) were secreted and organized only on the SB and TPS surfaces while they remained into the cytoplasm on the S surfaces. Osteopontin and BSP-II were largely detected on the SB and TPS surfaces, while only minimal production was observed on the S ones. These data show that titanium surface roughness affects bone differentiation of osteoblast like-cells, SaOS-2, indicating that surface properties may be able to modulate the osteoblast phenotype. These observations also suggest that the bone healing response around dental implants can be affected by surface topography.

  8. PNNL OS3700 Tritium Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carrell, Dorothy M.; Douglas, David D.; Carter, Gregory L.

    2005-11-09

    The PNNL OS3700 Tritium Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes herein how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the Berthold LB110 flow-through proportional counter detector system. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  9. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reactions of Re(+), Os(+), and Ir(+) with CO.

    PubMed

    Kim, JungSoo; Cox, Richard M; Armentrout, P B

    2016-11-21

    The kinetic-energy dependences of the reactions M(+) + CO where M(+) = Re(+), Os(+), and Ir(+) are studied using guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. Formation of both MO(+) and MC(+) was observed in endothermic processes for all three metals. Modeling of the data provides thresholds that yield 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs, in eV) of 4.67 ± 0.09 (Re(+)-O), 4.82 ± 0.14 (Os(+)-O), 4.25 ± 0.11 (Ir(+)-O), 5.13 ± 0.12 (Re(+)-C), 6.14 ± 0.14 (Os(+)-C), and 6.58 ± 0.12 (Ir(+)-C). These BDEs agree well with literature values within experimental uncertainties demonstrating that ground state products are formed for all cases even though some of the reactions are formally spin forbidden. Quantum mechanical calculations at several levels of theory and using several basis sets were performed for MC(+) and MO(+) (with comparable results taken from the literature in some cases). B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculated ground state BDEs agree reasonably well with experimental values. The ground states in B3LYP and CCSD(T)/CBS calculations are Σ-3 (ReC(+)), Δ2 (OsC(+)), and Σ+1 or Δ3 (IrC(+)) after including spin-orbit considerations. Relaxed potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the M(+) + CO reactions show crossings between surfaces of different spin states such that products can be formed with no barriers in excess of the substantial endothermicities. Unlike results for these metal cations reacting with O2, the kinetic energy dependent cross sections for the formation of MO(+) in the M(+) + CO reactions exhibit only one feature. Reasons for this differential behavior are discussed in detail.

  10. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhonghua; Jiao, Guiai; Tang, Shaoqing; Luo, Ju; Hu, Peisong

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice. PMID:27764161

  11. Guided ion beam and theoretical studies of the reactions of Re+, Os+, and Ir+ with CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JungSoo; Cox, Richard M.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    The kinetic-energy dependences of the reactions M+ + CO where M+ = Re+, Os+, and Ir+ are studied using guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometry. Formation of both MO+ and MC+ was observed in endothermic processes for all three metals. Modeling of the data provides thresholds that yield 0 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs, in eV) of 4.67 ± 0.09 (Re+-O), 4.82 ± 0.14 (Os+-O), 4.25 ± 0.11 (Ir+-O), 5.13 ± 0.12 (Re+-C), 6.14 ± 0.14 (Os+-C), and 6.58 ± 0.12 (Ir+-C). These BDEs agree well with literature values within experimental uncertainties demonstrating that ground state products are formed for all cases even though some of the reactions are formally spin forbidden. Quantum mechanical calculations at several levels of theory and using several basis sets were performed for MC+ and MO+ (with comparable results taken from the literature in some cases). B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculated ground state BDEs agree reasonably well with experimental values. The ground states in B3LYP and CCSD(T)/CBS calculations are -3Σ (ReC+), 2Δ (OsC+), and +1Σ or 3Δ (IrC+) after including spin-orbit considerations. Relaxed potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the M+ + CO reactions show crossings between surfaces of different spin states such that products can be formed with no barriers in excess of the substantial endothermicities. Unlike results for these metal cations reacting with O2, the kinetic energy dependent cross sections for the formation of MO+ in the M+ + CO reactions exhibit only one feature. Reasons for this differential behavior are discussed in detail.

