Quantum Cohesion Oscillation of Electron Ground State in Low Temperature Laser Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Qingxun; Zhang, Ping; Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Kaixi
1996-01-01
The development of radically new technological and economically efficient methods for obtaining chemical products and for producing new materials with specific properties requires the study of physical and chemical processes proceeding at temperature of 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) K, temperature range of low temperature plasma. In our paper, by means of Wigner matrix of quantum statistical theory, a formula is derived for the energy of quantum coherent oscillation of electron ground state in laser plasma at low temperature. The collective behavior would be important in ion and ion-molecule reactions.
Chung, N. N.; Er, C. H.; Teo, Y. S.; Chew, L. Y.
2010-07-15
We explore quantitatively the fundamental connection between the entropy and local uncertainty product as an entanglement measure within the lowest energy eigenstate of a class of two-coupled anharmonic oscillator systems. We find that these two quantum aspects approach a unique relation as the entanglement between the oscillators becomes large if the potential of the first collective mode displays a generic single-well potential structure. This implies that the uncertainty product can be a good choice for the characterization of entanglement when the entropy is sufficiently large. Interestingly, although this relation is robust against the anharmonic perturbation, we find that it can be altered effectively by a quantum catastrophe.
Chimera States in Neural Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahar, Sonya; Glaze, Tera
2014-03-01
Chimera states have recently been explored both theoretically and experimentally, in various coupled nonlinear oscillators, ranging from phase-oscillator models to coupled chemical reactions. In a chimera state, both coherent and incoherent (or synchronized and desynchronized) states occur simultaneously in populations of identical oscillators. We investigate chimera behavior in a population of neural oscillators using the Huber-Braun model, a Hodgkin-Huxley-like model originally developed to characterize the temperature-dependent bursting behavior of mammalian cold receptors. One population of neurons is allowed to synchronize, with each neuron receiving input from all the others in its group (global within-group coupling). Subsequently, a second population of identical neurons is placed under an identical global within-group coupling, and the two populations are also coupled to each other (between-group coupling). For certain values of the coupling constants, the neurons in the two populations exhibit radically different synchronization behavior. We will discuss the range of chimera activity in the model, and discuss its implications for actual neural activity, such as unihemispheric sleep.
Experimental observation of N00N state Bloch oscillations.
Lebugle, Maxime; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Perez-Leija, Armando; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2015-09-22
Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces. Albeit this phenomenon is deeply rooted into the very foundations of quantum mechanics, all experimental observations so far have only contemplated dynamics of one and two particles initially prepared in separable local states. Evidently, a more general description of genuinely quantum Bloch oscillations will be achieved on excitation of a Bloch oscillator by nonlocal states. Here we report the observation of Bloch oscillations of two-particle N00N states, and discuss the nonlocality on the ground of Bell-like inequalities. The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching. Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.
Squeezed states of damped oscillator chain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
The Caldirola-Kanai model of one-dimensional damped oscillator is extended to the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping. The correlated and squeezed states for the chain of coupled parametric oscillators with damping are constructed. Based on the concept of the integrals of motion, it is demonstrated how squeezing phenomenon arises due to parametric excitation.
Generalized oscillator and its coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borzov, V. V.
2007-12-01
We construct a system (a generalized oscillator) that is similar to the oscillator and is related to a system of orthogonal polynomials on the real axis. We define coherent states in the Fock space associated with the generalized oscillator. In the example of the generalized oscillator related to the Gegenbauer polynomials, we prove the (super)completeness of these coherent states, i.e., we construct a measure determining a partition of unity. We present a formula that allows calculating the Mandel parameter for the constructed coherent states.
Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
1993-01-01
The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.
Entangled states of spin and clock oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polzik, Eugene
2016-05-01
Measurements of one quadrature of an oscillator with precision beyond its vacuum state uncertainty have occupied a central place in quantum physics for decades. We have recently reported the first experimental implementation of such measurement with a magnetic oscillator. However, a much more intriguing goal is to trace an oscillator trajectory with the precision beyond the vacuum state uncertainty in both position and momentum, a feat naively assumed not possible due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We have demonstrated that such measurement is possible if the oscillator is entangled with a quantum reference oscillator with an effective negative mass. The key element is the cancellation of the back action of the measurement on the composite system of two oscillators. Applications include measurements of e.-m. fields, accelleration, force and time with practically unlimited accuracy. In a more general sense, this approach leads to trajectories without quantum uncertainties and to achieving new fundamental bounds on the measurement precision.
Ground states of holographic superconductors
Gubser, Steven S.; Nellore, Abhinav
2009-11-15
We investigate the ground states of the Abelian Higgs model in AdS{sub 4} with various choices of parameters, and with no deformations in the ultraviolet other than a chemical potential for the electric charge under the Abelian gauge field. For W-shaped potentials with symmetry-breaking minima, an analysis of infrared asymptotics suggests that the ground state has emergent conformal symmetry in the infrared when the charge of the complex scalar is large enough. But when this charge is too small, the likeliest ground state has Lifshitz-like scaling in the infrared. For positive mass quadratic potentials, Lifshitz-like scaling is the only possible infrared behavior for constant nonzero values of the scalar. The approach to Lifshitz-like scaling is shown in many cases to be oscillatory.
Chimera States in populations of nonlocally coupled chemical oscillators.
Nkomo, Simbarashe; Tinsley, Mark R; Showalter, Kenneth
2013-06-14
Chimera states occur spontaneously in populations of coupled photosensitive chemical oscillators. Experiments and simulations are carried out on nonlocally coupled oscillators, with the coupling strength decreasing exponentially with distance. Chimera states with synchronized oscillators, phase waves, and phase clusters coexisting with unsynchronized oscillators are analyzed. Irregular motion of the cores of asynchronous oscillators is found in spiral-wave chimeras.
Moving Toward the Ground State.
Kumar, Ishan; Ivanova, Natalia
2015-10-01
Transferring mouse ESCs to a media supplemented with Mek and Gsk3β inhibitors (2i) provokes marked transcriptional and epigenetic changes, embodying a shift toward ground-state pluripotency. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kolodziejczyk et al. (2015) examine population structures of ESCs while Galonska et al. (2015) unravel the mechanisms underlying regulatory network rewiring during 2i-mediated reprogramming. PMID:26431178
Chimera states in mechanical oscillator networks.
Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi; Fourrière, Antoine; Hallatschek, Oskar
2013-06-25
The synchronization of coupled oscillators is a fascinating manifestation of self-organization that nature uses to orchestrate essential processes of life, such as the beating of the heart. Although it was long thought that synchrony and disorder were mutually exclusive steady states for a network of identical oscillators, numerous theoretical studies in recent years have revealed the intriguing possibility of "chimera states," in which the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into a synchronous part and an asynchronous part. However, a striking lack of empirical evidence raises the question of whether chimeras are indeed characteristic of natural systems. This calls for a palpable realization of chimera states without any fine-tuning, from which physical mechanisms underlying their emergence can be uncovered. Here, we devise a simple experiment with mechanical oscillators coupled in a hierarchical network to show that chimeras emerge naturally from a competition between two antagonistic synchronization patterns. We identify a wide spectrum of complex states, encompassing and extending the set of previously described chimeras. Our mathematical model shows that the self-organization observed in our experiments is controlled by elementary dynamical equations from mechanics that are ubiquitous in many natural and technological systems. The symmetry-breaking mechanism revealed by our experiments may thus be prevalent in systems exhibiting collective behavior, such as power grids, optomechanical crystals, or cells communicating via quorum sensing in microbial populations.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations.
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G A
2016-05-18
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-05-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware.
