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Sample records for osaka university medical

  1. Tissue procurement system in Japan: the role of a tissue bank in medical center for translational research, Osaka University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, H; Fukushima, N; Kitagawa, T; Ito, T; Masutani, Y; Sawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    Although organ procurement has been regulated by The Organ Transplantation Law (brain-dead donors since 1997, donors after cardiac death since 1979), there has been no law or governmental procurement network (except for cornea) in Japan. Since the late 1980s, some university hospitals have developed original banks. Finally, in 2001 guidelines for tissue procurement were established by The Japanese Society of Tissue Transplantation and Japan Tissue Transplant Network (JTTN) to coordinate tissue harvesting. Five tissue banks were joined to the tissue transplant network (skin in one, heart valves in two, and bone in two). As the number of tissue banks is small, each bank cooperates on procurement, but cannot cover the entire country. With regard to skin transplantation, only one skin bank-The Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), which is located in Tokyo-has organized skin procurement. Therefore, it has been difficult to procure skin in areas distant from Tokyo, especially around Osaka. In order to improve such a situation, a tissue bank collaborating with the JSBN was established at The Medical Center for Translational Research (MTR), Osaka University Hospital in April 2008. The bank has played a role in skin procurement center in western Japan and supported procurement and preservation at the time of the skin procurement. Between April 2008 and September 2009, the bank participated in eight tissue procurements in the western area. In the future, the bank is planning to procure and preserve pancreatic islets and bones. Moreover, there is a plan to set up an induced pluripotent stem cells center and stem cell bank in MTR. This tissue bank may play a role to increase tissue procurement in Japan, especially in the western area.

  2. Nuclear physics frontier at RCNP, Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, H. J.

    2014-03-05

    Cyclotron accelerator facility and research activities at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, are presented. A special focus is given on several topics in nuclear physics where interesting and important experiment results relevant to the nuclear structure as well as the nuclear astrophysics have been reported.

  3. Development of the Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University.

    PubMed

    Oie, Yoshinori; Kamei, Motohiro; Maeda, Naoyuki; Fujikado, Takashi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Osaka University is one of the largest national universities and the sixth oldest university in Japan. Its academic roots extend to Tekijuku and Kaitokudo in the Edo period. Osaka University has the motto, "Live Locally, Grow Globally." This means that they work for their own local community and also work worldwide at the same time.The Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine is famous for basic research in immunology, including research on interleukin 6 and innate immunity, and translational research for regenerative medicine. Osaka University Hospital has 31 clinical departments and 2159 staff members, including 834 physicians. It serves 2515 outpatients and 940 inpatients per day. Approximately 8500 surgeries are performed every year. The Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University is one of the largest ophthalmology departments in Japan. It has 24 faculty members, 9 graduate school students, and 9 residents. It has had 9 professors throughout its history. Their department has also produced active professors in the wide field of ophthalmology.Their department is known for a large amount of high clinical activity. Their advanced clinical practice performs translational research on the regenerative medicine of the cornea, artificial retina, diagnostic instruments and tools, apoptosis of photoreceptors, and drug discovery. Many ophthalmologists and staff members have contributed to the development of the Department of Ophthalmology at Osaka University.

  4. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  5. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  6. Achievements and Challenges in the US Summer English Program offered by the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunioshi, Nílson; Ashizawa, Shingo; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    As an extension of the subject “English for Engineers” offered by the Graduate School of Engineering to its students, a summer intensive technical English course is held every year in the United States. The contents of the summer program are customized to meet the needs of the engineering students of Osaka University, and from 2004 participants can get the credits corresponding to English for Engineers II, a subject that usually is taken in the second semester at Osaka University. The evolution in the contents of the summer program, first designed in 2003, as well as the achievements, further possible improvements and problems to be solved are analysed.

  7. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University--Neutron flux measurement with gold foil.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, S; Sakai, M; Yoshihashi, S; Manabe, M; Zushi, N; Murata, I; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S; Nagasaki, M; Horiike, H

    2015-12-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error.

  8. Pulse radiolysis system of OPU-LINAC in RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Hara, Masayuki; Fujita, Shin'ichi

    2004-09-01

    Micro- to milli-second pulse radiolysis apparatus using short electron pulse form 18 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) is in-service at the Research institute for advanced science and technology (RIAST), Osaka Prefecture University. This apparatus is an effective tool, not only for investigation of primary process on radiation chemistry, but also for research of electron transfer mechanism playing an important role in chemistry and bioscience. This apparatus is composed of an 18 MeV electron linear accelerator (electron pulse duration: about 4 μs) and a transient light absorption measurement system. We introduce the outline of this system, transient absorption spectrum of thiocyanate aqueous solution as an example of measured data and future plan.

  9. The Medical University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piel, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    Success, it is suggested, has brought the medical school into critical new responsibility for the welfare of the university as a whole. An urgent topic for inquiry in the university is seen as the expansion of the medical economy and the attendant growth of medical schools. (MLW)

  10. Measurement of characteristics of an infrared free-electron laser with the L-band at Osaka University

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, S.; Ishida, S.; Honda, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Free-electron laser (FEL) experiments have been conducted with the 38-MeV L-band electron linac at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. It is a 1.3 GHz RF linac with a thermoionic gun, and equipped with two 12th and one 6th sub-harmonic prebunchers for producing the high-intensity single-bunch beam with a charge up to 67 nC/bunch. For oscillation experiments of FEL, the gun is replaced with that with a smaller cathode area in order to reduce the emittance of the beam. The normalized emittance has been measured to be 200 {pi} mm-mrad. The linac is operated in the long-pulse mode and one of the 12th sub-harmonic bunchers and the 6th sub-harmonic buncher are operated, so that the time duration of the macropulse is 4 {mu}s and the spacing between micropulses is 9.2 ns. The length of the micropulse is 30-40 ps and the charge in each micropulse is 2 nC. The electron beam from the linac is transported to a wiggler which has the period length of 6 cm and the number of periods of 32. The first half of the macropulse is lost in the transport line because the energy of electrons in that part gradually changes and there is a momentum slit in the transport line. An optical resonator is 5.53 m long and the round-trip time of light in it is 37 ns, which is precisely four times as long as the spacing of micropulses. Since the time duration of the macropulse passing through the wiggler is 1.8 {mu}s, the number of amplifications of light in the cavity is 49. The first lasing was achieved in 1994 at wavelengths between 32 and 40 {mu}m and preliminary results were reported at the l6th FEL Conference last year. The laser light was detected with a Ge:Be detector which has the time resolution of 3 {mu}s. Since the time duration of the macropulse of the laser fight is estimated to be less than 2 {mu}s, we could measure only the total energy in a macropulse of the output light.

  11. Factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service personnel: a population-based study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and prehospital demographic factors and reasons for EMS calls. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 100 649 patients transported to medical institutions by EMS from January 2013 to December 2013. Primary outcome measurements The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene was EMS personnel making ≥5 phone calls to medical institutions until a decision to transport was determined. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the relationship between difficulty in hospital acceptance and prehospital factors and reasons for EMS calls. Results Multivariable analysis showed the elderly, foreigners, loss of consciousness, holiday/weekend, and night-time to be positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. As reasons for EMS calls, gas poisoning (adjusted OR 3.281, 95% CI 1.201 to 8.965), trauma by assault (adjusted OR 2.662, 95% CI 2.390 to 2.966), self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning (adjusted OR 4.527, 95% CI 3.921 to 5.228) and self-induced trauma (adjusted OR 1.708, 95% CI 1.369 to 2.130) were positively associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. Conclusions Ambulance records in Osaka City showed that certain prehospital factors such as night-time were positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene, and reasons for EMS calls, such as self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning, were also positive predictors for difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. PMID:27798040

  12. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System.

    PubMed

    Gaev, J A

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate access to medical information, ECRI has developed and promulgated a hierarchical medical device nomenclature system containing over 4,800 valid terms and 3,100 cross-references. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) is appropriate for a wide range of applications. It is used world-wide and is available in 5 languages (7 additional translations are in progress).

  13. University Medical Care Programs: Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densen, Paul M.; And Others

    The increasing number of medical centers involved in collaborative and innovative health services in the community is but one reflection of social concerns and pressures for change in the health care system. Medical schools and their affiliated teaching hospitals are trying in various ways to adapt their teaching, research, and service functions…

  14. [Medical research at Norwegian universities].

    PubMed

    Røttingen, J A; Thorsby, P; Seem, C; Gautvik, K M

    1998-06-10

    This study shows that Norwegian medical research suffers from lack of both public funds and recruitment, as well as being affected by the following major factors. Norway uses less of its GNP on R&D than other Western countries and less than the OECD average. Medical research in particular receives less financial support than in any of the other Nordic countries. Norwegian medical researchers publish less material and are cited less often than their colleagues in comparable countries. More than half of the medically trained scientific staff in Norway's four medical faculties will retire during the next decade and today there are many vacant positions in academic medicine because there are not enough competent applicants to fill them. The percentage of M.D.s among professors and lecturers has fallen, and a continued decline in preclinical and laboratory medicine and in public health is predicted. This percentage has also decreased among Ph.D. students, while the age at which medical doctors dissertate has increased and is higher than for other Ph.D.s. The number of medical students doing research has fallen in recent years, and the number of doctoral theses has not increased as much in medicine as in other fields. There are significant differences between the salaries paid in medical science and those paid in clinical medicine. Lack of resources and low salaries keep doctors from pursuing a career in academic medicine. In conclusion, if Norway is to be visible in the field of international medical science, this negative trend must be reversed and medical research and academic medicine revitalised.

  15. [Education for medical teamwork in Shinshu University].

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    Both students of health sciences (medical technology, nursing science, physical therapy, and occupational therapy) and medical students learn medical teamwork in the primary stage by joint practice in Shinshu University. The aim of this class is for students that will become medical staff to increase their necessary communication skills for medical teamwork in addition to understanding the mutual medical professional fields in a medical institution. The 242 students of the medical department (147 students of health sciences and 95 students of medicine) take 15 classes during their first term as freshers. One teacher takes charge of a group consisting of 14 students for tutorials by mutually cooperation between teachers of medicine and health sciences. Positive relationships are expected to develop in the group, raising sociality and ethics so that both students of health science and medicine experience interdisciplinary discussion in small groups as an ideal method for continuing health care in times of poor knowledge of medicine and health care.

  16. Implementing medical teaching policy in university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F J M

    2016-11-16

    Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have remained underexplored. Knowledge of these factors is needed to develop theory on the successful implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. To explore factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives and to develop a conceptual model for implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. We used the grounded theory methodology. We applied constant comparative analysis to qualitative data obtained from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted at the Radboud University Medical Center. We used a constructivist approach, in which data and theories are co-created through interaction between the researcher and the field and its participants. We constructed a model for the implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals, including five factors that were perceived to promote or inhibit faculty in a university hospital to make use of teaching policy incentives: Executive Board Strategy, Departmental Strategy, Departmental Structure, Departmental Culture, and Individual Strategy. Most factors we found to affect individual teachers' strategies and their use of medical teaching policy lie at the departmental level. If an individual teacher's strategy is focused on medical teaching and a medical teaching career, and the departmental context offers support and opportunity for his/her development, this promotes faculty's use of teaching policy incentives.

  17. The French language virtual medical university.

    PubMed

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  18. Spring time photochemical air pollution in Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Shinji; Uno, Itsushi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1996-12-31

    High concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are frequently observed in Osaka area in spring season. To clarify this, a series of three dimensional field observation was conducted in April 1993 covering Osaka and surrounding area. Vertical and horizontal distributions of ozone, NO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, aerosol species, hydrocarbon species and meteorological parameter such as temperature, uv radiation, wind speed, wind direction are measured on the ground and aloft. Covering the observational period yellow sand transportation from the continent and stratospheric ozone intrusion were also observed under the meteorological condition of moving high pressure system. During the aircraft observation of 19 to 21 April 1993 high concentration of photochemical air pollution was observed aloft over Osaka area. Maximum ozone concentration was me than 150 ppb. Vertical distribution of ozone showed uniform profile up to 2500m in day time. At Mt. Ikoma (600 m) ozone concentration had been almost constant ranging 80-100 ppb throughout the observational period. To clarify this phenomena three dimensional photochemical air pollution simulation model was applied based on the real meteorological and emission conditions. Simulated result showed photochemical reaction play an important role to form the spring time high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in Osaka.

  19. Association between Lifestyle and School Attendance in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…

  20. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  1. An Artist in the University Medical Center. Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, A. Everette, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "An Artist in the University Medical Center" (M. Lesser, New Orleans: Tulane University Press, 1989), in which the artist captures the human side of the complex Tulane Medical Center in New Orleans (Louisiana). The interplay of drawings, etchings, watercolors, and prose conveys traditions of nurturing in the hospital. (SLD)

  2. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  3. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 4: early solar research in Osaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Nakamura, Tsuko; Ishiguro, Masato

    2016-12-01

    For about two years, from late 1949, Minoru Oda and Tatsuo Takakura carried out solar observations from Osaka, initially with a hand-made horn and later with a small parabolic antenna connected to a 3.3 GHz receiver, but they only published one short paper on this work. At about the same time, Ojio and others at Osaka City University presented the concept of a solar grating array at a meeting of the Japan Physical Society, but this was never built. In this paper, we provide brief biographical accounts of Oda and Takakura before examining their radio telescopes and the observations that they made. We also briefly discuss the proposed Japanese solar grating array.

  4. Medical Ethics Teaching Programs at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of medical ethics education at the University of California, San Francisco, is chronicled and its contributions to bioethics literature are noted. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using medical cases in such instruction. The University of Washington's ethics program and its potential for innovation are then described.…

  5. Report of a cooperative venture between the China Medical University library and the medical library of McGill University.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S; Xiong, D Z

    1988-01-01

    In March/April 1986, the medical library at McGill University in Montreal, Canada signed a cooperative agreement with the China Medical University (CMU) Library in Shenyang, China. This paper analyzes the operations of the CMU library within the context of the Chinese system of medical education, health care delivery, and medical librarianship. The CMU library is described in terms of collections, cataloging procedures, filing, public services (reference, bibliographic instruction, circulation, copy service), interlibrary loans, networking, conservation of materials, and personnel. Some interesting comparisons are made between the two libraries with respect to holdings, services provided, and training of staff. The plans for future cooperation are outlined. PMID:3370377

  6. Assessment of Medication Use among University Students in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The extent, nature, and determinants of medication use of individuals can be known from drug utilization studies. Objectives. This study intended to determine medication consumption, sharing, storage, and disposal practices of university students in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 university students selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Pearson's Chi-square test of independence was conducted with P < 0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results. At 95.3% response rate, the prevalences of medication consumption and sharing were 35.3% (N = 136) and 38.2% (N = 147), respectively. One hundred (26%) respondents admitted that they often keep leftover medications for future use while the rest (N = 285, 74%) discard them primarily into toilets (N = 126, 44.2%). Evidence of association existed between medication taking and year of study (P = 0.048), medication sharing and sex (P = 0.003), and medication sharing and year of study (P = 0.015). Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of medication consumption, medication sharing, and inappropriate disposal practices which are influenced by sex and educational status of the university students. Thus medication use related educational interventions need to be given to students in general. PMID:28393101

  7. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Medical Students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddigh, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2)…

  8. The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lun, K C; Leong, T Y; Ong, K; Raghavan, R; Pung, H K

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore was established in September 1996 with a $4 million joint funding from the National Science and Technology Board and the Ministry of Education. The primary aims of the research program are to undertake upstream basic research in medical informatics and to build a critical mass of medical informatics expertise to meet long-term research goals and to effect technology transfer to the health sector of Singapore. Research projects fall into five groups: Clinical Decision Systems, Health Information Systems, Biomedical Datamining Systems, Medical Education Systems and Medical Networking, Applications Development and Integration Systems.

  9. [University teaching hospitals hold primacy in graduate medical education].

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Fr C A

    2006-07-01

    The university teaching hospitals are legally commissioned for the development and implementation of the initial medical training for doctors and for the training of specialist registrars, i.e. graduate medical education. They are able to carry out this task partly due to the professionals' collective sense of ambition and a strongly focussed organization that has the necessary critical mass at its disposal.

  10. [SOROKA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: THE ROAD TO LEADERSHIP IN QUALITY OF MEDICAL CARE, SERVICE AND RESEARCH].

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ehud; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    Soroka University Medical Center is a tertiary hospital, and the sole medical center in the Negev, the southern part of Israel. Soroka has invested in quality, service and research. The region has developed joint programs in order to advance the quality of medical care whilst optimizing the utilization of available resources. In this editorial we describe the path to leadership in quality of medical care, service and research.

  11. Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo

    2010-05-01

    CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance.

  12. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  13. Long- and/or short-range transportation of local Asian aerosols in DRAGON-Osaka Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    This work intends to demonstrate the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric particles in East Asia, especially around AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) -Osaka site during Dragon Asia period in the spring of 2012, named Dragon-Osaka. It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Thus the precise observations of atmospheric particles in East Asia are desired. Osaka is the second big city in Japan and a typical Asian urban area. The population of the region is around 20 millions including neighbor prefectures. Therefore, air quality in the region is slightly bad compared to remote area due to industries and auto mobiles. In recent years, Asian dusts and anthropogenic small particles transported from China and cover those cities throughout year. AERONET Osaka site was established in 2002 on the campus of Kinki University. Nowadays, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), an SPM sampler (SPM-613D, Kimoto Electric, Japan) and others are available on the roof of a building. The site data are useful for algorithm development of aerosol retrieval over busy city. On the other hand, human activities in this region also emit the huge amount of pollutions, thus it is needed to investigate the local distribution of aerosols in this region. In order to investigate change of aerosol properties, PM-individual analysis is made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). SEM/EDX is an effective instrument to observe the surface microstructure and analyze the chemical composition of such materials as metals, powders, biological specimens, etc. We used sampling data from the SPM sampler at AERONET Osaka site. During a period of DRAGON-Asia, high concentrations of air pollutant were observed on the morning of March 11 in Fukue Island in the East China Sea. On the

  14. [Physical anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Medical School].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2008-12-01

    Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical

  15. Implementation of an OSCE at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Min; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min

    2007-04-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), a tool to objectively and fairly assess medical students' clinical competences, has become widely used in medical education worldwide. However, most medical schools in Taiwan have just begun to adopt this assessment method. In 2003, Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU) established the first standardized patient (SP) program in Taiwan and applied SPs with an OSCE. This study reports the process of the implementation of an OSCE at KMU, which includes collecting information, visiting leading clinical skills centers, consulting medical educators from other countries, holding international conferences, establishing an OSCE committee, writing cases, training SPs, administrating the OSCE, and receiving feedback from medical students. Most students were satisfied with the assessment and appreciated the learning experience. Based on the experience in 2003, the OSCE committee decided to incorporate the OSCE into the medical curriculum as a measure to assess medical students' clinical competences. In addition to assessing medical students' clinical competence, the OSCE can also be applied to other professional health education, such as dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. We are currently sharing our experience with other colleges at KMU.

  16. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  17. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse.

  18. Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Lan Viet, Nguyen; van der Wilt, GJ; Broerse, J; Ruitenberg, EJ; Wright, EP

    2009-01-01

    Background Both university and non-university stakeholders should be involved in the process of curriculum development in medical schools, because all are concerned with the competencies of the graduates. That may be difficult unless appropriate strategies are used to motivate each stakeholder. From 1999 to 2006, eight medical schools in Vietnam worked together to change the curriculum and teaching for general medical students to make it more community oriented. This paper describes the factors that motivated the different stakeholders to participate in curriculum change and teaching in Vietnamese medical schools and the activities to address those factors and have sustainable contributions from all relevant stakeholders. Methods Case study analysis of contributions to the change process, using reports, interviews, focus group discussions and surveys and based on Herzberg's Motivation Theory to analyze involvement of different stakeholders. Results Different stakeholders were motivated by selected activities, such as providing opportunities for non-university stakeholders to share their opinions, organizing interactions among university stakeholders, stimulating both bottom-up and top-down inputs, focusing on learning from each other, and emphasizing self-motivation factors. Conclusion The Herzberg Motivation theory helped to identify suitable approaches to ensure that teaching topics, materials and assessment methods more closely reflected the health care needs of the community. Other medical schools undertaking a reform process may learn from this experience. PMID:19630961

  19. The Department of Medical Education at the University of Michigan Medical School: a case study in medical education research productivity.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research.

  20. Computer Literacy Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. Methods: This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections. The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. Results: The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students’ computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. Discussion: In sum, the medical sciences students’ familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students. PMID:25946919

  1. Characterization of bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hoshika, A.; Tatsumoto, H.

    1995-06-01

    The physical, chemical, and dewatering characteristics of 19 bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan, have been analyzed to aid in the development of sediments in the coastal bay area. The sediments in the east near Osaka Port were highly polluted from the influence of human activities and were difficult to dewater. These sediments were composed of fine particles, low in pH, zetapotential, and initial settling rate, and were high in ignition loss, metal concentrations, compression volume, specific resistance, cake water content, and drying index. However, the sediments near Akashi Channel showed the reverse where they are affected by strong tidal current. A correlation analysis has been made of all the parameters. There are significant relationships between all the dewatering parameters. Therefore, sediments difficult to dewater by gravity settling are also difficult to dewater by vacuum filtration and solar evaporation. Sediments containing fine particles and pollutants are difficult to dewater. Several forms of pollutants can occur in the sediments.

  2. Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimirova, Tetyana

    2006-12-01

    A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

  3. Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

    2013-04-06

    Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents.

  4. Modernizing and Transforming Medical Education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College

    PubMed Central

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-01-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  5. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    PubMed

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued.

  6. The University of Washington electronic medical record experience*

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nanette J

    2010-01-01

    The Health Sciences Library at the University of Washington initiated and continues to develop a role in the electronic medical record, starting with the development of the first integrated web-based interface, called MINDscape. An Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS) grant in 1992 began the process, which also led to the development of a clinical medical librarian position. Over the years, the librarian's role in the clinical environment became more established, and with the advent of clinical online resources, it offered further opportunities for librarians to provide the expertise needed to incorporate the appropriate resources. The collaborative journey continues as librarians, now able to directly access the EMRs, provide information about what resources to use and where best to place them and design how best to provide notes or feedback to clinicians. PMID:20648254

  7. Self-citation of Medical and Non-medical Universities in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Mohammad Ali; Yaminfirooz, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-citation is one of the main challenges in the evaluation of researchers’ scientific output. This study aimed at comparing the institutional self-citation among the universities located in Northern Iran. Methods: This study was conducted as a scientometric study. Research population included all scientific productions of 16 Northern Iran Universities with at least 100 indexed documents indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) by 2 June 2015. The citation analysis section of WoS was used for data collection. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Study hypotheses were tested with two independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Results: Producing 16,399 papers, northern Iran universities had 5.33% of contribution in Iran’s scientific production. They received 84,058 citations with 17% and 12% of self-citations belonged to the non-medical and medical universities, respectively. Testing hypotheses revealed that increase in received citations significantly increases the rate of self-citation and increase in scientific production does not necessarily increase the rate of self-citation. Conclusion: The rate of self-citation in the studied universities was not relatively high. However, investigating into the factors affecting the rate of and motives for self-citation needs further research. PMID:28077903

  8. Cancer Research Institute, Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0975, evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) on its campus in Loma Linda, California. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This document describes alternatives, the affected environment and environmental consequences of the proposed action.

  9. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism, Osaka, Japan, 15 19 August 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Zenji; Tsunetsugu, Hirokazu; Kawamura, H.

    2007-04-01

    The Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2006 (HFM 2006) conference took place on 15-19 August 2006 at the Icho Kaikan of Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. This conference was the third one of the series, following the first one in Waterloo, Canada (HFM 2000) [1] and the second one in Grenoble, France (HFM 2003) [2]. The HFM 2006 conference was held as a satellite of the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM 2006) held on 20-25 August 2006 in Kyoto, Japan. The conference attracted 191 participants from all over the world. The number of participants of the HFM conference series has been increasing steadily, from about 80 participants for HFM 2000 and about 120 participants for HFM 2003, demonstrating that highly frustrated magnetism is a rapidly growing area for research in condensed matter physics. The HFM 2006 conference consisted of four plenary talks by H Takagi, F Mila, P Mendels and B D Gaulin, 18 invited presentations and about 120 poster presentations from all areas of frustrated magnetism. In the evening on the 18th of August, a special session about 'the kagome story' was given by M. Mekata, where participants learned about the history of early-day research on frustrated magnetism and the origin of the word 'kagome' (see the picture below). Kagome lattice in a traditional Japanese woven basket Kagome lattice from a Japanese traditional woven bamboo basket. During the conference period, many stimulating discussions were held both inside and outside the conference room. The subjects covered in the conference included: Quantum frustrated magnetism and spin liquids Novel ordering of geometrically frustrated magnets Itinerant frustrated systems and novel superconductivity Spin glasses and random magnets Frustration effect on the coupling to lattice, orbital and charge degrees of freedom Exotic phenomena induced by macroscopic degeneracy Field effect on frustrated magnetism etc. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is devoted to the proceedings

  10. Investigating the faculty evaluation system in Iranian Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Farahnaz; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To achieve a valid evaluation of faculty members, it is necessary to develop an inclusive and dynamic system of evaluation addressing all the activities and responsibilities of faculty members. Among these responsibilities, educational activities comprise an important part which needs to be investigated. This study aimed to investigate the current system of evaluating the faculty members’ educational duties. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a checklist for investigating the current evaluation system and was developed confirmed by a focus group. The data for checklist were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire and interview with eight experts of faculty evaluation that worked in different Iranian Medical Universities. For completion of information, the available documents and records were studied. Finally, the current evaluation system of different universities was depicted. Results: The developed checklist had six themes and 123 subthemes. The extracted themes included: Tools, evaluators, processes, appropriateness of faculty field of work with evaluation, feedback status, and university status regarding decisions made based on faculty evaluation results. As for comprehensiveness, all evaluation items except for evaluation and assessment skills and religiosity from personality traits subtheme were fully investigated. The evaluation tools were not enough for different types of education such as clinical education. In six universities, the feedbacks provided were only for making inter/intra department comparison, and no scientific suggestions were included. The results of evaluations were used only for the faculties’ promotions. Discussion: Suitability between evaluation and performance components is a necessity in every evaluation system. The study showed this does not exist in Iranian Universities. For instance, there was no appropriate tool for the evaluation of clinical education. Also, the results of the faculty

  11. Principles of Pedagogy in Teaching in a Diverse Medical School: The University of Capetown South Africa Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol

    This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…

  12. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010-2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees' tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations.

  13. Medical Humanities at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anne Hudson; Carson, Ronald A

    2003-10-01

    The Institute for the Medical Humanities of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) was established in June 1973 to ensure that humanities teaching and research became an integral part of the education of future scientists and health-care professionals at UTMB. The multidisciplinary faculty of the Institute-who currently represent the disciplines of art, drama, history, law, literature, philosophy, and religious studies-teach in all four years of the undergraduate medical curriculum as well as in various residency programs. In addition to its focus on students and residents in the School of Medicine, the Institute has a vibrant graduate program in medical humanities with several joint degree options, including an MD/MA and an MD/PhD program, and the Institute has always included the School of Nursing, the School of Allied Health Sciences, and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences in its activities. After 30 years, the Institute's commitment to health-professional education remains strong and enduring. Challenged by major curriculum reform in the School of Medicine and increasingly tight state budgets, Institute faculty members look forward to continued collaboration with their basic science and clinical colleagues to improve our evolving curriculum and to seek research funding from external sources.

  14. Photodynamic research at Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Matthews, James Lester; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Aronoff, Billie L.; Judy, Millard M.

    1993-03-01

    We received our first CO2 laser at Baylor University Medical Center in December 1974, following a trip to Israel in January of that year. Discussion with the customs office of the propriety of charging an 18% import tax lasted for nine months. We lost that argument. Baylor has been using lasers of many types for many procedures since that time. About ten years ago, through the kindness of Tom Dougherty and Roswell Park, we started working with photodynamic therapy, first with hematoporphyrin I and later with dihematoporphyrin ether (II). In February 1984, we were invited to a conference at Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S.A. on medical applications of the free electron laser as part of the Star Wars Program. A grant application from Baylor was approved that November, but funding did not start for many months. This funding contributed to the development of a new research center as part of Baylor Research Institute. Many of the projects investigated at Baylor dealt with applications of the free electron laser (FEL), after it became available. A staff was assembled and many projects are still ongoing. I would like to outline those which are in some way related to photodynamic therapy.

  15. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  16. 75 FR 15439 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global... University, is announcing a public conference entitled ``FDA/Xavier University Global Medical Device... public conference will be held on the campus of Xavier University, 3800 Victory Pkwy., Cincinnati,...

  17. 78 FR 15957 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global... University, is announcing a public conference entitled ``FDA/Xavier University Global Medical Device... public conference will be held on the campus of Xavier University, 3800 Victory Pkwy., Cincinnati,...

  18. Evaluation of information literacy status among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFKAN, LEILA; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR; ABBASI, KARIM; BAZRAFKAN, AGHDAS; ROHALAMINI, AZADEH; FARDID, MOZHGAN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The information literacy status and the use of information technology among students in the globalization age of course plans are very momentous. This study aimed to evaluate the information literacy status and use of information technology among medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study with cross-sectional method. The study population consisted of all medical students (physiopathology, externship and internship) studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample size (n=310) was selected by systematic random sampling. The tool of data gathering was LASSI questionnaire (assigned by America research association) with 48 closed items in five-point LIKERT scale. The questionnaire included two distinct parts of demographic questions and the information literacy skills based on the standards of information literacy capacities for academic education. The content validity was acquired by professors’ and experts’ comments. The reliability was also calculated by Cronbach’salpha (0.85). Data were analyzed in both descriptive (frequency- mean) and analytical level (t-test, analysis of variance) using SPSS 14 software. Results: 60.3% of the participants were females, and the remaining (29.7%) were males. The mean score of information literacy and its five subgroups among the students weren’t at a desirable level. The mean scores of information literacy for educational grades from the highest to lowest belonged to the internship, physiopathology and externship. The results showed that the highest average was related to the effective access ability to information among interns (9.27±3.57) and the lowest one was related to the ability of understanding legal and economical cases related with using information among externs (3.11±1.32).The results of ANOVA showed that there wasn’t a significant difference between educational grades and information literacy. Finally, the

  19. [The role of medical university in modern prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Examples from Medical University of Gdańsk].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Wierucki, Lukasz; Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska, Agata; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Wojdak-Haasa, Ewa; Mogilnaya, Irina; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Szczech, Radosław; Rutkowski, Marcin; Bandosz, Piotr; Januszko, Wiktor; Krupa-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan

    2005-01-01

    Constant worsening of epidemiological situation in cardiovascular diseases in Poland in the 70's and 80's called for intensive measures in the field of preventive cardiology. Thus in 90's, in order to change this situation, among others, team from Department of Hypertension and Diabetology from Medical University of Gdańsk started, in cooperation with other medical universities, important regional and national research programs and preventive interventions. The aim of the educational program carried out in years 1999-2001 for Members of the Polish Parliament, opinion leaders and decision makers was to increase knowledge of the Polish elites about epidemic of cardiovascular diseases in our country. These actions made possible receiving greater support from the government for new epidemiological and preventive programs in this field. Thanks to NATPOL PLUS project, carried out on the representative sample of adults in 2002, we determined for the first time the prevalence and control of main cardiovascular risk factors in Poland. Results of this program helped planning preventive tasks in the National Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention and Treatment Program POLKARD 2003-2005. The aim of the preventive programmes: SOPKARD and Polish Four-Cities Project was to work out standards of modern, comprehensive interventions. They permitted planning and introduction of the largest preventive program: the Polish 400 Cities Project (PP400M). The PP400M is addressed to citizens of all small towns (to 8000 citizens) and surrounding villages in the whole country. All these accomplishments in the field of quickly expanded clinical epidemiology and cardiovascular prevention are directed mainly to Pomeranian and Polish citizens, especially those who are not aware of high risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. The main principle of our strategy is the role of university as an expert in preparation and supervision of the programs, which were carried out by the specialized organizations

  20. Quality of life of medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Pasalar, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' (TUMS) medical students at different educational levels and specify the most important factors related to this quality. A sample of 242 medical students was selected randomly, given their number in three educational levels (basic sciences, physiopathology-stager and intern). The QOL was measured by WHOQOL-BREF. The students obtained average high score in two psychological and environmental health domains, and low score in physical health and social relationship domains. As the educational level of students increased their quality of life decreased at all four domains. At social relationship domain, the female students had overall better situation as compared to males (p=0.009). The female and male students had opposite condition at the level of basic sciences and internship, in a way that the female students earned higher marks at basic sciences level and the males at internship level (P= 0.008). The condition of female students in terms of environmental, physical and psychological health became static while their education rose. However, only environmental health of the male students reduced as their education level increased (P= 0.05). The students were of undesirable conditions in two domains of social relationship and physical health. Internship is a specific level in both groups which has a negative impact on the dimensions of quality of life and naturally needs more care for the students. Married status improved the students' QOL and could moderate the undesired effects of internship.

  1. Nutrition education for medical students: the University of Otago experience.

    PubMed

    Mann, J

    1999-05-01

    Nutrition education for medical students in the University of Otago, New Zealand, has been adapted to comply with the newly introduced system-based teaching. Clinical cases provide the focus for class demonstrations, tutorials, self-directed learning and a limited number of lectures. In the preclinical curriculum nutrition is taught primarily in the Metabolism, Blood, Heart and Circulation, Endocrine and Cancer modules. The concept of nutrient requirements for growth and development and the maintenance of health; the various methods used for assessing dietary intakes and nutritional status as well as nutrition issues relevant to obesity are covered in the Metabolism module. The role of nutritional factors in the aetiology of disease is stressed in the other modules. Emphasis in the clinical curriculum is on the dietary management of some disease states. Students are also given insights into nutrition research and public health aspects of nutrition. This integration of nutrition teaching into the curriculum has been extremely well received by students but is labour intensive.

  2. An Investigation of GEPT Test Anxiety for Medical University Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ya-huei; Lai, Ching-Ju; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether or not different medical university students experience different levels of anxiety in taking the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT), and whether or not there are differences in GEPT test anxiety levels among medical university students with different genders and from different departments. This study uses a GEPT…

  3. Scientific Production of Medical Universities in the West of Iran: a Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Khayati, Fariba; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Penjvini, Susan; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare scientific production by providing quantitative evaluation of science output in five Western Iranian Medical Universities including Hamedan, Ilam, Kermanshah, Kurdistan and Lorestan University of Medical Sciences using scientometrics indicators based on data indexed in Scopus for period between the years 2010 to 2014. Methods: In this scientometric study data were collected using Scopus database. Both searching and analyzing features of Scopus were used to data retrieval and analysis. We used Scientometrics indicators including number of publications, number of citations, nationalization index (NI), Internationalization Index (INI), H-index, average number of citations per paper, and growth index. Results: Five Western Iranian Universities produced over 3011 articles from 2010 to 2014. These articles were cited 7158 times with an average rate of 4.2 citations per article. H- Index of under study universities are varying from 14 to 30. Ilam University of Medical Sciences had the highest international collaboration with an INI of 0.33 compared to Hamedan and Kermanshah universities with INI of 0.20 and 0.16 respectively. The lowest international collaboration belonged to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences (0.07). The highest Growth Index belonged to Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (69.7). Conclusion: Although scientific production of five Western Iranian Medical Universities was increasing, but this trend was not stable. To achieve better performance it is recommended that five Western Iranian Universities stabilize their budgeting and investment policies in research. PMID:26483592

  4. Antibiotics self-medication among medical and nonmedical students at two prominent Universities in Benghazi City, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Ghaieth, Mohamed F.; Elhag, Sara R. M.; Hussien, Mamoun E.; Konozy, Emad H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trivial use of antibiotics is a major reason for the spread of antibiotics resistance. The aim behind undertaking this investigation was to study the prevalence antibiotics self-medication among university students in Benghazi city. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional, survey was conducted at both Libyan International Medical University and Benghazi University. A total of 665 copies of questionnaires was distributed. A total of 363 forms were completed and returned (response rate 55%). Remaining responses were either with no antibiotics use history within the past 1 year or were provided incomplete. Results: Among the respondents, 45% were males and 55% females. Males practiced self-medication more compared to females. Approximately, 43% and 46% from medical and nonmedical students, respectively, were antibiotics self-medicated. A total of 153 students (42%) out of total respondents administered antibiotics for symptoms related to respiratory problems, among which 74 students (48%) took antibiotics based on doctor's prescription. Among the respondents, 94 students (27%) who had antibiotics, were covered under medical insurance, and 19 (29%) of the medically insured students had antibiotics without doctor's prescription. About 14% of students did not complete their antibiotics course. Of these, 57% were medical students, and 43% were nonmedical students. The rate of self-medication among higher classes was more as compared to lower classes. About 58% of students overdosed the antibiotic, while 15% had antibiotics for <3 days, for treatment of ailments such as acne, toothache, diarrhea, earache, and tonsillitis. About 75% of students purchased the antibiotics in consultation with a pharmacist. Conclusion: Self-medication is a frequent problem among university students in Benghazi city. There is a need for an immediate intervention to address this malpractice among both students and medical practitioners. PMID:25883514

  5. Analysis of the Status Quo of Humanistic Quality-Oriented Education in Medical Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shulei; Li, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    With transformation of contemporary modern medical educational modes and improvement of requirement upon doctors' humanistic quality, it seems quite important to strengthen humanistic quality-oriented education in medical colleges and universities. Medical humanistic quality-oriented education in China started late, which determines that there are…

  6. How Well Establishment of Research Plans Can Improve Scientific Ranking of Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Izadi, Morteza; Aslani, Jafar; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a developing country, Iran has not had a substantial share in global science production activities; however, this country has recently been the forth country in the world regarding research output publications, and biomedical research has played a crucial role in achieving this honorable position. Objectives: In this paper, we aimed to introduce the strategies employed at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences of Iran, to enhance scientific research output of this university. Patients and Methods: The present study used the qualitative content analysis technique. The Research deputies and the head of research centers of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences were the research subjects. The main researcher conducted all the interviews. The participants were all authorities of the university. Sampling continued until data saturation. After speaking with 16 participants, the interviews yielded no new information, and no new categories or subcategories were added to the previous ones. Deep and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were used to collect data. Results: Diplomacies employed to promote research, organizing educational classes, and foundation of infrastructural organizations for research and true surveillance of research programs were the main characteristics of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences research strategies. Conclusions: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences is a military university of limited resources that has won several awards in the recent years, and has been categorized as one of the leading first ranked medical universities in Iran; a position quite higher than several other larger universities of the country. We recommend more enhanced strategies for other universities. PMID:25793114

  7. The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Williams, Gini; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Shimouchi, Akira; Simon, Carter

    2005-07-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) notification in Osaka City has been persistently high compared with other urban areas in Japan. Although the TB notification in Greater London has kept much lower level compared with that in Osaka City, it has been also persistently high compared with other urban areas in the UK. Nonetheless, the contexts of the two cities relating TB control programme as well as the epidemiological situation greatly vary; there must be some lessons to be learnt from each other to improve each TB control programme to tackle against TB more effectively. Comparing the epidemiological situation of TB in both cities, it is obvious that Osaka City suffers TB more than Greater London in terms of the TB notification rate. Concerning the context of the TB control programme, Osaka City has centralised approach with strong local government commitment; Greater London, on the other hand, has an approach that is greatly fragmented but coordinated through voluntary TB Networks. This paper aims to draw some constructive and practical lessons from Greater London TB control management for further improvement of Osaka City TB control management through literature review and interview to health professionals. TB epidemiology in Greater London shows distinct features in the extent of TB in new entrants and TB co-infected with HIV in comparison with those in Osaka City. TB epidemiology in Osaka City is to a great extent specifically related to homeless people whereas in Greater London, this relationship occurs to a lesser extent. Both areas have relatively high TB-notification rates compared with national figures, and they have "TB hot spots" where remarkably high TB-notification rates exist. TB control in Greater London is characterised with decentralised and devolved services to local government health authorities supplemented with co-ordinating bodies across sectors as well as across Greater London. Sector-wide TB Network as well as London TB Group (LTBG) and London TB Nurses

  8. [Educational system for medical sciences at the University of Tsukuba--with special reference to medical technology].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshiko

    2006-03-01

    Three-year colleges for nursing, medical technology, and so on, have all been reorganized into four-year educational institutions in national universities. Since the reform, universities are not responsible for educating medical scientists except nurses. The new College of Nursing and Medical Technology in the University of Tsukuba has been developed along these lines. Here introduce some of its attempts and provide an opportunity to a better system. The Department has the following three characteristics: 1. Medical scientists are educated in the new Department, and the Department is closely cooperating with the School of Medicine. 2. There are courses for medical researchers concerning Molecular Pathology, Pathological Engineering and Environmental Pathology. 3. The qualification to apply to a national test for medical technologists is given to the students. Unfortunately, the system is not fully understood by the faculty or the students and does not work well because the Medical Technology Department and the Nursing Department are grouped together as a single institution. Moreover, this flaw in the system prevents the Medical Technology Department from actively promoting highly advanced medical sciences, such as organ transplantation, artificial organs, gene therapy, reproductive medicines, and so forth (Fig. 1). Few specialists exist who can bridge achievements in basic or advanced sciences and clinical application. Serious social problems about food safety, care systems, post-genome medicine, the youth, and so on, have to be dealt with, too. We are thus planning to separate the Department as the College of Medical Science (Fig. 2) and link it to the educational system in the master's and doctoral programs (Fig. 3). This model will successfully educate a new type of medical specialists.

  9. [Explicit and implicit attitudes toward standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect language use].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.

  10. Expanding clinical medical training opportunities at the University of Nairobi: adapting a regional medical education model from the WWAMI program at the University of Washington.

    PubMed

    Child, Mara J; Kiarie, James N; Allen, Suzanne M; Nduati, Ruth; Wasserheit, Judith N; Kibore, Minnie W; John-Stewart, Grace; Njiri, Francis J; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Kinuthia, Raphael; Norris, Tom E; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-08-01

    A major medical education need in Sub-Saharan Africa includes expanding clinical training opportunities to develop health professionals. Medical education expansion is a complicated process that requires significant investment of financial and human resources, but it can also provide opportunities for innovative approaches and partnerships. In 2010, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief launched the Medical Education Partnership Initiative to invest in medical education and health system strengthening in Africa. Building on a 30-year collaborative clinical and research training partnership, the University of Nairobi in Kenya developed a pilot regional medical education program modeled on the WWAMI (Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho) medical education program at the University of Washington in the United States. The University of Nairobi adapted key elements of the WWAMI model to expand clinical training opportunities without requiring major capital construction of new buildings or campuses. The pilot program provides short-term clinical training opportunities for undergraduate students and recruits and trains clinical faculty at 14 decentralized training sites. The adaptation of a model from the Northwestern United States to address medical education needs in Kenya is a successful transfer of knowledge and practices that can be scaled up and replicated across Sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Is the Medical School a Proper Part of the University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, David S.

    1976-01-01

    The aloofness of those in the medical schools from general faculty and students and the still narrow education of medical students are considered to be among the causes of the deep problems facing modern medicine. The current state of American medicine is assessed in this regard. (Author/LBH)

  12. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  13. [Jageillonian University medical students' relationship to awarding of the doctorate degree in all medical sciences in the period between wars].

    PubMed

    Zwolski, S

    1997-01-01

    The Academic Schools Act of 1920 and the Ordinance of 1924 pertaining to doctorates provided that one could earn the degree only having submitted a disseration. The Austrian Act which was in force up to that moment had allowed to receive the degree without writing a thesis. Protests voiced by medical students extended validity of the Act. The Jagiellonian University medicals played an important role in delaying the Ordinance coming into force. Protesting against the newest regulations they organized public meetings, wrote memorials and filled petitions. The Jagiellonian University Faculty of Medicine granted doctorates without dissertation up to the end of December 1932. However some doctorates were granted even after that term.

  14. Universal Newborn Screening and Adverse Medical Outcomes: A Historical Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosco, Jeffrey P.; Seider, Michael I.; Dunn, Angela C.

    2006-01-01

    Universal newborn screening programs for metabolic disorders are typically described as a triumph of medicine and public policy in the US over the last 50 years. Advances in science and technology, including the Human Genome Project, offer the opportunity to expand universal newborn screening programs to include many additional metabolic and…

  15. 77 FR 10537 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cincinnati District, in cosponsorship with...

  16. Blended-learning strategy in the Altay State medical university.

    PubMed

    Trukhacheva, Nina; Pupyrev, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    New educational technologies prove to be capable of solving many problems in the medical training. Students do not see e-Learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. Innovations in e-Learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-Learning into medical education can catalyze the shift towards applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. This survey analyzes possibilities to effectively use e-Learning in medical education, and what steps are to be made in that direction.