  12. Osteoporosis in men: findings from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    The lifespan of men is increasing and this is associated with an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in men. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture. Fractures are associated with increased disability and mortality, and public health problems. We review here the study of osteoporosis in men as obtained from a longitudinal cohort of community-based older men, the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

  13. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo.

  14. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of 5d double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yahua; Feng, Hai L; Ghimire, Madhav Prasad; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Katsuya, Yoshio; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2015-04-06

    Double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 have been synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (6 GPa and 1500 °C). Their crystal structures and magnetic properties were studied by a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment and by magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, isothermal magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 crystallized in monoclinic (P21/n) and tetragonal (I4/m) double-perovskite structures, respectively; the degree of order of the Os and Mg arrangement was 96% or higher. Although Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are isoelectric, a magnetic-glass transition was observed for Ca2MgOsO6 at 19 K, while Sr2MgOsO6 showed an antiferromagnetic transition at 110 K. The antiferromagnetic-transition temperature is the highest in the family. A first-principles density functional approach revealed that Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are likely to be antiferromagnetic Mott insulators in which the band gaps open, with Coulomb correlations of ∼1.8-3.0 eV. These compounds offer a better opportunity for the clarification of the basis of 5d magnetic sublattices, with regard to the possible use of perovskite-related oxides in multifunctional devices. The double-perovskite oxides Ca2MgOsO6 and Sr2MgOsO6 are likely to be Mott insulators with a magnetic-glass (MG) transition at ∼19 K and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at ∼110 K, respectively. This AFM transition temperature is the highest among double-perovskite oxides containing single magnetic sublattices. Thus, these compounds offer valuable opportunities for studying the magnetic nature of 5d perovskite-related oxides, with regard to their possible use in multifunctional devices.

  15. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  16. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  17. OsRab5a regulates endomembrane organization and storage protein trafficking in rice endosperm cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Ren, Yulong; Liu, Xi; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Liangming; Han, Xiaohua; Jin, Mingna; Liu, Shijia; Liu, Feng; Lv, Jia; Zhou, Kunneng; Su, Ning; Bao, Yiqun; Wan, Jianmin

    2010-12-01

    Rice glutelins are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as precursors (pro-glutelins), and are transported to protein storage vacuoles, where they are processed into mature proteins. The molecular basis of this process is largely unknown. Here, we report the isolation of a rice mutant, gpa1, that accumulates 57 kDa pro-glutelins in seeds and whose endosperm has a floury appearance. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the gpa1 endosperm cells have an enlarged ER lumen and a smaller protein body II (PBII), and accumulated three types of newly generated subcellular structures. Moreover, a proportion of glutelins in the gpa1 endosperm cells were not delivered to PBII, and instead were mis-targeted to two of the newly generated structures or secreted. The gene corresponding to the gpa1 mutation was found to be OsRab5a, which encodes a small GTPase. In Arabidopsis protoplasts, OsRab5a protein was found to co-localize predominantly with AtVSR2, a molecular marker for the pre-vacuolar compartments (PVC). We conclude that OsRab5a plays an essential role in trafficking of storage protein to PBII, possibly as part of its function in organizing the endomembrane system in developing endosperm cells of rice. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Photodisintegration of the isotopes {sup 186,188,189,190,192}Os: Similarities and distinctions

    SciTech Connect

    Varlamov, V. V.; Makarov, M. A.; Peskov, N. N.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2015-09-15