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-01-01
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250
Ground state energy from the single trajectory propagation of the Schrödinger-Langevin equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Chun
2015-07-01
The Schrödinger-Langevin equation is approximately solved for the ground state energy of quantum systems by propagating one single trajectory at a fixed point. Equations of motion for the amplitude of the wave function and the spatial derivatives of the complex action are derived through use of the derivative propagation method. The ground state energy is calculated from the amplitude of the wave function propagated along the single trajectory. Excellent ground state energies are obtained for the Morse potential, the strongly anharmonic potential, the coupled Morse oscillator-harmonic oscillator system, and the ground vibrational state of methyl iodide.
Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torquato, Salvatore
Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have been receiving recent attention because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with ``stealthy'' bounded, long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are, counterintuitively, disordered, hyperuniform and highly degenerate. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. A new type of statistical-mechanical theory had to be invented to characterize these exotic states of matter. I report on some initial progress that we have made in this direction. We show that stealthy disordered ground states behave like ''pseudo''-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for the structure and thermodynamic properties of the stealthy disordered ground states and associated excited states are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across dimensions.
Deterministic nonclassicality for quantum-mechanical oscillators in thermal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marek, Petr; Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim
2016-07-01
Quantum nonclassicality is the basic building stone for the vast majority of quantum information applications and methods of its generation are at the forefront of research. One of the obstacles any method needs to clear is the looming presence of decoherence and noise which act against the nonclassicality and often erase it completely. In this paper we show that nonclassical states of a quantum harmonic oscillator initially in thermal equilibrium states can be deterministically created by coupling it to a single two-level system. This can be achieved even in the absorption regime in which the two-level system is initially in the ground state. The method is resilient to noise and it may actually benefit from it, as witnessed by the systems with higher thermal energy producing more nonclassical states.
Coherent States for the Finite su(2)-OSCILLATOR Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vicent, Luis Edgar
A finite oscillator is a system that has a discrete and finite number of spatial positions and energy levels accessible. The su(2)-oscillator model takes the generators of the angular momentum su(2) algebra and, giving to each one a definite physical interpretation, provides a consistent mathematical description of a finite oscillator. This work searches an example of identification of generalized coherent states, within the collection of states and wavefunctions of the finite su(2) oscillator model.
Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE
Coherent states for the relativistic harmonic oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aldaya, Victor; Guerrero, J.
1995-01-01
Recently we have obtained, on the basis of a group approach to quantization, a Bargmann-Fock-like realization of the Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator as well as a generalized Bargmann transform relating fock wave functions and a set of relativistic Hermite polynomials. Nevertheless, the relativistic creation and annihilation operators satisfy typical relativistic commutation relations of the Lie product (vector-z, vector-z(sup dagger)) approximately equals Energy (an SL(2,R) algebra). Here we find higher-order polarization operators on the SL(2,R) group, providing canonical creation and annihilation operators satisfying the Lie product (vector-a, vector-a(sup dagger)) = identity vector 1, the eigenstates of which are 'true' coherent states.
Spatial coexistence of synchronized oscillation and death: A chimeralike state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Banerjee, Tanmoy
2015-10-01
We report an interesting spatiotemporal state, namely the chimeralike incongruous coexistence of synchronized oscillation and stable steady state (CSOD) in a network of nonlocally coupled oscillators. Unlike the chimera and chimera death state, in the CSOD state identical oscillators are self-organized into two coexisting spatially separated domains: In one domain neighboring oscillators show synchronized oscillation and in another domain the neighboring oscillators randomly populate either a synchronized oscillating state or a stable steady state (we call it a death state). We consider a realistic ecological network and show that the interplay of nonlocality and coupling strength results in two routes to the CSOD state: One is from a coexisting mixed state of amplitude chimera and death, and another one is from a globally synchronized state. We provide a qualitative explanation of the origin of this state. We further explore the importance of this study in ecology that gives insight into the relationship between spatial synchrony and global extinction of species. We believe this study will improve our understanding of chimera and chimeralike states.
Triplet (S = 1) Ground State Aminyl Diradical
Rajca, Andrzej; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Pink, Maren; Rajca, Suchada
2008-04-02
Aminyl diradical, which is stable in solution at low temperatures, is prepared. EPR spectra and SQUID magnetometry indicate that the diradical is planar and it possesses triplet ground state, with strong ferromagnetic coupling.
Symmetry-broken states on networks of coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xin; Abrams, Daniel M.
2016-05-01
When identical oscillators are coupled together in a network, dynamical steady states are often assumed to reflect network symmetries. Here, we show that alternative persistent states may also exist that break the symmetries of the underlying coupling network. We further show that these symmetry-broken coexistent states are analogous to those dubbed "chimera states," which can occur when identical oscillators are coupled to one another in identical ways.
Symmetry-broken states on networks of coupled oscillators.
Jiang, Xin; Abrams, Daniel M
2016-05-01
When identical oscillators are coupled together in a network, dynamical steady states are often assumed to reflect network symmetries. Here, we show that alternative persistent states may also exist that break the symmetries of the underlying coupling network. We further show that these symmetry-broken coexistent states are analogous to those dubbed "chimera states," which can occur when identical oscillators are coupled to one another in identical ways.
Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.
2015-04-01
It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical
Ground-state properties of strontium isotopes
Baran, A.; Hoehenberger, W.
1995-10-01
We present systematic constrained Hartree-Fock calculations of ground-state properties of even strontium isotopes ({ital A}=76--100) with the Skyrme interaction. Approximate projection of angular momentum is done after variation by explicit inclusion of the rotational energy {minus}{l_angle}{ital {cflx j}}{sup 2}{sub {ital x}}{r_angle}/J. This procedure allows for the determination of the ground-state deformations as well as the low rotational states. The binding energies, rms radii, quadrupole moments, and rotational states are discussed.
Correlated states of a quantum oscillator acted by short pulses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
Correlated squeezed states for a quantum oscillator are constructed based on the method of quantum integrals of motion. The quantum oscillator is acted upon by short duration pulses. Three delta-kickings of frequency are used to model the pulses' dependence upon the time aspects of the frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the correlation coefficient and quantum variances of operations of coordinates and momenta are written in explicit form.
Simulation of the hydrogen ground state in stochastic electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Liska, Matthew T. P.
2015-10-01
Stochastic electrodynamics is a classical theory which assumes that the physical vacuum consists of classical stochastic fields with average energy \\frac{1}{2}{{\\hslash }}ω in each mode, i.e., the zero-point Planck spectrum. While this classical theory explains many quantum phenomena related to harmonic oscillator problems, hard results on nonlinear systems are still lacking. In this work the hydrogen ground state is studied by numerically solving the Abraham-Lorentz equation in the dipole approximation. First the stochastic Gaussian field is represented by a sum over Gaussian frequency components, next the dynamics is solved numerically using OpenCL. The approach improves on work by Cole and Zou 2003 by treating the full 3d problem and reaching longer simulation times. The results are compared with a conjecture for the ground state phase space density. Though short time results suggest a trend towards confirmation, in all attempted modellings the atom ionises at longer times.
Mizel, Ari
2004-07-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum-mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
Solvable Model for Chimera States of Coupled Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrams, Daniel M.; Mirollo, Rennie; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiley, Daniel A.
2008-08-01
Networks of identical, symmetrically coupled oscillators can spontaneously split into synchronized and desynchronized subpopulations. Such chimera states were discovered in 2002, but are not well understood theoretically. Here we obtain the first exact results about the stability, dynamics, and bifurcations of chimera states by analyzing a minimal model consisting of two interacting populations of oscillators. Along with a completely synchronous state, the system displays stable chimeras, breathing chimeras, and saddle-node, Hopf, and homoclinic bifurcations of chimeras.
Solvable model for chimera states of coupled oscillators.