  17. Curriculum for medical informatics at the University of Heidelberg/School of Technology Heilbronn.

    PubMed

    Leven, F J

    1994-06-01

    The specialized university curriculum for medical informatics at the University of Heidelberg/School of Technology Heilbronn described in this paper is one of the oldest educational approaches in the field of medical informatics, and has been successful for more than 20 years with more than 600 graduates (Diplom-Informatiker der Medizin). It is based on the concept of medical informatics as an independent medical discipline, and covers the total spectrum ranging from health care economics, biosignal and medical image processing, model building in medicine, to information and knowledge processing in medicine. It is a program of 4.5 years duration with a strong emphasis on the methodological foundations of medical informatics and on practical education in a number of specific laboratories. Thirty-five students are admitted each semester, and in total about 390 students enrolled. The faculty consists of 17 full-time members and about 25 part-time lecturers.

  18. A Comparative Study of Perceived Stress among Female Medical and Non-Medical University Students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabal, Badria K; Koura, Manal R; Rasheed, Parveen; Al-Sowielem, Latifa; Makki, Suhair M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate any differences between female undergraduate medical and non-medical students for: 1) prevalence and causes of perceived academic stress, and 2) changes in physical, mental, psychological and emotional health as well as life-style since starting college studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in January 2008. All 319 pre-clinical female medical students were included in the study and 297 non-medical students from the College of Applied Studies and Community Services (CASCS) were selected by stratified random sampling. The study instrument was a questionnaire on the “Influence of Studying on Students’ Health”. Results More medical students (48.6%) reported being frequently stressed due to studies than CASCS students (38.7%, P <0.01). Unsuitable teaching methods, an unsatisfactory study environment, and fear of failure in examinations were more frequently mentioned by medical than non-medical students (P <0.05). While underlying social problems were significantly more common in medical students, economic problems were more prevalent among CASCS students (P <0.05, P <0.05). More medical than non-medical students reported a worse status of physical and mental health, anxiety and depression and negative life-style changes since initiation of the college programme. Conclusion Medical students were at higher risk of physical and mental health problems than non-medical students due to academic stress. Since a substantial proportion of CASCS students also experienced academic stress, we recommend that a student support committee be established for both colleges to provide counselling and guidance in healthy ways to cope with stress. PMID:21509235

  19. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…

  20. The University of New Mexico Medical Center Library's Health Information Services Outreach Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Susan B.; And Others

    Begun in 1980, the University of New Mexico Medical Center Library's statewide Outreach Program is a composite of many services and projects designed to meet the medical and health information needs of the state's diverse and scattered population. The only major biomedical library in New Mexico, the Library has built the program on existing…

  1. A Survey of Medical Technology Graduates of Illinois State University: 1972-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Charles T.

    A sample of 170 graduates of the medical technology program at Illinois State University was surveyed to investigate their educational background and their employment history. A total of 228 questionnaires were mailed to all graduates from 1972 through 1979. The demographic data of the ratio of females to males in the field of medical technology…

  2. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  3. The Medical Library and Media Center of Keio University in Tokyo: report on a visit.

    PubMed Central

    Accart, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Medical Library and Media Center at Keio University in Tokyo offers many facilities to its users: access to medical information within a large catalog of monographs and journals, online searching and CD-ROM databases, and a dynamic interlibrary loan service. This article is a report of a professional visit to the library on September 30, 1993. PMID:7703947

  4. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  5. [Medical studies at the University of Liège: renewing the art of teaching].

    PubMed

    Boniver, J

    2004-12-01

    The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Liège has undergone since 2000, a striking change in the medical school, aiming at a better correlation between medical education and community needs and a shift from teaching to learning approach for education. Consequently, teaching matters related to the community medical practice interface have been reinforced. Furthermore, problem based learning has been implemented all along the cursus.

  6. Partnerships in Medical Education: An Exploration of Library Service Models for Postgraduate Medicine at Macquarie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Macquarie University's new medical school, The Australian School of Advanced Medicine (ASAM), is developing a postgraduate program that incorporates a partnership with Macquarie University Library. The curriculum encompasses contemporary models of competency-based assessment, teamwork and lifelong learning that are integrated with research and…

  7. Medical Universities Educational and Research Online Services: Benchmarking Universities’ Website Towards E-Government

    PubMed Central

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Meidani, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Websites as one of the initial steps towards an e-government adoption do facilitate delivery of online and customer-oriented services. In this study we intended to investigate the role of the websites of medical universities in providing educational and research services following the E-government maturity model in the Iranian universities. Methods: This descriptive and cross- sectional study was conducted through content analysis and benchmarking the websites in 2012. The research population included the entire medical university website (37). Delivery of educational and research services through these university websites including information, interaction, transaction, and Integration were investigated using a checklist. The data were then analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and using SPSS software. Results: Level of educational and research services by websites of the medical universities type I and II was evaluated medium as 1.99 and 1.89, respectively. All the universities gained a mean score of 1 out of 3 in terms of integration of educational and research services. Conclusions: Results of the study indicated that Iranian universities have passed information and interaction stages, but they have not made much progress in transaction and integration stages. Failure to adapt to e-government in Iranian medical universities in which limiting factors such as users’ e-literacy, access to the internet and ICT infrastructure are not so crucial as in other organizations, suggest that e-government realization goes beyond technical challenges. PMID:25132713

  8. Homophobia in Medical Students of the University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, R. W. M.; Au, K. P.; Chan, W. K.; Cheung, L. W. M.; Lam, C. Y. Y.; Liu, H. H. W.; Ng, L. Y.; Wong, M. Y.; Wong, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Homosexuality is now accepted as a normal variant of human sexuality, but homophobia among healthcare professionals is well documented. Establishment of trustful doctor-patient relationships is impossible in the presence of homophobia. We were interested to examine the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article…

  9. Collaborative governance of multiinstitutional graduate medical education: lessons from the McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University.

    PubMed

    Curry, Raymond H; Burgener, Alan J; Dooley, Sharon L; Christopher, Robert P

    2008-06-01

    The governance of graduate medical education (GME) and management of its interface with clinical care is a shared responsibility of teaching hospitals and medical educators. Significant changes in the structure and financing of medical care over the last few decades, along with a recent shift in the educational paradigm for GME, have made this collaboration all the more challenging. Calls for increased institutional accountability for GME from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education have highlighted the need for more effective models of GME governance. With these challenges in mind, this article examines the recent experiences of The McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University, a multiinstitutional, not-for-profitcorporation that serves as the vehicle for educational collaboration between Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and the teaching hospitals/health systems that provide the clinical homes for McGaw-sponsored GME programs. The authors explore the rationale for pursuing a new model of GME governance at McGaw, and various factors important to its success. These "critical success factors" may be of use in other, similarly complex GME settings.

  10. Implementing RECONSIDER, a diagnostic prompting computer system, at the Georgetown University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Broering, N C; Corn, M; Ayers, W R; Mistry, P

    1988-04-01

    RECONSIDER, a computer program for diagnostic prompting developed at the University of California, San Francisco, has been implemented at the Georgetown University Medical Center as part of the Integrated Academic Information Management System Model Development grant project supported by the National Library of Medicine. The system is available for student use in the Biomedical Information Resources Center of the Dahlgren Memorial Library. Instruction on use of the computer system is provided by the library and instruction on medical use of the knowledge base is directed by the faculty. The implementation, capabilities, enhancements such as the addition of Current Medical Information and Terminology (5th ed.), and evaluation of the system are reported.

  11. The University of Michigan Integrated Premedical-Medical Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; DeMuth, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the University of Michigan 6-year program for high school graduates (started in 1972) which integrates a liberal education and the MD degree. Included is information on governance, selection of students (emphasizing personal characteristics), curriculum (including several innovative course sequences), promotion, and plans for evaluation.…

  12. Collaboration between schools of social work and university medical centers.

    PubMed

    Bracht, N F; Briar, S

    1979-05-01

    Although the interface involving social work, medicine, and the other health professions occurs primarily in the day-to-day world of practice in hospitals and other health agencies, an equally important opportunity exists for interaction at the university level between schools of social work and schools for health professionals. This artice analyzes one school's effort to build effective interdisciplinary linkages.

  13. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  14. Improving the Effectiveness of Medication Review: Guidance from the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Barry D.; Brega, Angela G.; LeBlanc, William G.; Mabachi, Natabhona M.; Barnard, Juliana; Albright, Karen; Cifuentes, Maribel; Brach, Cindy; West, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine medication reviews in primary care practice are recommended to identify drug therapy problems, it is often difficult to get patients to bring all their medications to office visits. The objective of this study was to determine whether the medication review tool in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit can help to improve medication reviews in primary care practices. Methods The toolkit's “Brown Bag Medication Review” was implemented in a rural private practice in Missouri and an urban teaching practice in California. Practices recorded outcomes of medication reviews with 45 patients before toolkit implementation and then changed their medication review processes based on guidance in the toolkit. Six months later we conducted interviews with practice staff to identify changes made as a result of implementing the tool, and practices recorded outcomes of medication reviews with 41 additional patients. Data analyses compared differences in whether all medications were brought to visits, the number of medications reviewed, drug therapy problems identified, and changes in medication regimens before and after implementation. Results Interviews revealed that practices made the changes recommended in the toolkit to encourage patients to bring medications to office visits. Evaluation before and after implementation revealed a 3-fold increase in the percentage of patients who brought all their prescription medications and a 6-fold increase in the number of prescription medications brought to office visits. The percentage of reviews in which drug therapy problems were identified doubled, as did the percentage of medication regimens revised. Conclusions Use of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit can help to identify drug therapy problems. PMID:26769873

  15. "A wealth of historical interest": the medical artifact collection at the University of Western Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Michelle A; Woods, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Along with a teaching collection, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, began accepting medical artifacts for a historical museum in the early 1920s, although it never developed into more than an unofficial collection until the 1970s, when it was transformed into the Medical Museum and Archives at the University Hospital. In the 1990s, the artifacts were dispersed among several local institutions. The remaining objects at the university have been now reorganized as the Medical Artifact Collection. While these objects were once used to educate students about the practice and philosophy of medicine, they are now used to teach students about local, medical, Canadian and public history.

  16. Mistreatment of university students most common during medical studies

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Arja; Sunnari, Vappu; Nuutinen, Matti; Laitala, Marja

    2005-01-01

    Background This study concerns the occurrence of various forms of mistreatment by staff and fellow students experienced by students in the Faculty of Medicine and the other four faculties of the University of Oulu, Finland. Methods A questionnaire with 51 questions on various forms of physical and psychological mistreatment was distributed to 665 students (451 females) after lectures or examinations and filled in and returned. The results were analysed by gender and faculty. The differences between the males and females were assessed statistically using a test for the equality of two proportions. An exact two-sided P value was calculated using a mid-P approach to Fisher's exact test (the null hypothesis being that there is no difference between the two proportions). Results About half of the students answering the questionnaire had experienced some form of mistreatment by staff during their university studies, most commonly humiliation and contempt (40%), negative or disparaging remarks (34%), yelling and shouting (23%), sexual harassment and other forms of gender-based mistreatment (17%) and tasks assigned as punishment (13%). The students in the Faculty of Medicine reported every form of mistreatment more commonly than those in the Faculties of Humanities, Education, Science and Technology. Experiences of mistreatment varied, but clear messages regarding its patterns were to be found in each faculty. Female students reported more instances of mistreatment than males and were more disturbed by them. Professors, lecturers and other staff in particular mistreated female students more than they mistreated males. About half of the respondents reported some form of mistreatment by their fellow students. Conclusion Students in the Faculty of Medicine reported the greatest amount of mistreatment. If a faculty mistreats its students, its success in the main tasks of universities, research, teaching and learning, will be threatened. The results challenge university

  17. Developing a novel Poverty in Healthcare curriculum for medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School.

    PubMed

    Doran, Kelly M; Kirley, Katherine; Barnosky, Andrew R; Williams, Joy C; Cheng, Jason E

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 90 million Americans live below 200% of the federal poverty threshold. The links between lower socioeconomic status and poor health are clear, and all physicians face the resulting challenges in patient care. Current medical school curricula do not adequately prepare students to address this issue despite recommendations from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Institute of Medicine. In response, students and faculty at the University of Michigan Medical Center established the Poverty in Healthcare curriculum, which encompasses required learning experiences spanning all four years of undergraduate medical education. This article describes the design and implementation of this curriculum. The authors provide thorough descriptions of the individual learning experiences, including community site visits, longitudinal cases, mini-electives, and family centered experiences. The authors also discuss the history, costs, challenges, and evaluation process related to the Poverty in Healthcare curriculum, including issues specifically related to medical students' involvement in developing and implementing the curriculum. This information may be used as a guide for other medical schools in the development of curricula to address this current gap in medical student education.

  18. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice. PMID:23908853

  19. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  20. Internationalizing Medical Education: The Special Track Curriculum 'Global Health' at Justus Liebig University Giessen.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Michael; Baumann, Adrian; Hofstetter, Christine; Korte, Rolf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Internationalizing higher education is considered to be a major goal for universities in Germany and many medical students aspire to include international experiences into their academic training. However, the exact meaning of "internationalizing" medical education is still poorly defined, just as is the possible pedagogic impact and effects. Against this background, this article presents the special track curriculum on global health (in German: Schwerpunktcurriculum Global Health, short: SPC) at Justus Liebig University Giessen, which was established in 2011 as a comprehensive teaching program to integrate international perspectives and activities systematically into the clinical years of the medical curriculum. The report of the structure, content, didactic principles and participants' evaluations of the SPC is embedded into a larger discussion of the pedagogic value of a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on "global health" in medical education, that explicitly includes attention for health inequities, social determinants of health and the cultural dimensions of medicine and health abroad and "at home" (e.g. in relation to migration). We conclude that if properly defined, the emerging field of "global health" represents a didactically meaningful approach for adding value to medical education through internationalizing the curriculum, especially in regard to themes that despite of their uncontested value are often rather weak within medical education. The concrete curricular structures, however, have always to be developed locally. The "SPC" at Giessen University Medical School is only one possible way of addressing these globally relevant issues in one particular local academic setting.

  1. Internationalizing Medical Education: The Special Track Curriculum 'Global Health' at Justus Liebig University Giessen

    PubMed Central

    Knipper, Michael; Baumann, Adrian; Hofstetter, Christine; Korte, Rolf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Internationalizing higher education is considered to be a major goal for universities in Germany and many medical students aspire to include international experiences into their academic training. However, the exact meaning of “internationalizing” medical education is still poorly defined, just as is the possible pedagogic impact and effects. Against this background, this article presents the special track curriculum on global health (in German: Schwerpunktcurriculum Global Health, short: SPC) at Justus Liebig University Giessen, which was established in 2011 as a comprehensive teaching program to integrate international perspectives and activities systematically into the clinical years of the medical curriculum. The report of the structure, content, didactic principles and participants’ evaluations of the SPC is embedded into a larger discussion of the pedagogic value of a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on “global health” in medical education, that explicitly includes attention for health inequities, social determinants of health and the cultural dimensions of medicine and health abroad and “at home” (e.g. in relation to migration). We conclude that if properly defined, the emerging field of “global health” represents a didactically meaningful approach for adding value to medical education through internationalizing the curriculum, especially in regard to themes that despite of their uncontested value are often rather weak within medical education. The concrete curricular structures, however, have always to be developed locally. The “SPC” at Giessen University Medical School is only one possible way of addressing these globally relevant issues in one particular local academic setting. PMID:26604994

  2. Methylphenidate use among medical students at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yael Givon; Segev, Renana Wilkof; Shlafman, Nurit; Novack, Victor; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Methylphenidate is a psychotropic agent commonly used for the treatment of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity and narcolepsy in children and adults. The awareness to attention deficit disorder as well as the non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement has increased during the past years. Objectives: To evaluate the medical and non-medical use of methylphenidate among medical students in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. Materials and Methods: Medical students were asked to report methylphenidate use, symptoms and diagnosis of attention deficit disorder using a structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 229 students participated in the study, out of which 105 (45.9%) were in the pre-clinical years of medical school. Twenty-two students (9.6%) were previously diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Lifelong use of methylphenidate was reported by 39 (17%) students, while 31 students (13.5%) reported using methylphenidate during the preceding 12 month. In the beginning of medical school, only 7% of the students used methylphenidate, most of them began using it during pre-clinical academic years. Discussion: High rates of attention deficit disorder compared to the general population were reported by medical students. The rate of methylphenidate use is similar to recent report from a US medical school, and is considerably higher than in college students population. Conclusions: Many medical students are using methylphenidate without a medical indication. Further study is needed to evaluate the effect of methylphenidate on academic performance of healthy adults. PMID:26167012

  3. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Moghaddam, Parichehr; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods:In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Results: Overall, 164 (57.5) of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, P<0.05), students at senior level (β=-0.81, P<0.05), married students (β=-0.45, P<0.05), and those with improper sleep hygiene practices slept worse. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students. PMID:27354979

  4. A Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Multigranulation Rough Set over Two-Universe Model for Medical Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Deyu; Yan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In medical science, disease diagnosis is one of the difficult tasks for medical experts who are confronted with challenges in dealing with a lot of uncertain medical information. And different medical experts might express their own thought about the medical knowledge base which slightly differs from other medical experts. Thus, to solve the problems of uncertain data analysis and group decision making in disease diagnoses, we propose a new rough set model called dual hesitant fuzzy multigranulation rough set over two universes by combining the dual hesitant fuzzy set and multigranulation rough set theories. In the framework of our study, both the definition and some basic properties of the proposed model are presented. Finally, we give a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and the effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by a numerical example. PMID:26858772

  5. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-07-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act.

  6. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  7. [Medical surveillance in university: organizational difficulties, legal problems, scientific e technical specificities. Experience of University of Milan Bicocca].

    PubMed

    D'Orso, M I; Giuliani, C; Assini, R; Riva, M A; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Our research describes activities of Occupational Health carried out during last year in University of Milan Bicocca by Occupational Doctors. We describe results of medical surveillance in 1153 employees or students exposed to occupational risks for health and safety. We report results obtained, technical difficulties, organizational problems, and preventive actions decided to improve functionality of our activity. Students seem to be less protected and consequently seem to have higher professional safety and health risks.

  8. [Profile and tasks of a medical university polyclinic in the past and present using as example the Medical Polyclinical Institutes of the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Hambsch, K; Treutler, H; Pietruschka, W D

    1981-03-15

    After a short survey of the historical development of the Medico-Policlinical Institute of the Karl Marx University Leipzig tasks and developmental tendencies of university medical policlinics are described, evaluating hereby the results of the Vth conference of higher education. They are understood as a university representation of ambulatorily working internists and to a large extent of the specialists for general medicine. Their main tasks consist in education and continued professional training of this group of physicians under integrative description of the whole subject internal medicine, a research oriented to practice as well as a guiding and coordination function for the ambulatory internistic care, taking into particular consideration the early recognition of a disease, in primary and secondary prevention as well as in a scientifically based ambulatory therapy of epidemiologically important diseases.

  9. A better approach to medical malpractice claims? The University of Michigan experience.

    PubMed

    Boothman, Richard C; Blackwell, Amy C; Campbell, Darrell A; Commiskey, Elaine; Anderson, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The root causes of medical malpractice claims are deeper and closer to home than most in the medical community care to admit. The University of Michigan Health System's experience suggests that a response by the medical community more directly aimed at what drives patients to call lawyers would more effectively reduce claims, without compromising meritorious defenses. More importantly, honest assessments of medical care give rise to clinical improvements that reduce patient injuries. Using a true case example, this article compares the traditional approach to claims with what is being done at the University of Michigan. The case example illustrates how an honest, principle-driven approach to claims is better for all those involved-the patient, the healthcare providers, the institution, future patients, and even the lawyers.

  10. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  11. [Biochemical genetics in St. Petersburg university: from the gene-enzyme model to medical biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Padkina, M V; Sambuk, E V

    2007-10-01

    The history of biochemical genetic research in St. Petersburg (Leningrad) State University is described. The main research projects and achievements of the Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics in studies on the mechanisms of gene expression control, coordinated regulation of metabolism, and the relationship of the physiological state of yeast cells with the maintenance of genetic stability are discussed. The fundamental importance of studies on the acid phosphatase model for the formation and development of medical biotechnology in St. Petersburg University is demonstrated.

  12. Educational improvement in Medical English Practice: Questionnaire survey to sophomore medical students of Hokkaido University.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Olga, Amengual; Iguchi, Kaori; Otaki, Junji

    2015-11-01

    In the past, we made several efforts making curriculum changes to Medical English Practice, however, these changes did not improve motivation effectively. We have completely modified the curriculum in 2012, and performed a questionnaire survey to 112 sophomore medical students. In the final exam, students answered a questionnaire assessing all classes of the course by scoring 3 points (no change required), 2 points (minor change required), and 1 point (major change required or discontinue). In addition, students could write free comments about potential contents they would like to add to the curriculum. Each class was assessed as more than or equal to 2.5 points on average (range: 2.50-2.96). Potential contents students want to add are: 1. Speaking (45 students [55%]), 2. Listening (30 students [37%]), 3. Reading (6 students [7%]), 4. Writing (1 student [1%]). The most frequent suggestion was to include group discussions in speaking (27 students [33%]), followed by listening on topics of healthcare systems (11 students [13%]). Many students suggested to include conversation classes in small groups, or classes in which international students introduce the structure of healthcare systems of their home countries to the curriculum. Increasing the participation of international faculty, staff and students in the Medical English Practice might contribute to the improvement of medical students' motivation.

  13. Cases from the Osler Medical Service at Johns Hopkins University.

    PubMed

    Habas, Allison B; Kim, Yuli; Jefferson, Brian K

    2003-12-01

    A 50-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral lower extremity pain, a history of falls during the past several months, and personality and behavior changes. She had been in good health until approximately 5 months before admission, when she began to fall with increasing frequency, often while going down a flight of stairs. She described these falls as her "legs giving out" and feeling very heavy and unsteady. There was no head trauma or loss of consciousness. Her daughter noticed that her gait had become somewhat unsteady during the last several months. Her family also noted a change in her personality at this time. Previously, she had been a very tidy person who took great care with her appearance, who was working as a customer service representative. However, she had become less social and very withdrawn. She had been observed putting on dirty clothes after showering, as well as eating constantly. The patient denied any fevers, chills, night sweats, headaches, vision changes, or tinnitus. She also denied any rashes, muscle pain, or intolerance to heat or cold. There was no history of seizure disorder or depression. Her past medical history was notable only for hypertension and being a passenger in a motor vehicle crash 1 year before admission. She denied any alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drug use, and had no travel history other than coming to the United States, as she was originally from Trinidad. On physical examination, she was a moderately obese African American woman with a flat affect, psychomotor slowing, and alopecia of the scalp. She was alert and oriented to person, place, and time, but had a score of 26 out of 30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination. She lost points only for recall; she had no difficulty with serial 7s. Her cranial nerves were intact and her speech was fluent, although sparse, and she did not make any paraphasic errors. Her muscle strength was 5/5 in both the upper and lower extremities. Reflexes were 2+ in the upper

  14. 77 FR 46033 - Medical University of South Carolina, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific...: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29403. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer.... Applicant: University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer:...

  15. Internet use and addiction among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Azlina A; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Islam, Zakirul; Haque, ATM Emdadul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Internet has now become indispensable, and the technology has revolutionized the medical education and practice worldwide. Currently, medical students and professionals have an enormous opportunity to keep them always updated with the exponential growth of knowledge because of potential progression of Internet throughout the world that enables them to become a lifelong learner. Internet addiction is a widespread phenomenon among students and academicians at universities in Malaysia. Students use the Internet for recreational purpose and personal and professional development. The Internet has become an integral part of day-to-day life of the university students, including medical students. The aim of the present study was to examine the Internet use and addiction among students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire, Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire, developed by the Center for Internet Addiction, USA, was used. One hundred forty-nine medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin participated in this study. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results The mean scores were 44.9±14.05 and 41.4±13.05 for male and female participants, respectively, which indicated that both the genders were suffering from mild Internet addiction. Conclusion This study shows almost similar level of Internet usage among medical students irrespective of their socioeconomic background, with no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences, except among the years of study (p=0.007). Overall, from the research data and having worked with this cohort very closely, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin medical students can be labeled as wonted and recurring users of the Internet. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to define as Internet addicts or pathological users of the Internet because of small sample size and cross-sectional study. PMID

  16. [Innovative activity of dental faculty staff of Omsk State Medical University: results, problems and prospects].

    PubMed

    Novikov, A I; Gudinova, Zh V

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes innovative activity in Omsk State Medical University (OSMU) and contains the review of innovative developments of staff of dental faculty of OSMU (a line of gels for caries prevetion, the DENTEST diagnostic unit, technology of tooth shape modular restoration, personified therapy.of patients with periodontal disease, caries diagnosis and periodontontal disease prognosis software, a set of the training materials on esthetic modeling of teeth, personification of clinical approaches in oral bioaesthetic rehabilitation, etc.). The analysis of the factors stimulating and complicating innovative detail in medical school, problems of introduction of medical innovations, lack of system of an assessment of medical technologies in Russia, regulations of the organization of innovative activity in medical schools is carried out, the prospects of their solution connected with decision-making at the state level are formulated.

  17. The Role and Challenges of School Social Work: An Examination from Practice in Osaka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamano, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of school social work in the Osaka Prefecture of Japan. The article focuses on micro, mezzo, and macro levels of school social work and documents the growth and development of school social work since 2005. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  18. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg(-1) dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L(-1), and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L(-1). The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean.

  19. Critical limits (alert values) for physician notification: universal or medical center specific limits?

    PubMed

    Lum, G

    1998-01-01

    The concept of critical limits (alert values), defined as an imminent life threatening laboratory result requiring immediate physician notification, has been widely adopted as a standard of good laboratory practice. Although virtually all laboratories have tests with critical limits, surveys have shown that there is no universal alert value list. Recently, nine VA medical centers in the New England region, which now constitute one consolidated entity, were surveyed with the objective of summarizing critical limits. Universal (100 percent) critical limit tests for clinical chemistry were: Calcium; mean low/high, 6.5/12.4 mg/dL: Glucose 48/432 mg/dL: Potassium 2.8/6.1 mmol/L: Sodium 121/159 mmol/L. Universal hematology tests included: Hematocrit 22.2/59.7 percent: Platelet count 61K/983K: white blood count 1.9K/29K. Although there was universal agreement that abnormal coagulation tests (PT, PTT) should be included on the hematology critical limit list, there was wide variation in the reporting of coagulation tests (seconds and INR) and patient therapeutic status (anticoagulant or no-anticoagulant). Universal alert values for microbiology were: Positive blood culture: Positive cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) culture: Positive CSF Gram stain. There was no universal agreement regarding critically high (potentially toxic) therapeutic drugs, with two medical centers declining to notify physicians of any abnormally high therapeutic drug level. No other qualitative critical limits for other laboratory sections, such as physician notification of an unexpected malignancy (surgical pathology) were universal. Medical center specific critical limits, designed to meet the clinical needs of each facility, are the norm in the nine medical centers. Laboratories do need periodically to review their critical limit lists with appropriate clinical input to avoid including critical limits for laboratory tests not required for urgent physician notification and patient evaluation and treatment.

  20. [The nicotinism question in the light of education on Medical and Nursing Faculties of the Medical University of Bialystok].

    PubMed

    Bielska, Dorota; Trofimiuk, Emil; Kurpas, Donata

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of "Schedule of health care, economic and social policy pursuing to reduction of tobacco consumption" involving numerous institutions including universities, educated persons will be responsible for the treatment and prophylaxis of tobacco smoking-evoked diseases. The aim of this study was assessment of the tobacco smoking prevalence among undergraduates of last-year course of Medical Faculty and Nursing Faculty of Medical University of Bialystok and evaluation of theirs attitude in the face of the nicotinism question after 5 years of occupation. The percentage of tobacco smokers on Medical Faculty average out 27.7% and 17.8% on Nursing Faculty. Students of both faculties opined that nicotinism in Poland was a heavyweight issue (8 points in decagrade scale). Our data shown that about one third of assessed students have not to do with a nicotinism theme and were not acquired sufficient knowledge to help tobacco smoking patients. Thus, continuation of nictonism issue education within the framework of seminaries and classes of family medicine course in both faculties will be purposeful action.

  1. A Comprehensive Wellness Program for Veterinary Medical Education: Design and Implementation at North Carolina State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven; Borst, Luke; Huckle, Jeffrey; Barter, Hillary; Neel, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Research in veterinary medical education has illustrated the challenges students face with respect to mental and emotional wellness, lack of attention to physical health, and limited opportunities to meaningfully engage with persons from different backgrounds. In response, the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine has…

  2. Understanding the Use of Educational Technology among Faculty, Staff, and Students at a Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Annan, Dustin L.; Carson, Nancy E.; Freeland, Melissa; Hodge, Ashley B.; Seif, Gretchen A.; Zoller, James S.

    2013-01-01

    A college of health professions at a medical university located in the southeastern United States is striving to increase the use of educational technology among faculty, staff, and students. A strategic planning group was formed and charged with enhancing the use of educational technology within the college. In order to understand the current…

  3. Psychological Type and Undergraduate Student Achievement in Pharmacy Course in Military Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…

  4. Teaching Hypothesis-Oriented Thinking to Medical Students: The University of Florida's Clinical Investigation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacpoole, Peter W.; Fisher, Waldo R.; Flotte, Terence R.; Geiser, Edward A.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Hutson, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes student-led research projects conducted at the University of Florida's General Clinical Research Center. First-year medical and M.D.-Ph.D. students collaborate on a hypothesis-driven experiment involving students as volunteer subjects and investigators. Feedback indicates students find the program useful and that it encourages pursuit of…

  5. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay, southwestern Japan: Faunal changes over the last 50 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsujimoto, Akira; Nomura, Ritsuo; Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yoshikawa, Shusaku

    2006-01-01

    Live benthic foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediment in Osaka Bay collected in 1999 were analyzed to characterize the distribution of the modern foraminiferal assemblages. Foraminiferal assemblages were compared with those of previous studies to document environmental changes in Osaka Bay over the past 50 years. Sixty-one species of foraminifera belonging to 37 genera were recognized from the 1999 surface sediment samples. An agglutinated assemblage containing Trochammina hadai and Eggerella advena is dominant in the inner part of the bay and is related to eutrophication. The foraminiferal assemblage in areas deeper than about 20 m is composed of Eggerella advena, Ammonia beccarii forma A, and Pseudorotalia gaimardii. This assemblage may be influenced by the large clockwise Okinose Circulation Current which extends throughout the western bay. Foraminiferal assemblages in Osaka Bay have changed dramatically during the last 50 years. The Trochammina hadai-Eggerella advena assemblage became established in the inner part of the bay, reflecting eutrophication that progressed from the 1960s through the 1970s. This assemblage became dominant in 1983, and typically dominated the inner part of the bay. From 1983 to 1999, however, the abundance of taxa belonging to this assemblage decreased greatly following implementation of 1973 Osaka City bylaws that restricted wastewater discharge. Changes in benthic assemblages such as the decrease of Ammonia beccarii forma A and increase of Eggerella advena have occurred in response to decreased incidence of red tides, and floral change in the species that cause these tides. The results of this study demonstrate that the abundance and distribution of benthic foraminifers in Osaka Bay are intimately related to environmental changes related to the urbanization of coastal areas. ?? by the Palaeontological Society of Japan.

  6. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences:categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    NABEIEI, PARISA; AMINI, MITRA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; MARHAMATI, SAADAT

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10). Results In the first phase (NGT), 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26) and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52). In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities. PMID:26793723

  7. Dispensing history, art and mystery in the Medical History Museum of University of Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The installation of an 1849 Savory & Moore Pharmacy has been a popular attraction for visitors, yet under-utilised in the Museum as a means through which a deeper understanding of the making and taking of medication could be told. The opportunity to research and present these stories to a wider field of viewers in an online multimedia production is discussed here, and is set within the context of the challenges met by the Museum in terms of its relevance and sustainability within a University focused on the future as a graduate University. Under the radical reform of its curriculum, funding and students are more likely to be attracted to medical science than medical history, unless new questions are put to historical items and ways sought to draw on the curiosity and imagination of students who might gain a greater breadth of knowledge by learning through engagement with original objects.

  8. Education at the Dittrick Museum of Medical History, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, James M

    2009-01-01

    The Dittrick Museum of Medical History pursues an educational mission as being part of a major research university. While the Dittrick dates to 1899 as a historical committee of the Cleveland Medical Library Association, it first affiliated with Case Western Reserve University in 1966, and became a department of the College of Arts and Sciences of CWRU in 1998. The Dittrick maintains a museum exhibition gallery that is open to the public free of charge, and museum staff provide guided tours on appointment. Much of the teaching and instruction at the Dittrick is conducted by university professors; their classes meet in the museum and use museum resources in the form of artifacts, images, archives, and rare books. Class projects using Dittrick collections may take the form of research papers, exhibitions, and online presentations. Dittrick staff assist in these classes and are available to help researchers use museum resources.

  9. [Educational program in the Medical Science Course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Hidero; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Ohbu, Makoto; Obata, Fumiya; Ogawa, Zensuke; Sato, Yuichi; Hattori, Manabu; Saito-Taki, Tatsuo; Hara, Kazuya; Okano, Tetsuroh; Kubo, Makoto; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tsuchiya, Benio; Okazaki, Toshio; Ishii, Naohito; Nishimura, Yukari; Takada, Nobukazu; Abe, Michiko; Hachimura, Kazuo; Tanigawa, Kozo; Katagiri, Masato

    2008-07-01

    The aim of education in the Medical Laboratory Science course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, is to bring up train students who have Kitasato spirit, for careers in laboratory medicine of hospital or scientific staff of medical companies or as researchers. General and enlightening education concerning "Kitasato spirit" and professional education composed of major subjects was carried out in the first and during the 2nd and two third of 3rd grade, respectively. Medical practice and research training were alternatively carried out for 6 months between November of the 3rd year and November of the 4th year, in order to gain practical experience. Two problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial courses, "Infectious Diseases Course" and "Team Medical Care--Interprofessional Collaborations" were also carried out at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th years, respectively, in order to convert a memory to knowledge. Team medical care course enrolls 1000 students at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy and Kitasato College Applied Clinical Dietetics Course, is now one of special courses available at our university. This attempt is thought to result in a way of thinking that recognizes the importance of co-operation as a team member and personal contributions to actual team medical care.

  10. [A survey on condition of outpatients at prosthodontics II, University Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, N; Shiozawa, I; Masuda, T; Takei, H; Tsuruta, J; Ogura, N; Hasegawa, S

    1998-06-01

    The number of dental patients who have medical illnesses is increasing at the hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Although prosthodontic treatments are considered less invasive in all dental treatments, invasive procedures such as tooth extraction may be required occasionally. Therefore, it is necessary to treat patients in consideration of their condition. Under this situation, a clinical survey was conducted by health questionnaires answered by the patients who visited our clinic between October 1992 and March 1997. The number of patients whose illness was heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, nephritic disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis, hemodyscrasia, asthma, epilepsy, and so on during dental treatment was higher than the national average according to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Dental psychosomatic diseases such as TMD and dental phobia were increased every year. These data reflect the contemporary disease structure in Japan characterized by the spreading of life-style related diseases and increase of neuropsychological and infectious diseases.

  11. Telemedicine activity at a Canadian university medical school and its teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aires, L M; Finley, J P

    2000-01-01

    Dalhousie University Medical School and its teaching hospitals have been providing clinical telemedicine services since 1987. The object of the present study was to assess the extent and growth of telemedicine at the medical school and teaching hospitals, as well as to evaluate the obstacles to its deployment. This was achieved by conducting structured personal interviews with telemedicine providers. Twenty telemedicine programmes were identified, of which 15 were operational and five were being planned. The number of established telemedicine projects had doubled in the six months preceding the study. A wide variety of telemedicine services were provided, ranging from clinical consultations in a number of medical specialties to patient education, grand rounds and continuing medical education. These services were provided to sites in a wide area in the Maritime region and internationally. The three most important obstacles to the implementation of telemedicine were a lack of knowledge about telemedicine (80% of respondents), time constraints (75%) and funding (70%).

  12. Regional distribution of PM2.5 over a megacity Osaka in Japan derived from satellite, AERONET and/or LIDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Holben, B.; Sugimoto, N.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring of particulate matter near the surface is very important for the Earth environment, especially for human health and atmospheric environment. In Japan, concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is similar to PM10 but sharply cutting at 10 µm for the particle diameter, has been monitored since 1975 and is still now widely available for a daily monitoring. New PM2.5 rule was defined in 1997 in the United States, however the standard rule for PM2.5 monitoring has net yet made in Japan until 2009. As a result, the number of PM2.5 instruments is very limited in Japan. In practice the PM2.5 samplers are only used for scientific objects. Therefore estimation of PM2.5 over the wide area as possible as in Japan is an urgent issue. Anthropogenic small particles dominate the air especially over the urban areas because of local emissions by diesel vehicles and industries. The distribution of these particles is complicated due to the increasing emissions of sulfuric, nitric, carbonaceous and other aerosols in association with economic growth in East Asia. The goal of this work is to estimate PM2.5 distribution over the second big city Osaka in Japan based on satellite measurements. A brief processing line of PM2.5 estimation is as follows: 1. Acquirement of surface reflectance based on satellite data to retrieve aerosol characteristics. 2. Retrieval of columnar aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Osaka from the fine resolved satellite image. 3. Vertical profile of aerosol concentration with NIES-LIDAR measurements. 4. Surface level aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from columnar AOT and LIDAR dataset. 5. Estimation of PM2.5 based on the relationship between AOT, surface AOD, LIDAR and in-situ PM2.5 dataset simultaneously accumulated at AERONET/Osaka site since 2008. Note that, collocated data set of in situ PM2.5, AERONET AOT, and NIES-LIDAR data are available at Kinki University's AERONET site as mentioned in the above item 5. It is of interest

  13. The Effect of Instructing Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies on the Academic Progress of Ilam Medical University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…

  14. Developing eLearning Technologies to Implement Competency Based Medical Education: Experiences from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagunwa, Thomas; Lwoga, Edda

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the practical experience of developing an eLearning technology as a tool to implement Competency-based Medical Education (CBME) in Tanzania medical universities, with a specific focus on Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. The paper provides a background to eLearning and the early attempt to adopt it in 2006 at…

  15. Computer and Internet Utilization among the Medical Students in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef Homood; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Computer-based training (CBT) and internet-based training (IBT) have become a vital part of the Medical Education. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Qassim University-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), with the objective of assessing the pattern of the computer and Internet utilization among both male and female medical students. Methods: A total of 500 medical students from 4 different medical colleges of Qassim University participated in this study. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data and the data analysis was done by using SPSS, Version 17. Results: Forty two percent female and twenty four percent male students used computers to get general information, 80% of the students reported using computers for academic activities and 52% females and 22% males used computers for entertainment. Most of the females preferred using computers at home (84%), while 54% males used computers at cyber cafés. For the information retrieval, 84% males used the internet, followed by journals/library (36%) and textbooks (35%), while the females preferred textbooks (75%) and the internet (14%). Google was found to be most commonly used search engine. Conclusion: The internet creates an educational delivery system; it is highly needed to increase the credit hours for the university requirement courses in computer application and the internet use for both among the male and female students. PMID:23905114

  16. Predictors of Dietary Supplement Usage among Medical Interns of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri, Sanaz; Yeganeh, Haleh Sadrzadeh; Koohdani, Fariba; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement-use and its relationship with demographics and lifestyle of medical interns. The study sample comprised 356 interns aged 23 to 25 years. Participants completed a questionnaire on dietary supplement-use during the month preceding the study, information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle was also obtained. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were employed to assess the correlates of dietary supplement-use. The prevalence of dietary supplement-use was about 33% (males 20.4% and females 43.2%, p<0.001). The most commonly-used dietary supplement was multivitamin/multivitamin-mineral (90.6% in males and 52.3% in females). Approximately 30% of supplements were used regularly (≥5 days/week) by all subjects. The most-frequently reported reasons for supplement-use in males were: enhancing daily energy/stamina (51.1%), poor food intake (13.3%) and, in females, were: improving health and nutritional status (39.3%) and reducing hair loss (23.4%). The decision to use dietary supplement was mostly driven by the interns themselves (56% in males, 61% in females). In the univariable analysis, men who exercised once or twice a week were less likely to use supplements compared to those who reported doing exercise more than twice weekly (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98). Females who reported their health status to be ‘excellent’ were more likely to use supplements compared to those who described their health status as ‘moderate/poor/very poor’ (OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.15-5.56) as were women who mentioned their breakfast consumption status as ‘always’ (OR=2.69, 95% CI 1.47-4.92). In the multivariable analysis, only breakfast consumption was significantly related with dietary supplement-use in females (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.11-4.38). In conclusion, dietary supplement-use among medical interns, especially among females, was relatively very common. Dietary supplement-use was related to a

  17. The Direct Cost of Parkinson Disease at Juntendo Medical University Hospital, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoritaka, Asako; Fukae, Jiro; Hatano, Taku; Oda, Eisei; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies on the cost of Parkinson disease (PD) have been published; however, there are limited studies pertaining to this issue in Asia. This study looks to assess the direct medical costs of patients with PD at a university hospital in Japan by calculating the average monthly direct medical costs of PD patients from July to December 2008. Methods We enrolled 724 consecutive patients (411 women and 313 men) with PD who were registered in Japan's "Specified Disease Treatment Research Program" and obtained data on the total direct medical costs of all patients. Results Values are reported as the mean (standard deviation). The major finding of the direct medical cost analysis was that the outpatient clinic cost per subject (n=715) was USD 485.74 (376.31) per month. A multivariate analysis revealed that a younger age, the presence of wearing-off, hallucination, and longer disease duration increased the direct medical cost significantly. Disease severity had no influence on the direct medical costs. A longer disease duration was significantly correlated with higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion The direct medical cost of PD in Japan was found to be similar to that in Western countries. Costs due to productivity loss exceeded the direct costs, and they may be reduced through the better integration of PD patients in the work environment.

  18. Easing the transition: the final year of medical education at Maastricht University.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Marjan; Dornan, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; oude Egbrink, Mirjam G A; Snoeckx, Luc H E H

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the final year of medical education at Maastricht University as it has been operating since 2006. At the time external drivers for the development of a new structure of the final year were: the desire to prepare medical students for lifelong learning, the CanMEDs that were increasingly acknowledged to state the final attainment level of medical education and an increasing recognition of the importance of learning by participating actively and by taking more responsibility. Internal drivers were students' evaluations and our wish to improve instructional design and quality control. The main aim of this new final year is to better prepare students for the transition from the medical master programme to one of the postgraduate training programmes to become a medical specialist. The final year of the medical master programme consists of two 18-weeks participation electives, one in health care and one in research. Students have a higher level of autonomy and responsibility during this final year compared to the preceding medical clerkships to enhance the transition. Portfolios are the key element in examination of SCIP and HELP. Student evaluations of the final year show high scores on coaching and instructiveness. Despite some differences between departments overall scores are very high. Suggestions to improve include the availability of work places and time for education and coaching.

  19. Self-Medication Pattern among Social Science University Students in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate self-medication causes wastage of resources among others. Method. This survey study was conducted to determine self-medication pattern of 404 social science university students in Northwest Ethiopia, who were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Binary Logistic Regression analysis was employed with P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Result. At 95.3% response rate, mean age of 21.26 ± 1.76 years, and male/female ratio of 1.26, the prevalence of self-medication during the six month recall period was 32.7%. Headache (N = 87, 69.1%) was the primary complaint that prompted the practice and hence analgesics (N = 67, 53.2%) were the mostly used drugs followed by antimicrobials (N = 50, 39.7%). The top two reasons driving the practice were nonseverity of the illness (N = 41, 32.5%) and suggestions from friends (N = 33, 26.2%). Female sex (P = 0.042) and higher income (P = 0.044) were associated with the practice. Conclusion. Self-medication practice, involving the use of both nonprescription and prescription drugs such as antimicrobials, among the social science university students is high. Therefore health education interventions regarding the risks of inappropriate self-medication are essential. PMID:28191360

  20. [Suggestions of reshaping medical education (The Hungarian medical elite at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) 1947-1948].

    PubMed

    N Szabó, József

    2017-03-01

    This study is part of the monograph entitled Scientific Elites and Politics (1945-1948) to be published soon. The relationships of political parties with several elite groups, such as groups of agronomic, human, economic, legal, technical and natural sciences, as well as the roles of these elites in scientific life, have been looked into and published in renowned periodicals. Using new sources, different specialist groups' and political powers' suggestions of reshaping medical education in 1947 and 1948, are presented. The medical elite's situation at universities and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is also outlined. The study renders an account of the entire post-war medical elite. It will be stated who and based on what scientific achievement became member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, who was appointed to professor and who became a habilitated doctor. This study, which is a desideratum of research, may not only interest researchers but is aimed at a broader readership, including physicians. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(11), 432-437.