    In addition to the results obtained earlier for the isotopes {sup 188,189}Os, experimental data on the photodisintegration of the isotopes {sup 186,190,192}Os are analyzed on the basis of specially introduced objective criteria of reliability of data on the cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions. It is found that the (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) cross sections for each isotope satisfy differently or, on the contrary, do not satisfy the data-reliability criteria. In many cases, the multiplicity transition functions specified as the ratios F{sub i} = σ(γ, in)/σ(γ, xn) of the cross sections for the (γ, in) partial reactions to the neutron-yield reaction cross section σ(γ, xn) = σ(γ, 1n) + 2σ(γ, 2n) + 3σ(γ, 3n) +... have values that are physically unreliable by definition. It is shown that ambiguities in the dependence of significant systematic uncertainties in experimentally determined neutron multiplicities on the measured kinetic energies is the reason for this. The dependence of these uncertainties on the energy spectra of neutrons is analyzed. For the isotopes {sup 186,190,192}Os, new evaluated data satisfying the data-reliability criteria are obtained for the cross sections for partial and total photoneutron reactions.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro antimicrobial, and U2OS tumoricidal activities of different coumarin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coumarin and its derivatives are biologically very active. It was found that the enhanced activities are dependent on the coumarin nucleus. Biological significance of these compounds include anti-bacterial, anti-thrombotic and vasodilatory, anti-mutagenic, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibition, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and anti-tumourigenic. Our interest in medicinal chemistry of dicoumarol compounds have been developed by keeping in view the importance of coumarins along with its derivatives in medicinal chemistry. All the synthesized compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques and were screened for antimicrobial and U2OS bone cancer activities. Results 4-hydroxycoumarin was derivatized by condensing with different aldehydes yielding the dicoumarol and translactonized products. Elemental analyses, ESI(+,−) MS, 1H and 13C{1H}-NMR, infrared spectroscopy and conductance studies were used to characterize the synthesized compounds which revealed the dicoumarol and dichromone structures for the compounds. The compounds were screened against U2OS cancerous cells and pathogenic micro organisms. The compounds with intermolecular H-bonding were found more active revealing a possible relationship among hydrogen bonding, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities. Conclusion Coumarin based drugs can be designed for the possible treatment of U2OS leukemia. PMID:23587363

  20. Mapping of decadal middle Adriatic oceanographic variability and its relation to the BiOS regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Vilibić, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Å epić, Jadranka

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed long-term time series of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations collected along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic) between 1952 and 2010. The data have been mostly collected on seasonal basis, allowing for extraction of seasonal signal from the series. By applying Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, a kind of unsupervised neural network method, the processes on a decadal time scale emerged as the most relevant for changes of oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic area. Sensitivity studies revealed that oceanographic patterns obtained by SOM were not sensitive to shortening of time series, to removal of data from one station or to removal of DO from the analysis. Simultaneous SOM-based mapping of sea surface heights in the northern Ionian Sea, with these heights serving as a proxy for the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), revealed asymmetry between anticyclonic and cyclonic BiOS patterns and correlated the decadal oscillations in the middle Adriatic with the reversals in the BiOS circulation regimes. These reversals are found to either rapidly change oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic (e.g., during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient) or to change them with a time lag of 2-3 years. The mapped connections may be used for a short-time (a few years) forecasting of the Adriatic oceanographic properties or for mapping future climate decadal oscillations as seen by ocean climate models.

  1. Orbital period variations of the eclipsing binaries TU Cnc, VZ Leo, and OS Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Variations of the orbital periods of the eclipsing binaries TU Cnc, VZ Leo, and OS Ori are analyzed. Secular period decreases were earlier believed to occur in these systems. It is demonstrated that the period variations of TU Cnc can be represented using the light-time effect corresponding to the orbital motion of the eclipsing binary with a period of 78.6 years around the center ofmass of the triple system, with the mass of the third body being M 3 > 0.82 M ⊙. With the same accuracy, the period variations of VZ Leo and OS Ori can be represented either solely using the light-time effect, or a superposition of a secular period decrease and the light-time effect. For VZ Leo, the period of the long-term orbit is 63.8 years in the former case and 67.9 years in the latter case. Similar masses for the third body are indicated in both cases: M 3 > 0.55 M ⊙ and M 3 > 0.61 M ⊙. For OS Ori, the period of the long-term orbit is 46 years and M 3 > 0.5 M ⊙ in the former case, and the period is 36 years and M 3 > 0.6 M ⊙ in the latter case.