Abrams, Daniel M; Mirollo, Rennie; Strogatz, Steven H; Wiley, Daniel A
2008-08-22
Networks of identical, symmetrically coupled oscillators can spontaneously split into synchronized and desynchronized subpopulations. Such chimera states were discovered in 2002, but are not well understood theoretically. Here we obtain the first exact results about the stability, dynamics, and bifurcations of chimera states by analyzing a minimal model consisting of two interacting populations of oscillators. Along with a completely synchronous state, the system displays stable chimeras, breathing chimeras, and saddle-node, Hopf, and homoclinic bifurcations of chimeras.
Coherent States of Position-Dependent Mass Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehdashti, Shahram; Mahdifar, Ali; Wang, Huaping
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study Gazeau-Klauder and displacement-type coherent states of two-dimensional position-dependent mass oscillators, which is called Λ-dependent oscillators and Λ can be interpreted as the curvatures of the spherical and the hyperbolic spaces, on which oscillators are constrained. In addition, we consider the effect of Λ parameter on the physical properties of these coherent states, including minimized Heisenberg uncertainty relation and Mandel's Q parameter. We also elaborate the relation between the curvature of the physical space and the curvature of the Λ-dependent coherent state manifold.
Trapped antihydrogen in its ground state.
Gabrielse, G; Kalra, R; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D W; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J
2012-03-16
Antihydrogen atoms (H¯) are confined in an Ioffe trap for 15-1000 s-long enough to ensure that they reach their ground state. Though reproducibility challenges remain in making large numbers of cold antiprotons (p¯) and positrons (e(+)) interact, 5±1 simultaneously confined ground-state atoms are produced and observed on average, substantially more than previously reported. Increases in the number of simultaneously trapped H¯ are critical if laser cooling of trapped H¯ is to be demonstrated and spectroscopic studies at interesting levels of precision are to be carried out.
Transport properties of ground state oxygen atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, Paul M.; Biolsi, Louis
1988-01-01
The transport properties of dilute monatomic gases depend on the two-body interactions between like atoms. When two ground-state oxygen atoms interact, they can follow any of 18 potential energy curves corresponding to O2, all of which contribute to the transport properties of the ground-state atoms. Transport collision integrals have been calculated for those interactions with an attractive minimum in the potential, and repulsive ab initio potential-energy curves have been accurately represented. Results are given for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion and they are compared with previous theoretical calculations.
Quantum optics. Quantum harmonic oscillator state synthesis by reservoir engineering.
Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Keitch, B; de Clercq, L; Leupold, F; Lindenfelser, F; Marinelli, M; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-01
The robust generation of quantum states in the presence of decoherence is a primary challenge for explorations of quantum mechanics at larger scales. Using the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion, we utilize reservoir engineering to generate squeezed, coherent, and displaced-squeezed states as steady states in the presence of noise. We verify the created state by generating two-state correlated spin-motion Rabi oscillations, resulting in high-contrast measurements. For both cooling and measurement, we use spin-oscillator couplings that provide transitions between oscillator states in an engineered Fock state basis. Our approach should facilitate studies of entanglement, quantum computation, and open-system quantum simulations in a wide range of physical systems.
Persistent chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji
2015-12-01
Chimera states in the systems of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are considered stable in the continuous limit of spatially distributed oscillators. However, it is reported that in the numerical simulations without taking such limit, chimera states are chaotic transient and finally collapse into the completely synchronous solution. In this Rapid Communication, we numerically study chimera states by using the coupling function different from the previous studies and obtain the result that chimera states can be stable even without taking the continuous limit, which we call the persistent chimera state.
Persistent chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators.
Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji
2015-12-01
Chimera states in the systems of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are considered stable in the continuous limit of spatially distributed oscillators. However, it is reported that in the numerical simulations without taking such limit, chimera states are chaotic transient and finally collapse into the completely synchronous solution. In this Rapid Communication, we numerically study chimera states by using the coupling function different from the previous studies and obtain the result that chimera states can be stable even without taking the continuous limit, which we call the persistent chimera state.
Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.
Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F
2014-10-31
We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39) C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10) cm(3) s(-1).
Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.
Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M
1994-01-01
The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.
Magnetic properties of ground-state mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šimonis, V.
2016-04-01
Starting with the bag model a method for the study of the magnetic properties (magnetic moments, magnetic dipole transition widths) of ground-state mesons is developed. We calculate the M1 transition moments and use them subsequently to estimate the corresponding decay widths. These are compared with experimental data, where available, and with the results obtained in other approaches. Finally, we give the predictions for the static magnetic moments of all ground-state vector mesons including those containing heavy quarks. We have a good agreement with experimental data for the M1 decay rates of light as well as heavy mesons. Therefore, we expect our predictions for the static magnetic properties ( i.e., usual magnetic moments) to be of sufficiently high quality, too.
Slow brain oscillations of sleep, resting state, and vigilance.
Van Someren, E J W; Van Der Werf, Y D; Roelfsema, P R; Mansvelder, H D; da Silva, F H Lopes
2011-01-01
The most important quest of cognitive neuroscience may be to unravel the mechanisms by which the brain selects, links, consolidates, and integrates new information into its neuronal network, while preventing saturation to occur. During the past decade, neuroscientists working within several disciplines have observed an important involvement of the specific types of brain oscillations that occur during sleep--the cortical slow oscillations; during the resting state--the fMRI resting state networks including the default-mode network (DMN); and during task performance--the performance modulations that link as well to modulations in electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography frequency content. Understanding the role of these slow oscillations thus appears to be essential for our fundamental understanding of brain function. Brain activity is characterized by oscillations occurring in spike frequency, field potentials or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. Environmental stimuli, reaching the brain through our senses, activate or inactivate neuronal populations and modulate ongoing activity. The effect they sort is to a large extent determined by the momentary state of the slow endogenous oscillations of the brain. In the absence of sensory input, as is the case during rest or sleep, brain activity does not cease. Rather, its oscillations continue and change with respect to their dominant frequencies and coupling topography. This chapter briefly introduces the topics that will be addressed in this dedicated volume of Progress in Brain Research on slow oscillations and sets the stage for excellent papers discussing their molecular, cellular, network physiological and cognitive performance aspects. Getting to know about slow oscillations is essential for our understanding of plasticity, memory, brain structure from synapse to DMN, cognition, consciousness, and ultimately for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of
Ground state energy of large polaron systems
Benguria, Rafael D.; Frank, Rupert L.; Lieb, Elliott H.
2015-02-15
The last unsolved problem about the many-polaron system, in the Pekar–Tomasevich approximation, is the case of bosons with the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion of strength exactly 1 (the “neutral case”). We prove that the ground state energy, for large N, goes exactly as −N{sup 7/5}, and we give upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic coefficient that agree to within a factor of 2{sup 2/5}.
Ground State Studies of Spin Glass Models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolan, Amy Joanne
The ground state energy and degeneracy for a set of spin glass models, PQR models, has been studied in detail. For the pure frustration case, a subset of the general PQR case, we have studied the spacial distribution of frustrated plaquettes at T = 0. We investigated the "frustration -frustration" correlation function, which involved a series expansion analysis and a computer analysis, to examine a phase transition mechanism proposed by Schuster (1981). Schuster suggested that a pair of plaquettes is bound together above, and dissociated below a critical concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds. Our analysis, however, led us to conclude that there is no sharp "unbinding" of frustration pairs. We have developed an efficient algorithm to compute the ground state energy and degeneracy of sample PQR lattices and have studied the general PQR model numerically. Our algorithm is similar in essence to Morgenstern and Binder's (1980) transfer matrix approach used to calculate the partition function of a sample of spins in the pure frustration case. The algorithm involves computing times of order ALM 2('L), where L is the width of the lattice, M is the length, and A is a constant of proportionality. We have used the results of our analysis to investigate the possibility of a paramagnetic (<--->) spin glass phase transition in the PQR model at T = 0. Although scatter in our results for the ground state degeneracy/spin obscures evidence of a possible non-analyticity in this function, we do see evidence of a "break" in the curves for the ground state energy/spin. We have used this "break" to plot the phase transition line between the spin glass and paramagnetic regimes.