  1. A career study of medical graduates of the University of the Witwatersrand, 1925--1972.

    PubMed

    Beaton, G R; Mendelow, A D; Bourne, D E

    1975-11-29

    A career study of the medical graduates of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, between 1925 and 1969 has been conducted by postal survey. A return of 44,8% of the questionnaires and a lack of bias judged by criteria of geographic region, year of graduation and sex ratios, suggest that the sample is representative of the graduate population. Detailed analyses of active engagement in practice, geographic localities, fields of practice, specialist: general practitioner ratios, specialist rankings and academic appointments are presented and discussed. Career studies may be a valuable method of evaluating medical education.

  2. The new University of Colorado medical school curriculum: a pediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Deterding, Robin R; Wong, Shale; Faries, Glenn; Glover, Jacqueline J; Garrington, Timothy P; Wang, Michael; Anderson, Marsha S; Krugman, Richard D

    2007-11-01

    The University of Colorado School of Medicine has developed an innovative 4-year undergraduate curriculum. As a strong advocate for education and curriculum reform, Dr M. Douglas Jones Jr. created an environment for pediatrics to flourish in this new curriculum. Pediatric content has increased in all years of the curriculum, and pediatric faculty have had greater opportunities to teach and seek career development in medical education. In this report, we review the process that led to curriculum reform, provide an overview of the new curriculum design, and highlight examples of the positive impact this process has had on education in pediatrics. We hope that sharing our experience, may benefit others in medical education.

  3. [Lessons learned from the evacuation of the VU University Medical Centre after flooding].

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, T H; Brouwers, C; Bloemers, F W

    2017-01-01

    On 8 September 2015, flooding of the lower floors of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam caused serious damage to many vital technical services, such as water and power supplies. The decision was made to completely evacuate the university hospital. This paper describes the chronology and events of that day and shares a number of important lessons that were learned, in order to help readers to optimise crisis organisation in their own institutions. A serious situation or disaster can never be standardised in protocols or manuals; flexibility, improvisation and confidence in one another's expertise and commitment are therefore essential.

  4. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  5. History of the renal section, New York University School of Medicine 1926-1986, New York University Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Chasis, H.

    1989-01-01

    This history of the Renal Section at New York University School of Medicine ascribes its birth to a policy introduced by John Henry Wyckoff in 1924 that divided the Department of Medicine into sections devoted to the various subspecialties. Physicians selected to head each section sought further training. William Goldring, asked to organize the kidney section, spent a sabbatical year working with Homer William Smith, chairman and professor of the department of physiology at New York University School of Medicine. The second event was the development of a postdoctoral fellowship program in which medical school graduates, following completion of their intern and residency program, returned to basic science departments for exposure to and training in research in preparation for their return to clinical medicine. The aim of this fellowship program was to introduce the experimental method, which had been productive in the physical sciences, to the study and treatment of disease in man. The third event was the continuous collaboration between members of the Department of Medicine and the Department of Physiology under the chairmanship of Homer Smith. Experimental protocols in cardiovascular and renal physiology developed in the laboratory were carried over to Bellevue Hospital for studies and treatment of patients with hypertensive and renal diseases under the direction of members of the Renal Section. The final step conceived by Saul J. Farber, Chairman and Professor of the Department of Medicine was unification into a single group of all faculty members working in the field of hypertensive and renal diseases in Bellevue, University, and Manhattan Veterans Administration Hospitals. The Renal Section then can attribute its origin and development to the establishment of divisions within the Department of Medicine, the postdoctoral fellowship program, and the collaboration between the Departments of Medicine and Physiology. The establishment of the Renal Section served as

  6. Medical student career choice: a qualitative study of fourth-year medical students at Memorial University, Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Bethune, Cheri; Hurley, Katrina F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specialty career choice is a critical decision for medical students, and research has examined factors influencing particular specialties or assessed it from a demographic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe influential factors in students' decision-making, irrespective of their particular specialty in a Canadian medical school. Methods: Study participants were recruited from fourth-year medical classes at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Sixteen focus groups (n = 70) were led by a nonfaculty facilitator to uncover factors affecting medical student career choice. The analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory methodology. The focus group transcripts were sequentially coded based on recurring topics and themes that arose in the students' discussions. A set of key themes emerged and representative quotations for each theme were tracked. Results: Twenty themes were identified from the focus group discussions: 7 major, 3 intermediate and 10 minor themes. The major themes were undergraduate experience, exposure, public perception and recruitment, teacher influence, family/outside influences, residency issues and personal philosophy. Intermediate themes included lifestyle, bad-mouthing/negative perceptions and context. Minor themes included critical incidents/experiences, information gaps, uncertainty, nature of the work, extracurricular programs, timing of decision-making, financial issues, prestige, fit with colleagues and gender issues. Interpretation: Exposure to specialties and the timing of this exposure appears to be crucial to career choice, as does the context (who, what, when, where) of any particular rotation. Given the influence of personal philosophy, future research examining students' level of self-assessment and self-reflection in their decision-making processes and level of certainty about their selected specialty would be useful. PMID:27398357

  7. Will international human rights subsume medical ethics? Intersections in the UNESCO Universal Bioethics Declaration.

    PubMed

    Faunce, T A

    2005-03-01

    The International Bioethics Committee (IBC) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is currently drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration ("the declaration"). The content and even the name of the declaration has yet to be finalized, but it is expected to range widely over human and non-human bioethics. It appears likely to include many articles directly related to medical ethics. The declaration may well evolve, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, into a component of international customary law, or be the precursor to an International Convention on Bioethics. This article discusses whether this process will facilitate bioethics and, in particular, medical ethics, being subsumed by the normative system of international human rights.

  8. A Coprological Survey of Intestinal Helminthes in Stray Dogs Captured in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; EDAGAWA, Akiko; KAWABUCHI-KURATA, Takako; SUGIYAMA, Hiromu; YAMASAKI, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  9. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  10. Collision course: the privatization of graduate medical education at one university.

    PubMed

    Klasko, Stephen K; Ekarius, John C

    2007-03-01

    On December 18, 2003, Tenet Healthcare Corporation, an investor-owned hospital corporation, announced the closure of Medical College of Pennsylvania Hospital, a historic institution that was home to many of Drexel University College of Medicine's (DUCOM's) faculty, residents, and medical students. The authors summarize the steps that were taken and lessons learned to avoid a disruption in the education of over 200 residents. The authors highlight the response by the medical school; the concerns of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME); the interaction between the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the ACGME; the importance of the designated institutional official (DIO) in a crisis situation; and the role of residents as students versus employees when their employer wishes to move or "trade" them to another institution. Through the lens of the DUCOM experience, the authors explore the legal, political, and educational conflicts that occur when an investor-owned company or private hospital employs residents but another entity holds moral and academic accountability for their future. Finally, the authors outline five lessons learned: (1) the important role the ACGME plays as the educational conscience of graduate medical education (GME), (2) the dramatically different roles that the ACGME and the CMS play in regulating and funding the national GME system, (3) the need for constant communication with the affected residents, (4) the important role that the DIO plays in GME, and (5) the need for medical school leaders to remain focused on their educational mission and responsibilities to young physicians.

  11. Prediction of long-period ground motions from huge subduction earthquakes in Osaka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, H.; Kamae, K.

    2008-04-01

    There is a high possibility of reoccurrence of the Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes along the Nankai Trough in Japan. It is very important to predict the long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.1 and 8.4, respectively, to mitigate their disastrous effects. In this study, long-period (>2.5 s) ground motions were predicted using an earthquake scenario proposed by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japan. The calculations were performed using a fourth-order finite difference method with a variable spacing staggered-grid in the frequency range 0.05 0.4 Hz. The attenuation characteristics ( Q) in the finite difference simulations were assumed to be proportional to frequency ( f) and S-wave velocity ( V s) represented by Q = f · V s / 2. Such optimum attenuation characteristic for the sedimentary layers in the Osaka basin was obtained empirically by comparing the observed motions during the actual M5.5 event with the modeling results. We used the velocity structure model of the Osaka basin consisting of three sedimentary layers on bedrock. The characteristics of the predicted long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes depend significantly on the complex thickness distribution of the sediments inside the basin. The duration of the predicted long-period ground motions in the city of Osaka is more than 4 min, and the largest peak ground velocities (PGVs) exceed 80 cm/s. The predominant period is 5 to 6 s. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of earthquake damage because of future subduction earthquakes in large-scale constructions such as tall buildings, long-span bridges, and oil storage tanks in the Osaka area.

  12. Barriers to Effective Formulation of Code of Ethics in a Medical University

    PubMed Central

    MOKHTARIANPOUR, Majid; FARAMARZ GHARAMALEKI, Ahad; RAJABI, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year many organizations formulate a Code of Ethics (COE) but when it comes to implementing, it does not achieve the desired purposes. Ineffectiveness of COEs can stem from different factors and surely, one of them is bad formulation. This research was conducted to identify the barriers to effective formulation of COEs in one of the main state universities of medical sciences in Iran. Methods: A qualitative approach using thematic analysis in three stages of descriptive coding, interpretative coding and overarching themes was adopted to analyze data collected through 27 semi-structured interviews. This study was conducted in 2014–15 at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Results: Totally 135 descriptive themes, 12 interpretive themes and 3 overarching themes emerged through analyzing interviews. Conclusion: In order to have an implementable COE, 12 barriers in three categories including “goal-setting”, “approach” and “content” of the COE, must be removed. In “goal-setting”, real cultural conditions of the medical university must be considered. Moreover, the COE must be in response to perceived internal needs and its philosophy must be clear for all members of the university. Besides, the formulation “approach” of the COEs must be specialist, participatory and expertised. Finally, in “content”, different stakeholders with diverse values, levels of knowledge and needs should be carefully addressed. In addition, it is proposed to emphasize religious and humane values to encourage participation of people. As a final point, the university should avoid imitation in the content of the COE, and conceptualize the values in motivating, inspirational and guiding words. PMID:27057525

  13. Interdisciplinary Medication Adherence Program: The Example of a University Community Pharmacy in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Lelubre, Mélanie; Kamal, Susan; Genre, Noëllie; Celio, Jennifer; Gorgerat, Séverine; Hugentobler Hampai, Denise; Bourdin, Aline; Berger, Jerôme; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The Community Pharmacy of the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (Policlinique Médicale Universitaire, PMU), University of Lausanne, developed and implemented an interdisciplinary medication adherence program. The program aims to support and reinforce medication adherence through a multifactorial and interdisciplinary intervention. Motivational interviewing is combined with medication adherence electronic monitors (MEMS, Aardex MWV) and a report to patient, physician, nurse, and other pharmacists. This program has become a routine activity and was extended for use with all chronic diseases. From 2004 to 2014, there were 819 patient inclusions, and 268 patients were in follow-up in 2014. This paper aims to present the organization and program's context, statistical data, published research, and future perspectives. PMID:26839879

  14. Interdisciplinary Medication Adherence Program: The Example of a University Community Pharmacy in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lelubre, Mélanie; Kamal, Susan; Genre, Noëllie; Celio, Jennifer; Gorgerat, Séverine; Hugentobler Hampai, Denise; Bourdin, Aline; Berger, Jerôme; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The Community Pharmacy of the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (Policlinique Médicale Universitaire, PMU), University of Lausanne, developed and implemented an interdisciplinary medication adherence program. The program aims to support and reinforce medication adherence through a multifactorial and interdisciplinary intervention. Motivational interviewing is combined with medication adherence electronic monitors (MEMS, Aardex MWV) and a report to patient, physician, nurse, and other pharmacists. This program has become a routine activity and was extended for use with all chronic diseases. From 2004 to 2014, there were 819 patient inclusions, and 268 patients were in follow-up in 2014. This paper aims to present the organization and program's context, statistical data, published research, and future perspectives.

  15. Difficulties facing first-year medical students at Umm Alqura University in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almoallim, H; Aldahlawi, S; Alqahtani, E; Alqurashi, S; Munshi, A

    2012-12-04

    This study investigated medical students' study habits and perceptions of learning difficulties during their first year of study. A specially-designed questionnaire was answered by 165 second-year medical and medical science students at Umm Alqura University in Saudi Arabia. Out of the 7 difficulties listed in the questionnaire, students ranked peer competition first, followed by poor English language skills. Male students ranked peer competition as the top difficulty whereas females ranked it fourth. A majority of students were dissatisfied with the passive, lecture-based method of teaching and wanted the English language curriculum to be improved by more emphasis on conversation skills. Early introduction of the concept of active learning and effective studying habits is needed.

  16. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters.

  17. Medical student mentorship in a university setting as a strategy for a career in surgery.

    PubMed

    Barry, Parul N; Fallat, Mary E

    2011-11-01

    Gender balance in surgery is a respectable and necessary goal. At the University of Louisville (UL) School of Medicine, we have compared percentages of UL medical student applicants to general surgery or surgical subspecialty residency programs, surgical residents, and surgical faculty with the rest of the nation. Although UL has at times paralleled or exceeded the nation in many of these categories, there is room for improvement and the comparison data allow for strategic planning initiatives. To promote gender balance among future generations of surgeons at UL, we recently implemented a mentoring program that pairs medical students with residents and faculty in surgery. We plan to track the success over time and correct any shortcomings of this program. Virginia Commonwealth University's commitment to gender balance in surgery is exemplary. As part of a more comprehensive vision to create a mentorship program for female medical students at the UL School of Medicine, we have recently recruited female surgical residents and faculty, whom we hope will provide the type of inspiration and guidance that will increase the number of women from UL who decide to train in general surgery and the surgical specialties. To understand why women across the nation are not generally at numerical parity in these fields, it is important to consider the length and intensity of the surgical residency programs in the context of the other goals and objectives that a woman might have for her future. This article does not address this broad topic but provides a perspective of how a medical school can evaluate and perhaps intervene to mentor medical students more effectively about the satisfaction derived from a career in surgery. As part of this project, we have evaluated each step of the path through medical school and a surgical residency by comparing data for our students, residency programs, and faculty with national data.

  18. Turning Microscopy in the Medical Curriculum Digital: Experiences from The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at University of Copenhagen

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Ben; Mortensen, Niels Werner; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Sørensen, Allan Have; Olsen, Jørgen; Saxild, Hans Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2017-01-01

    Familiarity with the structure and composition of normal tissue and an understanding of the changes that occur during disease is pivotal to the study of the human body. For decades, microscope slides have been central to teaching pathology in medical courses and related subjects at the University of Copenhagen. Students had to learn how to use a microscope and envisage three-dimensional processes that occur in the body from two-dimensional glass slides. Here, we describe how a PathXL virtual microscopy system for teaching pathology and histology at the Faculty has recently been implemented, from an administrative, an economic, and a teaching perspective. This fully automatic digital microscopy system has been received positively by both teachers and students, and a decision was made to convert all courses involving microscopy to the virtual microscopy format. As a result, conventional analog microscopy will be phased out from the fall of 2016. PMID:28382225

  19. [Education for medical students and post-graduates--Training of laboratory medicine at Nihon University Medical School and Surugadai Nihon University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory medicine is defined as 'a field which analyzes the patients' clinical condition and contributes to the procedures such as diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and prognostic determination'. In other words, it involves not only in every process of medical treatment for patients, but also in the field of preventive medicine and occupational health. Therefore, it is unavoidable for every department to interpret the laboratory data. This necessarily requires all medical students to master laboratory test procedures, comprehend various impediments to the accurate laboratory data, and acquire the basics of the interpretation of laboratory data. During postgraduate training period, they must acquire enough skill of test procedures and determination methods such as Gram stain, and their interpretation of the test results should also be wide and directly connected to the treatment. Physicians who are trained in each particular department and aim to become a laboratory physician are in need of enough understanding of the specialized tests relate to each specialized area. Based on the fact that laboratory physicians involve in all of these educations, this symposium addresses the early training during pre- and post-graduation in Nihon University.

  20. Children's oral health in the medical curriculum: a collaborative intervention at a university-affiliated hospital.

    PubMed

    Graham, Elinor; Negron, Reinaldo; Domoto, Peter; Milgrom, Peter

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe the structure of the oral health program in a university-affiliated hospital; 2) evaluate staff's knowledge and attitudes toward oral health; and 3) propose ways to strengthen the incorporation of oral health prevention for children into clinical medical education. Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the program. Structured interviews with seventeen medical center personnel were conducted, and clinic utilization reports provided ICD-9 diagnostic frequency and visits. Clinic staff, pediatric residents, dental and pediatric faculty, hospital administrators, and clinic directors were interviewed. The themes identified during these interviews were motivation, roles, operational and organizational issues, and integration into the larger medical care system. Integration of an early childhood caries prevention program into the clinical medical education curriculum can be accomplished. After implementation of the oral health program described in this paper, dental caries became the eleventh most common diagnosis seen in the clinic when previously it did not appear in the top forty. However, institutional and organizational barriers are significant. Barriers identified were 1) lack of clarity in defining leadership and roles regarding oral health, 2) time and work overload in a busy pediatric clinic, 3) a tracking system was not available to quickly determine which children needed caries prevention procedures and education, and 4) billing and medical record form changes could not be fully established prior to starting the program.

  1. [E-learning in ENT: Usage in University Medical Centers in Germany].

    PubMed

    Freiherr von Saß, Peter; Klenzner, Thomas; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Chaker, Adam

    2017-01-18

    E-learning is an essential part of innovative medical teaching concepts. The challenging anatomy and physiology in ENT is considered particularly suitable for self-assessed and adaptive e-learning. Usage and data on daily experience with e-learning in German ENT-university hospitals are currently unavailable and the degree of implementation of blended learning including feed-back from medical students are currently not known. We investigated the current need and usage of e-learning in academic ENT medical centers in Germany. We surveyed students and chairs for Otorhinolaryngology electronically and paperbased during the summer semester 2015. Our investigation revealed an overall heterogenous picture on quality and quantity of offered e-learning applications. While the overall amount of e-learning in academic ENT in Germany is rather low, at least half of the ENT-hospitals in medical faculties reported that e-learning had improved their own teaching activities. More collaboration among medical faculties and academic ENT-centers may help to explore new potentials, overcome technical difficulties and help to realize more ambitious projects.

  2. Good Neighbors: Shared Challenges and Solutions Toward Increasing Value at Academic Medical Centers and Universities.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2015-12-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) and universities are experiencing increasing pressure to enhance the value they offer at the same time that they are facing challenges related to outcomes, controlling costs, new competition, and government mandates. Yet, rarely do the leaders of these academic neighbors work cooperatively to enhance value. In this Perspective the author, a former university regional campus president with duties in an AMC as an academic physician, shares his insights into the shared challenges these academic neighbors face in improving the value of their services in complex environments. He describes the successes some AMCs have had in generating revenues from new clinical programs that reduce the overall cost of care for larger populations. He also describes how several universities have taken a comprehensive approach to reduce overhead and administrative costs. The author identifies six themes related to successful value improvement efforts and provides examples of successful strategies used by AMCs and their university neighbors to improve the overall value of their programs. He concludes by encouraging leaders of AMCs and universities to share information about their successes in value improvements with each other, to seek additional joint value enhancement efforts, and to market their value improvements to the public.

  3. Prevalence and Causes of Medical Absenteeism Among Staff (Case Study at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences: 2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni Saravi, Beyamin; Kabirzadeh, Azar; Rezazadeh, Esmaiel; Khariki, Mohammad Fallah; Asgari, Zolaykha; Bagherian Farahabadi, Ebrahim; Motamed, Nima; Siamian, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Work absenteeism is a significant issue and can be observed in terms of human resources management. Given the importance of staff practices, which are anticipated in every organization, the role of each employee in this system and the implications of their absence as well as the importance of recovery time rest in fast recovery of staff and anticipated costs for their lost work days, thus this study is aimed to determine the extent and causes of medical absenteeism (sickness absence) of head staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Methods and Materials: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted using medical absenteeism (sickness absence) persons happened in 2010. Research population was included all records of staff working in central departments of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. There was no sampling due to the importance of the issue. Studied variables were included age, gender, employment status, employees’ education, name of the disease, physician specialty in issuing the medical absence paper, leave issuing reference and department, position of the employee, number of absence days, number of absences, number of annual leave days. Also, data were gathered using a checklist, then were entered into the SPSS software and got analyzed using descriptive statistics. In order to respect the confidentiality, name of the doctors and employees weren’t mentioned publicly. Results: Based on the results, 1200 employees were leaved the organization due to the sickness issue, which 957 (79.7%) of them were studied. The mean age for those employees was 39±7. Also, total average sick leave days and total sick leave days were 2±1 and 2571, respectively. 40.8 % ( 390 employees) were male and the rest were female. Moreover, 18.3% of sick leaves were issued for singles and the remained were for married employees. Regarding the employees’ education, 2% under diploma, 11.3% diploma, 7.8% upper diploma, 47.6% B.Sc., 14

  4. Barriers to Research Activities from the Perspective of the Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Fateme, Zarmehr; Khorasgani, Zahra Ghazavi; Kazempour, Zahra; Imani, Sona Taebi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Necessity to establish a coherent and targeted research context in order to development of any country is increasingly important. But the basic step in creating an effective research context would be enrichment motivation of researchers especially students and resolve barriers of research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine barriers of research activities from the perspective of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is research. Data was collected with author made questionnaire. The study sample consisted of students from Isfahan medical university and sample size based on Krejcie and Morgan table was 357. Sampling was Stratified Random. The validity of questionnaire confirmed by Library and information professionals and reliability based on Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.933, respectively. The type of descriptive statistics was (percentage, frequency and mean) and inferential statistics (T-test, ANOVA, one-Sample Statistics) and SPSS software was used. Findings: Results showed that the mean of barriers to research activities among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was 3.89 ± 0. 483. The highest mean was related to density of students’ curriculum (4.22± 0.968) and lowest mean related to lack of access to appropriate library resources. Also, the mean of research activities ’s barriers, according to aspects showed that the mean in individual barriers level (4.06±0.635) was more than other aspects: social and cultural aspects (4.01± 0.661), economical aspect (4.04± 0.787) and organizational barriers (3.78±0.503). The lowest mean was related to organizational barriers. Also there is no difference between mean of research activities’ barriers of student of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with regarded of gender, level of education and college. Conclusion: According to results of this research, although, the main barriers between students was individual barriers such as: lack of

  5. Medical students’ perception of the learning environment at King Saud University Medical College, Saudi Arabia, using DREEM Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Mona M; Sattar, Kamran; Alnassar, Sami; Alsaif, Faisal; Alswat, Khalid; Alghonaim, Mohamed; Alhaizan, Maysoon; Al-furaih, Nawaf

    2017-01-01

    Background The students’ perception of the learning environment is an important aspect for evaluation and improvement of the educational program. The College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU) reformed its curriculum in 2009 from a traditional to a system-oriented hybrid curriculum. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the perception of the second batch (reformed curriculum) of medical graduates about the educational environment at the College of Medicine, KSU, using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) scale. Methods The fifth year medical students were asked to evaluate the educational program after graduation in May 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to the graduate students electronically. The DREEM questionnaire consisted of 50 items based on Likert’s scale; and five domains, namely, students’ perceptions of learning, perceptions of teachers, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere, and social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 62 students participated in the study. The score for students’ perception of learning among medical students ranged from 2.93 to 3.64 (overall mean score: 40.17). The score for students’ perception of teachers ranged from 2.85 to 4.01 (overall mean score: 33.35). The score for students’ academic self-perceptions ranged from 3.15 to 4.06 (overall mean score: 28.4). The score for students’ perception of atmosphere ranged from 2.27 to 3.91 (overall mean score: 41.32). The score for students’ social self-perceptions ranged from 2.85 to 4.33 (overall mean score: 24.33). The general perceptions of the students in all five sub-scales were positive. Conclusion The overall student’s perception about the educational environment was satisfactory. This study was important to evaluate the students’ perception of the learning environment among medical graduates of the reformed curriculum and provided guidance on areas of

  6. [Seventy five years of the Medical School of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Grebe, Gonzalo; Dagnino, Jorge; Sánchez, Ignacio

    2005-10-01

    Aiming to join academic excellence and an ethical and Christian approach to medical profession, the Medical School of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile initiated its activities in 1930. Since then, the associated Health Care Network has incorporated all the technological breakthroughs in medicine and developed all the specialties. Undergraduate teaching is oriented to promote creativity and innovation. There is also a special concern about humanity of Medicine, throught the Program of Humanistic Medical Studies and the Bioethics Center. Post graduate education is also an important activity of the School, through specialty training, Master and Doctorate programs. Researchers have also obtained important grants and generated a great number of publications in high impact journals. Our University is defined as "complex", meaning that we must take important challenges, be creative and lead knowledge generation. We must also improve ourselves to serve in the best possible way our students and the Country. Paraphrasing the words of our founder, Monsignor Carlos Casanueva, we must train physicians that will serve our community not only with science but also with humanity.

  7. A first evaluation of a pedagogical network for medical students at the University Hospital of Rennes.

    PubMed

    Fresnel, A; Jarno, P; Burgun, A; Delamarre, D; Denier, P; Cleret, M; Courtin, C; Seka, L P; Pouliquen, B; Cléran, L; Riou, C; Leduff, F; Lesaux, H; Duvauferrier, R; Le Beux, P

    1998-01-01

    A pedagogical network has been developed at University Hospital of Rennes from 1996. The challenge is to give medical information and informatics tools to all medical students in the clinical wards of the University Hospital. At first, nine wards were connected to the medical school server which is linked to the Internet. Client software electronic mail and WWW Netscape on Macintosh computers. Sever software is set up on Unix SUN providing a local homepage with selected pedagogical resources. These documents are stored in a DBMS database ORACLE and queries can be provided by specialty, authors or disease. The students can access a set of interactive teaching programs or electronic textbooks and can explore the Internet through the library information system and search engines. The teachers can send URL and indexation of pedagogical documents and can produce clinical cases: the database updating will be done by the users. This experience of using Web tools generated enthusiasm when we first introduced it to students. The evaluation shows that if the students can use this training early on, they will adapt the resources of the Internet to their own needs.

  8. A comparison of attitudes toward euthanasia among medical students at two Polish universities.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Wojciech; Gottwald, Leszek; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Kazmierczak-Lukaszewicz, Sylwia; Forycka, Maria; Cialkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study conducted upon completion of obligatory palliative medicine courses among 588 medical students at two universities was to compare their attitudes toward euthanasia. Four hundred ninety-two (84.97 %) students were Catholics; 69 (11.73 %) declared they would practice euthanasia, 303 (51.53 %) would not, and 216 students (36.73 %) were not sure. The idea of euthanasia legalisation was supported by 174 (29.59 %) respondents, opposed by 277 (47.11 %), and 137 (23.30 %) were undecided. Five hundred fifty-six (94.56 %) students did not change their attitudes toward euthanasia after palliative medicine courses. Students from the two universities were found to have different opinions on practicing euthanasia, euthanasia law and possible abuse which might follow euthanasia legalisation, but they shared similar views on the choice of euthanasia if they themselves were incurably ill and the legalisation of euthanasia. Gender and religion influenced students' answers. Differences observed between medical students at the two universities might be related to gender and cultural differences.

  9. Who Guards the Guards: Drug Use Pattern Among Medical Students in a Nigerian University

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, EO; Akinhanmi, A; Ogunwale, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have examined the prevalence and pattern of substance use among medical students in Nigeria. Few of these studies have specifically examined the relationship between the psychological distress and psychoactive substance use among these students. Yet, evidence world-wide suggests that substance use among medical students might be on the rise and may be related to the level of stress among them. Aim: The present study is the first study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychoactive substance use among medical students of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The World Health Organization student drug use questionnaire was used to evaluate for substance use among 246 clinical medical students between September and October 2011. General health questionnaire (GHQ) 12 was used to assess for psychological distress among these students. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16. (Chicago, USA). Proportions were compared using the Chi-square test while a value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fisher exact test was used instead of Chi-square when the number in the cell is less than 5. Results: Lifetime prevalence of substance use among medical students was 65% (165/246). It was found that the most commonly used substances were alcohol 63.4% (156/246), mild stimulants 15.6% (38/246), tobacco 15% (37/246) and sedatives 6.1% (15/246). Substance use was associated with gender, frequency of participation in religious activities and GHQ scores. Conclusion: Psychoactive substance use is a major problem among medical students. Psychological well-being plays a significant role in substance use among these students. There is a need for adequate screening and assessment for substance use disorders among these students and incorporating stress management strategies in their curriculum. PMID:24971216

  10. Medically important fungi found in hallux nails of university students from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Inés; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2007-06-01

    The presence of medically important fungi was studied in hallux nails scrapings obtained from 504 students (204 males, 300 females) of three universities in Cali. Specimens were examined by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. Medically important fungi were found in 49 (9.7%) students, 24 (4.8%) had onychomycosis while the rest did not have nail lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated fungi in students with lesions, where as T. mentagrophytes predominated in healthy nails. Most of the students with fungi were males. The prevalence of fungi was higher in individuals between 26 and 35 years. No association was observed between fungi and practicing sports or undergoing pedicures. These results suggest that dermatophytes can be found in healthy hallux nails, which can be reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.

  11. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  12. Exploring the technology readiness of nursing and medical students at a Canadian University.

    PubMed

    Caison, Amy L; Bulman, Donna; Pai, Shweta; Neville, Doreen

    2008-06-01

    Technology readiness is a well-established construct that refers to individuals' ability to embrace and adopt new technology. Given the increasing use of advanced technologies in the delivery of health care, this study uses the Technology Readiness Index (Parasuraman, 2000) to explore the technology readiness of nursing and medical students from the fall 2006 cohort at Memorial University of Newfoundland. The three major findings from this study are that (i) rural nursing students are more insecure with technology than their urban counterparts, (ii) male medical students score higher on innovation than their female counterparts and have a higher overall technology readiness attitude than female medical students, and (iii) medical students who are older than 25 have a negative technology readiness score whereas those under 25 had a positive score. These findings suggest health care professional schools would be well served to implement curricular changes designed to support the needs of rural students, women, and those entering school at a non-traditional age. In addition, patterns such as those observed in this study highlight areas of emphasis for current practitioners as health care organizations develop continuing education offerings for staff.

  13. Internet addiction among students of the medical university of białystok.

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Kułak, Wojciech; Marcinkowski, Jerzy Tadeusz; Damme-Ostapowicz, Katarzyna Van; Lewko, Jolanta; Lankau, Agnieszka; Lukaszuk, Cecylia; Rozwadowska, Emilia

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess Internet addiction among students of the Faculty of Health Prevention at the Medical University of Białystok. The present study included 358 students-nursing (n = 232), midwifery (n = 71), and medical rescue (n = 55). The following instruments were administered to the participants:the Young test, a test of the intensity of the abstinence syndrome, and a test of "online" addiction. Students who did not have a computer at home spent 3 hours a day on the Internet; students who did have a computer at home spent 0.5 to 8hours. On average, all respondents spent 1.8 ± 1.3 hours daily online. Internet addiction was confirmed among 24 (10.3%) nursing, 7 (9.9%) midwifery, and 5(9.1%) medical rescue students. The abstinence syndrome was noted among 11 (4.7%) nursing, 7(9.9%) obstetrics, and 7 (12.7%) medical rescue students. Several students had both an Internet addiction and the abstinence syndrome.

  14. Knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics among physician residents of University of Alexandria Hospitals, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Ghanem, M A; Kassem, A

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics of physician residents at university hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for knowledge and perceptions and a checklist for observations of doctor-patient interactions in the outpatient setting. Only 18.0% ofthe 128 participating residents had obtained their knowledge from their medical education and 29.9% were dissatisfied with the roles played by the ethics committee. Most of the residents had satisfactory knowledge and 60.2% had satisfactory perceptions regarding ethical issues. The lowest perception score was in the domain of disclosing medical errors. Only 48.0% of the residents were compliant with the principles of medical ethics in practice and 52.0% of patients were dissatisfied with their treating physicians. The study identified areas of unsatisfactory knowledge and practices towards ethical issues so as to devise means to sensitize residents to these issues and train them appropriately.

  15. [Historical recollection Medical School of the University of Puerto Rico 1950-2000].

    PubMed

    Girod, C E

    2001-03-01

    The School of Medicine of the University of Puerto Rico was founded in 1950 with the mission of educating the much needed physician workforce in order to improve the health of a large portion of the population in Puerto Rico. The main events in its first fifty years of existence are summarized. Emphasis is given to the unique, mutually dependent association between the School of Medicine and the Department of Health of Puerto Rico. Soon after its organization, the school became a principal protagonist in the delivery of specialized medical care to the medically indigent population within the existing Regionalization Program of Health Care services in the island. With the creation and development of various other academic and health services institutions in the island, and the advent of a new system of health care in 1993, based on managed care; the School's interdependence with the Department of Health and its role in the direct care of the medically indigent have waned drastically. The School now faces its greatest challenges as it begins to insert itself into the economically competitive arena of the new health care system; and in redefining its commitments, while searching for new resources, alliances, teaching faculty, hospitals and clinics, enabling it to maintain its leadership in medical education, specialty training and scientific research in Puerto Rico.

  16. Impact of a novel dental school admission test on student performance at Innsbruck Medical University, Austria.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    Since the year 2000, prospective dental students at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, have undergone both theoretical and practical preadmission exams, called the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability and outcome of this selection practice. Five classes from 2001 to 2005 (N=97; forty-three female, fifty-four male) were retrospectively reviewed. DAT results were compared with student performance, gender, ability to graduate on time, and dropout rates. Furthermore, the influence of a previous medical degree was evaluated. The t-test was used to analyze correlations between the results of the DAT and the following: gender, students who graduated on time, and students who had previously completed a medical degree. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was applied to analyze correlations among test scores, age, and students' performance during the first clinical year. Students graduating on time were noted to have significantly better DAT results; students with a previous medical degree showed significantly better grades during their first clinical year. The difference between the performance of male and female applicants on the DAT was not significant. Correlation was found between DAT results and dental school performance (r=-0.462). We conclude that the DAT may reduce dropout rates by excluding applicants unlikely to be successful in practical courses and that DAT scores are a reliable tool to predict student performance during the first clinical year of dental school in Innsbruck.

  17. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  18. Barriers and challenges in researches by Iranian students of medical universities

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Jadidi, Rahmatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health sciences research (HSR) is an essential part of improving health care which plays a critical role in the field of medicine and clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess barriers to the research by students of medical sciences as well as to find out effective strategies for management of student researches in Iranian universities. Materials and Methods: This study utilized a hybrid design with quantitative and qualitative analytical approaches conducted on 627 students in six schools of medical sciences in two universities in Central Province in Iran from April to December, 2012. Questionnaires were distributed among researcher and non-researcher students to find barriers to the research. These barriers were approved and validated by similar studies and strategies using the Delphi technique on 36 students. Results: The most important barriers among researcher students were institutional barriers (3.3 ± 1.3), but in non-researcher students they were individual barriers (3.6 ± 1.7). The majority of barriers to involvement in the research among researcher students appeared to be time, lack of access to electronic resources and prolongation of the process of buying equipment. In addition, the greatest barriers among non-researcher students included the lack of time, scientific writing skills, and access to trained assistants. Conclusion: The results showed the issue of attitudes towards compulsory research as a component of critical scholarship in the curriculum of medical courses. Moreover, employment of the research experts can be helpful for research training in schools of medical sciences. PMID:25878955

  19. [Ninety years of education in Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University in Brno].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University was founded by Prof. Dr František Hamza. Prof. Dr Adolf Žáček, who worked in the World Health Organization in Geneva in 1961-1963, uses his knowledge and experiences to remarkable increasing quality of education and research at this department. Present situation in health care system in the Czech Republic demonstrates that there are great challenges for education and research in the field of Social Medicine.

  20. Development and operation of the Loma Linda University Medical Center proton facility.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jerry D

    2007-08-01

    The Proton Treatment Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center, the world's first hospital-based proton facility, opened in 1990 after two decades of development. Its early years were marked by a deliberately cautious approach in clinical utilization of protons, with intent to establish hospital-based proton therapy on a scientific basis. The facility was designed to be upgradeable, and development since 1990 has proceeded in three distinct phases of upgrades, both in technology and clinical applications. Upgrades continue, all of them based on an underlying program of basic and clinical research; future new applications of proton radiation therapy are expected to follow.

  1. History of the Public Health Institute of Semmelweis Medical University, Budapest.

    PubMed

    Tahin, E; Morava, E

    2000-05-01

    The science of public health of the XVIIIth century named politia medica together with medicina forensis became an independent obligatory subject in 1793 at the Medical Faculty of the Hungarian Royal University of Science. The independent Public Health Institute of the Medical Faculty was established in 1874. The first professor of public health was József Fodor who attained international reputation during his professorship. He organized training for school physicians and health teachers first in Europe and he organized courses for medical officers and for military doctors. He held courses for law-, engineer- and architect-students. He promoted all fields of the public health. His research on the bactericide effect of serum places him among the founders of immunology. Fodor's successors at the Chair of Public Health were Leó Liebermann whose research activities included physico-chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology and social hygiene; Gusztáv Rigler who focused on the epidemiology of communicable diseases, on the health effects of spa treatment and mineral waters. The next famous professor was Gyula Darányi. His scientific field was public health bacteriology and public health chemistry. They were followed by József Melly and László Dabis (Scheff). After the Second World War fundamental changes took place in the life of the university. The Faculty of Medicine was separated from the University of Science on February 1, 1951 and became an independent university under the control of the Ministry of Health. In 1953 the Institute of Public Health was cut into two separate institutes: Institute of Public Health and Institute for the Organization of Health Service. The Institute of Public Health was transformed to Institute of Public Health and Epidemiology in 1973. The Institute for the Organization of Health Service was transformed into Institute of Social Medicine and History of Medicine in 1985 and later into Institute of History of Medicine and Social Medicine

  2. A Contract-Based Training System for Rural Physicians: Follow-Up of Jichi Medical University Graduates (1978-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of studies on long-term effects of rural medical education programs is limited. Personal factors that are associated with long-term retention of physicians in rural areas are scarcely known. Purpose: The authors studied the outcomes of Jichi Medical University (JMU), whose mission is to produce rural doctors, and analyzed the…

  3. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 2, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the months of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Radioactive contamination, aging, medical ethics, and environmental risk analysis.

  4. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  5. [The history of military training at the First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M.Sechenov].

    PubMed

    Chizh, I M; Putilo, V M; Tregubov, V N; Timakov, V V

    2011-11-01

    In 2011, the oldest medical educational institution of Russia--the First Moscow State Medical University n. a. I.M.Sechenov celebrates 85 years of military training. Passing not easy, but at the same time, glorious path of military training in First MGMU n. a. I.M.Sechenov today occupies a key place in the training of military physicians.

  6. Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include “a mark of beauty,” 24%, “just wanted one,” 18% and “a mark of femininity or masculinity,” 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks. PMID:25814729

  7. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas.

  8. Greek as a Foreign Language for Speakers of Arabic: A Study of Medical Students at the University of Thessaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Mitsis, Napoleon

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports our findings and observations on the difficulties of university students learning Greek as a foreign language at the University of Thessaly. A group of medical students, whose native language was Arabic, answered two questionnaires concerning their use of and competence in Greek. The results showed that first and second year…

  9. Strengthened tuberculosis control programme and trend of multidrug resistant tuberculosis rate in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Yoshida, Hideki; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2013-01-01

    Osaka City has the highest tuberculosis (TB) notification rates in Japan. In the period 1999–2003, the TB control programme was strengthened, and the Stop TB Strategy was implemented to reduce the number of notified cases. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of these control activities in Osaka City, including the implementation of directly observed treatment (DOT), by analysing TB surveillance and routinely collected data. We reviewed the surveillance data of all sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases registered in the Osaka City Public Health Office from 2001 to 2008 and data collected from the routine TB programme. The DOT implementation rate increased from 0% in 2001 to 68% in 2008 for smear-positive PTB cases of the general public and to 61% for all PTB cases of the homeless. The proportion of smear-positive PTB cases that had treatment failure and default combined, declined from 8.0% (52 of 650) in 2001 to 3.6% (20 of 548) in 2006. The proportion of cases among the homeless with previous treatment declined from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008. The proportion of cases with multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) among those without previous treatment declined from 1.7% in 2001 to 0.9% in 2008. It is logical that reduction in the failure and default rate would lead to the reduction of cases with previous treatment and TB transmission, including resistant TB, therefore to the reduction of MDR-TB rates. PMID:23908949

  10. [Profile of former students of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Lima-Gonçalves, E; Marcondes, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors present results of an inquiry involving 3,309 physicians graduated at the University of S. Paulo School of Medicine in the 1958-1989 period. Concerning sex, there were 79% male and 21% female students (6% female in 1958-1963 period and 38% in 1958-1989). Medical residence (1-4 years) were done by 91% of all inquired physicians. Postgraduate education was performed by 26% of the graduates in master degree and by 29% in doctorate degree. In reference to professional work, 26% exert surgical specialties, 20% clinical specialties, 13% pediatric specialties, 9% gynecology and obstetrics, 9% psychiatry and 5% neurology. Eighty por cent of them perform their activity as non employed professionals, sometimes associated with some other form of work; of those, 40% earn more than 60% of their total income as non employed professionals. Three different curricular structures were analyzed in this inquiry. In the period 1958-1980 (traditional curriculum), the areas considered more attractive and important were: medical and surgical clinics, pediatrics, anatomy, physiology and pathological anatomy. The less motivating were: legal medicine, psychiatry, phthisiology. In the experimental curriculum (1974-1980) the more attractive areas were: biochemistry, pediatrics, surgical and pediatric internship, general pathology and medical clinics. The less motivating areas were: mathematics, statistics, medical deontology, preventive medicine, ophthalmology and psychiatry. In the unified curriculum (1980-1989), the preferred areas were: general pathology, medical and surgical propedeutics, infantile-maternal, clinical and surgical internship. The less motivating ones were: preventive medicine, otorhynolaringology, anesthesiology, genetics and statistics.

  11. Coprological survey of parasitic infections in pigs and cattle in slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kita, Toshimasa; Narushima, Tsuguto; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2009-08-01

    A coprological survey was performed at a slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan, from 2004 to 2007 on 129 pigs reared in 8 prefectures, and on 213 cattle reared in 21 prefectures. Eimeria spp., Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus spp. infections were found in 52 (40.3%), 32 (24.8%), 19 (14.7%) and 3 pigs (2.3%), respectively, while Eimeria spp., Capillaria bovis and Trichuris sp. infections were detected in 163 (76.5%), 15 (7.0%) and 8 cattle (3.8%), respectively. Our results suggest that environmentally resistant oocysts and eggs of parasites could be widespread at the farms examined.

  12. Atomic-resolution 3D structure of amyloid β fibrils: The Osaka mutation

    DOE PAGES

    Schutz, Anne K.; Wall, Joseph; Vagt, Toni; ...

    2014-11-13

    Despite its central importance for understanding the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), high-resolution structural information on amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils, which are intimately linked with AD, is scarce. We report an atomic-resolution fibril structure of the Aβ 1-40 peptide with the Osaka mutation (E22Δ), associated with early-onset AD. The structure, which differs substantially from all previously proposed models, is based on a large number of unambiguous intra- and intermolecular solid-state NMR distance restraints

  13. Evaluation of board performance in Iran’s universities of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Haniye Sadat; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Ravaghi, Hamid; Farzan, Homayoun; Aminlou, Hasan; Hadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The critical role that the board plays in governance of universities clarifies the necessity of evaluating its performance. This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of the boards of medical universities and provide solutions to enhance its performance. Methods: The first phase of present study was a qualitative research in which data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by thematic approach. The second phase was a mixed qualitative and quantitative study, with quantitative part in cross-sectional format and qualitative part in content analysis format. In the quantitative part, data were collected through Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME). In the qualitative part, the content of 2,148 resolutions that were selected by using stratified sampling method were analyzed. Results: Participants believed that the boards had no acceptable performance for a long time.Results also indicated the increasing number of meetings and resolutions of the boards in these 21 years. The boards’ resolutions were mostly operational in domain and administrative in nature. The share of specific resolutions was more than the general ones. Conclusion: Given the current pace of change and development and the need to timely respond them, it is recommended to accelerate the slow pace of improvement process of the boards. It appears that more delegation and strengthening the position of the boards are the effective strategies to speed up this process. PMID:25337597

  14. The pipeline of physiology courses in community colleges: to university, medical school, and beyond.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Jenny; Pape-Lindstrom, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    Community colleges are significant in the landscape of undergraduate STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) education (9), including biology, premedical, and other preprofessional education. Thirty percent of first-year medical school students in 2012 attended a community college. Students attend at different times in high school, their first 2 yr of college, and postbaccalaureate. The community college pathway is particularly important for traditionally underrepresented groups. Premedical students who first attend community college are more likely to practice in underserved communities (2). For many students, community colleges have significant advantages over 4-yr institutions. Pragmatically, they are local, affordable, and flexible, which accommodates students' work and family commitments. Academically, community colleges offer teaching faculty, smaller class sizes, and accessible learning support systems. Community colleges are fertile ground for universities and medical schools to recruit diverse students and support faculty. Community college students and faculty face several challenges (6, 8). There are limited interactions between 2- and 4-yr institutions, and the ease of transfer processes varies. In addition, faculty who study and work to improve the physiology education experience often encounter obstacles. Here, we describe barriers and detail existing resources and opportunities useful in navigating challenges. We invite physiology educators from 2- and 4-yr institutions to engage in sharing resources and facilitating physiology education improvement across institutions. Given the need for STEM majors and health care professionals, 4-yr colleges and universities will continue to benefit from students who take introductory biology, physiology, and anatomy and physiology courses at community colleges.