  2. Luminescent properties and energy level structure of CaZnOS:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, B.; Luo, H.; Dorenbos, P.; van der Kolk, E.

    2017-07-01

    In this work it is shown that CaZnOS:Eu2+ has no Eu2+ emission even at low temperature. The observed and earlier reported red emission originates from a CaS:Eu2+ impurity phase. By means of washing the as-prepared samples with diluted nitride acid, we were able to remove the CaS impurity phase and study the Eu2+ emission in the pure CaZnOS phase. A clear relation was found between the red emission intensity, the CaS XRD line intensities and the nitric acid solution washing time, with zero intensity after prolonged washing. A so-called VRBE (vacuum referred binding energy)-diagram was constructed showing the energy of the 4fn and 4fn-15d1 states of the divalent and trivalent rare earth ions as dopants in CaZnOS with respect to the vacuum energy. This diagram shows that the 5d-levels of Eu2+ are located in the conduction band, which explains the absence of 5d→4f emission. By comparing the VRBE diagram with diagrams of other related compounds like CaO, CaS, ZnO and ZnS it becomes clear that the Eu2+ luminescence quenching is caused by a low lying conduction band, typical for Zn-based compounds.

  3. MOLAR: Modular Linux and Adaptive Runtime Support for HEC OS/R Research

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Mueller

    2009-02-05

    MOLAR is a multi-institution research effort that concentrates on adaptive, reliable,and efficient operating and runtime system solutions for ultra-scale high-end scientific computing on the next generation of supercomputers. This research addresses the challenges outlined by the FAST-OS - forum to address scalable technology for runtime and operating systems --- and HECRTF --- high-end computing revitalization task force --- activities by providing a modular Linux and adaptable runtime support for high-end computing operating and runtime systems. The MOLAR research has the following goals to address these issues. (1) Create a modular and configurable Linux system that allows customized changes based on the requirements of the applications, runtime systems, and cluster management software. (2) Build runtime systems that leverage the OS modularity and configurability to improve efficiency, reliability, scalability, ease-of-use, and provide support to legacy and promising programming models. (3) Advance computer reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) management systems to work cooperatively with the OS/R to identify and preemptively resolve system issues. (4) Explore the use of advanced monitoring and adaptation to improve application performance and predictability of system interruptions. The overall goal of the research conducted at NCSU is to develop scalable algorithms for high-availability without single points of failure and without single points of control.

  4. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  5. Spectroscopy of the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 167}Os{sub 91}

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, D.; Simpson, J.; Hornillos, M. B. Gomez; Labiche, M.; Grahn, T.; Joss, D. T.; Bianco, L.; Judson, D. S.; Page, R. D.; Paul, E. S.; Petri, M.; Petts, A.; Sapple, P. J.; Thomson, J.; Watkins, H. V.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.

    2009-06-15

    Excited states of the nucleus {sup 167}Os have been populated by the reaction {sup 92}Mo({sup 78}Kr,2pn). The JUROGAM {gamma}-ray detector array has been used in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled separator and the GREAT spectrometer to observe prompt {gamma} rays in coincidence with recoiling fusion-evaporation residues and their subsequent decay by {alpha} particle emission. By correlating prompt {gamma} radiation with the characteristic {alpha} radioactivity of {sup 167}Os, it has been possible to extend the level scheme for this nucleus significantly. In particular, an extension of the yrast band and four previously unobserved bands are reported. In addition, the recoil distance Doppler-shift method was used to determine a lifetime of {tau}=20(4) ps for The I{sup {pi}}=17/2{sup +} state in {sup 167}Os. Hence, the level of collectivity and magnitude of deformation of the low spin yrast band of this nucleus is established.