Thrust and Lift generation of heaving and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason M.; Licht, Stephen
2015-11-01
Experimental results are presented for the thrust and lift generation on a NACA0012 airfoil undergoing heave and pitch oscillation near a solid boundary. For ground effect in the steady flow over a lifting surface, lift and drag forces are altered by an enhanced spanwise flow around the tip of the lifting surface, resulting in a strong low pressure region on the upper part of the wing and increased lift in the presence of a boundary. In the present study, this effect is investigated for an inherently unsteady flow, a propulsive flapping foil. It is found that ground effect has a significant effect on the instantaneous and average lift and thrust forces generated by the oscillating foil with heave and pitch motion. It is found that the forces on a flapping foil in the presence of the ground is not only dependent on the aspect ratio but shows high dependency on the kinematics of motion such as maximum angle of attack, frequency of flapping, and the distance from the ground. The relation between these parameters and their effect on the cycle averaged thrust, lift, propulsive efficiency, and instantaneous force over the airfoil is shown. It is hypothesized that ground effect may be used as a proxy sensor for identifying solid boundaries with biomimetic underwater vehicles. Keywords: Ground effect, Flapping foil propulsion, flow-structure interaction.
Entanglement Degree of Parasupersymmetric Coherent States of Harmonic Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhtarshenas, S. J.
2006-12-01
We study the boson parafermion entanglement of the parasupersymmetric coherent states of the harmonic oscillator and derive the degree of entanglement in terms of the concurrence. The conditions for obtaining the maximal entanglement is also examined, and it is shown that in the usual supersymmetry situation we can obtain maximally entangled Bell states.
Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics
Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D. ); Ceder, G. ); Dreysse, H. . Lab. de Physique du Solide)
1991-12-01
A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration.
Quasi-biennial oscillation in total ozone: Global behaviour derived from ground-based measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gruzdev, Alexander N.; Mokhov, Igor I.
1994-01-01
The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone (TO) is studied on the basis of TO measurements at the world ground-ased ozone network during 1972-1988. The TO content is on the whole greater in the tropical belt and smaller in high latitudes during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric 50 mb wind than during the easterly phase in all seasons. The appropriate TO difference (westerly category minus easterly category) displays certain space structures changing during a year. There are regions with the peculiar annual evolution of this difference, particularly in the Arctic and Antarctic. Spectral analysis reveals bimodality of TO power spectra in the frequency range of QBO periods, with spectral maxima corresponding to 17-23 months and 28-35 months. The large period oscillations are predominant on the whole. The small period oscillations are likely the consequence of interaction between an annual cycle and QBO.
Dynamic states of a unidirectional ring of chen oscillators
Carvalho, Ana
2015-03-10
We study curious dynamical patterns appearing in a network of a unidirectional ring of Chen oscillators coupled to a ‘buffer’ cell. The network has Z{sub 3} exact symmetry group. We simulate the coupled cell systems associated to the two networks and obtain steady-states, rotating waves, quasiperiodic behavior, and chaos. The different patterns appear to arise through a sequence of Hopf, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcations. The network architecture appears to explain some patterns, whereas the properties of the chaotic oscillator may explain others. We use XPPAUT and MATLAB to compute numerically the relevant states.
Exploring chaos in the Dicke model using ground-state fidelity and Loschmidt echo.
Bhattacharya, Utso; Dasgupta, Sayak; Dutta, Amit
2014-08-01
We study the quantum critical behavior of the Dicke Hamiltonian with finite number of atoms and explore the signature of quantum chaos using measures like the ground-state fidelity and the Loschmidt echo and the time-averaged Loschmidt echo. We show that these quantities clearly point to the classically chaotic nature of the system in the superradiant (SR) phase. While the ground-state fidelity shows aperiodic oscillations as a function of the coupling strength, the echo shows aperiodic oscillations in time and decays rapidly when the system is in the SR phase. We clearly demonstrate how the time-averaged value of the echo already incorporates the information about the ground-state fidelity and stays much less than unity, indicating the classically chaotic nature of the model in the SR phase.
Preparing encoded states in an oscillator
Travaglione, B.C.; Milburn, G.J.
2002-11-01
Recently a scheme has been proposed for constructing quantum error-correcting codes that embed a finite-dimensional code space in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a system described by continuous quantum variables. One of the difficult steps in this scheme is the preparation of the encoded states. We show how these states can be generated by coupling a continuous quantum variable to a single qubit. An ion trap quantum computer provides a natural setting for a continuous system coupled to a qubit. We discuss how encoded states may be generated in an ion trap.
First CFOA-based explicit-current-output quadrature sinusoidal oscillators using grounded capacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahiri, Abhirup; Jaikla, Winai; Siripruchyanun, Montree
2013-02-01
To date, no current-feedback operational amplifier (CFOA)-based sinusoidal oscillator has been reported which provides all the following features simultaneously: (i) current-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator providing two explicit-current-outputs (ECOs) from high output impedance terminals, (ii) employing no more than three CFOA ICs and six passive components, which include two grounded capacitors, (iii) offers independent tuning of the condition of oscillation (CO) via a resistor and (iv) provides tunability of the ratio of amplitudes of the generated quadrature ECOs via a separate resistor. To the best of authors' knowledge, this article reports first CFOA-based QOs in current-mode (i.e. providing two ECO signals). Experimental results using AD844 CFOA ICs from Analog Devices have been included to verify the workability of the proposed oscillator circuits. An example automatic gain control (AGC) loop to regulate the oscillation amplitude and control the THD has also been used and verified using SPICE simulations using the AD844 macro-model.
Proteome Analysis of Ground State Pluripotency
Taleahmad, Sara; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Parker, Lindsay M.; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Mollamohammadi, Sepideh; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Haynes, Paul A.; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini
2015-01-01
The differentiation potential of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be manipulated via serum and medium conditions for direct cellular development or to maintain a naïve ground state. The self-renewal state of ESCs can thus be induced by adding inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk3), known as 2 inhibitors (2i) treatment. We have used a shotgun proteomics approach to investigate differences in protein expressions between 2i- and serum-grown mESCs. The results indicated that 164 proteins were significantly upregulated and 107 proteins downregulated in 2i-grown cells compared to serum. Protein pathways in 2i-grown cells with the highest enrichment were associated with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Protein pathways related to organ development were downregulated in 2i-grown cells. In serum-grown ESCs, protein pathways involved in integrin and focal adhesion, and signaling proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton regulation were enriched. We observed a number of nuclear proteins which were mostly involved in self-renewal maintenance and were expressed at higher levels in 2i compared to serum - Dnmt1, Map2k1, Parp1, Xpo4, Eif3g, Smarca4/Brg1 and Smarcc1/Baf155. Collectively, the results provided an insight into the key protein pathways used by ESCs in the ground state or metastable conditions through 2i or serum culture medium, respectively. PMID:26671762
Ground state fidelity from tensor network representations.
Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Orús, Roman; Vidal, Guifre
2008-02-29
For any D-dimensional quantum lattice system, the fidelity between two ground state many-body wave functions is mapped onto the partition function of a D-dimensional classical statistical vertex lattice model with the same lattice geometry. The fidelity per lattice site, analogous to the free energy per site, is well defined in the thermodynamic limit and can be used to characterize the phase diagram of the model. We explain how to compute the fidelity per site in the context of tensor network algorithms, and demonstrate the approach by analyzing the two-dimensional quantum Ising model with transverse and parallel magnetic fields. PMID:18352611
Best Possible Strategy for Finding Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franz, Astrid; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Salamon, Peter
2001-06-01
Finding the ground state of a system with a complex energy landscape is important for many physical problems including protein folding, spin glasses, chemical clusters, and neural networks. Such problems are usually solved by heuristic search methods whose efficacy is judged by empirical performance on selected examples. We present a proof that, within the large class of algorithms that simulate a random walk on the landscape, threshold accepting is the best possible strategy. In particular, it can perform better than simulated annealing and Tsallis statistics. Our proof is the first example of a provably optimal strategy in this area.