  15. Students’ Attitudes Towards Research at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Siamian, Hasan; Mahmoudi, Roghayeh; Habibi, Fatemeh; Latifi, Mahsoomeh; Zare-Gavgani, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In today’s world, one of the criteria of progress in a country is research. In our country instead of paying to the research and study, attention is given to the training of human resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Students’ Attitudes towards Research at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the data tool was questionnaire given to the study subjects. The study population were all the paramedical college students at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences selected. Cochrane methodology was used to determine the sample size, the t test used to know the attitudes and the ANOVA test to assess differences between the groups. Results: The mean age of the students was 20 years (age range of 17 to 32 years), of them, 99 (61%) were female and 63 (39%) male, 100% undergraduate and 73% on their first semester. Their attitudes toward the usefulness of search for jobs and careers, anxiety, relationship with everyday life and Research problem was positive. Belief in research problem with the highest average and relation with everyday life with the lowest average, ranked the highest and lowest scores respectively. The findings also showed that there was insignificant difference between the variables of age, gender and level of education and the attitude of students towards research. Conclusion: The subjects under study had Positive attitude to research and in case of availability of research facilities, students would be more interested in performing research. PMID:28144202

  16. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Abolghasem, Farhang; Amin, Dadgar Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Organizations effort is to achieve a common goal. There are many constructs needed for organizations. Organizational culture and organizational commitment are special concepts in management. The objective of the current research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment among the personnel of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive- correlational study. The statistical population was whole tenured staff of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that worked for this organization in 2012-2013. Random sampling method was used and 165 samples were chosen. Two standardized questionnaires of the organizational culture (Schein, 1984) and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2002) were applied. The face and construct validity of the questionnaires were approved by the lecturers of Management and experts. Reliability of questionnaires of the organizational culture and organizational commitment were 0.89 and 0.88 respectively, by Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. All statistical calculations performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Findings: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment (P value=0.027). Also, the results showed that there was a significant relation between organizational culture and affective commitment (P-value=0.009), organizational culture and continuance commitment (P-value=0.009), and organizational culture and normative commitment (P-value=0.009). PMID:26925884

  17. Quality gap of educational services in viewpoints of students in Hormozgan University of medical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Zare, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    Background Higher education is growing fast and every day it becomes more and more exposed to globalization processes. The aim of this study was to determine the quality gap of educational services by using a modified SERVQUAL instrument among students in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in 2007. In this study, a total of 300 students were selected randomly and asked to complete a questionnaire that was designed according to SERVQUAL methods. This questionnaire measured students' perceptions and expectations in five dimensions of service that consists of assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability and tangibles. The quality gap of educational services was determined based on differences between students' perceptions and expectations. Results The results demonstrated that in each of the five SERVQUAL dimensions, there was a negative quality gap. The least and the most negative quality gap means were in the reliability (-0.71) and responsiveness (-1.14) dimensions respectively. Also, there were significant differences between perceptions and expectations of students in all of the five SERVQUAL dimensions (p < 0.001). Conclusion Negative quality gaps mean students' expectations exceed their perceptions. Thus, improvements are needed across all five dimensions. PMID:18564413

  18. Development of a universal medical X-ray imaging phantom prototype.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Annemari; Groenewald, Willem A

    2016-11-01

    Diagnostic X-ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X-ray modalities, which consist of projection radiography (including mobile X-ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality-specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results. The question arose as to whether a single universal phantom could be designed and applied to all of the X-ray imaging modalities. A universal phantom would reduce initial procurement cost, possibly reduce the time spent on QA procedures and simplify training of staff on the single device. The aim of the study was to design and manufacture a prototype of a universal phantom, suitable for image quality assurance in general X-rays, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT scanning. The universal phantom should be easy to use and would enable automatic data analysis, pass/fail reporting, and corrective action recommendation. In addition, a universal phantom would especially be of value in low-income countries where finances and human resources are limited. The design process included a thorough investigation of commercially available phantoms. Image quality parameters necessary for image quality assurance in the different X-ray imaging modalities were determined. Based on information obtained from the above-mentioned investigations, a prototype of a universal phantom was developed, keeping ease of use and reduced cost in mind. A variety of possible phantom housing and insert materials were investigated, considering physical properties, machinability, and cost. A three-dimensional computer model of the first phantom prototype was used to manufacture the prototype housing and inserts. Some of the

  19. Development of a universal medical X-ray imaging phantom prototype.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Annemari; Groenewald, Willem A

    2016-11-08

    Diagnostic X-ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X-ray modalities, which consist of pro-jection radiography (including mobile X-ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality-specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results. The question arose as to whether a single universal phantom could be designed and applied to all of the X-ray imaging modalities. A universal phantom would reduce initial procurement cost, possibly reduce the time spent on QA procedures and simplify training of staff on the single device. The aim of the study was to design and manufacture a prototype of a universal phantom, suitable for image quality assurance in general X-rays, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT scanning. The universal phantom should be easy to use and would enable automatic data analysis, pass/fail reporting, and corrective action recommendation. In addition, a universal phantom would especially be of value in low-income countries where finances and human resources are limited. The design process included a thorough investigation of commercially available phantoms. Image quality parameters necessary for image quality assurance in the different X-ray imaging modalities were determined. Based on information obtained from the above-mentioned investigations, a prototype of a universal phantom was developed, keeping ease of use and reduced cost in mind. A variety of possible phantom housing and insert materials were investigated, considering physical properties, machinability, and cost. A three-dimensional computer model of the first phantom prototype was used to manufacture the prototype housing and inserts. Some of the

  20. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson’s bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.25–3.02) and less likely to be delayed, have to re-sit an examination, or be warned (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.77). Conclusion Only 32.8% of the variation in self-reported academic performance was explained by the studied

  1. Research productivity of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut

    PubMed Central

    Dakik, H A; Kaidbey, H; Sabra, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the quality and quantity of scientific publications of the medical faculty at the American University of Beirut (AUB) during a six year period (1996–2001) Methods The study included all faculty members in the medical school of AUB in the year 2001. A Medline search inclusive of the years 1996–2001 was done for each faculty member and a total number of 881 publications was obtained. Results The faculty consisted of 203 members. Their average productivity rate (mean (SD)) was 1.24 (1.38) publications/faculty member/year (PFY), with a mean impact factor of 2.69 (4.63). Eighteen per cent of the faculty did not have any publication in the six year study period, and only 20% had two or more publications per year. There was a significantly higher publication rate among newly recruited faculty members (0.93 (1.40) PFY for those appointed before 1990, 1.45 (1.24) PFY for those appointed during 1990–1995, and 1.67 (1.43) for those appointed after 1995, p = 0.007), and among those who are younger in age (p<0.01). Collaboration with international investigators resulted in more original publications than work done only at AUB (65% v 35%, p<0.001), and a higher journal impact factor for the publications (3.20 (3.85) v 1.71 (2.36), p<0.05). Conclusions This is one of the first studies that analyse the research productivity of the medical faculty in a university setting in a developing country. It shows a wide variation in the research productivity of the faculty members that seems to be related to individual as well as institutional characteristics. Further analysis is needed to define and characterise these factors. PMID:16822923

  2. Designing a model for critical thinking development in AJA University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAFAKHERI LALEH, MAHYAR; MOHAMMADIMEHR, MOJGAN; ZARGAR BALAYE JAME, SANAZ

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In the new concept of medical education, creativity development is an important goal. The aim of this research was to identify a model for developing critical thinking among students with the special focus on learning environment and learning style. Methods: This applied and cross-sectional study was conducted among all students studying in undergraduate and professional doctorate programs in Fall Semester 2013-2014 in AJA University of Medical Sciences (N=777). The sample consisted of 257 students selected based on the proportional stratified random sampling method. To collect data, three questionnaires including Critical Thinking, Perception of Learning Environment and Learning Style were employed. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation statistical test, and one-sample t-test. The Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to test the research model. SPSS software, version 14 and the LISREL software were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that students had significantly assessed the teaching-learning environment and two components of "perception of teachers" and "perception of emotional-psychological climate" at the desirable level (p<0.05). Also learning style and two components of "the study method" and "motivation for studying" were considered significantly desirable (p<0.05). The level of critical thinking among students in terms of components of "commitment", "creativity" and "cognitive maturity" was at the relatively desirable level (p<0.05). In addition, perception of the learning environment can impact the critical thinking through learning style. Conclusion: One of the factors which can significantly impact the quality improvement of the teaching and learning process in AJA University of Medical Sciences is to develop critical thinking among learners. This issue requires providing the proper situation for teaching and learning critical thinking in the educational environment. PMID:27795968

  3. Nurse–Physician Collaboration: the Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Kazemnejad Leili, Anoushiravan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing professional communication between physicians and nurses regarding their supplemental roles in health care for patients is unavoidable. Existing studies have reported on related problems concerning ineffective professional collaboration among health care providers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine Iranian bachelor of nursing students’ attitudes regarding collaboration between physicians and nurses at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was an inferential cross sectional study. The study population consisted of all first and fourth academic-year Iranian bachelor of nursing students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (277 individuals), who were selected by convenience sampling. The participation rate was 97.47% (270 individuals). A questionnaire including demographic information and professional experience was used to gather information (included 12 questions). Additionally, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) was also used (included 15 questions). Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The applied statistical tests included: χ2, t student and ANOVA test. Results: The obtained mean attitude score for the first academic year (51.28 ± 4.98) was higher than the mean attitude score of the fourth academic year nursing students (50.56 ± 4.05). However, the results of the independent statistical t-test showed no significant difference between the two groups of students (P = 0.322). In the four dimensions of JSAPNC, concerning only the dimension of physician authority, there were significant differences between the two groups of students (P < 0.05). The obtained means for the first and fourth academic year of bachelor nursing students reflected their positive attitudes about collaboration between physicians and nurses. Conclusions: The positive attitude of most nursing students found in this study showed the need for appropriate and

  4. Managing knowledge and technology to foster innovation at the Ohio State University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Cain, Timothy J; Rodman, Ruey L; Sanfilippo, Fred; Kroll, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Biomedical knowledge is expanding at an unprecedented rate-one that is unlikely to slow anytime in the future. While the volume and scope of this new knowledge poses significant organizational challenges, it creates tremendous opportunities to release and direct its power to the service of significant goals. The authors explain how the Center for Knowledge Management at The Ohio State University Medical Center, created during the academic year 2003-04, is doing just that by integrating numerous resource-intensive, technology-based initiatives-including personnel, services and infrastructure, digital repositories, data sets, mobile computing devices, high-tech patient simulators, computerized testing, and interactive multimedia-in a way that enables the center to provide information tailored to the needs of students, faculty and staff on the medical center campus and its surrounding health sciences colleges. The authors discuss how discovering, applying, and sharing new knowledge, information assets, and technologies in this way is a collaborative process. This process creates open-ended opportunities for innovation and a roadmap for working toward seamless integration, synergy, and substantial enhancement of the academic medical center's research, educational, and clinical mission areas.

  5. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  6. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students’ learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1st-5th year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Results: Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The students in the study preferred diverse learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students’ learning styles towards activists and pragmatists. PMID:25709657

  7. Medical errors in neonatal intensive care unit at Benha University Hospital, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Ahmed N; Al-Azzouny, Mahmoud A; Soliman, Doaa R; Abed, Neveen T; Attia, Sameh S

    2017-02-21

    This study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Benha University Hospital, Egypt from 1 August 2012 to the 31 January 2013 to identify medical errors and to determine the risk factors and consequences of these errors. Errors were detected by follow-up of neonates and review of reports including nursing followup sheets, resident progression notes and investigation reports. We detected 3819 errors that affected 97% of neonates. Types of errors included 403 medication errors (10.55% of total errors), 652 errors in daily routine procedures (17.07%), 1042 errors in invasive procedures (27.28%), 68 errors in nutrition (1.78%), 63 equipment errors (1.64%), 260 administration errors (6.8%), 656 staffing errors (17.18%), 107 environmental errors (2.8%), 448 infection control errors (11.73%) and 120 nosocomial infection errors (3.14%). Medical errors were high in low birth weight, low gestational age neonates and increased with duration of admission.

  8. Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor. PMID:25878637

  9. Preparing an Academic Medical Center to Manage Patients Infected With Ebola: Experiences of a University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Carl H; Koenig, Kristi L; Alassaf, Wajdan

    2015-10-01

    As Ebola has spread beyond West Africa, the challenges confronting health care systems with no experience in managing such patients are enormous. Not only is Ebola a significant threat to a population's health, it can infect the medical personnel trying to treat it. As such, it represents a major challenge to those in public health, emergency medical services (EMS), and acute care hospitals. Our academic medical center volunteered to become an Ebola Treatment Center as part of the US effort to manage the threat. We developed detailed policies and procedures for Ebola patient management at our university hospital. Both the EMS system and county public health made significant contributions during the development process. This article shares information about this process and the outcomes to inform other institutions facing similar challenges of preparing for an emerging threat with limited resources. The discussion includes information about management of (1) patients who arrive by ambulance with prior notification, (2) spontaneous walk-in patients, and (3) patients with confirmed Ebola who are interfacility transfers. Hospital management includes information about Ebola screening procedures, personal protective equipment selection and personnel training, erection of a tent outside the main facility, establishing an Ebola treatment unit inside the facility, and infectious waste and equipment management. Finally, several health policy considerations are presented.

  10. Occurrence and diversity of barnacles on international ships visiting Osaka Bay, Japan, and the risk of their introduction.

    PubMed

    Otani, M; Oumi, T; Uwai, S; Hanyuda, T; Prabowo, R E; Yamaguchi, T; Kawai, H

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of barnacles attached to the hulls of two intercontinental bulk carriers were studied at the port in Osaka Bay, Japan, to assess the potential risk of introduction of exotic species to the inner part of the bay. Barnacles were sampled from the bulbous bows, near the midship draft marks, and around the propeller posts and rudders. Twenty-two species were found, with 14 of these not previously recorded in Osaka Bay, including four species not previously recorded elsewhere in Japan. From an assessment of environmental similarity between Osaka Bay and native ranges, of the 14 species, Elminius modestus and Amphibalanus variegatus were considered to have the highest risk of introduction to the inner part of the bay.

  11. Finding Biomedical Information. A Learning Module for Medical Technology Students on the Basics of the Use of Medical Literature in the Shiffman Medical Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Barton B.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    This self-instructional library workbook was used in a series of workshops--sponsored by the Medical Technology Department in Wayne State University's College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions--in order to reduce attrition by increasing the probability of success for academically high-risk students in the professional medical technology…

  12. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  13. Students’ views of mentoring at Bahria University Medical and Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Ambreen; Omaeer, Quratulain

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mentoring program on a subset of Pakistani medical students in a private medical college. Method: Total students targeted were 300 MBBS students of 1st Year (group B), 2nd Year (group C) and 3rd Year (group D), of these 256 students filled the self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on Likert Scale. The statements in the questionnaire are designed in a positive manner so that if the students agree to them the level of satisfaction with the mentoring program was considered significantly good. Open-ended questionnaires were also given so as to have a clearer concept of the students’ perception. This study is a mixed method study catering to both quantitative and qualitative domains. Results : The overall results reported that the junior students of group B and group C showed higher satisfaction in being mentored as compared group D (p-value=0.001). All three groups were compared with each other to check the response of every statement by applying Tukey’s test. Analysis of the result showed that majority of the students considered mentoring program a beneficial tool for their academic and non-academic lives. The students of all three years have reported that the mentor is mostly available and helps to reconcile internal conflicts. They also confirmed that their mentor keeps records but most of the students have reported that communication via email is limited. Conclusion: Majority of students of Bahria University Medical and Dental College are able to carry on with their academic and non-academic routine due to the presence of mentoring. The medical students appreciated the presence of a mentor during thick and thin; they have also accepted that it is due to the presence of this guide that they are able to continue with their difficult studies in these difficult times. PMID:28083051

  14. Attitudes toward learning communication skills among medical students of a university in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills play a paramount role in clinical practice. In every clinical setting, medical doctors need to interview their patients efficiently and be persuasive toward their health issues. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students toward learning communication skills at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the questionnaires were distributed to 210 medical students. Twenty eight students were excluded since they either did not return the questionnaires or filled them out incompletely. So, totally 182 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate=%86.6). Data was collected using communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) which consists of 26 items, 13 indicative of positive attitude and 13 indicative of negative attitude toward learning communication skills. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. The mean age of the participants was 21.7 (SD=2.7). Male and female students accounted for 38.5% and 61.5% of the participants respectively. The mean scores for positive attitude was 54.8 (SD=7.3) out of 65, and the mean scores for negative attitude was 35.3 (SD=5.9) out of 65. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students and between basic sciences and pathophysiology students on the one hand and clinical course students on the other as regards their attitudes toward learning communication skills (P<0.05). Although students had strongly positive attitudes toward learning communication skills, curriculum planners should not lose sight of negative attitudes and measures need to be taken to minimize or if possible eliminate them.

  15. Marmara University Medical Students’ Perception on Sexual Violence against Women and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lüleci, Nimet Emel; Kaya, Eda; Aslan, Ece; Şenkal, Ece Söylem; Çiçek, Zehra Nadide

    2016-01-01

    Background: Historically, sexual assault is a common issue in Turkey. As doctors are one of the steps to help sexually assaulted women, medical students should have basic knowledge of and sensitivity regarding this subject. Another common women’s public health issue is induced abortion. In countries where access to abortion is restricted, there is a tendency towards unhealthy abortion. Aims: The aims of this study are: (1) to determine the attitudes and opinions of Marmara University Medical Faculty students about sexual assault against women and induced abortion and (2) to propose an educational program for medical students about sexual assault and abortion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The questionnaires were self-administered and the data were analyzed using SPSS v.15.0. First, the descriptive statistics were analyzed, followed by Chi-square for contingency tests assessing differences in attitudes toward sexual assault and induced abortion by factors such as gender and educational term. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results: About 89.6% of the participants (n=266) reported that they had never been sexually assaulted and about 11.5% of the women (n=19) had been sexually assaulted. There was no significant relationship between previous sexual assault and gender (p>0.05). Although there was no significant difference regarding the extent of punishment by victim’s status as a virgin, 21.3% (n=63) agreed that punishment should be more severe when the victim was a virgin. About 40.7% (n=120) agreed that the legal period of abortion in Turkey (10 weeks) should be longer. The majority (86.1%, n=255) agreed that legally prohibiting abortions causes an increase in unhealthy abortions. Conclusion: An educational program on these issues should be developed for medical students. PMID:27403386

  16. The Primary Care-Population Medicine Program at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    PubMed

    George, Paul; Tunkel, Allan R; Dollase, Richard; Gruppuso, Philip; Dumenco, Luba; Rapoza, Brenda; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The United States healthcare system has been in a period of rapid evolution over the past decade, a trend that is anticipated to continue for the foreseeable future. Physicians are increasingly responsible for the quality of care they provide, and are being held accountable not just for the patient in front of them, but also for the outcomes of their patient panels, communities, and populations. In response to these changes, as well as the projected shortage of primary care physicians, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) developed the Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) program, which builds upon the traditional curriculum with major integrated curricular innovations. The first is a Master of Science Degree in Population Medicine that requires students to take nine additional courses over four years, complete a thesis project focused on an area of Population Medicine, and take part in significant leadership training. Another significant innovative element is the development of a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) during the 3rd year of medical school in which the students complete a longitudinal outpatient experience with the same preceptors and patients. During the LIC students will follow a panel of patients wherever care is provided, while focusing on population health and healthcare delivery issues, in addition to medical topics throughout their clinical and didactic experiences. Though several of the innovative elements are being piloted, the inaugural PC-PM class of up to 24 students will only begin in August 2015. While the outcomes from this program will not be known for many years, the potential impact of the program is significant for AMS, medical education, and the future of healthcare delivery.

  17. Travel-related illness at a tertiary care hospital in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Shirano, Michinori; Goto, Tetsushi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the travel-related health problems in persons returning to Japan from overseas. Data were extracted retrospectively for all patients visiting the infectious diseases department of Osaka City General Hospital, Osaka, Japan, between July 2012 and September 2013. There were 209 sick returning travelers during the period of the study. The median age of the subjects was 34.3 years, and the subjects consisted of 133 tourists (63.6%), 39 business travelers (18.7%), 17 expatriates (8.1%), 14 volunteer workers (6.7%), and four persons who visited friends and relatives (1.9%). The most visited destinations were Asia (n=162, 77.5%), including East Asia (n=26, 12.4%), Southeast Asia (n=116, 55.5%), South Asia (n=25, 12.0%), Central Asia (n=3, 1.4%), and Africa (n=30, 14.3%). The most commonly diagnosed diseases were gastrointestinal tract infection (n=81, 38.8%), dengue fever (n=26, 12.4%), and animal bites (n=26, 12.4%). Twenty-nine patients (13.8%) were hospitalized, mainly for dengue fever and gastrointestinal tract infection. PMID:27799812

  18. Incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Osaka, Japan, 1973-2001.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2010-03-01

    Mortality for childhood cancer has declined in Osaka, as well as all over Japan, since the 1970s, but whether this decline can be explained by trends of incidence or survival of childhood cancer has not been examined. A total of 5960 malignant tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2001 in children <15 years of age were registered at the Osaka Cancer Registry in Japan. The time trends for childhood cancer were analyzed over 29 years for incidence and 20 years for survival. Leukemia was the most common among childhood cancer for both sexes and accounted for one-third of all cases. The age-standardized annual incidence rate of all tumors was highest in 1988-1992: 155.1 per million for males and 135.9 for females. Five-year survival for all tumors improved from 50.1% in 1978-1982 to 73.0% in 1993-1997 for males and from 52.3% to 76.3% for females. Thus, the constant decline in mortality in childhood cancer was primarily due to improved survival between the 1970s and 1980s and reduced incidence after the 1990s.

  19. Using a Cost-Construction Model To Assess the Cost of Educating Undergraduate Medical Students at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Luisa; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Using a cost-construction model, cost of the University of Texas-Houston Medical School program, instructional costs, educational costs, and milieu costs were calculated. Sensitivity analysis revealed the financial effects of various factors, some of which increased and some of which decreased cost. Despite inherent complexities of the method and…

  20. Spinal fractures resulting from the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake of the Kobe-Osaka area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Maruo, S; Matumoto, M

    1996-07-01

    One of the worst earthquakes hit the Hanshin area between Kobe and Osaka, in the early morning at 5:46 AM on January 17th 1995. The destructive force with MG 7.2 severely damaged buildings, houses, roads and railways, leaving 6500 dead, and 34,900 injured. Hyogo College of Medicine located in this area was also severely damaged, thus there was a major challenge to provide post-quake medical support. A post-quake investigation in this area was done by 50 affiliated hospitals. More than 15,000 victim-patients were treated at these hospitals during the first 3 days after the quake. Major injuries were spinal fractures, and other trunk fractures, including rib or pelvis fractures, but fractures of long bones were uncommon, because the quake hit this area in the early morning when most people were asleep. In this study, the mechanisms of these major injuries were analysed by direct interview soon after the quake, with 230 victim-patients who had 140 spinal fractures, and 100 with rib or pelvis fractures. Most of those who had a spinal fracture had either sat up or stood up on their 'Futon' mattresses without bed frames and were struck on their backs by falling furniture or ceilings. On the other hand, patients who had fractures of the ribs or the pelvis had been lying in the supine or lateral position and were hit on their chest or pelvis. This characteristic lifestyle pattern of the Japanese people to lie down on the floor directly beside furniture, resulted in these injuries. From these results, we will emphasize the following precautions:- If an earthquake occurs during sleeping hours at home, do not stand up or sit up. The best position is to crouch on the 'Futon' mattress.

  1. [Preliminary exploration on educational reform of general western medical history in medical colleges and universities under new situations and circumstances].

    PubMed

    Fu, Deming; Wang, Hongqi; Yan, Juan; He, Peifeng

    2015-03-01

    With the appearance of the "biological-psychological-social" medical model, the purpose, value and significance of medicine are reviewed and reconsidered by the people, and the history of medicine becomes one of the core subjects in the medical humanist education, along with change of the teaching of general western medical history. Medical history is no longer the accumulation of the achievements of human knowledge and medical experience, the intellectual history of theorytransformation, and the history of reformation of medical technologies, but a concrete and colorful living situation, displayed by the scientists, physicians and normal peoplecommunity during the process of their consistent recognition and transformation on medicine. Therefore, the teaching of generalwestern medical history should adjust the compilation of teaching materials, update the educational concept, change the contents, methods of teaching and examination in order to lay stress on the cultural viewpoint and the function of humanity and quality of education.

  2. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2014-06-01

    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  3. Research on Practice Carrier and Method Formed by Medical Humanistic Spirit for Medical Students: Tianjin Medical University as a Case in Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jie; Geng, Xin; Su, Zhenxing; Wang, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    Medical humanistic quality is an indispensable quality that eligible doctors should possess, and medical humanism is strongly advocated and carried forward by contemporary medicine. These are commonly understood worldwide, and formed by reflection on medicine and medical education. Cultivation of medical humanism requires in-depth discussions of…

  4. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  5. Patenting medical diagnosis methods in Europe: Stanford University and time-lapse microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Cockbain, Julian; Pennings, Guido

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, a European Patent for the technique of time-lapse microscopy was granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) to Stanford University and was subsequently opposed by Unisense FertiliTech A/S and by the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain and Guido Pennings. ESHRE et al.'s opposition was based on the argument that Stanford's patent was directed to a method of medical diagnosis, methods that are excluded from patentability by Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention. The Opposition Division of the EPO rejected the oppositions in November 2015, and both opponents have now filed their appeals. In this paper, we comment on the Opposition Division decision and the grounds of appeal put forward by ESHRE et al.

  6. [Paternity exclusion tests in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan].

    PubMed

    Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A

    2006-01-01

    The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.

  7. The joint cardiovascular research profile of the university medical centres in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Welie, S D; van Leeuwen, T N; Bouma, C J; Klaassen, A B M

    2016-05-01

    Biomedical scientific research in the Netherlands has a good reputation worldwide. Quantitatively, the university medical centres (UMCs) deliver about 40 % of the total number of scientific publications of this research. Analysis of the bibliometric output data of the UMCs shows that their research is highly cited. These output-based analyses also indicate the high impact of cardiovascular scientific research in these centres, illustrating the strength of this research in the Netherlands. A set of six joint national cardiovascular research topics selected by the UMCs can be recognised. At the top are heart failure, rhythm disorder research and atherosclerosis. National collaboration of top scientists in consortia in these three areas is successful in acquiring funding of large-scale programs. Our observations suggest that funding national consortia of experts focused on a few selected research topics may increase the international competitiveness of cardiovascular research in the Netherlands.

  8. [Malpractice in neurology in the case material of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Białystok].

    PubMed

    Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Sackiewicz, Adam; Szeremeta, Michał; Okłota, Magdalena; Wardaszka, Zofia

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of legal opinions compiled by the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Białystok in the years 2003-2008. The above-mentioned opinions addressed medical treatment in the area of neurology. During this period, opinions were given in 142 cases, the majority of them representing idiopathic diseases (such as strokes, cerebral aneurysms, cerebral infections), followed by falls from high altitudes and traffic road accidents, further followed by fights, medical treatment and work accidents. In sixteen (11.27%) of such cases, the employed medical procedures were found to be incorrect; what might be qualified as medical decisive errors, committed in emergency ambulances or in admission rooms. Incorrect medical treatment consisted in negligence to perform necessary diagnostic examinations. In ten of the analyzed cases, the patients ultimately died.

  9. Suggested Minimum Data Set for Speech Therapy Centers Affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Damanabi, Shahla; Abdolnejad, Shawbo; Karimi, Gelavizh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The minimum data considered as a conceptual framework, based on the achievement of effectiveness indicators and it ensures to access of precise and clear health data. The aims of the present study were identified and proposed a data element set of speech therapy centers affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This study that was cross – sectional type, performed in 9 speech therapy clinic from medical university in 2014. Firstly, the minimum data elements set evaluated using the check list in these centers. Using the findings from the first step and survey of internal and external documentation forms, designed a questionnaire containing a minimum data speech therapy files and it shared between 36 Speech therapy experts using 5 options of Likert scale. Validity of questionnaire was examined through its validity and reliability of content by retest. For data analysis, data processing was performed using descriptive statistics by SPSS21 software. Results: The minimum data set for speech therapy were divided into two categories: clinical and administrative data. The Name and surname, date of birth, gender, address, telephone number, date of admission and the number of treatments, the patient’s complaint, the time of occurrence of injury or disorder, reason and age of disease considered as the most important elements for management data and health history. For the most important elements of clinical information were selected Short-term and long-term aims and development of speech history. Conclusion: The design and implementation of suitable data collection of speech therapy for gathering of data, we recommended planning for the control and prevention of speech disorders to providing high quality and good care of patient in speech therapy centers. PMID:26483600

  10. Descriptions of Acute Transfusion Reactions in the Teaching Hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Pakdel, Shirin Falah; Jahanpour, Firuzeh; Yousefi, Hoshang; Soleimanian, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background Transfusion services rely on transfusion reaction reporting to provide patient care and protect the blood supply. Unnecessary discontinuation of blood is a major wastage of scarce blood, as well as man, hours and funds. The aim of the present study was to describe the main characteristics of acute transfusion reactions reported in the 4 hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Material and Methods The study was carried out at 4 teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, over18 months from April 2010. All adult patients on admission in the hospitals who required blood transfusion and had establish diagnosis and consented were included in the study. Results In the year 2010 until 2012, a total of 6238 units of blood components were transfused. A total of 59 (0.94%) cases of transfusion reaction were reported within this 3 years period. The commonest were allergic reactions which presented with various skin manifestations such as urticarial, rashes and pruritus (49.2%), followed by increase in body temperature of > 1°C from baseline which was reported as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (37.2%). pain at the transfusion site (6.8%) and hypotension (6.8%). Conclusion It is important that each transfusion of blood components to be monitor carefully. Many transfusion reactions are not recognized, because signs and symptoms mimic other clinical conditions. Any unexpected symptoms in a transfusion recipient should at least be considered as a possible transfusion reaction and be evaluated. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute transfusion reaction are crucial and would help in decreasing transfusion related morbidity and mortality, but prevention is preferable. PMID:24505522

  11. Research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Najafi, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade; Kazempour, Zahra; Taheri, Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research self-efficacy if the people's judgment of their abilities in order to organize and conduct meaningful research in different formats. The aim of this study is to determinate the rate of research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Research Self-efficacy Scale. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is an applied survey method. Statistical population is all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and the sample size was calculated to be 361 samples based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Random sampling method was used with equal number of samples from every department. Data collection tool is Salehi et al. questionnaire (with 7 dimensions) with Likert scale (5 grades). Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Psychology and Research Method experts and Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.84) respectively. Data gathering method was direct visit to each department. The data was then analyzed using t-test and one-tailed ANOVA using SPSS 16 software. Results: The finding showed that among research self-efficiency dimensions research ethics dimension had the highest and quality research dimension had the lowest means. Furthermore comparing the research self-efficacy scores with demographic characteristics suggests that there is no significant difference between total score of research self-efficacy of different departments, genders or educational degrees (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the score of most of the research self-efficacy dimensions were, lower than average, holding periodical workshops, inclusion of necessary courses in the educational plan, forcing student to perform research activity such as writing articles in lower educational levels and improvement of research culture for students with the help of experienced professors are some of practical solutions, which can lead to increasing the motivation of the students for conducting efficient research. PMID:25883996

  12. Student Mental Health: How Can Psychiatrists Better Support the Work of University Medical Centres and University Counselling Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Rob; Mahmood, Tariq; Gandi, Robert; Delves, Sally; Humphrys, Nigel; Smith, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    Student psychiatric morbidity is rising. Whilst the influence of university counselling services is widely reported, NHS involvement by psychiatrists and general practitioners is not so well described. Counselling and mental health service providers for students at the University of Leeds were approached for numerical data and a university Group…

  13. Integration of Cognitive Skills as a Cross-Cutting Theme Into the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Akbar; Allaa, Maryam; Moosapour, Hamideh; Aletaha, Azadeh; Shahrtash, Farzaneh; Monajemi, Alireza; Arastoo, Tohid; Ahmadinejad, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The first step toward integrating cognitive skills into the curriculum was to assemble a taskforce of different faculty and students, including a wide variety of fields with multidisciplinary expertise using nonprobability sampling and the snowball method. Several meetings with the contribution of experts and some medical students were held to generate the draft of expected outcomes. Subsequently, the taskforce also determined what content would fit best into each phase of the program and what teaching and assessment methods would be more appropriate for each outcome. After a pilot curriculum with a small group of second-year medical students, we implemented this program for all first-year students since 2011 at TUMS. Based on findings, the teaching of four areas, including scientific and critical thinking skills (Basic sciences), problem-solving and reasoning (Pathophysiology), evidence-based medicine (Clerkship), and clinical decision-making (Internship) were considered in the form of a longitudinal theme. The results of this study could be utilized as a useful pattern for integration of psycho-social subjects into the medical curriculum.

  14. [The centralization of medical studies in universities under Napoleon I. History and consequences].

    PubMed

    Vichard, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The so called "Loi du 19 ventose au XI" is two centuries old. It is a very important text of the French universitary story. It stands out the end of the Revolution in the medical studies. It enjoyed the most part of the contemporary people. But other arrangements of the law are more debatable. Thus, medical and surgical unity was already acquired before French Revolution. Furthermore, the absence of surgical practical training was a serious gap. At last, universitary Centralisation, which contrasts, with previous Decentralisation and the historical evolution of many countries, is an option with later pejorative consequences. Il was necessary to remind the events which consolidated centralisation (creation of School of medicine without autonomy in 1820, 1958 ordonnances, 1968 Revolution and after 1981, "internat national", "internat qualifiant", Lastly, the creation of C-NRS and INSERM took the leadership of research from University. Of course, other events hindered centralisation (Epic of "Internat des hôpitaux", 1871-1878 crisis, and 1910 campaign against agregation). But today, the faculties of Medicine have no real autonomy. The consequences are the standardization of the studies, the absence of competition and a poor overall result. The components of this result are not peculiar to centralisation. But this one prevents any reform. Is this logical reform really whished by the French people?

  15. Satisfaction With Medication Therapy Management Services at a University Ambulatory Care Clinic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shiyun; Martin, Michelle T; Pierce, Andrea L; Zueger, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    A survey was issued to patients enrolled in the Medication Therapy Management Clinic (MTMC) at University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences (June 2011-January 2012) in order to assess satisfaction with pharmacy services provided by pharmacists. A 23-item survey was offered to 65 patients in the MTMC program before or after clinic visits. Since there is a paucity of data indicating the level of satisfaction with MTM services provided by pharmacists, this survey may contribute to the process of building a greater collaboration between the pharmacist and patient. Sixty-two of 65 patients completed the survey; satisfaction with MTMC pharmacists was demonstrated to be significantly positively correlated with overall satisfaction with the MTMC. Patient satisfaction is not significantly different according to age, gender, ethnicity, or number of disease states. Satisfaction with the pillbox service is not significantly different between younger and older patients. It was also noted that patients taking a greater number of medications had higher levels of satisfaction. Most patients indicated that they were satisfied with the MTMC pharmacists and services; further study linking patient satisfaction with MTM services to improved patient outcomes may allow our MTMC to serve as a model for other pharmacist-managed MTMCs serving similar patient populations.

  16. Dialysis vascular access management by interventional nephrology programs at University Medical Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, Tushar J; Moossavi, Shahriar; Salman, Loay; Wu, Steven; Dwyer, Amy C; Ross, Jamie; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Maya, Ivan D; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Agarwal, Anil; Abreo, Kenneth D; Work, Jack; Asif, Arif

    2011-01-01

    The development of interventional nephrology has undoubtedly led to an improvement in patient care at many facilities across the United States. However, these services have traditionally been offered by interventional nephrologists in the private practice arena. While interventional nephrology was born in the private practice setting, several academic medical centers across the United States have now developed interventional nephrology programs. University Medical Centers (UMCs) that offer interventional nephrology face challenges, such as smaller dialysis populations, limited financial resources, and real or perceived political "turf" issues." Despite these hurdles, several UMCs have successfully established interventional nephrology as an intricate part of a larger nephrology program. This has largely been accomplished by consolidating available resources and collaborating with other specialties irrespective of the size of the dialysis population. The collaboration with other specialties also offers an opportunity to perform advanced procedures, such as application of excimer laser and endovascular ultrasound. As more UMCs establish interventional nephrology programs, opportunities for developing standardized training centers will improve, resulting in better quality and availability of nephrology-related procedures, and providing an impetus for research activities.

  17. Hepatitis C infection awareness among fourth year medical students at University of Dammam

    PubMed Central

    Almansour, Abdulelah H.; Darwish, Magdy A.; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine awareness about hepatitis C among 4th -year medical students at Dammam University, on hepatitis C and possible associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions on awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, screening of the population, symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 201 students participated, with a response rate of 79.8%. About 75% of students had a poor grasp of HCV transmission while the awareness of <25% of students was fair. More than half of students had fair knowledge about screening, prevention, and treatment of HCV. The majority of students were familiar with the clinical presentation and complications of HCV. The overall awareness of the 4th -year medical students on HCV infection was fair, with no significant difference between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Overall grasp of hepatitis C by the studied group was fair. However, there were serious gaps in their knowledge, which need to be filled or modified, especially knowledge about transmission which was poor. PMID:28163576

  18. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  19. [Factors associated with academic success of medical students at Buenos Aires University].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Pittaluga, Roberto D; Álvarez Rodríguez, Juan E; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B; Poveda Camargo, Ricardo L; Couto, Juan L; Provenzano, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify common factors relating to the academic success of medical students who were distinguished with honors at the Buenos Aires University. In 2011, 142 graduates were surveyed; the questionnaire included 59 questions on their sociodemographic environment, living conditions and social integration, motivation to study, learning capacity and health quality during their career. Compared to other students, these distinguished students more often lived in the city, far from their families; had been educated at private or universitary high schools, their economic needs were financed by their parents, who were on the whole professionals. Most of them were single and childless. The possibility of future employment oportunities (work) did not influence their choice of a medical career, academic success was important to them and they believed that success depended largely on personal effort; they knew how to handle anxiety, were sociable but independent and preferred solid experience to abstract conceptuality in order to obtain information. Our conclusion, within the current system of candidate selection, these results serve to calculate the covert self-selection mechanisms during the career, or in a more restrictive regime, to select those likely to reach academic success due to their privileged ambience. The analysis of demographic factors indicates some degree of inequality for socially disadvantaged students. Perhaps, a selection system based only on intellectual abilities would help identify and support the best candidates regardless of their social context.

  20. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in the university medical center of Rabat, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI) prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from medical records, temperature charts, radiographs, laboratory reports and by consultation with the ward’s collaborating health professionals. Risk factors were determined using logistic regression. Results 1195 patients involved, occupancy rate was 51%. The prevalence of HAI was 10.3%. Intensive care units were the most affected wards (34.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common infected site (35%). Microbiological documentation was available in 61% of HAI. Staphylococcus was the organism most commonly isolated (18.7%) and was methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HAI were advanced age, longer length of hospital stay, presence of comorbidity, invasive devices and use of antibiotic use. Conclusion HAI prevalence was high in this study. Future prevention program should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and overprescribing antibiotics. PMID:23031793

  1. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  2. Experience of problem-based learning in nursing education at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2009-05-01

    Nursing education must keep up with the rapidly changing medical landscape to support the competences of nurses in the areas of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. Problem-based learning (PBL) provides an appropriate strategy for nursing education innovation. Nursing curricula based on PBL remain in the growing stage in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Medical University introduced PBL into nursing education in 2002. The critical events in the process included: (1) nurturing key tutors; (2) using PBL teaching methods in an elective course--Oncology Nursing, and designing a new elective course--Symposiums Regarding Clinical Cases; (3) holding conferences inside and outside the school to promote PBL teaching methods; (4) linking e-learning and PBL teaching methods; (5) conducting PBL research; (6) establishing a committee of PBL, objective structured clinical examination, and teaching material review for the College of Nursing; and (7) setting up a required course--Nursing Ethics. We now have 12 key tutors in the College of Nursing. We have also completed two studies to evaluate the ability of students and to explore the experience of tutors. From our studies, we know that PBL can increase learner abilities in self-directed learning, critical thinking, and PBL performance. The approach helps students to cope with the changing medical landscape. Furthermore, tutors and teachers develop adequate PBL teaching skills. Based on the experience above, we believe that we are on the right path in terms of continuing tutor development, gradually increasing the number of PBL courses, and undertaking further research to promote PBL methods in Taiwan.

  3. Impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMADREZA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; SOLTANi, BEHROUZ; AGHAKHANI, NADER; HAGHPANAH, SEZANEH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining clinical competency in clinical education is one of the problems in nursing and use of the new methods of clinical training is very important. Clinical supervision is one of the methods used as a mechanism to promote knowledge and skill for promoting professional performance in nursing students. This study is carried out to determine the impact of clinical supervision on field training of nursing students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods In the present experimental study, 32 nursing students were enrolled in the study based on census and randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control by block randomization. Clinical supervision was used in the experimental group and the control group received routine clinical trainings in the field. The students’ clinical skills were assessed using a researcher-made checklist, the validity of which was confirmed through content validity method by 13 faculty members and its reliability was approved by test-retest method on 20 nursing students in the form of a pilot study and through Cronbach’s alpha (87%). Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 14. Results ‍There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in clinical skills such as recognition and administration of medication, team participation,  patients and their relatives’ education, considering the safety,  infection prevention and  nursing process (p<0.005). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in clinical supervision process, students have a better communication and cooperation with their instructor and with each other and their confidence and understanding and the amount of learning in practical skills was enhanced more than routine clinical training. The implementation of this clinical training method for students of nursing and other fields of medical sciences is recommendable. PMID:27104203

  4. Barriers in Implementing E-Learning in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Lakbala, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background: E-learning provides an alternative way for higher educational institutes to deliver knowledge to learners at a distance, rather than the traditional way. The aim of this study is to identify the barrier factors of e-learning programs in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS) in respect of the students and lecturers’ point of view. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire was conducted among 286 of students and lecturers in the nursing, midwifery and paramedic schools of HUMS. Two hundred and eighty-six participants filled in the questionnaire: 256 students, and 30 lecturers. Results: Results of the study showed a lack of proper training in e-learning courses of the university 182 (69.1%), limited communication with the instructor 174 (68%) and the learners dominance of English language 174 (68%) showed the greatest importance for the students. The awareness about e-learning program was 80% and 43% among lecturers and students respectively. The dominance of English language 26 (86.7%) and lack of research grants for e-learning 23 (76.6%) and lack of proper training on e-learning courses from the university 20 (66.7 %) were the most important barrier factors of implementing e-learning for lecturers. E-learning courses to supplement classroom teaching was a solution that mentioned by the majority of students 240 (93.8%) and lecturers 29 (96.7%) in this study. Conclusions: The positive perception of e-learning is an important consequence effect in the future, educational development of nursing, midwifery and paramedic schools. PMID:26925885

  5. Organizational Climate and Work Addiction in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2014: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Noora; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Zare, Vahid; Mohammadi, Mahan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The occupational nature of employees in headquarters units of the University requires them to deal with support issues. Thus, there is some pressure on these employees to complete their assignments on time so that employees in the line units can accurately and expeditiously perform their duties. As a result, work addiction behaviors are sometimes observed among the headquarters personnel. Considering the importance of work addiction and recognizing the factors that intensify it, this study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and the work addiction of headquarters personnel at the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Methods This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using stratified random sampling of 151 University employees in 2014. The data collection tool was an organizational climate questionnaire, which was supplemented by the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART). The data were analyzed using the Pearson test, Spearman test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Kruskal-Wallis test using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The findings of this study showed that the organizational climate was at a moderate level, and employees were in the danger level in terms of work addiction. In addition, among the dimensions of organizational climate, the risk dimension had a significant relationship with work addiction (p<0.05), and the dimensions of structure and responsibility were significantly different from occupational group and monthly salary (p<0.05). Single employees showed a significant difference from married employees in the two dimensions of criteria and conflict (p<0.05). Conclusion Since the organizational climate score was low and the work addiction score was at the high-risk level, this issue demands more attention of senior managers and human resource officers of organizations to improve the organizational climate and increase employees’ awareness of work addiction

  6. Quality management of medical education at the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Peter Erich

    2008-12-01

    The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research.

  7. [Lecturers in chemistry at the Medical Faculty of the University of Nagyszombat].