  6. Isotope shift of the electric-dipole transition in Os{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerbauer, A.; Canali, C.; Fischer, A.; Warring, U.; Fritzsche, S.

    2011-12-15

    The isotope shift of the bound-bound electric dipole transition at 1162.75 nm in the osmium anion was measured by high-precision collinear laser spectroscopy. The transition was observed in all naturally occurring isotopes, including {sup 184}Os{sup -} with a natural abundance of 0.02%. We combined the data with our prior measurements of the hyperfine structure in {sup 187}Os{sup -} and {sup 189}Os{sup -} and used them to determine experimental values for the isotope shift coefficients. The normal mass shift, specific mass shift, and field shift coefficients were found to be M{sub NMS}=141.4 GHz u, M{sub SMS}=2.4(12.6) THz u, and F=16.2(9.9) GHz fm{sup -2}, respectively. Theoretical values for the M{sub SMS} and F parameters were calculated based on a series of relativistic configuration interaction computations and a Fermi-like charge distribution and found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

  7. Highly sensitive lactate biosensor by engineering chitosan/PVI-Os/CNT/LOD network nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Li, Chang Ming; Zang, Jianfeng; Yu, Shucong

    2007-06-15

    A novel chitosan/PVI-Os(polyvinylimidazole-Os)/CNT(carbon nanotube)/LOD (lactate oxidase) network nanocomposite was constructed on gold electrode for detection of lactate. The composite was nanoengineered by selected matched material components and optimized composition ratio to produce a superior lactate sensor. Positively charged chitosan and PVI-Os were used as the matrix and the mediator to immobilize the negatively charged LOD and to enhance the electron transfer, respectively. CNTs were introduced as the essential component in the composite for the network nanostructure. FESEM (field emission scan electron microscopy) and electrochemical characterization demonstrated that CNT behaved as a cross-linker to network PVI and chitosan due to its nanoscaled and negative charged nature. This significantly improved the conductivity, stability and electroactivity for detection of lactate. The standard deviation of the sensor without CNT in the composite was greatly reduced from 19.6 to 4.9% by addition of CNTs. With optimized conditions the sensitivity and detection limit of the lactate sensor was 19.7 microA mM(-1)cm(-2) and 5 microM, respectively. The sensitivity was remarkably improved in comparison to the newly reported values of 0.15-3.85 microA mM(-1)cm(-2). This novel nanoengineering approach for selecting matched components to form a network nanostructure could be extended to other enzyme biosensors, and to have broad potential applications in diagnostics, life science and food analysis.

  8. Oxygen deficit alleviates phosphate overaccumulation toxicity in OsPHR2 overexpression plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Chuang; Zhou, Lian; Shou, Huixia

    2014-05-01

    Overexpression of OsPHR2 increases phosphate (Pi) uptake and causes overaccumulation of Pi in rice plants, which is toxic to rice plants when they are grown in media with a sufficient Pi supply. The toxicity that results from OsPHR2 overexpression can be significantly relieved by growing the plants in a waterlogged paddy field. A comparison of the Pi uptake and growth status of OsPHR2-overexpression plants (PHR2-Oe plants) grown in paddy fields or in a laboratory setting in aerated or stagnant hydroponic conditions indicated that the oxygen limitation that is present in paddy fields and in stagnant rice culture solutions inhibits the Pi overaccumulation toxicity of PHR2-Oe plants by reducing their Pi uptake. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of Pi-starvation-induced (PSI) genes was induced by oxygen limitation in both wild-type and PHR2-Oe plants. The induction of PSI genes is the consequence of reducing the Pi concentration in stagnant plants. Thus, when evaluating the efficiency of Pi use in rice germplasm or transgenic materials under hydroponic conditions, the impact of the low oxygen condition that exists in waterlogged paddies should be considered.

  9. Identification of rice Di19 family reveals OsDi19-4 involved in drought resistance.

    PubMed