Excitation on the Coherent States of Pseudoharmonic Oscillator
Popov, Dusan; Pop, Nicolina; Sajfert, Vjekoslav
2009-05-22
In the last decades, much attention has been paid to the excitation on coherent states, especially for coherent states of the harmonic oscillator ([1] and references therein). But an interesting anharmonic oscillator with many potential applications is also the pseudoharmonic oscillator (PHO). So, in the present paper we have defined the excitation on the Klauder-Perelomov coherent states (E-KP-CSs) for the PHO. These states are obtained by repeatedly operating the raising operator K{sub +} on a usual Klauder-Perelomov coherent state (KP-CS) of the PHO [2]. We have verified that really, the E-KP-CSs fulfill all the properties of the coherent states, as stated by Klauder [3]. We have examined the nonclassical properties of the E-KP-CSs, by using the density matrix formalism and examining the dependence of the Mandel parameter Q{sub z,k;m}(|z|{sup 2}) on the |z|{sup 2} and on the m. It seems that these states can be used in optical communication field and in the physics of quantum information, as signal beams, due to the fact that in these fields the nonclassicality plays an important role.
Pisot q-coherent states quantization of the harmonic oscillator
Gazeau, J.P.; Olmo, M.A. del
2013-03-15
We revisit the quantized version of the harmonic oscillator obtained through a q-dependent family of coherent states. For each q, 0states form an overcomplete set that resolves the unity with respect to an explicit measure. We restrict our study to the case in which q{sup -1} is a quadratic unit Pisot number, since then the q-deformed integers form Fibonacci-like sequences of integers. We then examine the main characteristics of the corresponding quantum oscillator: localization in the configuration and in the phase spaces, angle operator, probability distributions and related statistical features, time evolution and semi-classical phase space trajectories. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantized version of the harmonic oscillator (HO) through a q-family of coherent states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For q,0
states form an overcomplete set that resolves the unity with respect to an explicit measure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer q-Deformed numbers are Fibonacci-like integer sequences (1/q a quadratic unit Pisot number). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the main physical characteristics of the corresponding quantum oscillator.
Flow path oscillations in transient ground-water simulations of large peatland systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reeve, Andrew S.; Evensen, Robin; Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Rosenberry, Donald
2006-01-01
Transient numerical simulations of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland near the Red Lakes in Northern Minnesota were constructed to evaluate observed reversals in vertical ground-water flow. Seasonal weather changes were introduced to a ground-water flow model by varying evapotranspiration and recharge over time. Vertical hydraulic reversals, driven by changes in recharge and evapotranspiration were produced in the simulated peat layer. These simulations indicate that the high specific storage associated with the peat is an important control on hydraulic reversals. Seasonally driven vertical flow is on the order of centimeters in the deep peat, suggesting that seasonal vertical advective fluxes are not significant and that ground-water flow into the deep peat likely occurs on decadal or longer time scales. Particles tracked within the ground-water flow model oscillate over time, suggesting that seasonal flow reversals will enhance vertical mixing in the peat column. The amplitude of flow path oscillations increased with increasing peat storativity, with amplitudes of about 5 cm occurring when peat specific storativity was set to about 0.05 m -1.
Flow path oscillations in transient ground-water simulations of large peatland systems
Reeve, A.S.; Evensen, R.; Glaser, P.H.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.
2006-01-01
Transient numerical simulations of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland near the Red Lakes in Northern Minnesota were constructed to evaluate observed reversals in vertical ground-water flow. Seasonal weather changes were introduced to a ground-water flow model by varying evapotranspiration and recharge over time. Vertical hydraulic reversals, driven by changes in recharge and evapotranspiration were produced in the simulated peat layer. These simulations indicate that the high specific storage associated with the peat is an important control on hydraulic reversals. Seasonally driven vertical flow is on the order of centimeters in the deep peat, suggesting that seasonal vertical advective fluxes are not significant and that ground-water flow into the deep peat likely occurs on decadal or longer time scales. Particles tracked within the ground-water flow model oscillate over time, suggesting that seasonal flow reversals will enhance vertical mixing in the peat column. The amplitude of flow path oscillations increased with increasing peat storativity, with amplitudes of about 5 cm occurring when peat specific storativity was set to about 0.05 m-1. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chimera states in purely local delay-coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-05-01
We study the existence of chimera states in a network of locally coupled chaotic and limit-cycle oscillators. The necessary condition for chimera state in purely local coupled oscillators is discussed. At first, we numerically observe the existence of chimera or multichimera states in the locally coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. We find that delay time in the nonlinear local coupling reduces the domain of the coherent island in the parameter space of the synaptic coupling strength and time delay, and thus the coherent region can be completely eliminated once the time delay exceeds a certain threshold. We then consider another form of nonlinearity in the local coupling, and the existence of chimera states is observed in the time-delayed Mackey-Glass system and in a Van der Pol oscillator. We also discuss the effect of time delay in local coupling for the existence of chimera states in Mackey-Glass systems. The nonlinearity present in the coupling function plays a key role in the emergence of chimera or multichimera states. A phase diagram for the chimera state is identified over a wide parameter space.
Chimera states in purely local delay-coupled oscillators.
Bera, Bidesh K; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-05-01
We study the existence of chimera states in a network of locally coupled chaotic and limit-cycle oscillators. The necessary condition for chimera state in purely local coupled oscillators is discussed. At first, we numerically observe the existence of chimera or multichimera states in the locally coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. We find that delay time in the nonlinear local coupling reduces the domain of the coherent island in the parameter space of the synaptic coupling strength and time delay, and thus the coherent region can be completely eliminated once the time delay exceeds a certain threshold. We then consider another form of nonlinearity in the local coupling, and the existence of chimera states is observed in the time-delayed Mackey-Glass system and in a Van der Pol oscillator. We also discuss the effect of time delay in local coupling for the existence of chimera states in Mackey-Glass systems. The nonlinearity present in the coupling function plays a key role in the emergence of chimera or multichimera states. A phase diagram for the chimera state is identified over a wide parameter space.
Exact ground states of disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mienke, Jan Hermann
Finding the ground state of disordered systems is in general a hard problem. Mappings of disordered systems to problems from computer science for which efficient, i.e., polynomial algorithms are known allow the numerical study of large systems. I study the ground state of the random-field Ising model both analytically using mean field approximations and numerically in 3D. I find that the behavior for the infinite-range model is nonuniversal in the sense that the critical exponent beta can vary continuously. On the Cayley tree, however, the behavior is universal. I develop a theory for the roughening of the minimum energy fracture surface in polycrystalline materials as a function of the relevant energy parameter epsilon = epsiloni/epsilon g. epsilong is the internal binding energy of the grain and epsiloni is the adhesion energy. Both local and global effects contribute to the roughening and have to be taken into account. This leads to an epsilon-dependent critical length Lc. For systems with L > L c and epsilon < 1 the interface is always rough.
Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters
Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Lim, Thong Leng
2015-04-24
Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.
Trajectory approach to the Schrödinger-Langevin equation with linear dissipation for ground states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Chun
2015-11-01
The Schrödinger-Langevin equation with linear dissipation is integrated by propagating an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories for the ground state of quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the Schrödinger-Langevin equation yields the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with linear dissipation. We transform this equation into the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian version with the grid velocity matching the flow velocity of the probability fluid. The resulting equation is simultaneously integrated with the trajectory guidance equation. Then, the computational method is applied to the harmonic oscillator, the double well potential, and the ground vibrational state of methyl iodide. The excellent agreement between the computational and the exact results for the ground state energies and wave functions shows that this study provides a synthetic trajectory approach to the ground state of quantum systems.