    PubMed

    Szabadváry, F; Vámos, E

    1994-01-01

    After a short introduction on the development of the medieval universities at Pécs, Obuda, and Pozsony, and mentioning those who lectured in medicine in Hungary, the authors emphasise that modern chemistry was born during the 16th and 17th century. They stress the role of Paracelsus who invented iatro-chemistry, and that the first independent chairs, were founded in Germany in the beginning of 17th century at Altdorf, Marburg, Jéna, but were followed suit by Paris, when the Jardin des Plantes were erected. The first chemical textbook, the Cours de Chimie (Paris 1665), was also the work of a Frenchman, namely Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715). From the 18th century chemistry was also included in the curriculum of medical education in Hungary. Among the chairs of the newly founded medical faculty at Nagyszombat we find the chemical-botanical department in 1769. Its first professor was an Austrian physician Jakab Winterl (1773-1809), who had been a head physician at Selmecbánya, in Northern Hungary. Owing to a rash and premature publication Winterl's international reputation was unfortunately undermined in the last century by a leading German science historian, Hermann Kopp. The authors stress, however, that Winterl indeed played an important role in organizing the chemical department, and purchasing all the necessary equipment needed for up to date researches and analyses. And above all, in his Prolusiones ad chemiam saeculi decimi noni, he foresaw many forthcoming paths and discoveries of 19th century chemistry. After Winterl's retirement the department was divided into two parts. Pál Kitaibel (1757-1817) led the botanica department and János schuster (1777-1838) the other one for chemistry. Kitaibel made a name for himself by depicting Hungarian flora, but he also made discoveries in chemistry. He discovered chlore lime, before Tennant in 1795, a material which might have been used for whitening textiles. Schuster, on the other hand, introduced a system of Hungarian

  8. Volcanic? Non-Volcanic? Low-Frequency Earthquakes beneath Osaka Bay - Event Search from Continuous Records -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ide, S.

    2010-12-01

    Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) and tremors are observed in Nankai subduction zone, Japan. They are recognized to occur upon the subducting Philippine Sea plate. On the other hand, LEFs apart from plate boundary surface are also known (e.g. Ohmi and Obara, 2002). Most of them are distributed around volcanoes with some exceptions. Ones of the exceptions are LEFs occurring beneath Osaka Bay area between Kinki and Shikoku regions. These LFEs occur near the extension of tremor belt in Shikoku, and they are also close to the tear of Philippine Sea plate between Kinki and Shikoku regions (Ide et al., GRL in press). In addition, the epicenters of these LFEs are aligned toward north-northwest, the direction of the tear, and its extended line passes through the epicenter of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. These facts suggest the hidden relations between LFEs, the subducting slab, and major inland earthquakes. The waveforms of the LFEs beneath Osaka Bay often have distinct spectral peak around 2Hz, unlike LFEs in subduction zones. This feature is common to some volcanic tremors. It is also suggested that mantle-derived water is blowing off along the wake of the slab tear, and some fluid likely exists beneath Osaka Bay. The LFEs have been detected by routine analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). These are small portion of overall activities, because the routine analysis is not optimized to detect small low frequency events in noisy data. To figure out whole activities of LFEs, we apply Matched Filter Analysis (Gibbons and Ringdal, 2006; Shelly et al., 2007) to continuous waveform records, using LFEs detected by JMA as template events. We used the 69 components in the 23 stations in Hi-net, maintained by the National Reserch Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. The waveforms are bandpass filtered between 2 and 8Hz. We calculated the cross-correlations of template LFEs and continuous records with 8s time window. An LFE is detected when the cross

  9. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Uehara, Shinichiro; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Endo, Ginji; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents. PMID:26902168

  10. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary. PMID:26268830

  11. A comparison of applicant and matriculant trends, and rising costs of medical education in United States medical schools and at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Elam, Carol L; Scott, Kimberly L; Gilbert, Linda A; Hartmann, Beth A

    2003-05-01

    This paper addresses fluctuations in the applicant and matriculant pools both across United States medical schools and at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) for 1992-2002. It also presents data regarding the increasing costs of a medical education. Over the past decade, both nationally and at the UKCOM, there has been an over-all reduction in the number of applicants to medical school. In this changing applicant pool, the percentage of female matriculants has increased both nationally and at the UKCOM. However, the number of underrepresented minorities applying to and matriculating in the US and at the UKCOM has dropped since the mid-1990s. Although the applicant pool has decreased in size over the time period examined, the academic quality of applicants as measured by the undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test scores has increased both nationally and at UKCOM. Costs of a medical education have risen over time, as has the debt burden of medical school graduates due to increasing undergraduate debt, consumer debt, and medical school tuition. Potential causes for and implication of these changing trends are discussed.

  12. Developing an academic medical library core journal collection in the (almost) post-print era: the Florida State University College of Medicine Medical Library experience.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Barbara S; Nagy, Suzanne P

    2003-07-01

    The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters.

  13. Developing an academic medical library core journal collection in the (almost) post-print era: the Florida State University College of Medicine Medical Library experience

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Barbara S.; Nagy, Suzanne P.

    2003-01-01

    The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters. PMID:12883565

  14. Retrospective Analysis of the Blood Component Utilization in a University Hospital of Maximum Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, R. Georg; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Krakowitzky, Petra; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Van Aken, Hugo; Kessler, Torsten; Berdel, Wolfgang; Sibrowski, Walter; Schlenke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Demographic data illustrate clearly that people in highly developed countries get older, and the elderly need more blood transfusions than younger patients. Additionally, special extensive therapies result in an increased consumption of blood components. Beyond that the aging of the population reduces the total number of preferably young and healthy blood donors. Therefore, Patient Blood Management will become more and more important in order to secure an increasing blood supply under fair-minded conditions. Methods At the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilization of all conventional blood components was performed including all medical and surgical disciplines. In parallel, a new medical reporting system was installed to provide a monthly analysis of the transfusional treatments in the whole infirmary, in every department, and in special blood-consuming cases of interest, as well. Results The study refers to all UKM in-patient cases from 2009 to 2011. It clearly demonstrates that older patients (>60 years, 35.2–35.7% of all cases, but 49.4–52.6% of all cases with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, 36.4–41. 6% of all cases with platelet (PTL, apheresis only) transfusions, 45.2–48.0% of all cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions) need more blood products than younger patients. Male patients (54.4–63.9% of all cases with transfusions) are more susceptible to blood transfusions than female patients (36.1–45.6% of all cases with transfusions). Most blood components are used in cardiac, visceral, and orthopedic surgery (49.3–55.9% of all RBC units, 45.8–61.0% of all FFP units). When regarding medical disciplines, most transfusions are administered to hematologic and oncologic patients (12.9–17.7% of all RBC units, 9.2–12.0% of all FFP units). The consumption of PTL in this special patient cohort (40.6–50.9% of all PTL units) is more pronounced than in all other surgical or

  15. Evaluation of the quality of the college library websites in Iranian medical Universities based on the Stover model

    PubMed Central

    Nasajpour, Mohammad Reza; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Today, the websites of college and university libraries play an important role in providing the necessary services for clients. These websites not only allow the users to access different collections of library resources, but also provide them with the necessary guidance in order to use the information. The goal of this study is the quality evaluation of the college library websites in Iranian Medical Universities based on the Stover model. Material and Methods: This study uses an analytical survey method and is an applied study. The data gathering tool is the standard checklist provided by Stover, which was modified by the researchers for this study. The statistical population is the college library websites of the Iranian Medical Universities (146 websites) and census method was used for investigation. The data gathering method was a direct access to each website and filling of the checklist was based on the researchers’ observations. Descriptive and analytical statistics (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)) were used for data analysis with the help of the SPSS software. Findings: The findings showed that in the dimension of the quality of contents, the highest average belonged to type one universities (46.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities (24.8%). In the search and research capabilities, the highest average belonged to type one universities (48.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities. In the dimension of facilities provided for the users, type one universities again had the highest average (37.2%), while type three universities had the lowest average (15%). In general the library websites of type one universities had the highest quality (44.2%), while type three universities had the lowest quality (21.1%). Also the library websites of the College of Rehabilitation and the College of Paramedics, of the Shiraz University of Medical Science, had the highest quality scores. Discussion: The results showed

  16. Conflicts of interest in medical school: Missing Policies and high need for student information at most German Universities

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Klaus; Koch, Cora

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students interact with pharmaceutical representatives already during medical school. The goal of this study was to find out: Do policies exist at German medical faculties that govern the interactions between medical students and pharmaceutical representatives, do schools offer courses on the subject and do students attend these courses? And What are the attitudes of medical students concerning the role of pharmaceutical companies in medical teaching? Methods: All 36 German medical faculty deans and 1,151 medical students at eight German universities were asked to complete a questionnaire of 4 and 7 questions, respectively, regarding the above mentioned topics. Results: 30 (83,3%) deans and 1,038 (90.3%) medical students filled in the questionnaire, respectively. According to the deans' answers, only one school had a policy concerning conflicts of interest and one had a policy governing the interactions between medical students and industry. 8 (26.7%) deans showed an interest in constructing a policy or educational an activity on this subject. 149 (14,4%) students had participated in an activity that focussed the subject of conflicts of interest and 779 (77,8%) wanted more education on the subject. 701 (73,4%) were opposed to an improvement of medical studies through financial support by pharmaceutical companies, whereas 216 (21,9%) were of the opinion that students should not meet with pharmaceutical representatives. Conclusions: Unlike in other countries, like the US, most German medical faculties do not have policies that govern the interactions between medical students and pharmaceutical companies. Since most students want to be taught more about these interactions, the implementation of respective policies and lectures would be desirable. PMID:24575152

  17. Clinical pharmacist-led program on medication reconciliation implementation at hospital admission: experience of a single university hospital in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Marinović, Ivana; Marušić, Srećko; Mucalo, Iva; Mesarić, Jasna; Bačić Vrca, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process in clinical practice by quantifying and analyzing unintentional medication discrepancies at hospital admission. Methods An observational prospective study was conducted at the Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, during a 1-year period (October 2014 – September 2015) as a part of the implementation of Safe Clinical Practice, Medication Reconciliation of the European Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care Joint Action (PASQ JA) project. Patients older than 18 years taking at least one regular prescription medication were eligible for inclusion. Discrepancies between pharmacists' Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) and physicians' admission orders were detected and communicated directly to the physicians to clarify whether the observed changes in therapy were intentional or unintentional. All discrepancies were discussed by an expert panel and classified according to their potential to cause harm. Results In 411 patients included in the study, 1200 medication discrepancies were identified, with 202 (16.8%) being unintentional. One or more unintentional medication discrepancy was found in 148 (35%) patients. The most frequent type of unintentional medication discrepancy was drug omission (63.9%) followed by an incorrect dose (24.2%). More than half (59.9%) of the identified unintentional medication discrepancies had the potential to cause moderate to severe discomfort or clinical deterioration in the patient. Conclusion Around 60% of medication errors were assessed as having the potential to threaten the patient safety. Clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation was shown to be an important tool in detecting medication discrepancies and preventing adverse patient outcomes. This standardized medication reconciliation process may be widely applicable to other health care organizations and clinical settings. PMID:28051282

  18. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    PubMed

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  19. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  20. [Differences in influenza epidemics in Osaka City--epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Shibe, K; Minoshiro, S

    1994-05-01

    Influenza viruses in outpatients with influenza symptoms in Osaka City were analyzed in an epidemiological surveillance of infectious disease between 1989 and 1993. During influenza epidemics a mixed prevalence of several types of influenza viruses existed. Three types of influenza viruses, AH1, AH3 and B, were isolated during the 1990/1991 season. Remarkably the three types of viruses were discovered in samplings collected on the same day and within a narrow area inside a radius of 800-1,000m from the surveyed hospitals. Different types of viruses were detected between brothers and among school children from same housing complexes. Influenza AH3 viruses detected in 1992/1993 season differed in antigenicity from those detected in the 1990/1991 and 1991/1992 seasons. Therefore it appears that mutation of the AH3 virus contributed to the large-scale influenza epidemic which occurred in the 1992/1993 season.

  1. Hepatitis B surface antibodies in medical students from a public university in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Santos-López, Gerardo; Pérez-Contreras, Irma; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Gándara-Ramírez, José Luís; Cruz Y López, Othón Rafael; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca

    2016-07-02

    Although preventable with vaccination, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern, with ∼400 million people at risk of developing the chronic form of the disease worldwide. The anti-HBV vaccine consists of a recombinant HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), which induces specific anti-HBs antibodies and confers 95% protection for >20 y. The aim of the present study was to analyze the response to HBV vaccination by measuring anti-HBs antibodies in serum samples from medical students of a public university in Puebla, Mexico. HBV infection markers HBsAg and anti-HBs, were also determined. A total of 201 students were included and vaccination coverage was found at 54%. Overall seropositivity for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs determined by ELISA was 0.5%, 1.0% and 47%, respectively. Protective levels of anti-HBs >10 mIU/mL were found in 93.2% of subjects vaccinated with 2 or 3 doses and in 40% of those vaccinated with a single dose; while only 4.8% of unvaccinated subjects were anti-HBs positive. The response to the HBV vaccine was different in each participant, despite similar vaccination scheme. A history of blood transfusion/organ transplant or more than 2 sexual partners was significantly associated with anti-HBc positivity, OR = 399 (p = 0.010) and OR = 19.9 (p = 0.044), respectively. HBV immunization coverage was low in our sample compared with reports from countries with similar HBV prevalence, but anti-HBs in vaccinated individuals were in the expected range. It is important to promote HBV vaccination and awareness among medical students, due to their exposure risk.

  2. Trends in attrition among medical teaching staff at universities in Myanmar 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Nang Mie Mie Htun; Reyer, Joshua A; Yamamoto, Eiko; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Although lack of human resources for health is becoming a global problem, there are few studies on human resources in Myanmar. This study was conducted to investigate the attrition rates of teaching staff from universities for medical professions in Myanmar from 2009 to 2013. The data were collected from administrative records from Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, Myanmar. Numbers of staff and those who permanently left work (attrition) from 2009 to 2013 were counted. The reasons were classified into two categories; involuntary attrition (death or retirement) and voluntary attrition (resignation or absenteeism). Official records of the attrited staff were reviewed for identifying demographic characteristics. The annual attrition rate for all kinds of health workers was about 4%. Among 494 attrited staff from 2009 to 2013, 357 staff (72.3%) left their work by involuntary attrition, while 137 staff (27.7%) left voluntarily. Doctors left their work with the highest annual rate (6.7%), while the rate for nurses was the lowest (1.1%). Male staff attrited with a higher rate (4.6%) than female staff (2.7%). Staff aged 46-60 years had the highest attrition rate. PhD degree holders had the highest rate (5.9%), while basic degree holders had the second highest rate (3.5%). Associate professors and above showed the highest attrition rate (8.1%). Teaching staff from non-clinical subjects had the higher rates (8.2%). Among 494 attrited staff, significant differences between involuntary attrition and voluntary attrition were observed in age, marital status, education, overseas degree, position, field of teaching, duration of services and duration of non-residential service. These findings indicated the need to develop appropriate policies such as educational reforms, local recruitment plans, transparent regulatory and administrative measures, and professional incentives to retain the job.

  3. Trends in attrition among medical teaching staff at universities in Myanmar 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Nang Mie Mie Htun; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yamamoto, Eiko; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although lack of human resources for health is becoming a global problem, there are few studies on human resources in Myanmar. This study was conducted to investigate the attrition rates of teaching staff from universities for medical professions in Myanmar from 2009 to 2013. The data were collected from administrative records from Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Health, Myanmar. Numbers of staff and those who permanently left work (attrition) from 2009 to 2013 were counted. The reasons were classified into two categories; involuntary attrition (death or retirement) and voluntary attrition (resignation or absenteeism). Official records of the attrited staff were reviewed for identifying demographic characteristics. The annual attrition rate for all kinds of health workers was about 4%. Among 494 attrited staff from 2009 to 2013, 357 staff (72.3%) left their work by involuntary attrition, while 137 staff (27.7%) left voluntarily. Doctors left their work with the highest annual rate (6.7%), while the rate for nurses was the lowest (1.1%). Male staff attrited with a higher rate (4.6%) than female staff (2.7%). Staff aged 46–60 years had the highest attrition rate. PhD degree holders had the highest rate (5.9%), while basic degree holders had the second highest rate (3.5%). Associate professors and above showed the highest attrition rate (8.1%). Teaching staff from non-clinical subjects had the higher rates (8.2%). Among 494 attrited staff, significant differences between involuntary attrition and voluntary attrition were observed in age, marital status, education, overseas degree, position, field of teaching, duration of services and duration of non-residential service. These findings indicated the need to develop appropriate policies such as educational reforms, local recruitment plans, transparent regulatory and administrative measures, and professional incentives to retain the job. PMID:27019526

  4. Moral Distress in Physicians Practicing in Hospitals Affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Kiani, Mehrzad; Borhani, Fariba; Bazmi, Shabnam; Nazari Tavaokkoli, Saeid; Rasouli, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have regarded moral distress as a major concern in the health care system. Symptoms associated with moral distress may manifest as frustration, dissatisfaction, and anxiety and may lead to burnout, job leaving, and finally, failure to provide safe and competent care to patients. Proper management of this phenomenon can be fulfilled through study of its causes at different levels of health services and taking necessary measures to solve them. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the status of moral distress in physicians practicing in hospitals affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out using the Standard Hamric Scale to collect data after modification and evaluation of its reliability and validity. A total of 399 physicians responded to the scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and correlation statistics with respect to the variables. Results: Results showed that the frequency of moral distress of physicians was 1.24 ± 0.63 and the intensity of moral distress and composite score of moral distress were 2.14 ± 0.80 and 2.94 ± 2.38, respectively. A significant negative correlation existed between age and frequency and composite score (r = -0.15, P < 0.01 and r = -0.16, P < 0.01, respectively) as well as years of experience and composite score (r = -0.11, P = 0.04). Moral distress composite score in adults specialists was higher than pediatricians (P = 0.002), but lower in physicians participated in medical ethics training courses compared to those not participated. Conclusions: Physicians may encounter moral distress during their practice; therefore, the common causes of distress should be identified in order to prevent its occurrence. PMID:25558387

  5. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  6. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenthal, Virginia; Irlam, James; London, Leslie; Keikelame, Johannah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT) work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training. Objectives This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders. Methods A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders. Results Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, follow-up interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes. Conclusion The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Theses at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Years–(1995-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Balaghafari, Azita; Siamian, Hasan; Kharamin, Farideh; Rashida, Seyyedeh Shahrbanoo; Ghahrani, Nassim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Review and evaluation of research for the correct steps towards real progress is essential which is a healthy and dynamic feature of the system. For the correct step toward real progress, evaluation research is essential which is feature of healthy and dynamic system. Considering the importance of scientific thesis in production and development and be aware of as the lack of structured information and qualitative and quantitative assessment at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, therefore we decided to do qualitative stud of theirs prepared 1995-2014. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey, a sample of 325 graduate and PhD thesis and dissertation in clinical and basic science at the university of medical sciences of the population in 2060 is a thesis from 1994 to the end of 2014. To study the population, stratified sampling method was used. The descriptive study was conducted in terms of matching the degree thesis students, theses subjects, specialty of supervisors and Advisers. The data gathering tool was checklist of information (gender, discipline, degree and department education of students, School, year of dependence, title of theses and dissertations, specialty and departments of supervisors and advisers, type of research, grade obtained of students). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using 21 SPSS software. Results: We studied 325 theses; 303 dissertations which 1 researcher; 21 dissertations which 2 researchers and 1 dissertation with 3 researchers. A total of 348 students (174 females and 174 males) researcher had theses. The number of students in the Department of Basic Science 82 (23.5%), 266 (76.5 %) in clinical group; 29(8.33%), 29 (8.33%) master degree; 260 (74.71%) general practitioner; 58 (16.67%) specialty and 1(29) at the PhD level. There was no relationship between research and level of education (p = 0.081). However, it was found that majority of the theses for the general practitioner (59.8%) wryer type 1

  8. Blended Learning and Curriculum Renewal across Three Medical Schools: The Rheumatology Module at the University of Otago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbings, Simon; Bagheri, Nasser; Perrie, Kellie; Blyth, Phil; McDonald, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In response to the challenges created by the implementation of a new medical school curriculum at the University of Otago in 2008, we aimed to develop a blended learning course for teaching rheumatology within the existing musculoskeletal course. We developed a multimedia online learning resource structured to support class based problem-based…

  9. Integrating eLearning to Support Medical Education at the New University of Botswana School of Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebaetse, Masego B.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Haverkamp, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Since the enrolment of its first cohort of students in 2009, the University of Botswana School of Medicine (UB SoM) has employed elearning as a key element to support and strengthen its model of decentralised medical education. Significant investments have been made in setting up the physical infrastructure, and in acquiring relevant expertise to…

  10. A Multi-Year Study of Teaching an Online Computer Literacy Course in a Medical University: A Lesson Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Hsu-Tien; Hsu, Kuang-Yang; Sheu, Shiow-Yunn

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we aim to understand the effectiveness of adopting educational technologies in a computer literacy course to students in a medical university. The course was organized with three core components: Open Education Resources (OER) reading, a book club, and online game competition. These components were delivered by a learning…

  11. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 3, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the month of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Perceived Risk Advisory Committee Meeting, surveys of public opinion about hazardous and radioactive materials, genetics,antibodies, and regulatory agencies.

  12. DOE grant for assessment of district cooling system for University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, R.W. and Associates, Boston, MA ); Broer, W.T.F. and Associates, Boston, MA )

    1990-01-01

    The object of this study which covers the assessment of the District Cooling Plant for the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) Campus, was to study potential ways to use the newest technology in District Cooling and Methodology to optimize the efficiency of this plant. 11 figs.

  13. Still a Bad Idea. A Critique of Harvard University's Medical Science Partners Proposal. A Harvard Watch Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Robert; Bourke, Jaron

    In 1988, Harvard University unveiled plans for Medical Science Partners (MSP), a venture capital fund intended to invest in and commercialize faculty biomedical projects. Critical of what is perceived as a "15 year long trend" wherein Harvard has "forged deeper and more extensive ties with the biomedical industry," the document…

  14. Continuous Practice-Based Research on the Use of Standardized Patients: Experience from Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Yong; Wu, Yan; Lai, Yanni; Lu, Yingqing; Zou, Hejian; Feng, Xueshan

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) project team of the Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University has continuously conducted further study on the development and maintenance of standardized patients and their application in teaching. The team carried out a series of randomized controlled studies on the…

  15. Medical education research at the University of Washington School of Medicine: lessons from the past and potential for the future.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Fredric M; Schaad, Douglas C; Carline, Jan D; Dohner, Charles W

    2004-10-01

    Faculty in the Department of Medical Education and Biomedical Informatics at the University of Washington School of Medicine received over $1.2 million in direct grant and contract support in 2003. In this case study, the authors provide some of the history and background of the evolution of the department's structure and its role in providing leadership in medical education research at the university, as well as regionally, nationally, and internationally. The authors offer their observations and reflections on what has helped and hindered the department's success, and end with some predictions on medical education research in the future. The University of Washington's five-state regional WWAMI educational program, establishing a single medical school for the states of Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, has been an important environmental influence on the direction of the department's educational and research activities. External support has helped the department to create the Northwest Consortium for Clinical Performance Assessment, the Center for Medical Education Research, the Teaching Scholars Program, and a Biomedical and Health Informatics graduate and fellowship training program, as well as a number of international programs.

  16. Establishing a minority-based community clinical oncology program: the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School-university Hospital Cancer Center experience.

    PubMed

    Wieder, Robert; Teal, Randall; Saunders, Tracie; Weiner, Bryan J

    2013-03-01

    The Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Program (MB-CCOP) at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School-University Hospital Cancer Center was established to serve an unmet need in a medically, educationally, and socioeconomically underserved community of primarily African American and Latino patients in Newark and Essex County, New Jersey. The MB-CCOP was built on an existing infrastructure of multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists who collaborated in patient care and an existing clinical research program, which included multilingual staff and a breast cancer navigator. This article highlights some of the unique opportunities and challenges involved in the startup of an MB-CCOP specifically relevant to an academic setting. We present a guide to the necessary infrastructure and institutional support that must be in place before considering such a program and some of the steps an institution can take to overcome barriers preventing successful enrollment of patients onto clinical trials.

  17. Computing and information technology skills of final year medical and dental students at the College of Medicine University of Lagos.

    PubMed

    Odusanya, O O; Bamgbala, O A

    2002-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine awareness, level of use of computers and the use of the Internet for medical research amongst final year medical and dental students at the University of Lagos. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A response rate of 88% was achieved (136/155). Eighty per cent had used the computer before. Use of software applications was poor with computer games being the most frequently used (19%) followed by word processing softwares (18%). The Internet and electronic mail had been used by 58% but only 23% had used the Internet for medical research. Twenty-one percent classified themselves as proficient on the computer, 59% had little skills and 20% had no skills. Younger students (age less than 26 years) were found to have significantly better skills than older colleagues (p = 004). Majority of final year students at College of Medicine, University of Lagos have little computing skills.

  18. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  19. Determination of rate of customer focus in educational programs at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences1 based on students’ viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Assadollah; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hosein; Abbarik, Hadi Hayati

    2012-01-01

    Background: Today, the challenges of quality improvement and customer focus as well as systems development are important and inevitable matters in higher education institutes. There are some highly competitive challenges among educational institutes, including accountability to social needs, increasing costs of education, diversity in educational methods and centers and their consequent increasing competition, and the need for adaptation of new information and knowledge to focus on students as the main customers. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the rate of costumer focus based on Isfahan University of Medical Sciences students’ viewpoints and to suggest solutions to improve this rate. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011. The statistical population included all the students of seven faculties of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. According to statistical formulae, the sample size consisted of 384 subjects. Data collection tools included researcher-made questionnaire whose reliability was found to be 87% by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Finally, using the SPSS statistical software and statistical methods of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Likert scale based data were analyzed. Results: The mean of overall score for customer focus (student-centered) of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was 46.54. Finally, there was a relation between the mean of overall score for customer focus and gender, educational levels, and students’ faculties. Researcher suggest more investigation between Medical University and others. Conclusion: It is a difference between medical sciences universities and others regarding the customer focus area, since students’ gender must be considered as an effective factor in giving healthcare services quality. In order to improve the customer focus, it is essential to take facilities, field of study, faculties, and syllabus into consideration. PMID

  20. Qualitative Evaluation of General Practitioner Training Program as Viewed by Graduates from Shiraz, Fasa and Jahrom Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    SHAHIDI, FATEMEH; SAQEB, MOHAMMAD MEHDI; AMINI, MITRA; AVAND, ABOLGHASEM; DOWLATKHAH, HAMID REZA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The majority of countries have brought the quality of higher education into focus in the past few years. They have tried to improve the quality of their own higher education. The studies show that Iranian Universities are not at an accepted level in terms of quality. They have encountered several problems which have diminished their quality level. This study aimed at assessing the quality of medical education program as viewed by general practitioners graduated from Shiraz, Fasa and Jahrom Medical Universities. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. 215 subjects were selected based on a census of all the general practitioners graduated from Shiraz, Fasa and Jahrom Universities during 2011-2013. The questionnaire used for collecting the data was that of the Association of Graduates from American Medical Colleges. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS 14 through which such descriptive and bivariate statistics as percentage, means, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used. The level of significance was set to 0.05. Results The questionnaire return rate was 97%. As to the graduates' preclinical experiences, five indices were studied which were assessed as "average" in graduates' views. However, with respect to their clinical experiences five indices were equally studied, among which such indices as "Communication skills" and "The quality of medical apprenticeship" were evaluated as "desirable" in view of the graduates from the very three universities. On the contrary, the quality of clinical experiences and technological skills was evaluated as "almost weak"; furthermore, the integration of basic science with required clinical experience was also considered "weak". Conclusion It seems essential to set up an annual assessment of general practitioner education program and a review of the medical education program in Iran based on the global medical advancement and international standards. PMID:26269791

  1. Nursing Students' Perception of Instructors' Caring Behaviors in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Shohani, Masoumeh; Palmeh, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Caring behaviors of clinical teachers is one of the most important and influential factors in the process of clinical instruction, so far has not been paid enough attention. In other words, there has been so little research done in this area, so that the researchers couldn't present the clear image of caring dimensions. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine nursing students' perception of instructors' caring behavior. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 240 nursing students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The participants were selected through stratified random sampling method. The data were collected using Wade's inventory for nursing students' perception of instructor caring (NSPIC). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS13 software. Results: The level of nursing instructors' caring behavior during teaching students was medium to high with the mean and standard deviation of 4.65 (0.93), as the highest level belonged to the respectful sharing, and then respectively, instill confidence through caring, appreciation of life meanings, supportive learning climate, and control versus flexibility.Conclusion: The results obtained in this study demonstrate that there is a gap in some dimension in order to achieve optimum about instructors' caring behaviors. Examining and identifying the influential factors in this regard, and applying effective strategies by relevant authorities will be effective in qualitative promotion of clinical teaching. PMID:25821759

  2. Physical activity, nutritional status, and dietary habits of students of a medical university.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Tomczak, Andrzej; Krulikowska, Natalia; Przysławski, Juliusz; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta

    Nutritional habits and physical activity influence the health status of young adults. In this study, we engaged a group of 151 students from a medical university (90 female and 61 male subjects). Anthropometric parameters, dietary habits (a 7-day dietary recall), and level of physical activity were measured. It was found that the daily food rations of female (F) and male (M) students were improperly balanced and characterized by high amount of total and animal protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, cholesterol, and insufficient intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and vitamin C. Female subjects consumed low amounts of total fat and calcium. The intake of protein (total and animal), fat, phosphorus, and cholesterol correlated with higher body mass. The physical activity of the students was found to be higher than the average physical activity of the European Union populations, and a general tendency of lowering level of physical activity with age was observed. Students with the highest level of physical activity (MET > 1500) consumed lower amounts of simple carbohydrates (galactose and saccharose) when compared to students with lower physical activity (MET < 600, p < 0.05). Therefore, this study concluded that the dietary habits should be modified to prevent the development of diet-dependent diseases. Various forms of physical activity should be proposed to students and they should be encouraged to participate in high level of physical activity so as to promote good health status.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Project at the Medical University of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Eric R.

    2008-04-25

    Department of Energy funds were used to support the development of a Center for Marine Structural Biology at the Marine Resources Center at Ft. Johnson in Charleston, South Carolina. The Ft. Johnson site is home to five institutions in a unique state/federal/academic partnership whose member institutions include the National Ocean Service (NOS), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), the SC Department of Natural Resources, and the College of Charleston. The Center for Marine Structural Biology sits adjacent to the newly completed Hollings Marine Laboratory and houses a 700 and 800 MHz nuclear magnetic resource instruments. The completed center is operational and meets it goal to provide state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance capabilities to resolve the molecular structures of compounds that have direct relevance to human health, including marine-derived biotoxins that are tested against cancer cell lines through collaborative studies with researchers at the Hollings Cancer Center at MUSC. Funds from the DOE assisted, in part, with the purchase of NMR probes and ancillary equipment for the 800 MHz NMR instrument. In addition, developmental funds was used to support the visit of an Scientific Advisory Board and for the NMR Planning Team to visit currently operational high field NMR facilities to guide their choice of instrumentation and design of the building.

  4. Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. Results: The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Conclusion: Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals. PMID:26478878

  5. Factitious disease: clinical lessons from case studies at Baylor University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Savino, Adria C; Fordtran, John S

    2006-07-01

    Factitious disease is defined as the intentional production (or feigning) of disease in oneself to relieve emotional distress by assuming the role of a sick person. Although the self-induction of disease is a conscious act, the underlying motivation is usually unconscious. It has been estimated that 3% to 5% of physician-patient encounters involve factitious disease. This article presents 6 case studies from Baylor University Medical Center that highlight various clinical aspects of factitious disease. Patients with factitious diseases are extremely difficult to recognize because they do not appear different from patients with authentic causes of similar symptoms, because their psychiatric abnormalities are not appreciated, and because doctors and nurses have alowindex of suspicion. Since patients with factitious disease present a false medicalhistory, their physicians prescribe unnecessary procedures and therapies that may result in iatrogenic disease. In many cases, damage to these patients from doctors' actions exceeds the harm resulting from the patients' self-induced illness. The clues that should suggest factitious disease, the diagnostic roles of the clinician and a consulting psychiatrist, and the ethical conflicts that confront doctors taking care of such patients are discussed. To help keep factitious disease in clinical perspective, one of the case studies involves the antithesis of factitious disease, where a patient was mistakenly diagnosed as having psychogenic pain when in fact the symptoms were caused by an overlooked physical disease. Better knowledge of the clinical features of factitious disease might have prevented the disastrous outcome.

  6. Sports hernia: the experience of Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, John T

    2011-04-01

    Groin injuries in high-performance athletes are common, occurring in 5% to 28% of athletes. Athletic pubalgia syndrome, or so-called sports hernia, is one such injury that can be debilitating and sport ending in some athletes. It is a clinical diagnosis of chronic, painful musculotendinous injury to the medial inguinal floor occurring with athletic activity. Over the past 12 years, we have operated on >100 patients with this injury at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. These patients have included professional athletes, collegiate athletes, competitive recreational athletes, and the occasional "weekend warrior." The repair used is an open technique using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. Patient selection is important, as is collaboration with other experienced and engaged sports health care professionals, including team trainers, physical therapists, team physicians, and sports medicine and orthopedic surgeons. Of the athletes who underwent surgery, 98% have returned to competition. After a minimum of 6 weeks for recovery and rehabilitation, they have usually returned to competition within 3 months.

  7. Sports hernia: the experience of Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Groin injuries in high-performance athletes are common, occurring in 5% to 28% of athletes. Athletic pubalgia syndrome, or so-called sports hernia, is one such injury that can be debilitating and sport ending in some athletes. It is a clinical diagnosis of chronic, painful musculotendinous injury to the medial inguinal floor occurring with athletic activity. Over the past 12 years, we have operated on >100 patients with this injury at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. These patients have included professional athletes, collegiate athletes, competitive recreational athletes, and the occasional “weekend warrior.” The repair used is an open technique using a lightweight polypropylene mesh. Patient selection is important, as is collaboration with other experienced and engaged sports health care professionals, including team trainers, physical therapists, team physicians, and sports medicine and orthopedic surgeons. Of the athletes who underwent surgery, 98% have returned to competition. After a minimum of 6 weeks for recovery and rehabilitation, they have usually returned to competition within 3 months. PMID:21566750

  8. Fauna aquatic insects in sewage maturation ponds of Kashan University of Medical Science 2005.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhollah; Miranzadeh, Mohhamad Bagher; Yosefzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Zamani, Soheyla

    2007-03-15

    Organic materials in maturation ponds, the personal study was carried out to determine the aquatic insects living in the maturation pond of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2005. This was a descriptive study, 9 series of sampling including 1032 of larva, nymph and adults were collected and sent to a laboratory. Then they were diagnosed using stereo microscope and morphologic identification key. At of 1032 collected samples from 4 maturation ponds, the orders if Diptera (52%), Hempitera (24%), Ciclopodidade (12%), Hydroacarina (9.5%), Coleptera (0.77%), Aranida (0.67%), Hymenoptera (0.58%), Odonata (0.48%), were determined. The families of Chironomidae and Culicidae from Diptera order, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Cupepodae and Copepodidae families from Hemiptera order, Hydrophilidae family from Coleptera order, Aranidae family from Aranida order, Vospidae family from Hymenoptera order, Anizoptera suborder from Odonata order were determined. Maturation ponds are the artificial places where are appropriate for the growth and development of aquatic insects and also for their predators with taking in to account that some of these insects are the carriers of pathogens, make inconvenience for human and also has significant role in the cycle of changing materials, it is recommended that further specialized studies carry out in this regard.

  9. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care.

  10. Study on Research Anxiety Among Faculty Members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zarmehr, Fateme; Bahrami, Susan; Ghazavi-Khorasgani, Zahra; Kazempour, Zahra; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common anxieties in higher education is research anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the research anxiety level among the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: this was survey- analytical study. The stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 212 people was selected. For data collection was used a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical (T Test, ANOVA and LSD) statistics. Findings: The average anxiety research in IUMS was about 3.27 ±0.536. Among factors, highest scores in descending order are related to lack of timely payment of fees (3.97±0.961), the long approval process of proposals and research project reporting (3.86.±0.99) and lack of research efficiency on the part of faculty (3.70±1.00). The lowest scores were related to having insufficient funds to conduct research (2.67±1.08), another’s understanding of inability for researching (2.84±1.192), and unfriendly behavior from journals and research center staffs (2.89±0.802). Conclusion: The mean level of research anxiety among faculty members of IUMS was found higher than average. So it’s essential that authorities pay greater attention to the factors that cause research anxiety. PMID:25685076

  11. Perception of Medical University Members From Nutritional Health in the Quran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Pournia, Yadollah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Desirable health is impossible without good nutrition, and Allah has addressed us on eating foods in 118 verses. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the medical university faculty members’ perceptions of nutritional health in the Quran, revealing the important role of faculty members. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with a phenomenological approach. Homogeneous sampling was performed in a final sample size of 16 subjects. The Colaizzi's phenomenological method was applied for data analysis. Results: Three main categories were extracted from the data analysis, including the importance of nutrition in the Quran (referring to certain fruits, vegetables and foods, illustrating and venerating the heavenly ones, nutritional recommendations, revealing the healing power of honey and the effects of fruits and vegetables on physical and social health); reasons of different foods being lawful (halal) and unlawful (haram) (religious slaughter, wine, meats, consequences of consuming haram materials, general expression of halal and haram terms); and fasting (fasting and physical health, fasting and mental health). Conclusions: What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation. PMID:24910781

  12. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center: New Facility Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Yusa, Ken; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Torikai, Kota; Yoshida, Yukari; Kitada, Yoko; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated tumors compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. C-ion RT for the first patient at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC) was initiated in March of 2010. The major specifications of the facility were determined based on the experience of clinical treatments at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), with the size and cost being reduced to one-third of those at NIRS. The currently indicated sites of cancer treatment at GHMC are lung, prostate, head and neck, liver, rectum, bone and soft tissue. Between March 2010 and July 2011, a total of 177 patients were treated at GHMC although a total of 100 patients was the design specification during the period in considering the optimal machine performance. In the present article, we introduce the facility set-up of GHMC, including the facility design, treatment planning systems, and clinical preparations. PMID:24213124

  13. [For a history of medical teaching in the 'Marche". Libraries and universities: Lancisi and the University Library of Urbino].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Stefania; Moranti, Maria; Patti, Maria

    2004-01-01

    During the Modern Age, in the Marche, in the Pontifical State, it was possible to study medicine and to obtain a degree in medicine in Macerata, Fermo, Urbino, Camerino and Fano. In these cities, from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XIX century, public libraries were founded also to support academic teaching. Private collections of medical books, generally formed in Rome, arrived in the Marche to increase the newborn public libraries. In 1720 Pope Clemens XI founded a public library in the monastery of Saint Francis in Urbino. In this library the medical books were bequeathed by the famous Roman physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The present article provides the first results of a research, which aims at identifying Lancisi's medical books.

  14. Effect of surrounding fault on distributed fault of blind reverse fault in sedimentary basin - Uemachi Faults, Osaka Basin, Southwest Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.

    2012-12-01

    Several large cities and metropolitan areas, such as Osaka and Kobe are located in the Osaka basin, which has been filled by the Pleistocene Osaka group and the later sediments. The basin is surrounded by E-W trending strike slip faults and N-S trending reverse faults. The N-S trending 42-km-long Uemachi faults traverse in the central part of the Osaka city. The various geological, geophysical surveys, such as seismic reflection, micro tremor, gravity surveys and deep boreholes, revealed the complex basement configuration along the Uemachi faults. The depth of the basement is shallow in the central part of the Osaka plain. The Uemachi faults are locates on the western side of the basement upland. In the central part of the Uemachi faults, the displacement decreases. The fault model of the Uemachi faults consists of the two parts, the north and south parts. The NE-SW trending branch faults, Suminoe and Sakuragawa flexures, are also recognized based on various surveys around the central part. Kusumoto et al. (2001) reported that surrounding faults enable to form the basement configuration without the Uemachi faults model based on a dislocation model. Inoue et al. (2011) performed various parameter studies for dislocation model and gravity changes based on simplified faults model, which were designed based on the distribution of the real faults. The model was consisted of 7 faults including the Uemachi faults. In this study, the Osaka-wan fault was considered for the dislocation model. The results show the basement configuration including NE-SW branch faults. The basement configuration differs from the subsurface structure derived from the investigation of abundance geotechnical borehole data around the central part of the Uemachi faults. The tectonic developing process including the erosion and sea level change are require to understanding the structure from the basement to the surface of the Uemachi Fault Zone. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive

  15. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals-Iran.

    PubMed

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-11-01

    Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians' competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students' curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject.The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05.Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%-52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%-63.55%) had not heard the term "medical professionalism" before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67.The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to have a proper knowledge of

  16. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals—Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians’ competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students’ curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject. The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05. Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%–52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%–63.55%) had not heard the term “medical professionalism” before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67. The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to

  17. Evaluation of Patients’ Rights Observance According to Patients’ Rights Charter in Educational Hospitals Affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences: Medical Staffs’ Views

    PubMed Central

    Sabzevari, Alireza; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Saeidi, Masumeh; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Ahanchian, Hamid; Jarahi, Lida; Zakerian, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To supply quality services and healthcare, it is evident that medical ethics and patients’ rights, while providing medical and healthcare services need to be observed. This study was conducted to evaluate observance of the Patients’ Rights Charter among medical staff of educational hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four educational hospitals in Mashhad on eighty physicians, nurses, nurse aids and medical students. Data were collected using a two-part inventory of patients’ rights, including demographic data and inventory of patients’ rights observance. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS-16 as well as descriptive statistics, independent t-test, chi-square, Spearman correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation. Results Mean age of subjects was 36.3±8.3. Observance of human rights was perfect by 84.4 percent of subjects. The highest amount of observance of patients’ rights was related to the area of respecting patients’ privacy and observing the principle of confidentiality, which was evaluated to be perfect by all subjects (100%). The lowest value of patients’ rights observance was related to presenting appropriate and adequate information for patients, which was perfect among 48.1% of subjects. There was no significant relation between personal details (age, gender, education and career) and observance of patients’ rights (p>0.05). Conclusion Although in this study, the observance of patients’ rights by medical staff is optimal in most areas, the area of providing appropriate and adequate information needs to be promoted. Therefore, it is suggested that more stringent regulatory policies be compiled and implemented to the items of Patients’ Rights Charter along with training courses, to strengthen medical staff’s awareness in this regard. PMID:27957310

  18. Incidence and outcomes of emergency self-harm among adolescents: a descriptive epidemiological study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Tasuku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hayashida, Sumito; Nitta, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku; Ohta, Bon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence and outcomes of self-harm from ambulance records. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 365 adolescents aged 10–19 years with emergency self-harm such as poisoning by drugs or gas, cutting skin, jumping from heights, hanging and drowning and treated by emergency medical service personnel from January 2010 through December 2012. Primary outcome measurements Incidence per 100 000 persons and outcome at the scene or hospital arrival by age and gender. Poisson regression models for incidence evaluation were used; reporting relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs. Results During the study period, a total of 425 self-harm events were documented in 365 adolescents. The incidence of self-harm increased significantly between the ages of 11 and 19 years, from 6.3 to 81.0 among boys and the ages of 12 and 19 years from 6.3 to 228.3 among girls, respectively (both p<0.001). Although there was no incidence difference between girls and boys in the group aged 11–14 years (RR 1.20; 95% CI 0.59 to 2.47), the incidence was significantly higher among girls than boys in the group aged 15–19 years (RR 4.18; 95% CI 3.20 to 5.45). The overall proportion of death by self-harm was 4.9%. The proportion of hospital admission and death by self-harm was higher among boys than among girls (38.6% vs 25.2%, p=0.016 and 14.8% vs 2.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of emergency treatment for self-harm by adolescents increased with age and our findings also demonstrated the gender paradox. It would be necessary to establish active, gender-specific and comprehensive prevention strategies for adolescent self-harm, based on our findings showing the age and gender differences of self-harm among adolescents. PMID:27381208

  19. A cross sectional study of sex differences in self-medication practices among university students in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Hladnik, Ziga; Kersnik, Janko

    2011-06-01

    Self-medication patterns in adults depend on sex. Self-medication among students is very common, but little is known about the influence of sex. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of self-medication college students and to determine the effect of sex on self-medication patterns. A web based incidence study conducted on a sample of Slovenian university students. The main outcome measures were percentages of male and female students reporting the use of self-medication in the past year. A majority of students (92.3%) reported the use of some sort of self-medication in the past year. Most female students (94.1%) and most male students (90.9%) reported the use of self-medication in the past year. The difference was not statistically significant. More female students than male ones (p < 0.05) acquired the drugs for self-medication in pharmacies, used OTC drugs, herbal teas, herbs, vitamins and minerals, remedies for muscle mass gain, antibiotics, benzodiazepines, antacids, acetylsalicylic acid, topical corticosteroids, and nasal decongestives only with the advice of physicians or pharmacists, and thought that increasing drug dosage can be dangerous, that in case of side effects physicians' help must be sought, that no drug can be used during pregnancy, and that self-treatment can mask the symptoms and signs of diseases so the physicians can overlook them easily. Sex appears to be important factor in self-medication patterns even in young adults, such as students. The physicians should actively seek the presence of self-medication in this population. Inappropriate or unsafe use should be properly addressed and managed.