Measurement of Atomic Oscillator Strength Distribution from the Excited States
Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, M.; Baig, M. A.
2008-10-22
Saturation technique has been employed to measure the oscillator strength distribution in spectra of helium lithium using an electrical discharge cell a thermionic diode ion detector respectively. The photoabsorption cross sections in the discrete or bound region (commonly known as f-values) have been determined form the Rydberg series accessed from a particular excited state calibrating it with the absolute value of the photoionization cross section measured at the ionization threshold. The extracted discrete f-values merge into the oscillator strength densities, estimated from the measured photoionization cross sections at different photon energies above the first ionization threshold. The experimental data on helium and lithium show continuity between the discrete and the continuous oscillator strengths across the ionization threshold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Ohtani, S.
2012-12-01
Strong Pc5 activity on the morning side was observed by the CARISMA ground magnetometer array on 7 December 2002, for several hours under moderately high solar wind speed (~580 km/s). In this study, we focus on the 30-min time interval from 1245 to 1315 UT, when a narrow-band Pc5 oscillation (~4.0 mHz) was clearly visible near 6 MLT over a wide range of L, 4-11. During this interval, the Cluster spacecraft was crossing L shells in the MLT sector covered by the CARISMA array. On the ground the X component of the magnetic field indicated the classical field line resonance signatures, latitudinal localization in amplitude (peaking at 300 nT at the Gillam station, L=6.6) and 180-degree phase shift. The ground Pc5 propagated tailward at a low azimuthal number of 3~5, suggesting that the ground Pc5 was caused by an external source. In the magnetosphere there were toroidal oscillations, which had a constant (i.e., global) frequency of ~4.0 mHz over the L shells 3.8-6.2 covered by the Custer spacecraft. Consistent with the ground observations, the toroidal wave amplitude in space was large at Cluster 3, which was moving from L= 6.2 to L= 4.8, and small at the other three Cluster spacecraft located at L= 4.0-4.5. The toroidal magnetic and electric field components at each Cluster spacecraft were approximately 90 degrees out of phase, as expected for a standing Alfven wave. In addition, the toroidal oscillations at the Cluster were accompanied by a significant compressional component with the same frequency, and by periodic modulations in oxygen ions of 1-38 keV and energetic electrons of 30-120 keV. We discuss possible mechanisms for the excitation of the global 4 mHz oscillations and for the modulation of such particle fluxes.
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.
2014-06-15
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators.
Omel'chenko, Oleh E; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R
2014-06-01
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly "twisted" in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.
Ground state of high-density matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong
1988-01-01
It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.
Thermodynamic ground states of platinum metal nitrides
Aberg, D; Sadigh, B; Crowhurst, J; Goncharov, A
2007-10-09
We have systematically studied the thermodynamic stabilities of various phases of the nitrides of the platinum metal elements using density functional theory. We show that for the nitrides of Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt two new crystal structures, in which the metal ions occupy simple tetragonal lattice sites, have lower formation enthalpies at ambient conditions than any previously proposed structures. The region of stability can extend up to 17 GPa for PtN{sub 2}. Furthermore, we show that according to calculations using the local density approximation, these new compounds are also thermodynamically stable at ambient pressure and thus may be the ground state phases for these materials. We further discuss the fact that the local density and generalized gradient approximations predict different values of the absolute formation enthalpies as well different relative stabilities between simple tetragonal and the pyrite or marcasite structures.
Different kinds of chimera death states in nonlocally coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-05-01
We investigate the significance of nonisochronicity parameter in a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry breaking form. We observe that the presence of nonisochronicity parameter leads to structural changes in the chimera death region while varying the strength of the interaction. This gives rise to the existence of different types of chimera death states such as multichimera death state, type I periodic chimera death (PCD) state, and type II periodic chimera death state. We also find that the number of periodic domains in both types of PCD states decreases exponentially with an increase of coupling range and obeys a power law under nonlocal coupling. Additionally, we also analyze the structural changes of chimera death states by reducing the system of dynamical equations to a phase model through the phase reduction. We also briefly study the role of nonisochronicity parameter on chimera states, where the existence of a multichimera state with respect to the coupling range is pointed out. Moreover, we also analyze the robustness of the chimera death state to perturbations in the natural frequencies of the oscillators.
Different kinds of chimera death states in nonlocally coupled oscillators.
Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M
2016-05-01
We investigate the significance of nonisochronicity parameter in a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry breaking form. We observe that the presence of nonisochronicity parameter leads to structural changes in the chimera death region while varying the strength of the interaction. This gives rise to the existence of different types of chimera death states such as multichimera death state, type I periodic chimera death (PCD) state, and type II periodic chimera death state. We also find that the number of periodic domains in both types of PCD states decreases exponentially with an increase of coupling range and obeys a power law under nonlocal coupling. Additionally, we also analyze the structural changes of chimera death states by reducing the system of dynamical equations to a phase model through the phase reduction. We also briefly study the role of nonisochronicity parameter on chimera states, where the existence of a multichimera state with respect to the coupling range is pointed out. Moreover, we also analyze the robustness of the chimera death state to perturbations in the natural frequencies of the oscillators. PMID:27300886
Different kinds of chimera death states in nonlocally coupled oscillators.
Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M
2016-05-01
We investigate the significance of nonisochronicity parameter in a network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry breaking form. We observe that the presence of nonisochronicity parameter leads to structural changes in the chimera death region while varying the strength of the interaction. This gives rise to the existence of different types of chimera death states such as multichimera death state, type I periodic chimera death (PCD) state, and type II periodic chimera death state. We also find that the number of periodic domains in both types of PCD states decreases exponentially with an increase of coupling range and obeys a power law under nonlocal coupling. Additionally, we also analyze the structural changes of chimera death states by reducing the system of dynamical equations to a phase model through the phase reduction. We also briefly study the role of nonisochronicity parameter on chimera states, where the existence of a multichimera state with respect to the coupling range is pointed out. Moreover, we also analyze the robustness of the chimera death state to perturbations in the natural frequencies of the oscillators.
Magnetic Field Measurement with Ground State Alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Huirong; Lazarian, A.
Observational studies of magnetic fields are crucial. We introduce a process "ground state alignment" as a new way to determine the magnetic field direction in diffuse medium. The alignment is due to anisotropic radiation impinging on the atom/ion. The consequence of the process is the polarization of spectral lines resulting from scattering and absorption from aligned atomic/ionic species with fine or hyperfine structure. The magnetic field induces precession and realign the atom/ion and therefore the polarization of the emitted or absorbed radiation reflects the direction of the magnetic field. The atoms get aligned at their low levels and, as the life-time of the atoms/ions we deal with is long, the alignment induced by anisotropic radiation is susceptible to extremely weak magnetic fields (1 G ≳ B ≳ 10^{-15} G). In fact, the effects of atomic/ionic alignment were studied in the laboratory decades ago, mostly in relation to the maser research. Recently, the atomic effect has been already detected in observations from circumstellar medium and this is a harbinger of future extensive magnetic field studies. A unique feature of the atomic realignment is that they can reveal the 3D orientation of magnetic field. In this chapter, we shall review the basic physical processes involved in atomic realignment. We shall also discuss its applications to interplanetary, circumstellar and interstellar magnetic fields. In addition, our research reveals that the polarization of the radiation arising from the transitions between fine and hyperfine states of the ground level can provide a unique diagnostics of magnetic fields in the Epoch of Reionization.
Ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, H.; Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.