  20. Assessment of educational criteria in academic promotion: Perspectives of faculty members of medical sciences universities in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Taleghani, Fariba; Mohammadzadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the important criteria in the promotion of faculty members is in the scope of their educational roles and duties. The purpose of this study was the assessment of reasonability and attainability of educational criteria for scientific rank promotion from the perspective of the faculty members of Medical Sciences Universities in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in 2011 in 13 Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Through stratified sampling method, 350 faculty members were recruited. A questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to investigate the reasonability and attainability of educational criteria with scores from 1 to 5. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed and collected at each university. The mean and standard deviation of reasonability and attainability scores were calculated and reported by using the SPSS software version 16. Results: Faculty members considered many criteria of educational activities reasonable and available (with a mean score of more than 3). The highest reasonability and attainability have been obtained by the quantity and quality of teaching with the mean scores (3.93 ± 1.15 and 3.82 ± 1.17) and (3.9 ± 1.22 and 4.13 ± 1.06) out of five, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of total scores of reasonability of educational activities were 50.91 ± 14.22 and its attainability was 60.3 ± 13.72 from the total score of 90. Discussion and Conclusion: The faculty members of the Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran considered the educational criteria of promotion moderately reasonable and achievable. It is recommended to revise these criteria and adapt them according to the mission and special conditions of medical universities. Furthermore, providing feedback of evaluations, running educational researches, and implementing faculty development programs are suggested. PMID:25013822

  1. [The School of Medical Sciences of the University of Santiago de Chile].

    PubMed

    Mardones Restat, F

    1997-07-01

    The Medical Sciences School of the University of Santiago de Chile, is an institution inserted in the occidental culture and therefore on its conceptions and traditions. It subscribes the Principles defined in the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights of the United Nations and especially the importance of the human person, as an entity irrepetible, different to others. The human rights are over the institutions, the society and the laws of science. The Faculty considers the family as the cell or natural and fundamental element for the development of the human being in the society. It defines its historic mission as the search of the truth and the achievement of a society in pro of the welfare and health of the people in a frame of excellence, justice, humanism, efficiency and participation. As an expression of the cultural patrimony it should create and transfer knowledge. As guarantor of the ethical principles it should protect the dignity that emanates from the transcendent nature of the person and its moral principles and therefore its right to life, justice, freedom, equality, health, education, and happiness. As a paradigm of progress it must be involved in modernization and should impulse the development. As an entity committed with Society it should participate in the search of solutions for politics and programs looking for a higher level of life and a better model of health. The profile of our graduated students will identify them due to their profound spirit of welfare of the person, his family, his community, ethical sense, solidarity, justness and humanity, their orientation to the community and the environment with a solid professional formation in the strategy of Primary Health Care. They will provide education in health for the whole family in order to improve a better way of life. They will be trained to detect and solve the risks of individual, communities and environment. Research is also a priority of the Faculty in order to contribute to

  2. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; HAGHANI, FARIBA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners' needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students' viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students' views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government's responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on practical skills, and

  3. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    PubMed

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended.

  4. [Pages from the history of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University].

    PubMed

    Leonova, E N; Romanenko, G Kh; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The history of the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University is highlighted based on the results of the studies of the relevant literature data and archival materials. The authors lay special emphasis on the organization of the teaching process and research at different stages of the development of the Department, scientific and forensic medical activities of its leading specialists, materials obtained in the course of research, and the contribution to the development of forensic medicine made by outstanding scientists.

  5. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 6: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. This report addresses the Department of Environmental Health Science, education and training initiative.

  6. Planning and Implementing a Disaster Recovery Capability for a Mainframe-Based Hospital Information System: Duke University Medical Center's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, J. David; Walker, L. Phillip; Aaron, Walter H.; Whitesell, Judy J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    Since October 1986, the Medical Center Information Systems Department at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) has been developing and implementing a plan to provide for the continuation of the functions performed by Duke Hospital's central computing system in the event of a disaster that would disable the central hardware configuration for an extended amount of time. The key characteristic of the plan is that it provides for the full function and performance of the system to be returned to the end users within twenty four hours of the primary system's failure.

  7. Integrating with users is one thing, but living with them? A case study on loss of space from the Medical Center Library, University of California, San Diego.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Medical Center is the primary hospital for the UCSD School of Medicine. The UCSD Medical Center Library (MCL), a branch of the campus's biomedical library, is located on the medical center campus. In 2007, the medical center administration made a request to MCL for space in its facility to relocate pharmacy administration from the hospital tower. The university librarian brought together a team of library managers to deliberate and develop a proposal, which ultimately accommodated the medical center's request and enhanced some of MCL's public services.

  8. Integrating with users is one thing, but living with them? a case study on loss of space from the Medical Center Library, University of California, San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Medical Center is the primary hospital for the UCSD School of Medicine. The UCSD Medical Center Library (MCL), a branch of the campus's biomedical library, is located on the medical center campus. In 2007, the medical center administration made a request to MCL for space in its facility to relocate pharmacy administration from the hospital tower. The university librarian brought together a team of library managers to deliberate and develop a proposal, which ultimately accommodated the medical center's request and enhanced some of MCL's public services. PMID:20098651

  9. Diagnosing Malaria Cases Referred to the Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran

    PubMed Central

    NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi; EDRISSIAN, Gholamhossein; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; FARIVAR, Leila; KAZEMI-RAD, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of malaria cases is declining worldwide; however, it remains as a serious health problem. Diagnosing unusual cases is the most important issue to manage the problem. This study designed to describe the number of falciparum and vivax malaria infected patients referred to Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science from 2000 to 2012. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on the collected questionnaires from each patient referred to the laboratory. Diagnosing results and demographic information for positive cases were analyzed using SPSS software. Problematic cases were evaluated for any difficulties in diagnosis or in clinical signs. Scanning and molecular methods were performed whenever there was an atypical case referred to the laboratory. Some of the samples had various difficulties for diagnosing such as presence of fussed gametocytes and schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum in peripheral blood and CCHF like hemoragic disorders. Results: Plasmodium vivax caused a large proportion of the cases (76.1%) in contrast with P. falciparum that included smaller proportion (22.8%) and the rest (1.1) belonged to mixed infection. Most of the positive cases (69.6%) were belonged to Afghani people. Men (94.6%) showed more infection than women (5.4%), moreover the most infection (44.5%) was seen at a range of 21–30 yr. Conclusion: In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to perform more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard conditions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the disease. PMID:26811720

  10. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h-1 to 0.520 μGy h-1, and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h-1, which is close to 0.04 μGy h-1, which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  11. Experience with multimodality telepathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Wiley, Clayton A; Demetris, Anthony; Lesniak, Andrew; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Cable, William; Contis, Lydia; Parwani, Anil V

    2012-01-01

    Several modes of telepathology exist including static (store-and-forward), dynamic (live video streaming or robotic microscopy), and hybrid technology involving whole slide imaging (WSI). Telepathology has been employed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) for over a decade at local, national, and international sites. All modes of telepathology have been successfully utilized to exploit our institutions subspecialty expertise and to compete for pathology services. This article discusses the experience garnered at UPMC with each of these teleconsultation methods. Static and WSI telepathology systems have been utilized for many years in transplant pathology using a private network and client-server architecture. Only minor clinically significant differences of opinion were documented. In hematopathology, the CellaVision(®) system is used to transmit, via email, static images of blood cells in peripheral blood smears for remote interpretation. While live video streaming has remained the mode of choice for providing immediate adequacy assessment of cytology specimens by telecytology, other methods such as robotic microscopy have been validated and shown to be effective. Robotic telepathology has been extensively used to remotely interpret intra-operative neuropathology consultations (frozen sections). Adoption of newer technology and increased pathologist experience has improved accuracy and deferral rates in teleneuropathology. A digital pathology consultation portal (https://pathconsult.upmc.com/) was recently created at our institution to facilitate digital pathology second opinion consults, especially for WSI. The success of this web-based tool is the ability to handle vendor agnostic, large image files of digitized slides, and ongoing user-friendly customization for clients and teleconsultants. It is evident that the practice of telepathology at our institution has evolved in concert with advances in technology and user experience. Early and

  12. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-08

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected.

  13. Journal Club presentation in research orientation at Bahria University Medical & Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty member’s feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans. PMID:25878630

  14. Research and Development of the Pulsed Plasma Rocket Engine System onboard Osaka Institute of Technology Micro Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Naka, Masamichi; Takagi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke

    The Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology in 2007. In PROITERES, a micro satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) will be launched in 2010. The main mission is the first powered flight of micro satellite by electric thruster all over the world. This study aims at improvement in performance by changing configuration of PPTs. The total impulse of about 5 Ns was achieved with a teflon cylindrical discharge chamber 9.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in diameter in 53,000-shot operation with 2.43 J/shot. Finally, the engineering model of PPT system was developed, and it is under operation as final test.

  15. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the ``late time ablation'' for electrothermal PPTs.

  16. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-31

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the 'late time ablation' for electrothermal PPTs.

  17. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students.

    PubMed

    Mann, Collette; Canny, Benedict J; Reser, David H; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r (2) = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50, age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students.

  18. Poorer verbal working memory for a second language selectively impacts academic achievement in university medical students

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Benedict J.; Reser, David H.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    assess the relationship between language proficiency and verbal working memory (SNR50 ) using 5 variables of L2 proficiency, with the results showing that the variance in SNR50 was significantly predicted by this model (r2 = 0.335). Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to test the ability of three independent variable measures (SNR50 , age of acquisition of English and English proficiency) to predict academic performance as the dependent variable in a factor analysis model which predicted significant performance differences in an assessment requiring communications skills (p = 0.008), but not on a companion assessment requiring knowledge of procedural skills, or other assessments requiring factual knowledge. Thus, impaired vWM for an L2 appears to affect specific communications-based assessments in university medical students. PMID:23638357

  19. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011-2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues.

  20. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011–2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. PMID:23781866

  1. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Richter, G

    2014-08-01

    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service

  2. [The records of the Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig on the Woyzeck case, discovered again after 180 years].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Schmideler, S

    2005-05-01

    Through Georg Büchner's drama the case of Johann Christian Woyzeck gained worldwide fame. For the first time ever this study presents the testimonial drawn up by the Medical Faculty of Leipzig University, which until now had been regarded as having been lost. Now, however, the first-named author rediscovered it in the files of the Leipzig University Archives. The testimonial proved to be a decisive importance, as it sealed Woyzeck's execution in 1824. Before presenting major passages from the testimonial this study give an overview of the chronology of the Woyzeck case and the other medico-psychiatric testimonials drawn up by Leipzig municipal physician Johann Christian August Clarus. It also reveals which professors of Leipzig Medical Faculty were involved in drawing up the final testimonial which confirmed Clarus's findings and rejected the objections raised by Woyzeck's counsel - remarkably without examining the offender himself first-hand, but merely relying on and evaluating the testimonials drawn up by Clarus.

  3. [Quality assurance of assessments using the example of the OSCE examination format: experiences of the Medical School of Heidelberg University].

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Möltner, Andreas; Fischer, Martin R; Jünger, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Quality management of assessment in medical education plays a key role in Germany--owing to, among other factors, the new medical licensing regulations ("Approbationsordnung"). OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) is a widespread tool to assess clinical competencies. However, the quality of OSCE in terms of reliability as a criterion of a good test is highly debated in the current literature. To improve the reliability of the OSCE three accompanying measures have been implemented at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Heidelberg since the summer of 2006: 1. the application of a checklist for pre- and post-reviews of OSCEs, 2. a specific training of OSCE examiners, 3. an advanced psychometric OSCE test report giving feedback to the item developer. The reliability of the Internal Medicine OSCE at the University of Heidelberg has increased since. Currently Cronbach's alpha of the final OSCE in the summer of 2007 was 0.829.

  4. Advancing the Integration of Population Medicine into Medical Curricula at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University: A New Master's Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michael J; Feller, Edward; George, Paul; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Additional knowledge, attitudes and skills are required for the next generation of medical students as they expand the traditional focus on individual patients to include population-based health and scholarly investigation. The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) is initiating a master's degree program as a key component of the new Primary Care-Population Medicine program at AMS leading to both a Doctorate in Medicine (MD) and Master of Science in Population Medicine (ScM) degrees in four years. The ScM is composed of a series of nine courses, integrated into the four-year MD curriculum, as well as a thesis. Additional attention will be given to leadership and quality improvement training. The goal is to produce graduates competent in the care of individual patients, panels, communities, and populations.

  5. [The concept of the organ, as a hierarchal unit of human body, and its place in teaching histology at the medical university and medical college].

    PubMed

    Miadelets, O D; Miadelets, N Ia; Miadelets, V O

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the methodological aspects of teaching histology at the medical university and medical college. The authors raise the issue of the necessity of teaching of the topic "Introduction to Special Histology" and the inclusion of the appropriate chapter into the textbooks. This is important for the students, as the formation of the general concepts of organ structure and function, components, and classification will aid in the further study of specific organs during the course of Special Histology. The authors describe their own experience in teaching of the section, dedicated to the general regularities of organ structure, present some definitions and classifications that are used by them for a number of years.

  6. The relationship between cultural intelligence and social compatibility in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Soltani, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cultural intelligence and social compatibility are two acquired processes that their education and reinforcement between dormitory's students who have inter cultural interactions with each other can conclude with results that tension diminution, inter cultural contrast and conflict, social divisions and consequently healthy and peaceful relationships and governance and finally mental peace, and health are of its most important. Hence, the research has been occurring in order to the determination of cultural intelligence relationship with the social compatibility of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students in 2012. Materials and Methods: The research method is descriptive-correlation, and its population is composed of all Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students in 2012 that were totally 2500 persons. The two steps sampling method have been used, group sampling and random sampling has been occurring at first and second steps and totally 447 persons were selected. Research data were collected via Earley and Ang cultural intelligence questionnaire with 0.76 Cronbach's alpha Coefficient and California social compatibility standard questionnaire with higher than 0.70 Cronbach's alpha factor. Questionnaire data have been analyzed with the SPSS software and results have been presented in the shape of descriptions and statistics. Findings: Results showed that there is a direct significant relationship (P < 0.001) between cultural intelligence and the social adjustment in students living in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories and also there is a direct significant relationship in the level of (P < 0.05) between cognitive and motivational dimensions of cultural intelligence; however, there is no significant relationship between cognitive and behavioral dimensions of cultural intelligence and social adjustment (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Cultural intelligence and cognitive and motivational

  7. Medical Students' Perception of OSCE at the Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, KSA.

    PubMed

    Elfaki, Omer Abdelgadir; Al-Humayed, Suliman

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the students' acceptance of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a method of assessment of clinical competence in internal medicine. This cross sectional study was conducted from June to August 2013, at King Khalid University, Abha, KSA, through a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by fourth year medical students, immediately after the OSCE. Student feedback confirmed their acceptance of OSCE. This was encouraging to the department to consider implementing OSCE for graduating students.

  8. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  9. A case study in the globalization of medical education: assisting overseas-born students at the University of Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Lesleyanne; Minas, I Harry; Singh, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been a remarkable increase in ethnic diversity among Australian medical students. This phenomenon has been driven by two forces: the disproportionate school-level academic success achieved by first-generation migrant and refugee-origin youth, and the rapid globalization of Australia's tertiary education system, in a context where reduced government funding has accelerated the development of 'academic capitalism' (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997 ). This paper briefly examines each trend, prior to exploring select pedagogical implications of these changes for the University of Melbourne, the destination of choice by 2001 for 30% of all international students electing to study medicine in Australia. Two key questions are addressed: (1) What are the potential problems in delivering Western-style medical education to culturally and linguistically disparate groups?; (2) What model of international student support has been developed by the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences at the University of Melbourne? The paper suggests the model may have potential relevance for other universities, in the context of the accelerating globalization of medical education.

  10. [Publication of research projects for certification as medical specialists at a Peruvian university, 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Ticse, Ray; Ygreda, Patricia; Samalvides, Frine

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the frequency of publication in a scientific journal of the research projects done for medical specialty certification, a search was conducted in Google Scholar, Pubmed, biomedical databases and Peruvian medical society journals. These publications were research projects carried out by medical residents graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, to obtain the certification of medical specialist. Of 351 medical residents graduated between the years 2007-2010, 199 (65.5%) completed their research project and 47 (23.6%) published it in a scientific journal. The "medicine" (non-surgical) specialty area had the highest frequency of publications. All publications were in Spanish journals, the majority in indexed journals in regional databases. We conclude that 23.6% of the research projects for certification as medical specialists are published, most often in low visibility journals.

  11. Analysis of colors used on outdoor advertising in urban landscape: a case study in Osaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Mika; Fujibayashi, Kazumi; Shimonaka, Tomomi; Sato, Masako; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2002-06-01

    This is a case study for practical survey and assessment of urban landscapes containing outdoor advertisements in Osaka City, Japan. We practically surveyed and analyzed the colors used on the outdoor advertisements in the three urban areas: the business area long the main street, the amusement area along the shopping street, and the station plaza in front of the railroad terminal. Further by the laboratory experiments, we examined the interrelation between the atmosphere of the area and the impression arising from the outdoor advertisements using the pictures of street scenes on video monitor. In this experiment, eye movements of each subject observing the scene were analyzed by eye point recorder. (1) In general, vivid red, yellow, green and blue, and white and black were frequently used on the outdoor advertisements in every area. (2) The character of each area was respectively found out by analysis of the following factors: the type of advertisement, the size of each advertisement, and the arrangement of the advertisements. Vivid colors on the outdoor advertisements could be clearly perceived even from a distance. Then, our eyes would be attracted by vivid colors of them. (4) The atmosphere of the area would be affected by favorable or unfavorable impression from the outdoor advertisements. For instance, on the main street, the advertisements would impress us favorably if they are in harmony with each other and create an orderly and elegant streetscape. On the shopping street, various advertisements would impress us favorably if they create a lively and cheerful streetscape.

  12. Epidemics of GI.2 sapovirus in gastroenteritis outbreaks during 2012-2013 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Abe, Niichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Oka, Tomoichiro; Kaida, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans in both sporadic cases and outbreaks. During the period from January 2005 to August 2014, SaV was detected in 30 (5.9%) of 510 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Osaka City, Japan using real-time RT-PCR. Seasonal distribution of SaV-associated outbreaks revealed an increase during the 2011-2012 season and the highest frequency of outbreaks during the 2012-2013 season. Genotyping analysis based on the capsid region demonstrated that the most common genotype was GI.2 (36.7%), in which the strains were closely related. The comparison of complete capsid gene sequences with 18 GI.2 strains (7 strains in this study and 11 from GenBank) between 1990 and 2013 showed that GI.2 strains were classified into at least three genetic clusters (1990-2000, 2004-2007, and 2008-2013) with chronologically unique amino acid residues and accumulation of mutations in the predicted P domain, suggesting the one of the causes of emergence and spread of GI.2 strains. This study will also be helpful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of the SaV genome.

  13. Medical students are from Mars--business and psychology students are from Venus--- University teachers are from Pluto?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Keith; Sander, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This study explores further the reasons given by the first year medical students in comparison with first year business and first year psychology students for their selection of lectures, student role play, and student presentations as their least preferred teaching method. The reasons were originally given in a questionnaire exploring student expectations of university teaching completed by 195 medical, 128 business and 72 psychology students in their first week at university (Sander et al, 2000). The analysis reported here suggests that whilst students irrespective of course gave similar reasons for not liking lectures, there were subtle differences between medical students and business and psychology students in the reasons they gave for not liking student role play and student presentations. These differences suggest that many first year medical students can be suspicious of the value of student centred learning methods. Teachers hoping to use these methods should acknowledge student suspicion and work to help students see the value of these techniques to encourage their full participation.

  14. Assessment of informatization for the dispensing of medications at a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Serafim, Sônia Aparecida Dias; Forster, Aldaisa Cassanho; Simões, Maria Jacira Silva; Penaforte, Thais Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Informatics and automation are important tools for the reduction of work, errors and costs in a hospital pharmacy. OBJECTIVES To describe the structuring and function of an informatized system for the dispensing of medications and to assess its effect on nursing and pharmacy services during the period from 1997 to 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this descriptive and retrospective study, we performed an analysis of documents addressing the structuring and implementation of the informatized medication dispensing system. In addition, we analyzed the perceptions of nurses, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants who participated in the structuring phase of the system when interviewed about the effect of informatization on administrative aspects (e.g., requisition of medications, presentation of the dispensed medication and system operationalization). RESULTS The major advantages provided by the new system were 1) the elimination of manual transcripts for prescribed medications, 2) increased speed, 3) better identification of the doses prescribed by physicians, 4) medication labels containing all necessary identification and 5) practicality and safety of optical bar code-based verification of the requested and dispensed medications. CONCLUSIONS The great majority of the interviewees considered the informatized medication supply system to be of good quality. Analysis of the data provided information that could contribute to the expansion and refinement of the system, provide support for studies regarding the utilization of medications and offer new perspectives for work and productivity. PMID:20454500

  15. [Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Mental Health Management System to Support Faculty at a University That Contains a Medical School and University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate

  16. A global health elective for US medical students: the 35 year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-04-01

    The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of

  17. Modelling of wave propagation and attenuation in the Osaka sedimentary basin, western Japan, during the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.

  18. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Noroviruses among Students in a Chinese Military Medical University

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-chun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Xu-fu; Li, Zhi-feng; Bai, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-rong; Yu, Shou-yi; Farkas, Tibor; Jiang, Xi

    2004-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are important causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but the role of NVs as a cause of diseases in the Chinese people, particularly in Chinese military personnel, remains unclear. This study investigated antibody prevalence and factors that associate with the prevalence of antibody to NVs among students attending a military medical university. Serum specimens were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G antibody to recombinant capsid antigens of three NVs (rNorwalk, rMxV, and rVA387). Of 588 serum samples tested, the antibody prevalence was 88.9, 54.1, or 90.0% for the three antigens, respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of antibody to rMxV between blood types (P < 0.05); the prevalence for type O was the highest (62.5%), and the prevalence for type B was the lowest (49.1%). The average optical density values for antibody to rNorwalk and rMxV were lowest among students with type B. The number of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens was the highest for blood type B (6.9%) compared to other blood types (0.8 to 3.4% [P < 0.006]). The antibody prevalence also varied with the hometown residencies of the students before joining the military, with the highest rates for students from rural areas, lower rates for students from small towns or villages, and the lowest rates for students from large cities. The numbers of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens were highest for students from the large cities, lower for students from small towns or villages, and lowest for students from rural areas. The distribution of ABO blood types did not differ among the three groups. These data suggest that NVs are prevalent in China and that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in NV infection. PMID:15472318

  19. [Projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Niimi, Shingo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iseki, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi Kasanuki Noboru; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Kitamori, Takehiko; Tei, Yuichi; Nakaoka, Ryusuke; Haishima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Division of Medical Devices has been conducting the projects to accelerate the practical use of innovative medical devices to collaborate with TWIns, Center for Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Waseda University and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. The TWIns has been studying to aim at establishment of preclinical evaluation methods by "Engineering Based Medicine", and established Regulatory Science Institute for Medical Devices. School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo has been studying to aim at establishment of assessment methodology for innovative minimally invasive therapeutic devices, materials, and nanobio diagnostic devices. This report reviews the exchanges of personnel, the implement systems and the research progress of these projects.

  20. Universal Design: Supporting Students with Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Lisa M.; Jain, Neera R.; Herzer, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) is a commonly occurring condition in the general population. For medical students, it has the potential to create unique challenges in the classroom and clinical environments. Few studies have provided medical educators with comprehensive recommendations to assist students with CVD. This article presents a focused…

  1. Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no

  2. [Modern referral-information service in the Central Medical Library of the University of Zagreb Medical School].

    PubMed

    Hadjina, G; Granić, D; Bekavac, A

    1990-01-01

    New technologies in information and retrieval services of the Central Medical Library are presented, as well as comparison between traditional search of biomedical literature and search of biomedical bases available on CD-ROM and on-line. MeSH thesaurus represents the basis for all modes of searches, either through published indexes (Index Medicus, Biomedicina Iugoslavica), searches through on-line, or via CD-ROM technology. Experience in indexing according to MeSH structure helps us to search and retrieve biomedical literature on new media too. Great interest in new media for search and retrieval of biomedical literature among our users (100%) justifies their introduction into the Library. In the period of four months, 75% of our users chose CD-ROM technology in their search, 25% chose on-line search, and both technologies were combined by 33% of the users. Having these new media in our library we have reached the point from which we join the world biomedical information network and successfully meet the growing need for information in the field of biomedicine.

  3. Accreditation status of hospital pharmacies and their challenges of medication management: A case of south Iranian largest university.

    PubMed

    Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran.

  4. Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies’ usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Results: Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs

  5. Investigating Knowledge Management Status among Faculty Members of Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka Model in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Izadi, Azar; Jahani, Yunes; Okhovati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Education and research are two major functions of universities, which require proper and systematic exploitation of available knowledge and information. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge management status in an education system by considering the function of faculty members in creation and dissemination of knowledge. This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge management status among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models in 2015. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. It was conducted on 165 faculty members at the Kerman University of Medical Sciences, who were selected from seven faculties as weighted using a random stratified sampling method. The Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge management questionnaire consists of 26 questions in four dimensions of socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. Scoring of questions was conducted using the five-point Likert scale. To analyze data, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were employed. Results The four dimensions in the Nonaka and Takeuchi model are based on optimal indicators (3.5), dimensions of combination, and externalization with an average of 3.3 were found in higher ranks and internalization and socialization had averages of 3.1 and 3. According to the findings of this study, the average knowledge management among faculty members of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences was estimated to be 3.1, with a bit difference compared to the average. According to the results of t-tests, there was no significant relationship between gender and various dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). The findings of Kruskal-Wallis showed that there is no significant relationship between variables of age, academic rank, and type of faculty with regard to dimensions of knowledge management (p>0.05). In addition

  6. Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna.

    PubMed

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Wiener, Hubert; Plass, Herbert; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine in the curriculum and students' learning styles was performed. Data analysis (given as mean±sem) showed that students (n = 642) rated (Likert scale, 1-6) the importance of gender-specific medicine fairly high (4.02±0.06), and rated the importance of knowing about gender-specific medicine as a medical doctor even higher (4.49±0.05). Further implementation of gender-relevant topics into the curriculum appeared less important (3.64±0.06). Students rated their own knowledge on gender-specific medicine neutrally (3.40±0.05). For some items significant differences between males and females as well as the old and new curriculum were found. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Medical Research amongst the Postgraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Purushottam A.; Bangal, Vidyadhar B.; Phalke, Deepak B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices towards health research amongst the postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences University of central India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from August to October 2012. A total of 116 postgraduate students were interviewed. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to health research were assessed using a predesigned, pretested and validated questionnaire. Results were analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions whenever appropriate. Results: In present study, the concept of research hypothesis was known to only 18.9% of the postgraduate students, whereas 17.2 and 21.5% students knew the full form of MEDLARS and MEDLINE respectively. Majority (91.4%) students believed that patient outcome improves with continued medical research and 70.7% are willing to participate in workshop for research methodology. Lack of time due to vast curriculum of postgraduate subjects (59.5%), lack of research curriculum (25%), and inadequate facilities (25.8%) were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusion: Postgraduate students have inadequate knowledge, but have positive attitudes towards health research. Postgraduate training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by postgraduate trainees. PMID:24791231

  8. History of neurosciences at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Idris, Badrisyah; Sayuti, Sani; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2007-02-01

    Universiti Sains Malaysia is the only institution in Malaysia which incorporates all fields of the neurosciences under one roof. The integration of basic and clinical neurosciences has made it possible for this institution to become an excellent academic and research centre. This article describes the history, academic contributions and scientific progress of neurosciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia.

  9. 78 FR 55244 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Medical Facilities Development and University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... alternatives for the MFD and University Expansion, as described in the MFD and University Expansion Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) dated July 2013. The preferred alternatives are also the Environmentally Preferable Alternatives. The preferred alternative for the MFD will fully meet the Congressional mandate...

  10. Screening for hereditary angioedema (HAE) at 13 emergency centers in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Tomoya; Kimbara, Futoshi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Kishi, Masashi; Kiguchi, Takeyuki; Shiono, Shigeru; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Fuke, Akihiro; Akimoto, Hiroshi; Kimura, Takaaki; Kaga, Shinichiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The objective is to study the incidence of HAE among patients who visit the emergency department. This was a 3-year prospective observational screening study involving 13 urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka prefecture, Japan. Patients were included if they met the following criteria: unexplained edema of the body, upper airway obstruction accompanied by edema, anaphylaxis, acute abdomen with intestinal edema (including ileus and acute pancreatitis), or asthma attack. C1-INH activity and C4 level were measured at the time of emergency department admission during the period between July 2011 and June 2014. This study comprised 66 patients with a median age of 54.0 (IQR: 37.5–68.3) years. Three patients were newly diagnosed as having HAE, and 1 patient had already been diagnosed as having HAE. C1-INH activity levels of the patients with HAE were below the detection limit (<25%), whereas those of non-HAE patients (n = 62) were 106% (IQR: 85.5%–127.0%) (normal range, 70%–130%). The median level of C4 was significantly lower in the patients with HAE compared with those without HAE (1.2 [IQR: 1–3] mg/dL vs 22 [IQR: 16.5–29.5] mg/dL, P < 0.01) (normal range, 17–45 mg/dL). Three patients with undiagnosed HAE were diagnosed as having HAE in the emergency department during the 3-year period. If patients have signs and symptoms suspicious of HAE, the levels of C1-INH activity and C4 should be measured. PMID:28178173

  11. Increase of GII.2 norovirus infections during the 2009-2010 season in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kaida, Atsushi; Abe, Niichiro; Sekiguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Goto, Kaoru; Ogura, Hisashi; Seto, Yoshiyuki

    2012-03-01

    During the 2009-2010 season, a significant numerical increase of genotype GII.2 norovirus (NoV)-associated outbreaks was observed in Osaka City, Japan. The most common genotype in that season was GII.2 (44.6%), followed by GII.4 (39.2%). Mostly, GII.2 strains were associated with outbreaks in children and with person-to-person contact. The National Infectious Disease Surveillance Center reported that GII.2 NoV infections were widespread in Japan in that season. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid sequences revealed that this GII.2 epidemic resulted from two genetic strains. The first, GII.2p2 strains, had an identical genotype in the RdRp and capsid genes. GII.2p2 strains in the 2009-2010 season were a different genetic cluster from the strains of spring 2004, the previous epidemic of GII.2 NoV, but showed no unique amino acid change. The second, GII.2 chimera virus (GII.2p16), had GII.16 RdRp and GII.2 capsid genotypes, suggesting prior recombination at the junction of ORF1 and ORF2. GII.2p16 strains had four significant amino acid changes in the P2 subdomain, suggesting antigenic changes. Before the 2009-2010 season, GII.2 chimera viruses had been observed only sporadically. This spreading of GII.2p16 strains in the 2009-2010 season might be the first epidemic of GII.2 chimera virus. This study revealed that the NoV epidemic in the 2009-2010 season differed considerably from the prior season, when GII.4 was predominant. Furthermore, GII.2 strains persisted in human populations by drastic recombination and gradual accumulation of mutations, indicating a prevalent pattern of non-GII.4 genotypes with genetic evolution.

  12. Accreditation in a Sub Saharan Medical School: a case study at Makerere University

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Of more than the 2,323 recognized and operating medical schools in 177 countries (world wide) not all are subjected to external evaluation and accreditation procedures. Quality Assurance in medical education is part of a medical school’s ethical responsibility and social accountability. Pushing this agenda in the midst of resource limitation, numerous competing interests and an already overwhelmed workforce were some of the challenges faced but it is a critical element of our medical profession’s social contract. This analysis paper highlights the process of standard defining for Medical Education in a typically low resourced sub Saharan medial school environment. Methods The World Federation for Medical Education template was used as an operating point to define standards. A wide range of stakeholders participated and meaningfully contributed in several consensus meetings. Effective participatory techniques were used for the information gathering process and analysis. Results Standards with a clear intent to enhance education were set through consensus. A cyclic process of continually measuring, judging and improving all standards was agreed and defined. Examples of the domains tackled are stated. Conclusion Our efforts are good for our patients, our communities and for the future of health care in Uganda and the East African region. PMID:23706079

  13. California's county hospitals and the University of California graduate medical education system. Current issues and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, W J; Pierce, K; Martin, D K

    1998-01-01

    California's county hospitals train 45% of the state's graduate medical residents, including 33% of residents in the University of California system. This paper describes the interrelationships of California's county hospitals and the University of California (UC) graduate medical education (GME) programs, highlighting key challenges facing both systems. The mission of California's county health care systems is to serve all who need health care services regardless of ability to pay. Locating UC GME programs in county hospitals helps serve the public missions of both institutions. Such partnerships enhance the GME experience of UC residents, provide key primary care training opportunities, and ensure continued health care access for indigent and uninsured populations. Only through affiliation with university training programs have county hospitals been able to run the cost-effective, quality programs that constitute an acceptable safety net for the poor. Financial stress, however, has led county hospitals and UC's GME programs to advocate for reform in both GME financing and indigent care funding. County hospitals must participate in constructing strategies for GME reform to assure that GME funding mechanisms provide for equitable compensation of county hospitals' essential role. Joint advocacy will also be essential in achieving significant indigent care policy reform. PMID:9614786

  14. Evaluation of selected faculties at Tehran University of Medical Sciences using CIPP model in students and graduates point of view.

    PubMed

    Neyazi, Narges; Arab, Prof Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Mahmoudi Majdabadi, Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    Evaluation of higher education is an increasing demand for information on academic quality, which contributes to accountability among authorities and affects universities ranking. In educational institutions, the purpose of education is producing knowledgeable students and improving quality of the university system. Among many evaluation models, the CIPP model or Context, Input, Process, Product model is very beneficial and recommendable method to educational evaluation. This is a descriptive study conducted in four selected faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (Public health, Nursing and Midwifery, Rehabilitation and Allied Medical Sciences), undergraduate educational departments in 2014. This research found out quality level of undergraduates courses in viewpoint of students and graduates and determined their weak points. Data were collected through researcher- made questionnaires. Collected data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed undesirable situation of context, process and product area and undesirable situation for input except for "interest and understanding of students towards field and labor market" factor, which had relatively desirable situation. At the end, researchers recommend some steps to improve goals and mission of programs, allocated budget, curriculum and providing a system for communication with graduates.

  15. Radiation Doses in Consecutive CT Examinations from Five University of California Medical Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moghadassi, Michelle; Wilson, Nicole; Nelson, Thomas R.; Boone, John M.; Cagnon, Christopher H.; Gould, Robert; Hall, David J.; Krishnam, Mayil; Lamba, Ramit; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Seibert, Anthony; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To summarize data on computed tomographic (CT) radiation doses collected from consecutive CT examinations performed at 12 facilities that can contribute to the creation of reference levels. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review boards of the collaborating institutions and was compliant with HIPAA. Radiation dose metrics were prospectively and electronically collected from 199 656 consecutive CT examinations in 83 181 adults and 3871 consecutive CT examinations in 2609 children at the five University of California medical centers during 2013. The median volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and effective dose, along with the interquartile range (IQR), were calculated separately for adults and children and stratified according to anatomic region. Distributions for DLP and effective dose are reported for single-phase examinations, multiphase examinations, and all examinations. Results For adults, the median CTDIvol was 50 mGy (IQR, 37–62 mGy) for the head, 12 mGy (IQR, 7–17 mGy) for the chest, and 12 mGy (IQR, 8–17 mGy) for the abdomen. The median DLPs for single-phase, multiphase, and all examinations, respectively, were as follows: head, 880 mGy · cm (IQR, 640–1120 mGy · cm), 1550 mGy · cm (IQR, 1150–2130 mGy · cm), and 960 mGy · cm (IQR, 690–1300 mGy · cm); chest, 420 mGy · cm (IQR, 260–610 mGy · cm), 880 mGy · cm (IQR, 570–1430 mGy · cm), and 550 mGy · cm (IQR 320–830 mGy · cm); and abdomen, 580 mGy · cm (IQR, 360–860 mGy · cm), 1220 mGy · cm (IQR, 850–1790 mGy · cm), and 960 mGy · cm (IQR, 600–1460 mGy · cm). Median effective doses for single-phase, multiphase, and all examinations, respectively, were as follows: head, 2 mSv (IQR, 1–3 mSv), 4 mSv (IQR, 3–8 mSv), and 2 mSv (IQR, 2–3 mSv); chest, 9 mSv (IQR, 5–13 mSv), 18 mSv (IQR, 12–29 mSv), and 11 mSv (IQR, 6–18 mSv); and abdomen, 10 mSv (IQR, 6–16 mSv), 22 mSv (IQR, 15–32 mSv), and 17 m

  16. [Investigation of the hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in cases admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty Hospital].

    PubMed

    Aydın, Nesibe Nur; Ergünay, Koray; Karagül, Aydan; Pınar, Ahmet; Us, Dürdal

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), classified in Hepeviridae family, Hepevirus genus, is a non-enveloped virus with icosahedral capsid containing single-stranded positive sense RNA genome. HEV infections may be asymptomatic especially in children, however it may present as fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, as well as chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. There are four well-known genotypes of HEV that infect humans and many mammalian species. Genotype 1 and 2 are frequently responsible for water-borne infections transmitted by fecal-oral way in developing countries, while genotype 3 and 4 cause zoonotic infections in developed countries. Turkey is considered as an endemic country with a total seroprevalence rate of 6.3% for normal population, showing significant variation (0-73%) according to the regions and study groups. The aims of this study were to investigate the HEV seropositivity in cases admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty Hospital (HUMFH), to evaluate the results according to the demographic features of patients, and to determine the current HEV seroprevalence in our region, contributing seroepidemiological data in Turkey. A total of 1043 serum samples (514 female, 529 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 38.03) obtained from 327 blood donors (32 female, 295 male; age range: 19-59 years, mean age: 31.1) who were admitted to HUMFH Blood Center, and 716 sera (482 female, 234 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 41.7) that were sent to HUMFH Central Laboratory from various outpatient/inpatient clinics, between November 2012 to November 2013, were included in the study. The presence of HEV-IgG antibodies in serum samples was detected by a commercial ELISA method (Euroimmun, Germany), and the presence of HEV-IgM antibodies was also investigated in the sera with IgG-positive results. The overall HEV-IgG seropositivity rate was determined as 4.4% (46/1043), and the seropositivity rates for blood donors and in/outpatients were as 0.92% (3

  17. A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Busetta, Annalisa; Cetorelli, Valeria; Wilson, Ben

    2017-03-16

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  18. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 5: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirement of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine; environmental hazards assessment and education program in pharmacy graduate education in risk assessment; and graduate education risk assessment.

  19. Reciprocal benefit to senior and junior peers: An outcome of a pilot research workshop at medical university.

    PubMed

    Ahsin, Sadia; Abbas, Seyyeda; Zaidi, Noshin; Azad, Nadia; Kaleem, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    A study was planned to explore and evaluate the role of senior peers in the learning process of their juniors during a Research Methodology workshop, and to assess educational advantages for seniors in leading roles. Twenty medical students participated with 15 juniors (1st to 3rd year) and 5 seniors (final/fourth year) divided into 5 groups with one senior student each at Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan. The seniors supervised and engaged the groups to develop research questions, formulate objectives, review literature, outline study designs, develop study tools/questionnaire and finally shape their projects in synopsis. Overall advantages to both juniors and seniors through this peer-assisted learning model were assessed by feedback proformas with open and closed-ended questions. Senior peers' facilitation was effective in the learning process of junior peers. Senior peers also gained academic benefit by exercising their leadership qualities through teaching and maintaining group dynamics.

  20. Profile of patients receiving medical care at a reference, support, and treatment center for psoriasis patients at a university hospital*

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro Júnior, Túlio Germano Machado; Andrade, Bruno D' Paula; Palitot, Esther Bastos; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; Mascarenhas, Sandra Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 1-3% of the population worldwide. This work seeks to draw a profile of patients with psoriasis, analyzing socioeconomic, anthropometric, and clinical aspects. For this, medical records from 81 individuals who received medical care in a university hospital in 2014 were consulted. It was observed that the patients were mostly dark-skinned black adult men, with a low education level and a low income, who were sedentary, former smokers, obese, with an increase in waist circumference, and who did not consume alcohol. Psoriasis vulgaris predominated, beginning mainly on the scalp, hands, and feet. In addition, many presented some type of associated comorbidity and had relatives with psoriasis. PMID:27828656

  1. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in “feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers,” and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent’s highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  2. A third world international health elective for U.S. medical students: the 25-year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center instituted a 6-8 weeks third world international health elective for fourth year medical students in 1980. Since that time, some 217 students have participated in a score of third world countries. However, the most popular sites have been India, Kenya and Thailand. The purposes of this elective are to provide fourth year medical students with an opportunity to observe and study the structure and functions of a health care delivery system in a third world country, to provide medical service, and to have a cross-cultural experience. The emphasis in this elective is on public health, preventive medicine and primary care. There are high levels of student competition for this elective. However, interest in it has been affected by world events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the recent outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been twenty-five and more out of a class of two hundred students. Annual acceptance rates vary considerably, ranging from as low as 27.2% in 1995-1996 to a high of 81.8% in 1987-1988. Careful screening, including an examination of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who overall have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are extremely high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to going overseas. This includes individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system, and assignment site. Our students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patients they treat in Brooklyn, and the ethnic diversity of local

  3. Factors associated with attitude and hypothetical behaviour regarding brain death and organ transplantation: comparison between medical and other university students.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Eiji; Shirouzu, Makiko; Kobayashi, Aya; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors, including knowledge, that determine an individual's attitudes and behaviours regarding brain death and organ transplantation using questionnaires among medical and other university students. A total of 522 students (388 medical and 134 other) answered a questionnaire. The survey included the individual's knowledge about brain death, attitudes towards brain death and organ transplantation, and hypothetical behaviours assuming their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Medical students were more likely to have knowledge about brain death and to accept brain death and organ transplantation compared with other students, while there was no difference in their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various factors on the attitudes and behaviours. In both medical and other students, confidence in brain-death diagnosis by doctors was independently associated with their willingness to donate their own organs after the adjustment for other factors, including knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 2.97 and OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 1.01 to 24.39, respectively). An increase in knowledge may cause positive attitudes towards brain death and organ transplant. Meanwhile, reducing uncertainty about the brain-death diagnostic process might have a beneficial effect on the willingness to donate organs.

  4. Improving diversity through strategic planning: a 10-year (2002-2012) experience at theMedical University of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Deas, Deborah; Pisano, Etta D; Mainous, Arch G; Johnson, Natalie G; Singleton, Myra Haney; Gordon, Leonie; Taylor, Wanda; Hazen-Martin, Debra; Burnham, Willette S; Reves, J G

    2012-11-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina launched a systematic plan to infuse diversity among its students, resident physicians, and faculty in 2002. The dean and stakeholders of the College of Medicine (COM) embraced the concept that a more population-representative physician workforce could contribute to the goals of providing quality medical education and addressing health care disparities in South Carolina. Diversity became a central component of the COM's strategic plan, and all departments developed diversity plans consistent with the overarching plan of the COM. Liaisons from the COM diversity committee facilitated the development of the department's diversity plans. By 2011, the efforts resulted in a doubling of the number of underrepresented-in-medicine (URM, defined as African American, Latino, Native American) students (21% of student body); matriculation of 10 African American males as first-year medical students annually for four consecutive years; more than a threefold increase in URM residents/fellows; expansion of pipeline programs; expansion of mentoring programs; almost twice as many URM faculty; integration of cultural competency throughout the medical school curriculum; advancement of women and URM individuals into leadership positions; and enhanced learning for individuals from all backgrounds. This article reports the implementation of an institutional plan to create a more racially representative workforce across the academic continuum. The authors emphasize the role of the stakeholders in promoting diversity, the value of annual assessment to evaluate outcomes, and the positive benefits for individuals of all backgrounds.