2014-07-01
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation into ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional elliptic airfoil undergoing simple harmonic translation and rotational motion. Ground clearance ( D) ranging from 1 c to 5 c (where c is the airfoil chord length) was investigated for three rotational amplitudes ( α m) of 30°, 45° and 60° (which respectively translate to mid-stroke angle of attack of 60°, 45° and 30°). For the lowest rotational amplitude of 30°, results show that an airfoil approaching a ground plane experiences a gradual decrease in cycle-averaged lift and drag coefficients until it reaches D ≈ 2.0 c, below which they increase rapidly. Corresponding DPIV measurement indicates that the initial force reduction is associated with the formation of a weaker leading edge vortex and the subsequent force increase below D ≈ 2.0 c may be attributed to stronger wake capture effect. Furthermore, an airfoil oscillating at higher amplitude lessens the initial force reduction when approaching the ground and this subsequently leads to lift distribution that bears striking resemblance to the ground effect on a conventional fixed wing in steady translation.
Ground-state features in the THz spectra of molecular clusters of β-HMX.
Huang, Lulu; Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G; Massa, Lou
2012-10-01
We present calculations of absorption spectra arising from molecular vibrations at THz frequencies for molecular clusters of the explosive HMX using density functional theory (DFT). The features of these spectra can be shown to follow from the coupling of vibrational modes. In particular, the coupling among ground-state vibrational modes provides a reasonable molecular-level interpretation of spectral features associated with the vibrational modes of molecular clusters. THz excitation from the ground state is associated with frequencies that characteristically perturb molecular electronic states, in contrast to frequencies, which are usually substantially above the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, that can induce appreciable electronic-state transition. Owing to this characteristic of THz excitation, one is able to make a direct association between local oscillations about ground-state minima of molecules, either isolated or comprising a cluster, and THz absorption spectra. The DFT software program GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of the absorption spectra presented here.
Collective synchronization states in arrays of driven colloidal oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lhermerout, Romain; Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Kotar, Jurij; Cicuta, Pietro
2012-10-01
The phenomenon of metachronal waves in cilia carpets has been well known for decades; these waves are widespread in biology, and have fundamental physiological importance. While it is accepted that in many cases cilia are mainly coupled together by the hydrodynamic velocity field, a clear understanding of which aspects determine the collective wave properties is lacking. It is a difficult problem, because both the behavior of the individual cilia and their coupling together are nonlinear. In this work, we coarse-grain the degrees of freedom of each cilium into a minimal description in terms of a configuration-based phase oscillator. Driving colloidal particles with optical tweezers, we then experimentally investigate the coupling through hydrodynamics in systems of many oscillators, showing that a collective dynamics emerges. This work generalizes to a wider class of systems our recent finding that the non-equilibrium steady state can be understood based on the equilibrium properties of the system, i.e. the positions and orientations of the active oscillators. In this model system, it is possible to design configurations of oscillators with the desired collective dynamics. The other face of this problem is to relate the collective patterns found in biology to the architecture and behavior of individual active elements.
On the Stable Ground State of Mackinawite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, K.; Refson, K.; Sposito, G.
2009-12-01
Mackinawite is a layer type iron monosulfide (FeS) with stacked sheets of edge-sharing FeS4 tetrahedra. An important player in iron and sulfur cycles, mackinawite is one of the first-formed metastable iron sulfides in anoxic environments, transforming into greigite (Fe3S4) and pyrite (FeS2) minerals or elemental sulfur (S0) and iron (Fe0) depending on redox conditions. Mackinawite also affects the mobility and oxidation states of toxic metals such as As, Hg, and Se. The mineral, typically found as a nanoparticle, has been characterized experimentally. Its fundamental conducting and magnetic properties, however, are still controversial; e.g., whether mackinawite is metallic and whether it has magnetic order. Mackinawite is believed to be metallic and without magnetic ordering down at 4 K based on Mössbauer spectroscopy studies. We examined these two issues by applying plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) to FeS geometry optimization under different magnetic orderings. We found that antiferromagnetic ordering among the Fe atoms is the stable ground state of mackinawite. In this presentation, we shall discuss this result and how it relates to previous experimental work.
Strangeness in the baryon ground states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semke, A.; Lutz, M. F. M.
2012-10-01
We compute the strangeness content of the baryon octet and decuplet states based on an analysis of recent lattice simulations of the BMW, PACS, LHPC and HSC groups for the pion-mass dependence of the baryon masses. Our results rely on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian and large-Nc sum rule estimates of the counter terms relevant for the baryon masses at N3LO. A partial summation is implied by the use of physical baryon and meson masses in the one-loop contributions to the baryon self energies. A simultaneous description of the lattice results of the BMW, LHPC, PACS and HSC groups is achieved. From a global fit we determine the axial coupling constants F ≃ 0.45 and D ≃ 0.80 in agreement with their values extracted from semi-leptonic decays of the baryons. Moreover, various flavor symmetric limits of baron octet and decuplet masses as obtained by the QCDSF-UKQCD group are recovered. We predict the pion- and strangeness sigma terms and the pion-mass dependence of the octet and decuplet ground states at different strange quark masses.
Analytis, J.G.
2010-05-26
We report quantum oscillation measurements that enable the direct observation of the Fermi surface of the low temperature ground state of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. From these measurements we characterize the low energy excitations, revealing that the Fermi surface is reconstructed in the antiferromagnetic state, but leaving itinerant electrons in its wake. The present measurements are consistent with a conventional band folding picture of the antiferromagnetic ground state, placing important limits on the topology and size of the Fermi surface.
Spin-motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets.
Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Kienzler, Daniel; de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Keitch, Ben C; Home, Jonathan P
2015-05-21
Mesoscopic superpositions of distinguishable coherent states provide an analogue of the 'Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment. For mechanical oscillators these have primarily been realized using coherent wavepackets, for which the distinguishability arises as a result of the spatial separation of the superposed states. Here we demonstrate superpositions composed of squeezed wavepackets, which we generate by applying an internal-state-dependent force to a single trapped ion initialized in a squeezed vacuum state with nine decibel reduction in the quadrature variance. This allows us to characterize the initial squeezed wavepacket by monitoring the onset of spin-motion entanglement, and to verify the evolution of the number states of the oscillator as a function of the duration of the force. In both cases we observe clear differences between displacements aligned with the squeezed and anti-squeezed axes. We observe coherent revivals when inverting the state-dependent force after separating the wavepackets by more than 19 times the ground-state root mean squared extent, which corresponds to 56 times the root mean squared extent of the squeezed wavepacket along the displacement direction. Aside from their fundamental nature, these states may be useful for quantum metrology or quantum information processing with continuous variables.
Spin-motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Kienzler, Daniel; de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Keitch, Ben C.; Home, Jonathan P.
2015-05-01
Mesoscopic superpositions of distinguishable coherent states provide an analogue of the `Schrödinger's cat' thought experiment. For mechanical oscillators these have primarily been realized using coherent wavepackets, for which the distinguishability arises as a result of the spatial separation of the superposed states. Here we demonstrate superpositions composed of squeezed wavepackets, which we generate by applying an internal-state-dependent force to a single trapped ion initialized in a squeezed vacuum state with nine decibel reduction in the quadrature variance. This allows us to characterize the initial squeezed wavepacket by monitoring the onset of spin-motion entanglement, and to verify the evolution of the number states of the oscillator as a function of the duration of the force. In both cases we observe clear differences between displacements aligned with the squeezed and anti-squeezed axes. We observe coherent revivals when inverting the state-dependent force after separating the wavepackets by more than 19 times the ground-state root mean squared extent, which corresponds to 56 times the root mean squared extent of the squeezed wavepacket along the displacement direction. Aside from their fundamental nature, these states may be useful for quantum metrology or quantum information processing with continuous variables.
Liquefaction, ground oscillation, and soil deformation at the Wildlife Array, California
Holzer, T.L.; Youd, T.L.