  5. Perceptions of clinical years’ medical students and interns towards assessment methods used in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Al-Sharabi, Budoor Mohammed; Al-Asiri, Rasha Abdullah; Alotaibi, Najat Abdullah; Al-Husaini, Wejdan Ibrahim; Al-Khajah, Hussa Adel; Rakkah, Reem Mohammad; Turkistani, Afnan Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was done to determine the perception of clinical years’ medical students and interns about assessment methods used in Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during the educational year 2012/2013. A multistage stratified random sample method was used to select 600 senior medical students (4th-6th) and interns. Perception of medical students and interns about different assessment formats was inquired using 3 points Likert scale. Results: About two-fifths of participants agreed that assessment methods are comprehensive, reflecting what they taught, and challenging them. MCQs were the commonest (56.8%) preferred written assessment format. OSCE (74.1%) and OSPE (70.6%) were seen as good tools for assessing clinical competencies. Students had good perceptions towards peer assessment, log-book and open book exams. Males preferred peer assessment method more than females, with a statistical significant difference (χ2 = 6.43, p< 0.05). Conclusion: Assessment plan needs further improvements and should be designed prospectively along with learning outcomes, as only about 40 % of participants agreed with assessment items. The current development of the faculty Assessment Unit will provide much help. This will lead to better preparation of medical students for their future responsibility as tomorrow’s doctors. PMID:26430398

  6. Modeling of Wave Propagation in the Osaka Sedimentary Basin during the 2013 Awaji Island Earthquake (Mw5.8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Sekiguchi, H.; Iwata, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Hayashida, T.; Saomoto, H.; Horikawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The three-dimensional velocity structure model for the Osaka sedimentary basin, southwest Japan is developed and improved based on many kinds of geophysical explorations for decades (e.g., Kagawa et al., 1993; Horikawa et al., 2003; Iwata et al., 2008). Recently, our project (Sekiguchi et al., 2013) developed a new three-dimensional velocity model for strong motion prediction of the Uemachi fault earthquake in the Osaka basin considering both geophysical and geological information by adding newly obtained exploration data such as reflection surveys, microtremor surveys, and receiver function analysis (hereafter we call UMC2013 model) . On April 13, 2013, an inland earthquake of Mw5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which is close to the southwestern boundary of the aftershock area of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The strong ground motions are densely observed at more than 100 stations in the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than four minutes in the Osaka urban area where its bedrock depth is about 1-2 km. This long-duration ground motions are mainly due to the surface waves excited in this sedimentary basin whereas the magnitude of this earthquake is moderate and the rupture duration is expected to be less than 5 s. In this study, we modeled long-period (more than 2s) ground motions during this earthquake to check the performance of the present UMC2013 model and to obtain a better constraint on the attenuation factor of sedimentary part of the basin. The seismic wave propagation in the region including the source and the Osaka basin is modeled by the finite difference method using the staggered grid solving the elasto-dynamic equations. The domain of 90km×85km×25.5km is modeled and discretized with a grid spacing of 50 m. Since the minimum S-wave velocity of the UMC2013 model is about 250 m/s, this calculation is valid up to the period of about 1 s. The effect of attenuation is included in the form of Q(f)=Q0(T0/T) proposed by Graves (1996). A PML is implemented in

  7. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Mingbo; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC’s acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang) to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews. Results Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790), 55.2% (n = 988) were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners’ hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC’s acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629–13.559), knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097–2.323), and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312–2.021). The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%), followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3%) said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction. Conclusions MC’s acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future. PMID:26390212

  8. Pathology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Weisbord six box model and its relation with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Karimian, Jahangir; Taheri, Behjat; Sadeghpour, Masoumeh; Sadeghpour, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to study the pathology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Weisbord six box model and to find its relation with mental health. Materials and Methods: The research method followed was a descriptive survey. The statistical society consisted of all staffs of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences consisting of professors in the year 2012 (personnel of deputy of treatment, deputy of training, cultural-student deputy, supporting deputy, deputy of food and drugs, health deputy, and deputy of research). The number of subjects in the mentioned society was 1647, sample size was 332 Based on Cochrane's formula. They were selected by random sampling method in proportion with the statistical society. The measurement instruments included organizational pathology questionnaire (ODQ) with 35 questions and the questionnaire of mental health standard [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)] with 28 questions. The validity of the questionnaires obtained from reviews by faculties and experts, and the reliability of the questionnaire assessed through Cronbach's coefficient were 0.86, 0.85, and 0.76, respectively. To analyze data, the statistical methods such as single-variance t-test, regression analysis, correlation coefficient, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were used. Findings: The findings of research demonstrated that the organizational damage based on six box model was seen only in the reward component at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Mental health of persons in the sample group of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was in the suitable status. There was a meaningful and positive interrelation between mental health and attitude toward the organizational damages in the dimensions of communications, useful merchandises, and attitude to change. However, no meaningful interrelation was seen between aims, structure, leadership, and reward and mental health. There was no

  9. How to help Acehnese helping themselves?--a note after a visit with Kobe University medical team.

    PubMed

    Sumargono, Endrotomo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Tamura, Yumie; Nishiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Wada, Atsushi; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Maeda, Sakan

    2005-01-01

    On December 26, Aceh Province in Indonesia was hit by the worst earthquake and tsunami. A medical team from Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine visited two of the affected areas on the eastern coast of Aceh: Sigli and Lhokseumawe. This article provides a simple description of experience and assessment derived from the visit. The disaster has left Indonesia with complex problems, which will take a long time to overcome. A continuity of the aid and assistance from various resources is crucial to help Indonesia rebuilt the affected areas. These continuous efforts will provide great contribution for Acehnese people to recover and rebuild their life after tsunami.

  10. [Medical university teaching staff training for formation of communicative competence in dentists].

    PubMed

    Lopanova, E V; Lomiashvili, L M

    2015-01-01

    Psychology and pedagogical preparation provides improvement of the ability of psychological interaction with the patient, promotes deepening of constructive cooperation between them. It facilitates collecting and analysis of clinical data and has direct impact on efficiency of treatment and prophylactic actions. Formation of communicative competence becomes one of key problems of continuous medical education. Introduction of the Medical Communication module in the program of professional development will provide modern technologies of training in technics of active hearing, effective communication, adjustment of contact, feedback, behavior in a stress situation.

  11. Remote connection to the Kyushu University Medical Center LAN using digital and analog telephone lines.

    PubMed

    Antoku, Y; Hanada, E; Akazawa, K; Kenjo, Y; Nose, Y

    1997-08-01

    SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) has recently become popular, as it makes working at home possible. Computers or Local Area Networks(LAN) connected to the office network from home are necessary for the implementation of this concept. Kyushu University has begun a service connecting home computers to the campus LAN for researchers, staff and students of the Faculty of Medicine. We have two different telephone connection methods. One connects the campus LAN and the home computer LAN using routers through the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The other connects computers at home to the workstation in the university, using modems and the PPP (Point to Point Protocol) through a public telephone analog line. This paper outlines our university SOHO connection system and discusses the merits and demerits of using telephone line connections.

  12. Comparison of Pharmacology Courses for Optometry and Medical Students, Indiana University, Bloomington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Sally

    1983-01-01

    Due to criticism that optometrists are not adequately trained to use drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, the course of study taken by optometry students was compared to that taken by medical students in terms of faculty capability, courses content, and relationship to career needs.

  13. The European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale in daily practice: a single institution, real-life experience at the Medical University of Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus; Steger, Günther G; Bartsch, Rupert; Pirker, Robert; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Prager, Gerald; Krainer, Michael; Preusser, Matthias; Schmidinger, Manuela; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (MCBS) has been designed to stratify the therapeutic benefit of a certain drug registered for the treatment of cancer. However, though internally validated, this tool has not yet been evaluated for its feasibility in the daily practice of a major center of medical oncology. Methods The practicability of the MCBS for advanced oncological diseases at the Clinical Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, which constitutes one of the largest oncological centres in Europe, was analysed in a three-step approach. First, retrospectively collected data were analysed to gain an overview of treatments in regular use. Second, data were scored by using the MCBS. Third, the ensuing results were evaluated within corresponding programme directorships to assess feasibility in a real-life clinical context. Results In the majority of tumour entities, the MCBS results reported earlier are consistent with daily clinical practice. Thus, in metastatic breast cancer or advanced lung cancer, there was a high level of clinical benefit for first-line treatment standards, and these results reflected well real-life experience. However, analyses based on the first version of the MCBS are limited if it comes to salvage treatment in tumour entities in which optimal sequencing of potential treatment options is of major importance, as in metastatic colorectal or renal cell cancer. In contrast to this, it is remarkable that certain novel therapies such as nivolumab assessed for heavily pretreated advanced renal cancer reached the highest level of clinical benefit due to prolongation in survival and a favourable toxicity profile. The MCBS clearly underlines the potential benefit of these compounds. Conclusions The MCBS is an excellent tool for daily clinical practice of a tertiary referral centre. It supports treatment decisions based on the clinical benefit to be expected from a novel approach

  14. Surgical Residency Training at a University-Based Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    The past two decades have been witness to some of the most dynamic changes that have occurred in surgical education in all of its history. Political policies, social revolution, and the competing priorities of a new generation of surgical trainees are defining the needs of modern training paradigms. Although the university-based academic program's tripartite mission of clinical service, research, and education has remained steadfast, the mechanisms for achieving success in this mission necessitate adaptation and innovation. The resource-rich learning environment and the unique challenges that face university-based programs contribute to its ability to generate the future leaders of the surgical workforce.

  15. Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maddah, Esraa M.; Al-Dabal, Badria K.; Khalil, Mohammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2) were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis. PMID:25685390

  16. Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Poor Sleep Quality among Medical Students in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen; Al-Musa, Hasan; Al-Amri, Hasan; Al-Qahtani, Abdulkareem; Al-Shahrani, Mushabab; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep problems and poor sleep quality are important issues for medical students. This study aimed to investigate the sleep patterns, measure the prevalence of poor sleep quality, and identify the predictors of poor sleep among medical students in King Khalid University (KKU), Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 318 medical students during October–November, 2015. Participants were selected by convenience sampling and data were collected using self-administered questionnaires to obtain information regarding socio-demographic variables and indicators of sleep quality. Results The overall mean sleep quality score was 6.79 with a standard deviation of 3.06. Poor sleep quality was reported by 74.2% students. Significantly high mean sleep quality scores (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were observed for students with very poor subjective sleep quality (mean = 10.50, SD = 2.58), least sleep efficiency (mean = 11.21, SD = 2.23), shorter sleep duration (mean = 7.83, SD = 2.88), sleep onset latency more than 30 minutes (mean = 7.82, SD = 2.53), sleeping after midnight (mean = 7.53, SD = 2.95), and use of sleep aiding medication (mean = 8.78, SD = 3.5). Significant differences were observed between good sleepers and poor sleepers regarding these sleep characteristics. Poor sleep was predicted by sleep behaviours such as going to sleep after midnight (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.94) and sleep duration of less than seven hours (AOR = 7.49, 95% CI: 4.24, 13.22). Conclusion Medical students of KKU have poor sleep quality. Longer sleep latency, going to sleep after midnight, and shorter sleep duration are important problems in this group. PMID:28090183

  17. Information Literacy among Medical Students in the College of Health Sciences in Niger Delta University, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Endouware, Benake-ebide C.; Ubogu, Janet O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether undergraduate students in the College of Health Sciences in Niger Delta University are information literate, and to determine whether they are aware of and use different information resources including electronic ones, and to assess their ability to evaluate information before use.…

  18. iPads in Medical Language Courses at the University of Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinheimo, Kirsi; Pitkänen, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Helsinki has systematically developed and synchronized its teaching technology, and new iPad-based tools have been an important part of this development. The aim has been to provide the students and teachers in the faculty with synchronized tools that can be used as a basis of a shared…

  19. Integrative Medical Education: Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Curriculum at the University of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maizes, Victoria; Schneider, Craig; Bell, Iris; Weil, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes the University of Arizona's approach to developing and implementing a comprehensive curriculum in integrative medicine, which integrates the best of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with the best of conventional medicine. Describes the curriculum, educational programs, clinical education, goals, and results, and suggests…

  20. Socio-Psychological Correlates of Non-Medical Use of Drugs Among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, N.

    This study was designed to collect and analyze study reactions on a broad range of social, cultural and educational issues including the nonmedical use of drugs. Two questionnaires and a personality inventory were used in the collection of data that was obtained from a stratified random sample of 282 students of the University of Alberta. An…

  1. Influences on the Founder of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Explains how George Peabody, self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist, was one of three powerful men who influenced Johns Hopkins in founding Johns Hopkins University (the other two being Dr. Joseph Parrish and Dr. Patrick Macaulay). The article looks at how Hopkins, like Peabody, used his wealth for philanthropic purposes. (SM)

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Inner Mongolia Medical University students: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan

    2016-10-30

    Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle.

  3. Compatibility of personality and major among freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality traits are major effective factors on student’s learning, educational achievements and employer’s job satisfaction. Metacognitive characteristics such as personality are only changeable up to 30% in the best educational condition. Therefore, students should be evaluated for such characteristics including their personality compatibility with their major. The present study investigated the personality compatibility of freshman undergraduate nursing students of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008 with nursing profession. METHODS: This was a descriptive study using a standard questionnaire based on Holland’s career and personality theory on 82 freshman nursing students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: More than 50% of the participants evaluated their information of nursing profession average. The personality of 41.3% was not compatible with nursing profession and the personality of 26.2% was relatively compatible. Only 32.5% of the participants had completely compatible personalities with this profession. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the limitations of the present study and previous studies, further studies are recommended. It seems that students’ knowledge of majors and careers are increasing, but it is necessary to plan and make more effort to recognize personal characteristics and personality compatibility with professions. Knowledge of professions and personalities along with each other are valuable and neglecting one would be an obstacle to achieve goals including decreasing job resignation, increasing job efficiency and satisfaction. PMID:21589786

  4. Association between Organizational Commitment and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individual characteristics are important factors influencing organizational commitment. Also, committed human resources can lead organizations to performance improvement as well as personal and organizational achievements. This research aimed to determine the association between organizational commitment and personality traits among faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Methods the research population of this cross-sectional study was the faculty members of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Ahvaz, Iran). The sample size was determined to be 83. Data collection instruments were the Allen and Meyer questionnaire for organizational commitment and Neo for characteristics’ features. The data were analyzed through Pearson’s product-moment correlation and the independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression analysis (SLR) by SPSS. Results Continuance commitment showed a significant positive association with neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Normative commitment showed a significant positive association with conscientiousness and a negative association with extroversion (p = 0.001). Openness had a positive association with affective commitment. Openness and agreeableness, among the five characteristics’ features, had the most effect on organizational commitment, as indicated by simple linear regression analysis. Conclusion Faculty members’ characteristics showed a significant association with their organizational commitment. Determining appropriate characteristic criteria for faculty members may lead to employing committed personnel to accomplish the University’s objectives and tasks. PMID:27123222

  5. The Relationship Between Quality of Work Life and Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Kermansaravi, Fatihe; Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Yaghoubinia, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of work life is one of the most important factors for human motivating and improving of job satisfaction. Aim: The current study was carried out aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 202 faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2012 were entered the study through census. The job satisfaction questionnaire of Smith and Kendall and Walton Quality of Work Life questionnaire were used for data collection. Validity and reliability of questionnaires were confirmed in previous studies. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis. Result: The mean score of quality of work life was 121/30±37/08 and job satisfaction was 135/98±33/78. There was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction of faculty members and their quality of work life (P=0.003). In addition, two components of quality of work life “adequate and fair compensation” (β=0.3) and “Social Integration” (β=0.4) can predict job satisfaction of faculty members. Conclusion: According to correlation between job satisfaction and quality of work life in faculty members, job satisfaction can be improved through the changing and manipulating the components of quality of work life and in this way; the suitable environment for organization development should be provided. PMID:25716392

  6. Association among character attributes and mental health among the staff in Medical Sciences Kermanshah University in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ziapour, A; Kianipour, N

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress affects the employee’s mental health and customers can run their occupational safety and health care centers in damage. The employees who are sent to the work place have different characters and different events happen in their living event. The present research proposed to study the relation among character attributes and mental health among the staff in Medical Sciences Kermanshah University, the study being performed for the year 2015. In a cross-correlation, 270 employees working in Medical Sciences Kermanshah University in 2015 were randomly selected and neo personality traits and mental health question sheet were augmented with Goldenberg. Data in SPSS 21 are explained with utilizing detailed statistics, correlation coefficient of Pearson and Regression testing. Based on the analysis of solidarity, of conscientiousness (R =0/ 332, p <0/ 001), OCD (R =0/ 221, p <0/ 001) and extraversion (p <0/ 001, R= 115/ 0, the employee’s mental health showed a meaningful positive relationship (p <0/ 001). The outcomes of the regression study explained that, among the 5 parameters of character attributes, conscientiousness and psychoneurosis have two variables 14.08 percentage change criterion variables (mental health) to remarkably prophesy staff (p <0/ 001). It seemed to support an increased employment rate and provide psychiatric and psychological counseling for employees with improved facilities and, their income could improve their general health and thus improve the capability of the state of health services provided. PMID:28316678

  7. Impact of the Development of a Light Microscopy Shared Resource for the University of Rochester Medical Center: A Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, M.; Jordan, P.; Kasischke, K.; Brown, E.; Reed, A.; Lentine, M.; Bushnell, T.; Puzas, E.; Callahan, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) determined the need for a shared Light Microscopy facility to support researchers requiring high-end light microscopy for their research programs. URMC Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs) represent a strategic investment in technology, targeted expertise, and space administration to systematically support and advance the research mission of the institution. Recognizing the need for centralized light microscopy resources to support the University of Rochester Medical Center, a task force of senior researchers, investigators, and administration developed a plan to create a light microscopy resource. Through strategic investment for instrument upgrades and acquisition as well as hiring of additional staff, the LM resource has grown since its inception in 2008 with expanded capacity and capabilities to support the diverse needs and studies of the URMC researchers. The data presented here address the impact of the LM Shared Resource on the URMC research community in quantitative areas such as publications, new grant funding, and training as well as addressing qualitative measures of success including impact on graduate education and new research avenues.

  8. The relation characteristics of personality of managers working in Iran University of Medical Sciences with success and desirable job

    PubMed Central

    Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Kermani, Behnaz; Rezapoor, Aziz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest the existence of an effective relationship between individuals’characteristics and important factors such as occupational and organizational performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and etc. This study was designed based on the dimensions of personality (introversion /extroversion) of managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences at three levels (executive, middle and senior) with their career success rate. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, whose population was all managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, two valid and reliable questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire assessed personality characteristics of each director, and the second measured occupational success. Related tests such as Pearson correlation test and independent comparison (independent t-test) at a significance level of 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results: Findings revealed no significant relationship between variables of introversion and extroversion and occupational success among the senior managers, (p> 0.05). However, there was a direct but incomplete relationship between introversion and extroversion, which correlated with job success among middle and executives managers. Conclusion: It seems that in all three levels of managers, if the managers communicated more with employees and if the subject of communication was more of executive nature, the correlation rate would increase between extroversion and introversion with job success variables. Therefore, it is suggested to give attention to organizational interaction and communication, and contingency variables such as organization condition, structure, formality and complexity. PMID:26793625

  9. Education programme on aerospace and environmental medicine for medical faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Buravkova, L B; Loginov, V A; Vinogradova, O L

    1997-01-01

    The problems and approaches to organisation of the education process in the field of aerospace and environmental medicine for medical students are discussed. Original education developed on the basis of Russian experience in space biology and physiology, environmental medicine, aerospace medicine and medical support during spaceflight. The main goals of these programs are to acquaint students with: interaction of living organisms with natural and artificial surroundings, including space flight conditions; the physiological reactions on extreme environmental factors; basic mechanisms of human adaptation to space flight and particularly to microgravity; the current research in space medicine and new telecommunication technologies. All programs are formed in accordance with contemporary progress in life sciences and revealed a result of the interdisciplinary approach to education process.

  10. An Internet supported workflow for the publication process in UMVF (French Virtual Medical University).

    PubMed

    Renard, Jean-Marie; Bourde, Annabel; Cuggia, Marc; Garcelon, Nicolas; Souf, Nathalie; Darmoni, Stephan; Beuscart, Régis; Brunetaud, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    The " Université Médicale Virtuelle Francophone" (UMVF) is a federation of French medical schools. Its main goal is to share the production and use of pedagogic medical resources generated by academic medical teachers. We developed an Open-Source application based upon a workflow system, which provides an improved publication process for the UMVF. For teachers, the tool permits easy and efficient upload of new educational resources. For web masters it provides a mechanism to easily locate and validate the resources. For librarian it provide a way to improve the efficiency of indexation. For all, the utility provides a workflow system to control the publication process. On the students side, the application improves the value of the UMVF repository by facilitating the publication of new resources and by providing an easy way to find a detailed description of a resource and to check any resource from the UMVF to ascertain its quality and integrity, even if the resource is an old deprecated version. The server tier of the application is used to implement the main workflow functionalities and is deployed on certified UMVF servers using the PHP language, an LDAP directory and an SQL database. The client tier of the application provides both the workflow and the search and check functionalities. A unique signature for each resource, was needed to provide security functionality and is implemented using a Digest algorithm. The testing performed by Rennes and Lille verified the functionality and conformity with our specifications.

  11. Animal related injuries treated at the Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Lublin.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Adam; Jankiewicz, Leszek; Cwik, Grzegorz; Karski, Jerzy; Matuszewski, Łukasz

    2007-01-01

    Despite urbanization of contemporary society and limitation on the environmental areas, the threat of animal attacks on people is still an important social and medical problem. Although they usually do not have serious consequences, they are nevertheless disturbing and alarming enough to make people seek professional, medical help. The aim of this study was to estimate the epidemiology and the risk rate of animal related injuries in the urban and rural population, as well as to select the characteristics of such injuries, which are distinguishable from injuries caused by other factors. The work presents a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 1,872 patients treated at the Department of Trauma and Emergency Department between 2001-2004, who suffered from animal related injuries. Our analysis led to the following conclusions: Most animal related injuries, reported to doctors, are mild injuries. The threat of animal attack is similar in urban and in rural areas, and concerns mostly men between the ages of 22-40. Injuries caused by large animals, such as a horse or a cow, require hospitalization and should be considered as high-energy injuries. The vast majority were patients who after the treatment could return to their social and occupational activities; the mortality rate in hospitalized patients with animal related injuries was higher then in other injuries, but the difference was statistically irrelevant.

  12. Patients' satisfaction with inpatient services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589

  13. Medical Image Communication System: Plan, Management And Initial Experience In Prototype At The University Of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staab, E. V.; Anderson, D. J.; Chaney, E. L.; Delany, D. J.; DiBianca, F. A.; Guilford, W. B.; Jaques, P. F.; Johnston, R. E.; McCartney, W. H.; Pizer, S. M.; Scatliff, J. H.; Thompson, B. G.; Washburn, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The revolution in data handling associated with digital systems has excited the medical world into considering replacing existing methods. The integration of digital with analogue video systems into a complete electronic communications network holds tremendous promise. One area where these changes will have significant impact is in medical imaging. The potential of more and better information being,obtained from current studies, more rapid access to studies, intercomparison of images from different modalities, savings in space and equipment, reduced procedure time, improved communication in a distributed department, remote image consultation, and timely data base for management are only some of the advantages that can accrue from proper use of electronic systems. In the hospital, the traditional radiology department is becoming a medical imaging de-partment. To effect a change from the ubiquitous silver halide film base system into a more electronic department will necessitate much experimentation. At the University of North Carolina we are attempting to involve the entire department in these endeavors as well as others such as biomedical engineering, computer science and traditional clinical areas. To facilitate this, a management system has been developed and is being used. The system, our architectural draft of a future department and the initial problems and questions which have arisen from implementing a prototype system will be the subject of this report.

  14. Identification and analysis of labor productivity components based on ACHIEVE model (case study: staff of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences).

    PubMed

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Kianipour, Neda; Jafary, Faranak

    2014-12-15

    Identification and analysis of the components of labor productivity based on ACHIEVE model was performed among employees in different parts of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This was a descriptive correlational study in which the population consisted of 270 working personnel in different administrative groups (contractual, fixed- term and regular) at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (872 people) that were selected among 872 people through stratified random sampling method based on Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The survey tool included labor productivity questionnaire of ACHIEVE. Questionnaires were confirmed in terms of content and face validity, and their reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed by SPSS-18 software using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean scores for labor productivity dimensions of the employees, including environment (environmental fit), evaluation (training and performance feedback), validity (valid and legal exercise of personnel), incentive (motivation or desire), help (organizational support), clarity (role perception or understanding), ability (knowledge and skills) variables and total labor productivity were 4.10±0.630, 3.99±0.568, 3.97±0.607, 3.76±0.701, 3.63±0.746, 3.59±0.777, 3.49±0.882 and 26.54±4.347, respectively. Also, the results indicated that the seven factors of environment, performance assessment, validity, motivation, organizational support, clarity, and ability were effective in increasing labor productivity. The analysis of the current status of university staff in the employees' viewpoint suggested that the two factors of environment and evaluation, which had the greatest impact on labor productivity in the viewpoint of the staff, were in a favorable condition and needed to be further taken into consideration by authorities.

  15. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center: U01 Natural Products Screening | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of this project was to enlarge the chemical space probed by Project 1 (High-Throughput siRNA Screening of a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line Panel) by screening an expanded natural products library (~40,000) in an effort to further define vulnerabilities and therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer. This new library is derived from a diverse collection of marine bacteria (prepared by Dr. John MacMillan, University of Texas Southwestern).

  16. Disconnected in a connected world: knowledge and understanding of Web 2.0 tools at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Joanna Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines five Web 2.0 resources and looks at the use of these tools among medical and nursing professionals and students at the Hospital, Medical School, and Nursing School of the University of Pennsylvania. Questionnaires showed that a majority of the individuals surveyed were unfamiliar with Web 2.0 resources. Additional respondents recognized the tools but did not use them in a medical or nursing context, with a minimal number using any tools to expand their medical or nursing knowledge. A lack of time to set up and use the resources, difficulty of set-up and use, skepticism about the quality of user-generated medical content, and a lack of perceived need for Web 2.0 resources contributed substantially to non-use. The University of Pennsylvania Biomedical Library is responding by increasing the availability of basic, quick, and easy-to-use instructional materials for selected Web 2.0 resources.

  17. Mobile Technologies: Expectancy, Usage, and Acceptance of Clinical Staff and Patients at a University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their increasing popularity, little is known about how users perceive mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet PCs in medical contexts. Available studies are often restricted to evaluating the success of specific interventions and do not adequately cover the users’ basic attitudes, for example, their expectations or concerns toward using mobile devices in medical settings. Objective The objective of the study was to obtain a comprehensive picture, both from the perspective of the patients, as well as the doctors, regarding the use and acceptance of mobile devices within medical contexts in general well as the perceived challenges when introducing the technology. Methods Doctors working at Hannover Medical School (206/1151, response 17.90%), as well as patients being admitted to this facility (213/279, utilization 76.3%) were surveyed about their acceptance and use of mobile devices in medical settings. Regarding demographics, both samples were representative of the respective study population. GNU R (version 3.1.1) was used for statistical testing. Fisher’s exact test, two-sided, alpha=.05 with Monte Carlo approximation, 2000 replicates, was applied to determine dependencies between two variables. Results The majority of participants already own mobile devices (doctors, 168/206, 81.6%; patients, 110/213, 51.6%). For doctors, use in a professional context does not depend on age (P=.66), professional experience (P=.80), or function (P=.34); gender was a factor (P=.009), and use was more common among male (61/135, 45.2%) than female doctors (17/67, 25%). A correlation between use of mobile devices and age (P=.001) as well as education (P=.002) was seen for patients. Minor differences regarding how mobile devices are perceived in sensitive medical contexts mostly relate to data security, patients are more critical of the devices being used for storing and processing patient data; every fifth patient opposed this, but nevertheless, 4.8% of

  18. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  19. [Design of a universal robot system for health monitoring and medical services].

    PubMed

    Sai, Zhang; Haiqiang, Dong; Hongwei, D U; Zhao-Hui, Jing

    2010-01-01

    An autonomous robot system that is able to provide real time health monitoring and simple medical services is realized in this design. The system applies multiple sensors to monitor ordinary healthcare parameters, which is then transmitted via ZigBee network. In case of emergency, real time medicine delivery service is provided by the robot, applying a novel Received Signal Strength (RSS) based location method in ZigBee network. The system combines healthcare monitoring, data transmission and real time location into several portable wireless nodes, with the advantage of cost effectiveness, low power and easiness for configuration. Field tests under indoor environment have proved the stability and practicability of this design.

  20. [Plagiarism. Document from the Ethics Commission of the Medical School, University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Rosselot Jaramillo, Eduardo; Bravo Lechat, Mireya; Kottow Lang, Miguel; Valenzuela Yuraidini, Carlos; O'Ryan Gallardo, Miguel; Thambo Becker, Sergio; Horwitz Campos, Nina; Acevedo Pérez, Irene; Rueda Castro, Laura; Sotomayor, María Angélica

    2008-05-01

    Plagiarism is defined as the intellectual fraud in which an individual attempts to unduly appropriate, for his/her own benefit, the knowledge, ideas or discoveries of someone else. It is not uncommon in academic settings where research is conducted and a creative work is carried out. Due to the dismal consequences of plagiarism, cautionary measures and sanctions are required to avoid it. This paper is intended to warn and promote a discussion about plagiarism. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile and its ethics committee believe that a fight against these type of actions will contribute to prevent their detrimental effects on the moral and intellectual patrimony of our society.

  1. Comparison of Medical Students' Satisfaction with Family Medicine Clerkships between University Hospitals and Community Hospitals or Clinics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare students' awareness of and satisfaction with clerkships in family medicine between a university hospital and a community hospital or clinic. Methods Thirty-eight 4th year medical students who were undergoing a clerkship in family medicine in the 1st semester of 2012 were surveyed via questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered both before and after the clerkship. Results External clerkships were completed in eight family medicine clinics and two regional hospitals. At preclerkship, participants showed strong expectation for understanding primary care and recognition of the need for community clerkship, mean scores of 4.3±0.5 and 4.1±0.7, respectively. At post-clerkship, participants showed a significant increase in recognition of the need for community clerkship (4.7±0.5, P<0.001). The pre-clerkship recognition of differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics was 4.1±0.7; at post-clerkship, it was 3.9±0.7. Students' confidence in their ability to see a first-visit patient and their expectation of improved interviewing skills both significantly increased at post-clerkship (P<0.01). Satisfaction with feedback from preceptors and overall satisfaction with the clerkship also significantly increased, but only for the university hospital clerkship (P<0.01). Conclusion Students' post-clerkship satisfaction was uniformly high for both clerkships. At pre-clerkship, students were aware of the differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics, and this awareness did not change by the end of the clerkship. PMID:27900072

  2. Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.

  3. A Study of the Readiness of Hospitals for Implementation of High Reliability Organizations Model in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Creating a safe of health care system requires the establishment of High Reliability Organizations (HROs), which reduces errors, and increases the level of safety in hospitals. This model focuses on improving reliability through higher process design, building a culture of accreditation, and leveraging human factors. The present study intends to determine the readiness of hospitals for the establishment of HROs model in Tehran University of Medical Sciences from the viewpoint of managers of these hospitals. This is a descriptive-analytical study carried out in 2013-2014. The research population consists of 105 senior and middle managers of 15 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data collection tool was a 55-question researcher-made questionnaire, included six elements of HROs to assess the level of readiness for establishing HROS model from managers' point of view. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated through the content validity method using 10 experts in the area of hospitals' accreditation, and its reliability was calculated through test-retest method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. The response rate was 90 percent. The Likert scale was used for the questions, and data analysis was conducted through SPSS version 21 Descriptive statistics was presented via tables and normal distributions of data and means. Analytical methods, including t-test, Mann-Whitney, Spearman, and Kruskal-Wallis, were used for presenting inferential statistics. The study showed that from the viewpoint of senior and middle managers of the hospitals considered in this study, these hospitals are indeed ready for acceptance and establishment of HROs model. A significant relationship was showed between HROs model and its elements with demographic details of managers like their age, work experience, management experience, and level of management. Although the studied hospitals, as viewed by their managers, are capable of attaining the goals of HROs, it

  4. [Patients as customers? The term "customer" in the perception of medical students at the end of their university training].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, L; Körner, M; Geppert, E; Siegel, A; Stöbel, U; Bengel, J

    2012-01-01

    In the preceding decades a new perspective on the role of patients in the health-care system has gained ground, considering patients not merely as "suffering persons" but additionally as "customers". Physicians, however, tend to disagree with this approach because of the economic connotation of the term customer. Until now, there is only poor evidence of whether students of medicine - who are going to work as physicians in the future - agree or disagree with that approach and whether they are ready to accept patients as customers. In the following study students of medicine were interviewed on their perspectives towards that approach, in particular on their attitudes towards the idea of "the patient as customer", the appropriateness of the term consumer in different clinical settings and sectors of health care, the implementation of consumer orientation in clinical routine, and their favoured model of physician-patient relationship.As the study could not build upon data of prior similar studies, a quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study with a descriptive-explorative design was conducted. Using a semi-standardised questionnaire, 313 medical students (response rate: 95%) were interviewed in Spring 2010. At the time of the survey, the students were enrolled at the faculty of medicine at Freiburg University, Germany, and were in their last semester which immediately preceded their exam.The future physicians do not consider patients primarily as customers. More than 80% of the respondents "absolutely" or "largely" supported the idea that patients are considerably more than customers. The analysis of the qualitative data of the study shows different results. Here, more statements were made that patients could equally be seen as customers (449 students supported this idea, 298 did not). Statements contradicting the customer approach referred mostly to the asymmetry of the physician-patient relationship and the special role of the patient. The highest level of

  5. [Survey about smoking among third-year medical students at the National University of Cordoba].

    PubMed

    Piva, A; Ferrero, G; Torasso, S; Vélez, J; Rojas, A; Rojas, R; Aspitía, M

    1991-01-01

    A survey about smoking was done at the Second Department of Pathology at the National University of Córdoba. The results of a questionnaire answered by 70% of 520 students were as follows: 23% of the students smoke (29% of the males and 17% of the females). The generation of these students smoke much less than that of their parents (70% of the male parents and 25% of the female parents smoke). The family groups are fairly well informed about cigarette danger for health. Nevertheless, in a significant number of cases children and pregnant women are subjected to passive smoking and to a lesser extent pregnant women smoke themselves. It is difficult to quit smoking. Many tried it without results. 80% of students are against smoking in closed places. The majority of students claim to respect the right of non smokers. Few of the Departments of Basic Sciences teach about smoking and several members of the teaching staff smoke during academic activities and/or permit students to smoke. This meets the disapproval of the great majority of the students which view this as a bad example and something in contradiction with the expected role of teachers. We hope smokers will respect the right of non smokers and also respect the rules about smoking of our University.

  6. [Who limit vaginal birth for breech presentation: medical practice or Law? Discussion between a medical doctor, a lawyer and the head chief of an university hospital].

    PubMed

    Delotte, J; Oliver, A; Boukaidi, S; Mialon, O; Breaud, J; Benchimol, D; Bongain, A

    2011-10-01

    The mode of delivery of breech presentation still remains a debate in France. Despite the medical arguments, themselves in debate, exists a legal pressure felt by medical practitioners. Our study highlights the different opinions of medical practitioners, lawyers and medical teachers faced with breech presentation.

  7. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Objective Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilization of the interactive features of Facebook, and the way students may resort to these features. Methods Students of the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine were assessed for (1) depression and (2) Facebook activity. To screen for major depression, we used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. To test for Facebook activity, we developed the Facebook Resorting Questionnaire (FbRQ), which measures the degree to which students resort to Facebook. Results A total of 365 out of 480 students (76.0%) participated in the survey. A total of 25 students were excluded, hence 340 students were included in the final analysis. Current depression was reported in 117 students out of 340 (34.4%) and t tests showed female predominance. Moreover, PHQ-9 score multiple regression analysis showed that feeling depressed is explained 63.5% of the time by specific independent variables studied from the PHQ-9 and the FbRQ. Depression varied significantly among the different academic years (P<.001) and it peaked in the third-year students. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that depression and resorting to Facebook had a positive and significant relationship (P=.003) and the different FbRQ categories had significant differences in resorting-to-Facebook power. The like, add friend, and check-in features students used when resorting to Facebook were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions This study showed that depression was highly prevalent among students of the

  8. [Diagnosis on the unique curriculum of the medical career at the National University of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Guevara Guzmán, Rosalinda; Urrutia Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the Plan Unico de Estudios of the medical career was the result of five years of collegiate work in which commissions consisting of academic staff of different departments from the faculty of medicine at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) participated. The most significant conclusions derived from this analysis are: to adjust the graduate’s profile in order to face the emerging health problems of the twenty-first century in our country; to update the academic curricula of the different subjects, including new ones; to create a nuclear curricula; as well as to strengthen the basic-clinic and the clinic-basic. With regard to the teaching/learning process, we acknowledged the need to develop self-cognitive and self-motivational skills in students as well as to consider a different evaluation for students and teachers.

  9. The relationship between the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center--a profile in synergy.

    PubMed

    Levine, Arthur S; Detre, Thomas P; McDonald, Margaret C; Roth, Loren H; Huber, George A; Brignano, Mary Germann; Danoff, Sandra N; Farner, David M; Masnick, Jeffrey L; Romoff, Jeffrey A

    2008-09-01

    In the synergistic evolution of their research, educational, and clinical programs, the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) School of Medicine (SOM) and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) have followed one core principle: What is good for one is good for both. The collaboration is underpinned by UPMC's commitment to its community mission, including support for the academic and research objectives of the SOM. UPMC's conceptual origin was fostered by its experience with Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in the 1970s. Over time, UPMC acquired other hospitals through merger and negotiation and, by 2008, had grown into a $7 billion global health enterprise. From the outset, the senior leaders of both UPMC and Pitt committed to collaborative decision making on all key issues. Under this coordinated decision-making model, UPMC oversees all clinical activity, including that from a consolidated physicians' practice plan. Pitt remains the guardian of all academic priorities, particularly faculty-based research. UPMC's steady financial success underpins the model. A series of interrelated agreements formally defines the relationship between Pitt and UPMC, including shared board seats and UPMC's committed ongoing financial support of the SOM. In addition, the two institutions have jointly made research growth a priority. The payoff from this dynamic has been a steadily growing Pitt research portfolio; enhanced growth, visibility, and stature for UPMC, the SOM, and Pitt as a whole; and the sustained success of UPMC's clinical enterprise, which now has an international scope. Given the current stagnation in the National Institutes of Health budget, the Pitt-UPMC experience may be instructive to other academic health centers.

  10. Research within a medical degree: the combined MB BS-PhD program at the University of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Power, Brian D; White, Andrew J; Sefton, Ann J

    Along with its new graduate-entry medical program, the University of Sydney has introduced the Combined Degree (Research) Program which allows students to graduate with an MB BS and PhD. The program includes 2-3 years of full-time research between Years 2 and 3 of the 4-year MB BS program. The program aims to produce clinician-scientists committed to continuing research that reflects their experience of clinical practice. Eight women and 23 men have enrolled since the program began in 1998, with the first cohort graduating in 2003. The students have been active in helping to develop the program and establishing a society and other student support networks.

  11. Studying critical values: adverse event identification following a critical laboratory values study at the ohio state university medical center.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, James J; Mac Crawford, J; Bissell, Michael G

    2007-10-01

    No study to date has used laboratory critical values to evaluate variations in patient adverse events. We retrospectively analyzed a database of critical values to determine their distribution by hospital unit over time. The data were drawn from the Ohio State University Medical Center Information Warehouse (Columbus) for a 58-month period. Critical values were plotted over time on statistical control charts and analyzed for unusual peaks in monthly occurrence rates. Chart review of individual patient results yielded several predictor variables for the unusual peaks. Of these, occurrence of patient adverse events was the most relevant independent predictor variable for a month with an unusual number of critical values vs a normal month. This result epidemiologically confirms the basic premise of critical value reporting and suggests that the control-chart method of this type could be a new statistical tool to compare clinical activity of different hospital locations at different times.

  12. [Pediatrics at an academic medical center: organization of university pediatric services].

    PubMed

    Claris, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric medicine is one of the most important activities of any teaching hospital. Its internal organization depends on the size of the hospital and must take into account not only its missions of advice, reference and proximity, but also economic issues. Regional networking with general hospitals, private clinics and community pediatricians is necessary, if only to regulate use of the emergency department. The activity of pediatric units fluctuates over time and is not always controllable, involving both rapid turnover and extended stays. Cost of health is often underestimated or unadapted, and many units are in financial deficit despite their best efforts. University pediatrician training is highly demanding in order to ensure the quality of recruitment, but it must be sufficiently flexible if it is to attract a suficient number of candidates. As with other specialties, research is relatively easy to evaluate, contrary to teaching and clinical activity.

  13. The relationship of centralization, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant

  14. Evolution of a Patient Information Management System in a Local Area Network Environment at Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ronald N; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J; Tamirisa, Balaji

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) of Chicago has implemented a local area network (LAN) based Patient Information Management System (PIMS) as part of its integrated departmental database management system. PIMS consists of related database applications encompassing demographic information, current medications, problem lists, clinical data, prior events, and on-line procedure results. Integration into the existing departmental database system permits PIMS to capture and manipulate data in other departmental applications. Standardization of clinical data is accomplished through three data tables that verify diagnosis codes, procedures codes and a standardized set of clinical data elements. The modularity of the system, coupled with standardized data formats, allowed the development of a Patient Information Protocol System (PIPS). PIPS, a userdefinable protocol processor, provides physicians with individualized data entry or review screens customized for their specific research protocols or practice habits. Physician feedback indicates that the PIMS/PIPS combination enhances their ability to collect and review specific patient information by filtering large amount of clinical data.

  15. Relationship between chronotype and quality of sleep in medical students at the Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rique, Gabriela Lemos Negri; Fernandes Filho, Gilson Mauro Costa; Ferreira, Amanda Dantas Cavalcante; de Sousa-Muñoz, Rilva Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify chronotypes of medical students at the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB) and its relationship to quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, age, sex and season of birth. Methods The final sample consisted of 221 students, assessed by four questionnaires: demographic questionnaire, Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality lndex (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results There was a statistically significant difference between groups with respect to chronotypes and PSQI score (p<0.0005), but not with excessive daytime sleepiness. A significant negative correlation was found between the scores of MEQ and PSQI (rho=−0.3, p<0.0005), demonstrating that the greater the eveningness, the worse the sleep quality. It was observed that 51.6% of students were classified as indifferent chronotype, 61.5% had poor quality of sleep, while 42.1% had excessive daytime sleepiness. Sex and season at birth did not differ between chronotypes. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the evening chronotype was associated with poor quality of sleep in medical students, but not with increased daytime sleepiness, with potential impairment to their academic performance and quality of life. PMID:26483910

  16. [Knowledge, attitudes and opinions about conventional and electronic cigarette smoking among University of Pavia medical students (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Glenda; Varetta, Alessia; Macchi, Marcello; Gallotti, Cristina; Laddomada, Maria Stella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes and awareness about conventional and electronic cigarettes in a sample of students attending the Faculty of Medicine of Pavia University (Italy). An anonymous and self-reported questionnaire was administered to 226 students attending either the first or third years of medical school during the 2013 to 2014 school year. Participation was voluntary and required signing an informed consent form. The prevalence of smokers was 12%. Sixty-seven percent of smokers reported smoking less than 5 cigarettes/day, and 15% more than 10 cigarettes/day. Most smokers (63%) prefer packaged cigarettes and 33% handmade cigarettes; 86% began to smoke between the ages of 15 and 20 years and 45% were influenced by friends. Almost all the students are aware of electronic cigarettes but only one reported regularly using them. Prevalence of smokers and average number of cigarettes smoked per day were both found to be lower than that of the Italian population. Preference of packaged versus handmade cigarettes is the same as national data. E-cigarette use is lower than that reported in the Italian population. This study highlights the need for health education interventions aimed at medical students and family physicians.

  17. Educational system for transplant coordinators in Poland: postgraduate studies at Warsaw Medical University; 2 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Becler, R; Kubik, T; Milecka, A; Sekta, S; Pabisiak, K; Malanowski, P; Rowinński, W

    2009-10-01

    Donor hospital transplant coordinators play crucial roles in the donation process. There are only a few coordinators in Poland, while there are about 400 hospitals with intensive care units (ICU). Coordinators must be professionals in medical sciences, clinical psychology, law, organization, management, and statistics. Coordinators acquire these skills during the Transplant Coordinators Postgraduate Studies at Warsaw Medical University which began in 2007. Lectures, seminars and exercises (99 hours, 6 weekends) are run by experts. The studies end with an examination and a diploma. The main criterion for acceptance of a candidate is employment in a key department in the donation process. The aim of studies is to educate coordinators for each hospital in the country. Until now 4 editions of the course have been completed. Among 123 graduates, 71 (60%) are employed in strategic departments of 48 hospitals. Preliminary results of graduates' activities in donor detection were compared in the periods before (2005-2006) and after the course (2007-2008). The background was the overall activity in Poland, where in 2007-2008 the activity fell to 79% of 2005-2006. This fall for hospitals with the graduates of this program was 82% versus hospitals without them (76%). Of the 48 hospitals that employed the graduates: 14 improved donation 5 were the same, in 12 in both periods showed no donations; whereas in 11 it was much lower (>20%), and in 6 lower but consistent with the national trend.

  18. Impacts of outsourcing in educational hospitals in Iran: A study on Isfahan University of Medical Sciences-2010

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saeed; Agharahimi, Zahra; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Outsourcing in healthcare is a cost-effective strategy that can lead to increase services quality. The aim of this study was to determine the types of services that have been outsourced in educational hospitals in Isfahan and to investigate managers’ view about the impact of Outsourcing. Design/Methodology/Approach: A descriptive-survey study carried out in 2010. Our samples consisted of 100 educational hospital and treatment deputy senior managers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and 53 usable questionnaires were received. Survey instrument main points were the extent to which educational hospital outsource services and the impact of Outsourcing. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been verified. Data are analyzed with SPSS18 software. Findings: The results for medical-diagnostics services showed physiotherapy, radiology, and ultrasound that have the highest rate (33%) of being outsourced. Between logistic and administrative activities, housekeeping, and facility engineering maintenance services are the highest rate of outsourced (100%) and green space, CSR, laundry, and medical records are the lowest rate of outsourced (16%). In managers’ view, in relation to advantages of outsourcing, pay more attention to internal and external customers in private sector (57.2%) was the highest. In relation to disadvantages of outsourcing, costs increase for the patients (45.6%) was the highest. In relation to barriers of outsourcing, forgetting the goal of outsourcing (efficiency) (60.6%) was the highest. Conclusion: Finally, managers’ views about outsourcing in health services organizations were rather acceptable, but in their views, there are barriers in implementation of outsourcing and they are focused on removing the barriers before outsourcing. Fundamental infrastructure developments as making competing market, promoting of cultures, education, modifying the management attitude and approach, and establishing incentive policies are

  19. The impact of university provided nurse electronic medical record training on health care organizations: an exploratory simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Anderson, James G; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Malovec, Shannon; Espejo, Angela; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Training providers appropriately, particularly early in their caregiving careers, is an important aspect of electronic medical record (EMR) implementation. Considerable time and resources are needed to bring the newly hired providers 'up to speed' with the actual use practices of the organization. Similarly, universities lose valuable clinical training hours when students are required to spend those hours learning organization-specific EMR systems in order to participate in care during clinical rotations. Although there are multiple real-world barriers to university/health care organization training partnerships, the investment these entities share in training care providers, specifically nurses, to use and understand EMR technology encourages a question: What would be the cumulative effect of integrating a mutually agreed upon EMR system training program in to nursing classroom training on downstream hospital costs in terms of hours of direct caregiving lost, and benefits in terms of number of overall EMR trained nurses hired? In order to inform the development of a large scale study, we employed a dynamic systems modeling approach to simulate the theoretical relationships between key model variables and determine the possible effect of integrating EMR training into nursing classrooms on hospital outcomes. The analysis indicated that integrating EMR training into the nursing classroom curriculum results in more available time for nurse bedside care. Also, the simulation suggests that efficiency of clinical training can be potentially improved by centralizing EMR training within the nursing curriculum.

  20. Global health and social responsibility: a pilot project of the Medical University of Vienna in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lagler, Heimo; Vargha, Regina; Wagner, Oswald; Seidler, Horst; Ramharter, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The Medical University of Vienna and the eastern Ethiopian town of Gedamaytu have established a development collaboration with the aim of improving healthcare for the local population. A health survey of the study region was conducted by the university in February 2009 with the purpose of assessing the burden and spectrum of disease, and to evaluate the potential for improvement of healthcare and plan for future targeted health interventions. The most prevalent diseases in pediatric patients were found to be disorders of the respiratory system, febrile conditions and diarrhea. Adult patients suffered most frequently from disorders of the respiratory system, chronic pain, gastric discomfort and febrile conditions. De-worming was offered to all patients in the course of the survey. The anthropometric evaluation of patient data showed a high rate of growth retardation in children below the age of 5 years. Based on these data and on interviews with the local healthcare personnel, healthcare programs and interventions are discussed with the aim of further improving healthcare provision for the population of Gedamaytu.

  1. Integrative Laser Medicine and High-Tech Acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Litscher, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, modernization of acupuncture has a high priority. On the traditional side, acupuncture has only recently been awarded the status of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. On the innovative side, high-tech acupuncture is a registered trademark in Austria. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. A large number of empirical data are available but the technical quantification of effects was not possible up to now. Using electroacupuncture, needle, or laser stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This paper which serves as introduction for the special issue “High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Laser Medicine” of the present journal, focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new methodological and technical investigations, for example, results obtained from all kinds of acupuncture innovations (e.g., teleacupuncture) and integrative laser medicine. PMID:22570669

  2. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers.

  3. Constraining Factors of Research among faculty members at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Nejatizadeh, Azim; Sarnayzadeh, Majid; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ghasemi, Rachel; Nakhodaei, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the major criteria for development in countries were defined mostly by research position. The first step in organizing the research subject in societies is gaining a correct perception of abilities, available facilities, and finding the strengths and weaknesses of research programs. This research was conducted to determine the constraining factors of research among faculty members. Methods In this cross-sectional study in 2013, the population was Hormozgan Medical Science faculty members, and samples were selected based on the Morgan table (138 individuals). A researcher-made questionnaire after determining validity and confirming reliability was distributed among them. The data were analyzed by SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as Pearson’s product-moment correlation. Results Among organizational factors, lack of data presentation to researchers from organization sections with 81.2% was the most effective factor. The lack of facilitating national and international research exchange with 80.5% and the lack of research workshops based on needs with 77.9% were the next ones. Among the personal constraining factors, 64% of the faculty declared that having inadequate time for research due to the educational activities was the main factor. Conclusions According to the faculty’s comments, research activities encounter different constraining factors. It can be said that, by promoting a data registration system, collaborating on contract agreements and improving national and international research exchange, empowering members’ research (need-based workshops), and decreasing the faculty’s clinical and educational activities can overcome these constraints. PMID:27382451

  4. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  5. The effect of long-term spatiotemporal variations in urbanization-induced eutrophication on a benthic ecosystem, Osaka Bay, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Yamazaki, Hideo; Tsujimoto, Akira; Hirose, K.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed spatiotemporal patterns of the influence of urbanization-induced eutrophication on a metazoan benthic community in Osaka Bay were determined using sediment cores and fossil ostracode assemblages from the last 200 yr. Results suggest that total abundance of ostracodes increased in the middle part of the bay as a result of the increase of food supply by eutrophication. Conversely, abundance decreased in the inner bay, likely because of bottom-water hypoxia by eutrophication. The variation in species composition among sites within the bay may have decreased because of the effect of eutrophication, i.e., the dominance of species that prefer food-rich environments throughout all sites. These eutrophication-induced changes occurred around 1900 as a result of Japan's industrial revolution and around 1960 as a result of rapid urbanization, depending upon location. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  6. [A Survey of School Lunch Provision for Elementary School Students with Food Allergy in Seven Cities of Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Kyohei; Takemoto, Akiko; Okajima, Saori; Morino, Shizuka; Kakoi, Satoru; Sakuma, Junko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with food allergy is currently increasing. Moreover, the unintentional mixing or accidental ingestion of allergy-causing food materials in school lunches has attracted great attention. The aim of this study was to verify the current status of elementary school lunch provision for students with food allergy. We investigated the elementary school lunch services in seven cities in Osaka prefecture. The egg elimination diet was provided in five of the seven cities. In four of these five cities, we did not detect the presence of egg residue either on the surface of various cookware used to prepare the egg elimination diet or in the food itself. In this investigation, the egg elimination diet was provided properly, but we observed differences among the cities in the manual preparation of foods for food allergy diets. To step up these efforts, our results suggest the necessity of preparing a manual to consider individual conditions of school lunch services.

  7. Genotyping of Norovirus strains detected in outbreaks between April 2002 and March 2003 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Seto, Yoshiyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Kaida, Atsushi; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Nishio, Osamu; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are the major cause of food- and waterborne nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Japan. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a total of 111 fecal specimens from 40 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan were subject to NV detection. Seventy-two samples (64.9%) from 31 outbreaks (77.5%) were NV positive by a real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. To further determine the genotype of individual NV strains, we sequenced the capsid N-terminal/shell (N/S) domain of some representative strains from each outbreak. The 51 NV strains detected in this study were segregated into 15 genotypes (6 in genogroup I and 9 in genogroup II), and GII/5 genotype NV was a dominant outbreak genotype.

  8. CODV-Ig, a universal bispecific tetravalent and multifunctional immunoglobulin format for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Anke; Vallée, François; Beil, Christian; Lange, Christian; Baurin, Nicolas; Beninga, Jochen; Capdevila, Cécile; Corvey, Carsten; Dupuy, Alain; Ferrari, Paul; Rak, Alexey; Wonerow, Peter; Kruip, Jochen; Mikol, Vincent; Rao, Ercole

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bispecific immunoglobulins (Igs) typically contain at least two distinct variable domains (Fv) that bind to two different target proteins. They are conceived to facilitate clinical development of biotherapeutic agents for diseases where improved clinical outcome is obtained or expected by combination therapy compared to treatment by single agents. Almost all existing formats are linear in their concept and differ widely in drug-like and manufacture-related properties. To overcome their major limitations, we designed cross-over dual variable Ig-like proteins (CODV-Ig). Their design is akin to the design of circularly closed repeat architectures. Indeed, initial results showed that the traditional approach of utilizing (G4S)x linkers for biotherapeutics design does not identify functional CODV-Igs. Therefore, we applied an unprecedented molecular modeling strategy for linker design that consistently results in CODV-Igs with excellent biochemical and biophysical properties. CODV architecture results in a circular self-contained structure functioning as a self-supporting truss that maintains the parental antibody affinities for both antigens without positional effects. The format is universally suitable for therapeutic applications targeting both circulating and membrane-localized proteins. Due to the full functionality of the Fc domains, serum half-life extension as well as antibody- or complement-dependent cytotoxicity may support biological efficiency of CODV-Igs. We show that judicious choice in combination of epitopes and paratope orientations of bispecific biotherapeutics is anticipated to be critical for clinical outcome. Uniting the major advantages of alternative bispecific biotherapeutics, CODV-Igs are applicable in a wide range of disease areas for fast-track multi-parametric drug optimization. PMID:26984268

  9. Effective strategies for reducing maternal mortality in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nosraty, Somaye; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Kohan, Shahnaz; Beigei, Margan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality rate is among the most important health indicators. This indicator is a function of factors that are related to pregnant women; these factors include economic status, social and family life of the pregnant woman, human resources, structure of the hospitals and health centers, and management factors. Strategic planning, with a comprehensive analysis and coverage of all causes of maternal mortality, can be helpful in improving this indicator. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive exploratory study. After needs assessment and review of the current situation through eight expert panel meetings and evaluating the organization's internal and external environment, the strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities of maternal mortality reduction were determined. Then, through mutual comparison of strengths/opportunities, strengths/threats, weaknesses/opportunities, and weaknesses/threats, WT, WO, ST, and SO strategies and suggested activities of the researchers for reducing maternal mortality were developed and dedicated to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration to be implemented. Results: In the expert panel meetings, seven opportunity and strength strategies, eight strength and threat strategies, five weakness and threat strategies, and seven weakness and opportunity strategies were determined and a strategic plan was developed. Conclusions: Dedication of the developed strategies to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration has coordinated these areas to develop Ministry of Health indicators. In particular, it emphasizes the key role of university management in improving the processes related to maternal health. PMID:27186210

  10. The correlation between effective factors of e-learning and demographic variables in a post-graduate program of virtual medical education in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Golband, Farnoosh; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirhosseini, Fakhrossadat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2014-01-01

    E-learning as an educational approach has been adopted by diverse educational and academic centers worldwide as it facilitates learning in facing the challenges of the new era in education. Considering the significance of virtual education and its growing practice, it is of vital importance to examine its components for promoting and maintaining success. This analytical cross-sectional study was an attempt to determine the relationship between four factors of content, educator, learner and system, and effective e-learning in terms of demographic variables, including age, gender, educational background, and marital status of postgraduate master's students (MSc) studying at virtual faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was selected by census (n=60); a demographic data gathering tool and a researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The face and content validity of both tools were confirmed and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics (frequency, percentile, standard deviation and mean) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, Scheffe's test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test) by using SPSS (V.16). The present study revealed that There was no statistically significant relationship between age and marital status and effective e-learning (P>0.05); whereas, there was a statistically significant difference between gender and educational background with effective e-learning (P<0.05). Knowing the extent to which these factors can influence effective e-learning can help managers and designers to make the right decisions about educational components of e-learning, i.e. content, educator, system and learner and improve them to create a more productive learning environment for learners.

  11. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven major

  12. Comparing the effects of reflexology methods and Ibuprofen administration on dysmenorrhea in female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Valiani, Mahboubeh; Babaei, Elaheh; Heshmat, Reza; Zare, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain is one of the most common disorders experienced by 50% of women in their reproductive age. Adverse effects of medical treatments and its failure rate of 20-25% have caused many women to seek other complementary and alternative treatment methods for primary dysmenorrhea. Hence, this study aimed to compare and determine the efficacy of reflexology and Ibuprofen on reduction of pain intensity and duration of menstrual pain. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental clinical trial study on 68 students with primary dysmenorrhea living in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences’ dormitories. Simple random sampling was done considering the inclusion criteria and then the students were randomly divided into two groups. In the reflexology group, the subjects received 10 reflexology sessions (40 minutes each) in two consecutive mense cycles. The Ibuprofen group received Ibuprofen (400 mg), once every eight hours for 3 days during 3 consecutive mense cycles. To assess the severity of dysmenorrhea, Standard McGill Pain Questionnaire, visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating index (PRI) were used in this study. RESULTS: Findings of the study showed that the two groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (p > 0.05). Reflexology method was associated with more reduction of intensity and duration of menstrual pain in comparison with Ibuprofen therapy. Independent and Paired t-test showed that there was a significant difference in the two groups between intensity and duration of menstrual pain using VAS and PRI in each of the 3 cycles between reflexology and Ibuprofen groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the results of the study, reflexology was superior to Ibuprofen on reducing dysmenorrhea and its treatment effect continued even after discontinuing the intervention in the third cycle. Therefore, considering that reflexology is a non-invasive, easy and cheap technique, it seems that it

  13. Predicting the “strugglers”: a case-control study of students at Nottingham University Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Janet; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify potential predictors of undergraduate students who struggle during their medical training. Design Case-control study. Cases were students who had experienced academic or personal difficulties that affected their progression on the course (“strugglers”). Controls were selected at random from the corresponding year cohorts, using a ratio of four controls for each struggler. Setting University of Nottingham Medical School. Participants Students who entered the course over five consecutive years. Main outcome measures Likelihood ratios for independent risk factors for struggling on the course Results 10-15% of each year's student intake were identified as strugglers. Significant independent predictors of students being in this category were negative comments in the academic reference (likelihood ratio 2.25, 95% confidence intervals 1.44 to 3.50), lower mean examination grade at A level (2.19, 1.37 to 3.51), and the late offer of a place (1.98, 1.19 to 3.30). Male sex was a less significant risk factor (1.70, 1.09 to 2.65) as was a lower grade at GCSE science (2.13, 1.12 to 4.05). In UK students whose ethnicity was known, not being white was a significant predictor of struggling (2.77, 1.52 to 5.05) but the presence of negative comments was not. Age at entry to the course and the possession of a previous degree were not predictive. Conclusions Our results support retention of existing selection practices relating to academic achievement and critical review of students' references. We plan to undertake further investigation of the reasons why some students, including men, those with late offers and those from ethnic minority backgrounds, may do less well on the Nottingham course. PMID:16543299

  14. Prevalence of Hookah Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Zeraati, Hojjat; Safiri, Saeid; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookah smoking has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian students of medical sciences. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1992 randomly selected sample of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2012 - 2013. A multistage sampling method was used and anonymous structured questionnaires were distributed to the students of each selected class. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed and P < 0.05 was considered as a significance level. Results Lifetime, last year and last month prevalence rates of hookah smoking were 26.6% (95% CI: 24.7 - 28.6), 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1 - 19.5) and 8.9% (95% CI: 7.7 - 10.2), respectively. The results of logistic regression model showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.86 - 4.21], cigarette smoking in the past year (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 3.21 - 9.83), alcohol use in the past year (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 4.01 - 13.06), cigarette or hookah smoking in the family members (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.51), cigarette or hookah smoking among friends (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 2.69 - 7.33), alcohol use by friends in the past year (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.20 - 3.14), and illicit substance use among friends (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.22 - 4.05) were associated with hookah smoking. Conclusions The results of our study indicate a relatively high prevalence of hookah smoking among Iranian students. The findings emphasize the importance of planning preventive interventions by considering different high-risk behaviors simultaneously. PMID:27803724

  15. Investigating the Financial Performance of Universities of Medical Science and Health Services in Iran, Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    NASIRIPOUR, Amir Ashkan; TOLOIE-ASHLAGHY, Abbas; TA-BIBI, Seyed Jamaleddin; MALEKI, Mohammad Reza; GORJI, Hassan Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Universities of Medical Science and Health Services (UMSHSs) are among the main organizations in Iran's health-care section. Improving their efficiency in financial resource management through creating an appropri-ate coordination between consumption and resources is strategically vital. Investigating the financial performance as well as ranking the Iranian UMSHSs is the research objective. Methods The study is of descriptive and applied type. The study population includes the UMSHSs of Iran (n=42) among which 24 UMSHSs are selected. DEA is used with the aim to model and assess the financial performance in-cluding 4 inputs and 3 outputs. Also, linear regression is applied to determine the effectiveness of the applied indices as well as the level of the financial performance. Data are obtained from the Budgeting Center in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, during 2010 mainly through forms designed based on the available balance sheets. Results The average score of financial performance assessment for UMSHSs based on the DEA of input-oriented data is 0.74, assuming a constant scale of DEA-CRS. Thus, approximately 25% of the studied UMSHSs have maxi-mum relative performance and totally, there is about a 30% capacity to increase the financial performance in these UMSHSs. Conclusion Most Iranian UMSHSs do not have high financial performance. This can be due to problems in financial resource management especially in asset combining. Therefore, compilation and execution of a comprehensive pro-gram for organizational change and agility with the aim to create a kind of optimized combination of resources and assets is strongly recommended. PMID:26060685

  16. Modeling the Problem-Based Learning Preferences of McMaster University Undergraduate Medical Students Using a Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Deal, Ken; Neville, Alan; Rimas, Heather; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To use methods from the field of marketing research to involve students in the redesign of McMaster University's small group, problem-based undergraduate medical education program. Methods: We used themes from a focus group conducted in an electronic decision support lab to compose 14 four-level educational attributes. Undergraduate…

  17. The Careers in Health and Medical Professions Program (CHAMPS): An Impact Study of a University-Based STEM+H Outreach Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Eric W.; Perry, Justin C.; Ferguson, Robert L.; Jackson, Debbie K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Health (STEM+H) university-based pipeline program, the Careers in Health and Medical Professions Program, over the course of two summers among predominantly African-American high school students recruited from urban school districts (N = 155). Based on…

  18. An Outline of a Proposed Five- plus Three-Year Combined Undergraduate-Master's Degree for Clinical Medicine Majors at Nanjing Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xing-Ya; Yu, Rong-Bin; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    To build an effective model to train excellent doctors, Nanjing Medical University has proposed a five- plus three-year combined undergraduate-master's clinical medicine degree program. The program integrates undergraduate education, the education of research students, and standardized doctor residency training into a single system, allowing…

  19. Over-the-counter and Prescription Medications for Acne: A Cross-Sectional Survey in a Sample of University Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Mohja D.; Almutairi, Abdulsalam T.; Alomran, Asma M.; Alrashed, Batool A.; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Acne is a very common dermatological condition found among the adolescent population in Saudi Arabia. Many patients with acne try various forms of self-medication, over the counter medicines (OTC), and prescription medicines for the same. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among university students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A validated questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of university students to evaluate their knowledge and attitudes towards OTC (mainly) as well as prescription medicine for acne. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression tests were used for comparisons between groups. Results: Four hundred and twenty valid, completed questionnaires were obtained. A total of 220 (52.4%) used some type of OTC medications at least once, where as 108 (25.7%) used prescription medicines and 92 (21.9%) used both. The most common OTC medications used were cleansers by 250 participants (41.9%). Among prescription medicines, the most common were topical and oral antibiotics (11.4%). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that females are statistically more likely to use OTC medicines compared to males (Odds ratio: 1.7). Conclusion: The use of self-medications and OTC medications is common among university students in KSA. The most common OTC medicine used for acne was cleanser.

  20. A landscape analysis of leadership training in postgraduate medical education training programs at the University of Ottawa

    PubMed Central

    Danilewitz, Marlon; McLean, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the importance of physician leadership in healthcare. At the same time, becoming an effective leader requires significant training. While educational opportunities for practicing physicians exist to develop their leadership skills, there is a paucity of leadership opportunities for post graduate trainees. In response to this gap, both the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada have recommended that leadership training be considered a focus in Post Graduate Medical Education (PGME). However, post-graduate leadership curricula and opportunities in PGME training programs in Canada are not well described. The goal of this study was to determine the motivation for PGME leadership training, the opportunities available, and educational barriers experienced by PGME programs at the University of Ottawa. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to all 70 PGME Program Directors (PDs) at the University of Ottawa. Two PDs were selected, based on strong leadership programs, for individual interviews. Results The survey response rate was 55.7%. Seventy-seven percent of responding PDs reported resident participation in leadership training as being “important,” while only 37.8% of programs incorporated assessment of resident leadership knowledge and/or skills into their PGME program. Similarly, only 29.7% of responding residency programs offered chief resident leadership training. Conclusions While there is strong recognition of the importance of training future physician leaders, the nature and design of PGME leadership training is highly variable. These data can be used to potentially inform future PGME leadership training curricula. PMID:28344692

  1. [Longer working hours of pharmacists in the ward resulted in lower medication-related errors--survey of national university hospitals in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazuo; Toyama, Akira; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Awaya, Toshio; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Horiuchi, Ryuya

    2011-04-01

    It is obvious that pharmacists play a critical role as risk managers in the healthcare system, especially in medication treatment. Hitherto, there is not a single multicenter-survey report describing the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists in preventing medical errors from occurring in the wards in Japan. Thus, we conducted a 1-month survey to elucidate the relationship between the number of errors and working hours of pharmacists in the ward, and verified whether the assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward would prevent medical errors between October 1-31, 2009. Questionnaire items for the pharmacists at 42 national university hospitals and a medical institute included the total and the respective numbers of medication-related errors, beds and working hours of pharmacist in 2 internal medicine and 2 surgical departments in each hospital. Regardless of severity, errors were consecutively reported to the Medical Security and Safety Management Section in each hospital. The analysis of errors revealed that longer working hours of pharmacists in the ward resulted in less medication-related errors; this was especially significant in the internal medicine ward (where a variety of drugs were used) compared with the surgical ward. However, the nurse assignment mode (nurse/inpatients ratio: 1 : 7-10) did not influence the error frequency. The results of this survey strongly indicate that assignment of clinical pharmacists to the ward is critically essential in promoting medication safety and efficacy.

  2. Positions Toward Science Studies in Medicine Among University Graduates of Medicine and the Teenaged Participants of the "Medical Systems" Study Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi-Assaraf, Orit; Even-Israel, Chava

    2011-08-01

    The "Medical Systems" program was designed to introduce high school students to the world of advanced medicine. Its premise was to use an applied scientific discipline like medicine to encourage high-school students' interest in basic science. This study compares the teen-aged graduates of "Medical Systems" with fourth and fifth-year medical students. It aims to identify the attitudes of these two groups towards medical science and basic sciences in medicine. The population included 94 graduates of "Medical Systems" from schools throughout Israel, who had also completed an advanced-level course in a basic science (biology, chemistry or physics), and 96 medical students from different Israeli universities. The students' attitudes were measured using West et al.'s questionnaire (Med Educ 16(4):188-191, 1982), which assesses both the attitude of the participants towards basic science knowledge, and their attitude towards their learning experience in medical school. Nine participants from each group were also interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. The results showed essential differences in the attitudes of the two groups. The high school students consider scientific knowledge far more essential for a physician than do the medical students, who also showed a far lower estimation of the effectiveness of their science studies.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) among medical laboratory staff at King Saud University Hospitals, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed S, Shaffi; Anas M, Bardeesi; Aref A, Altwair; Abdulrahman A, AlMubarak

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a group of symptoms resulting from local compression of the median nerve at the wrist leading to its subsequent functional impairment and local ischemia of the nerve. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and commonly reported symptoms of CTS in the laboratory workers of King Saud University (KSU) hospitals and to identify the associated variables with CTS. Methods: This was a quantitative observational cross-sectional study which was conducted in KSU hospitals’ laboratories with a total of 225 participants by using a standardized questionnaire known as “ Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Data Analysis was carried out by IBM SPSS Statistics software version 21.0. Results: Out of the 225 participants, 57 were found to be severely symptomatic with a prevalence of 25.3%. Among the severely affected participants, females were more than males (58% > 42%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.045). Technicians affected (91.2%) were more than attendants (8.8%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.042). Conclusion: The prevalence of Carpal tunnel syndrome in KSU hospitals’ medical laboratory staff (25.3%) was close to what was found in literature (21.5%). So laboratory workers are at risk of developing CTS, especially females and technicians with the dominant hand most likely to be affected. PMID:26101485

  4. Managing resources in a better way: a new financial management approach for the University of Michigan Medical School.

    PubMed

    Elger, William R

    2006-04-01

    Responding to changing trends in how the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has been traditionally financed and anticipating that these trends will continue, in 2002 the executive leadership at the UMMS embarked upon a course designed to change not only the school's financial structure but its management culture as well. Changing traditional ways of thinking about budgets and developing a set of key performance indicators that demonstrate how certain activities shape the use of resources has brought greater understanding of how to optimize those resources to the greatest extent. Through internally developed Web-based software applications called M-STAT, M-DASH and M-ALERT (which are strategic reporting tools that the author describes), the UMMS now can manage resources in a completely different way. These tools are used to spot general financial trends or examine a more specific financial element (such as trends in grant funding or clinical activity), track the utilization of research space, calculate the break-even cost of research space, and most important, model various "what-if" scenarios to help plan effectively for the future needs of the UMMS. The strategic reporting system is still being integrated throughout the UMMS, so there has not yet been time to measure the system's efficacy or its shortcomings. Nevertheless, important lessons have already been learned, which the author presents.

  5. Evaluation of Effective Factors on the Clinical Performance of General Surgeons in Tehran University of Medical Science, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Mohamadi, Efat; najafpour, Zhila; Yousefinezhadi, Taraneh; Forootan, Sara; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Existence of doctors with high performance is one of the necessary conditions to provide high quality services. There are different motivations, which could affect their performance. Recognizing Factors which effect the performance of doctors as an effective force in health care centers is necessary. The aim of this article was evaluate the effective factors which influence on clinical performance of general surgery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: This is a cross-sectional qualitative-quantitative study. This research conducted in 3 phases-phases I: (use of library studies and databases to collect data), phase II: localization of detected factors in first phase by using the Delphi technique and phase III: prioritizing the affecting factors on performance of doctors by using qualitative interviews. Results: 12 articles were analyzed from 300 abstracts during the evaluation process. The output of assessment identified 23 factors was sent to surgeons and their assistants for obtaining their opinions. Quantitative analysis of the findings showed that “work qualification” (86.1%) and “managers and supervisors style” (50%) have respectively the most and the least impact on the performance of doctors. Finally 18 effective factors were identified and prioritized in the performance of general surgeons. Conclusion: The results showed that motivation and performance is not a single operating parameter and it depends on several factors according to cultural background. Therefore it is necessary to design, implementation and monitoring based on key determinants of effective interventions due to cultural background. PMID:27157161

  6. Acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis: current prevalence at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School.

    PubMed

    Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Cleva, Roberto D E; Utiyama, Edivaldo M; Cecconello, Ivan; Rasslan, Samir; Parreira, José Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Postsurgical acute suppurative parotitis is a bacterial gland infection that occurs from a few days up to some weeks after abdominal surgical procedures. In this study, the authors analyze the prevalence of this complication in Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University Medical School by prospectively reviewing the charts of patients who underwent surgeries performed by the gastroenterological and general surgery staff from 1980 to 2005. Diagnosis of parotitis or sialoadenitis was analyzed. Sialolithiasis and chronic parotitis previous to hospitalization were exclusion criteria. In a total of 100,679 surgeries, 256 patients were diagnosed with parotitis or sialoadenitis. Nevertheless, only three cases of acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis associated with the surgery were identified giving an incidence of 0.0028%. All patients presented with risk factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppression, prolonged immobilization and dehydration. In the past, acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis was a relatively common complication after major abdominal surgeries. Its incidence decreased as a consequence of the improvement of perioperative antibiotic therapy and postoperative support. In spite of the current low incidence, we believe it is important to identify risks and diagnose as quick as possible, in order to introduce prompt and appropriate therapeutic measures and avoid potentially fatal complications with the evolution of the disease.

  7. Clinical audit teaching in record-keeping for dental undergraduates at International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jun A; Chew, Jamie K Y; Ravindranath, Sneha; Pau, Allan

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of clinical audit training on record-keeping behavior of dental students and students' perceptions of the clinical audit training. The training was delivered to Year 4 and Year 5 undergraduates at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It included a practical audit exercise on patient records. The results were presented by the undergraduates, and guidelines were framed from the recommendations proposed. Following this, an audit of Year 4 and Year 5 students' patient records before and after the audit training was carried out. A total of 100 records were audited against a predetermined set of criteria by two examiners. An email survey of the students was also conducted to explore their views of the audit training. Results showed statistically significant improvements in record-keeping following audit training. Responses to the email survey were analyzed qualitatively. Respondents reported that the audit training helped them to identify deficiencies in their record-keeping practice, increased their knowledge in record-keeping, and improved their record-keeping skills. Improvements in clinical audit teaching were also proposed.

  8. Opium and opioid abuse in orthopedic inpatients: a cross sectional study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Asadzadeh, Mina; Kargar, Hakimeh; Aghdashi, Mir Mosa; Mirzatolooei, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5%) patients (71 men and 3 women) with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000). Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%), and work related injuries (17.5%) were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  9. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270

  10. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  11. Research Publications in Medical Journals (1992-2013) by Family Medicine Authors - Suez Canal University-Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.; Ismail, Mosleh A.; Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research in family medicine (FM) provides an important contribution to its discipline. Family medicine research can contribute to many areas of primary care, ranging from the early diagnosis to equitable health care. Publication productivity is important in academic settings as a marker for career advancement. Objective: To describe the publications by family medicine researcher authors between 1992 and 2013. Materials and Methods: All full text, original articles published by family medicine researcher; author with affiliation to the Suez Canal University were collected using the internet and hand search. The journals that published for family medicine researcher authors were identified. Author characteristics were described. The trend of publications was described. All articles were analyzed for their characteristics, including the themes and study designs according to predefined criteria. Results: Along 22 years, 149 research articles were published by 48 family medicine authors in 39 medical journals. The largest category in publications was related to Family physician/Health service (FP-HS, n = 52 articles), followed by ‘Patient’ category (n = 42). All the studies were quantitative; the largest group was represented by cross-sectional studies (76.5%). Conclusions: The publication productivity by family medicine researchers are going to be increased. FP-HS and patient topics were mostly addressed in publications. Cross-sectional studies exceeded any other designs. There is need to put more emphasis on intervention studies. Continuous assessment and improvement of FM research production and publication is recommended. PMID:25657945

  12. Specialization training in Malawi: a qualitative study on the perspectives of medical students graduating from the University of Malawi College of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a critical shortage of healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and Malawi has one of the lowest physician densities in the region. One of the reasons for this shortage is inadequate retention of medical school graduates, partly due to the desire for specialization training. The University of Malawi College of Medicine has developed specialty training programs, but medical school graduates continue to report a desire to leave the country for specialization training. To understand this desire, we studied medical students’ perspectives on specialization training in Malawi. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews of medical students in the final year of their degree program. We developed an interview guide through an iterative process, and recorded and transcribed all interviews for analysis. Two independent coders coded the manuscripts and assessed inter-coder reliability, and the authors used an “editing approach” to qualitative analysis to identify and categorize themes relating to the research aim. The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board and the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee approved this study and authors obtained written informed consent from all participants. Results We interviewed 21 medical students. All students reported a desire for specialization training, with 12 (57%) students interested in specialties not currently offered in Malawi. Students discussed reasons for pursuing specialization training, impressions of specialization training in Malawi, reasons for staying or leaving Malawi to pursue specialization training and recommendations to improve training. Conclusions Graduating medical students in Malawi have mixed views of specialization training in their own country and still desire to leave Malawi to pursue further training. Training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to understand the needs of the country’s healthcare workforce and the needs of their

  13. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  14. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-23

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  15. Practices of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Ahmed, Javed; Ali, Akbar Shoukat; Sonekhi, Gomand Beekho; Fayyaz, Nargis; Zainulabdin, Zeeshan; Jindani, Rahim

    2016-02-01

    Self-medication practice among nursing students is of growing concern. Access to drugs and handling them in their future practices make nursing students susceptible to self-prescription and self-medication. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and pattern of self-medication with antibiotics among nursing students of Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. A random sample of convenience of 160 nursing students underwent a predesigned questionnaire. More than half of nursing students 79 (52.7%) experienced self-medication with antibiotics. It was more prevalent among males 49 (62%) . Knowledge about the drug 59 (74.7%) and convenience 13 (16.5%) were the key reasons to self-medicate. Fever 37 (46.8%) and sore throat 27 (34.2%) were the common symptoms predisposing to self-medication. Beta-lactam group of antibiotics 35 (44.3%) was most frequent used. Only 26 (32.9%) respondents completed the entire antibiotic course. Efforts must be directed towards educating nursing students about responsible and informed self-medication practices.

  16. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre-and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Mansour, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Bedah, Abdullah MN; AlRukban, Mohammed Othman; Elsubai, Ibrahim S; Mohamed, Elsadiq Yousif; El Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Asim AH; Khalil, Mohamed KM; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; Almudaiheem, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Waqas Sami; Medani, Khalid Altohami; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development. Objective and setting This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Methods The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013) and second (year 2013–2014) intake (n=26 and 39, respectively) were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Results Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items including their views on CAM practices. Conclusion CAM course tends to have a positive impact on KAP of medical students. The preliminary results of this study call for further research with a larger sample in academic settings across the nation. PMID:26082671

  17. Medical laboratory science and nursing students’ perception of academic learning environment in a Philippine university using Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the perception of the academic learning environment between medical laboratory science students and nursing students at Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines. Methods A cross-sectional survey research design was used to measure the perceptions of the participants. A total of 341 students from the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Natural Sciences, and the School of Nursing answered the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument from April to May 2016. Responses were compared according to course of study, gender, and year level. Results The total mean DREEM scores of the medical laboratory science students and nursing students did not differ significantly when grouped according to course of study, gender, or year level. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domains ‘perception of learning’ and ‘perception of teaching.’ Male medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain ‘perception of learning’ among second year students. Medical laboratory science students had significantly lower mean scores in the sub-domain ‘perception of learning.’ Nursing students identified 7 problem areas, most of which were related to their instructors. Conclusion Medical laboratory science and nursing students viewed their academic learning environment as ‘more positive than negative.’ However, the relationship of the nursing instructors to their students needs improvement. PMID:27649901

  18. The prevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a suburb of Osaka city--based on reports on the temporary closing of classes.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    An outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred in May 2009 in Osaka and Kobe, Japan. We studied the prevalence of this strain of influenza in Yao City. According to the study, the frequency of temporary class closure did not vary significantly among the first to sixth grades of elementary schools; however, there was a markedly lower frequency of temporary closures among junior high school third-year classes.

  19. An Analytical Comparison of the Opinions of Physicians Working in Emergency and Trauma Surgery Departments at Tabriz and Vienna Medical Universities Regarding Family Presence during Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Behringer, Wilhelm; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Golzari, Samad E J; Hajdu, Stefan; Rasouli, Maryam; Nikakhtar, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the opinions of physicians working in the emergency and trauma surgery departments of Vienna Medical University, in Austria, and Tabriz Medical University, in Iran, regarding the presence of patients’ relatives during resuscitation. In a descriptive-analytical study, the data obtained from questionnaires that had been distributed randomly to 40 specialists and residents at each of the participating universities were analyzed. The questionnaire consisted of two sections aimed at capturing the participants’ demographic data, the participants’ opinions regarding their support for the family’s presence during resuscitation, and the multiple potential factors affecting the participants’ attitudes, including health beliefs, triggers that could facilitate the procedure, self-efficacy, intellectual norms, and perceived behavioral control. The questionnaire also included a direct question (Question 16) on whether the participants approved of family presence. Each question could be answered using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that the mean scores for Question 16 were 4.31 ± 0.64 and 3.57 ± 1.31 for participants at Vienna and Tabriz universities, respectively. Moreover, physicians at Vienna University disapproved of the presence of patients’ families during resuscitation to a higher extent than did those at Tabriz University (P = 0.018). Of the studied prognostic factors affecting the perspectives of Vienna Medical University’s physicians, health beliefs (P = 0.000; B = 1.146), triggers (P = 0.000; B = 1.050), and norms (P = 0.000; B = 0.714) were found to be significant. Moreover, of the studied prognostic factors affecting the perspectives of Tabriz Medical University’s physicians, health beliefs (P = 0.000; B = 0.875), triggers (P = 0.000; B = 1.11), self-efficacy (P = 0.001; B = 0.5), and perceived behavioral control (P = 0.03; B = 0.713) were significant. Most physicians at Vienna and Tabriz Medical universities

  20. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  1. Relationship between learning styles and interpersonal communication skills of nursing student in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Azari, S; Mokhtari, S; Mousavi, H; Mohammadi, M; Aliyari, A; Salimi, M; Azari, GH

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: interpersonal communication skills are required for training and represent one of the most significant parts concerning the character of student learning. In another idea, learning is a constant method and learners favor a position of knowledge forms according to their character and individual practices. Evaluate the correlation between the learning methods and interpersonal conversation abilities of the nursing undergraduate in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012 was the purpose of this research. Methods: In this regular detailed cross-sectional analysis, 361 students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery were chosen during a census method. The information collection instruments were regulated, giving a questionnaire called Interpersonal Communication Skills Standards exam and VARK Learning Styles questionnaire. Data was examined by SPSS application (18th edition) by using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: 320 questionnaires were finished. 60.6% of the members were females. The average number of the students’ conversation abilities level was 101.91 ± 10.35. More than half of the samples (58.8%) preferred multi-modal learning styles (Bi-Tri and Quad Modals) and 41.2% of the students preferred single modal learning styles. There were no significant differences between the Interpersonal Communication Skills and the learning styles (P= 0.46). Conclusion: According to no significant relationship between the communication skills of students with learning style and Demographic changeable and Lack of proper form of communication skills, we were ready to build different systems and courses related to improving the skills’ level. PMID:28316687

  2. Change Theory for Accounting System Reform in Health Sector: A Case Study of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Change theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin’s change theory or not. Methods: This study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants) and the quote method (35 participants) for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. Results: The results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16). Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin’s change theory and the

  3. Tradition Meets Innovation: Transforming Academic Medical Culture at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-01-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past twenty years. While the academic physician’s triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic medical centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. Here, the authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multi-pronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met 5 times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers. PMID:23425986

  4. "HTLV-I Infection" Twenty-Year Research in Neurology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Ali; Etemadi, Mohammdmahdi; Moghaddam Ahmadi, Amir; Amini, Mona; Boostani, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL) disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP) in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment) of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of peer-learning method in nutrition students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    DEHGHANI, MOHAMMAD REZA; AMINI, MITRA; KOJURI, JAVAD; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of notable initiatives in improving the academic education is to use the abilities of students to learn together in a new and effective system of peer learning. In this regard, Education  Development Center in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences proceed to implementation and study of the curriculum and teaching methods course in the form of peer learning for college students of nutrition science and survey the efficacy of this implementation. Methods: This study was conducted two parts: qualitative and quantitative survey. A quasi-experimental, pre test/post-test research was used in quantitative part. In this study, whole groups of undergraduate nutrition students in courses of study and learning techniques with the help of teachers held a course and took a part in a competition in 15 major subjects of study and learning methods. The study lasted for two-week sessions and whole of nutrition students were included. We used pair t test for comparison pre test and post test in this study. Results: In the quantitative part of the study, the results showed a significant difference between pre-test (0.0346±0.108) and post-test scores (0.809±0.187) of the students. This means that the level of knowledge of students, who participated in this course, has significant difference before and after the peer learning course (pair t-test=1.010, p=0.002). The results of the quality survey of the training course also indicated satisfaction of participants and necessity of teacher’s presence and control at courses. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the results of the previous studies emphasizing numerous positive effects of the peer learning methods in the academic community. The results also suggest that peer learning is effective to enhancement of the students' confidence and learning. Peer learning also helps to develop their future responsibilities. PMID:25512923

  6. Studying the Effects of Mobile Phone Waves on Electro Cardiogram Parameters of Students in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Nabizadeh Sarabandi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing use of mobile phones in recent years has caused concerns about the effects of electromagnetic waves of mobile phonesonhuman biological processes. Objectives This study was conducted in order to survey the effects of mobile electromagnetic waves on electro cardiogram parameters as heart rate, TP segment, PR interval, Time of QRS and T waves, and voltage of R wave. Patients and Methods In this quasi experimental study, 40 students, of Zahedan medical science University, 20 boys and 20 girls, who had referred to the laboratory of physiology were selected. At first a normal electro cardiogram in lead I was recorded for each of the subjects for 20 seconds. Then a mobile phone was placed near their body and while mobile was ringing and talking two other electrocardiograms were recording for 20 seconds. Electro cardiograms were recorded with power lab device and analyzed by chart 5 software. Finally an ANOVA was employed to analyze the data through the SPSS 17, followed by a Tukey test. Results There was significant difference between heart rate during talking in comparison with heart rate during ringing and resting in both genders. There was a significant decrease of resting TP segment in comparison with TP segment during ringing and talking in males whereas in females TP segment indicated significant difference in all three conditions. There was a significant increase in T wave time in males during talking in comparison with resting and ringing; however there was no significant difference in that of females in any of the three stated conditions. This study revealed that there is not any significant difference in PR interval, Time of QRS wave and R wave voltage. Conclusions According to the results of this study, mobile phones can affect the heart rate, TP segment and time of T wave. Therefore, it seems that long term use can affect heart. Based on several reports on the effects of these waves on biological processes, precautionary measures

  7. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among medical residents of the University Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Dávila, Leticia Hernández; Rivera, Nixzaliz Rodríguez; Valentin, Mariel López; Haddock, Lillian; Martínez, Renil Rodríguez; Bossolo, Alex González

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention due to higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of Vitamin D status, other factors such as: age, race, use of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there is limited data of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To answer that question we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents from ages 25 to 39 of the University Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico by means of a questionnaire about basic socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric data, and lifestyle characteristics and obtained blood sampling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7–38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiency in 43.1% of the population and insufficiency in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during the periods of higher sun intensity, increased body mass index and a limited area of body exposed to sunlight. A relationship between lower physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowance, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association. PMID:26061058

  8. Relationship between learning styles and interpersonal communication skills of nursing student in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012.

    PubMed

    Azari, S; Mokhtari, S; Mousavi, H; Mohammadi, M; Aliyari, A; Salimi, M; Azari, G H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: interpersonal communication skills are required for training and represent one of the most significant parts concerning the character of student learning. In another idea, learning is a constant method and learners favor a position of knowledge forms according to their character and individual practices. Evaluate the correlation between the learning methods and interpersonal conversation abilities of the nursing undergraduate in Medical Sciences Tehran University in 2012 was the purpose of this research. Methods: In this regular detailed cross-sectional analysis, 361 students from the School of Nursing and Midwifery were chosen during a census method. The information collection instruments were regulated, giving a questionnaire called Interpersonal Communication Skills Standards exam and VARK Learning Styles questionnaire. Data was examined by SPSS application (18th edition) by using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: 320 questionnaires were finished. 60.6% of the members were females. The average number of the students' conversation abilities level was 101.91 ± 10.35. More than half of the samples (58.8%) preferred multi-modal learning styles (Bi-Tri and Quad Modals) and 41.2% of the students preferred single modal learning styles. There were no significant differences between the Interpersonal Communication Skills and the learning styles (P= 0.46). Conclusion: According to no significant relationship between the communication skills of students with learning style and Demographic changeable and Lack of proper form of communication skills, we were ready to build different systems and courses related to improving the skills' level.

  9. Psychological Health of First-Year Health Professional Students in a Medical University in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Kadayam G; Ahmed, Soofia; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125) of the Gulf Medical University (GMU) in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6%) completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major