2007-01-01
Excess pore-water pressure and liquefaction at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array in 1987 were caused by deformation associated with both high-frequency strong ground motion and 5.5-second-period Love waves. The Love waves produced large (???1.5%) cyclic shear strains well after the stronger high-frequency ground motion abated. These cyclic strains generated approximately from 13 to 35% of the excess pore-water pressure in the liquefied layer and caused excess pore-water pressures ultimately to reach effective overburden stress. The deformation associated with the Love waves explains the "postearthquake" increase of pore-water pressure that was recorded at the array. This explanation suggests that conventional methods for predicting liquefaction based on peak ground acceleration are incomplete and may need to consider cyclic strains associated with long-period surface waves. A post-earthquake survey of an inclinometer casing indicated permanent shear strain associated with lateral spreading primarily occurred in the upper part of the liquefied layer. Comparison of cone penetration test soundings conducted after the earthquake with pre-earthquake soundings suggests sleeve friction increased. Natural lateral variability of the liquefied layer obscured changes in tip resistance despite a ???1% reduction in volume. The large oscillatory motion associated with surface waves explains ground oscillation that has been reported at some liquefaction sites during earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Suchitra
2015-03-01
Over the last few years, evidence has gradually built for a charge ordered normal ground state in the underdoped region of the cuprate high temperature superconductors. I will address the electronic structure of the normal ground state of the underdoped cuprates as accessed by quantum oscillations, and relate it to complementary measurements by other experimental techniques. The interplay of the charge ordered ground state with the antinodal gapped pseudogap state, and overarching magnetic and superconducting correlations will be further explored. This work was performed in collaboration with N. Harrison, G. G. Lonzarich, B. J. Ramshaw, B. S. Tan, P. A. Goddard, F. F. Balakirev, C. H. Mielke, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, and W. N. Hardy
Quantum oscillation in vortex states of type-II superconductors
Maki, K. )
1991-08-01
We examine theoretically magnetic quantum oscillations like the de Haas--van Alphen and Subnikov--de Haas effects in vortex states in type-II superconductors. For a magnetic field {ital B} not very small compared with {ital H}{sub {ital c}3}({ital T}), the main effect of superconductivity is introduction of the extra quasiparticle scattering rate proportional to {vert bar}{Delta}{vert bar}{sup 2}, the square of the superconducting order parameter. Therefore the detectability of the magnetic quantum oscillation is determined from the condition that the extra Dingle temperature due to {vert bar}{Delta}{vert bar}{sup 2} is not too large. For example in a magnetic field {similar to}10 T, the superconducting transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} has to be less than 30 K in order to have a reasonable signal.
Wang, Qisi; Shen, Yao; Pan, Bingying; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ikeuchi, K.; Iida, K.; Christianson, A. D.; Walker, H. C.; Adroja, D. T.; Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Chen, Xiaojia; Chareev, D. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Zhao, Jun
2016-01-01
Elucidating the nature of the magnetism of a high-temperature superconductor is crucial for establishing its pairing mechanism. The parent compounds of the cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors exhibit Néel and stripe magnetic order, respectively. However, FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor, shows nematic order (Ts=90 K), but not magnetic order in the parent phase, and its magnetic ground state is intensely debated. Here we report inelastic neutron-scattering experiments that reveal both stripe and Néel spin fluctuations over a wide energy range at 110 K. On entering the nematic phase, a substantial amount of spectral weight is transferred from the Néel to the stripe spin fluctuations. Moreover, the total fluctuating magnetic moment of FeSe is ∼60% larger than that in the iron pnictide BaFe2As2. Our results suggest that FeSe is a novel S=1 nematic quantum-disordered paramagnet interpolating between the Néel and stripe magnetic instabilities. PMID:27431986
Magnetic ground state of FeSe.
Wang, Qisi; Shen, Yao; Pan, Bingying; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ikeuchi, K; Iida, K; Christianson, A D; Walker, H C; Adroja, D T; Abdel-Hafiez, M; Chen, Xiaojia; Chareev, D A; Vasiliev, A N; Zhao, Jun
2016-01-01
Elucidating the nature of the magnetism of a high-temperature superconductor is crucial for establishing its pairing mechanism. The parent compounds of the cuprate and iron-pnictide superconductors exhibit Néel and stripe magnetic order, respectively. However, FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor, shows nematic order (Ts=90 K), but not magnetic order in the parent phase, and its magnetic ground state is intensely debated. Here we report inelastic neutron-scattering experiments that reveal both stripe and Néel spin fluctuations over a wide energy range at 110 K. On entering the nematic phase, a substantial amount of spectral weight is transferred from the Néel to the stripe spin fluctuations. Moreover, the total fluctuating magnetic moment of FeSe is ∼60% larger than that in the iron pnictide BaFe2As2. Our results suggest that FeSe is a novel S=1 nematic quantum-disordered paramagnet interpolating between the Néel and stripe magnetic instabilities. PMID:27431986
The ground state construction of bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliani, Alessandro; Jauslin, Ian
2016-09-01
We consider a model of half-filled bilayer graphene, in which the three dominant Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure hopping parameters are retained, in the presence of short-range interactions. Under a smallness assumption on the interaction strength U as well as on the inter-layer hopping ɛ, we construct the ground state in the thermodynamic limit, and prove that the pressure and two-point Schwinger function, away from its singularities, are analytic in U, uniformly in ɛ. The interacting Fermi surface is degenerate, and consists of eight Fermi points, two of which are protected by symmetries, while the locations of the other six are renormalized by the interaction, and the effective dispersion relation at the Fermi points is conical. The construction reveals the presence of different energy regimes, where the effective behavior of correlation functions changes qualitatively. The analysis of the crossover between regimes plays an important role in the proof of analyticity and in the uniform control of the radius of convergence. The proof is based on a rigorous implementation of fermionic renormalization group methods, including determinant estimates for the renormalized expansion.
Suo, Bingbing; Yu, Yan-Mei; Han, Huixian
2015-03-07
We present the fully relativistic multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ground and low-lying excited electronic states of IrO for individual spin-orbit component. The lowest-lying state is calculated for Ω = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, and 7/2 in order to clarify the ground state of IrO. Our calculation suggests that the ground state is of Ω = 1/2, which is highly mixed with {sup 4}Σ{sup −} and {sup 2}Π states in Λ − S notation. The two low-lying states 5/2 and 7/2 are nearly degenerate with the ground state and locate only 234 and 260 cm{sup −1} above, respectively. The equilibrium bond length 1.712 Å and the harmonic vibrational frequency 903 cm{sup −1} of the 5/2 state are close to the experimental measurement of 1.724 Å and 909 cm{sup −1}, which suggests that the 5/2 state should be the low-lying state that contributes to the experimental spectra. Moreover, the electronic states that give rise to the observed transition bands are assigned for Ω = 5/2 and 7/2 in terms of the obtained excited energies and oscillator strengths.
Chimera and phase-cluster states in populations of coupled chemical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinsley, Mark R.; Nkomo, Simbarashe; Showalter, Kenneth
2012-09-01
Populations of coupled oscillators may exhibit two coexisting subpopulations, one with synchronized oscillations and the other with unsynchronized oscillations, even though all of the oscillators are coupled to each other in an equivalent manner. This phenomenon, discovered about ten years ago in theoretical studies, was then further characterized and named the chimera state after the Greek mythological creature made up of different animals. The highly counterintuitive coexistence of coherent and incoherent oscillations in populations of identical oscillators, each with an equivalent coupling structure, inspired great interest and a flurry of theoretical activity. Here we report on experimental studies of chimera states and their relation to other synchronization states in populations of coupled chemical oscillators. Our experiments with coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillators and corresponding simulations reveal chimera behaviour that differs significantly from the behaviour found in theoretical studies of phase-oscillator models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogell, B.; Kampschulte, T.; Rakher, M. T.; Faber, A.; Treutlein, P.; Hammerer, K.; Zoller, P.
2015-04-01
We propose and investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a micro-mechanical oscillator coupled to the internal states of a distant ensemble of atoms. The interaction between the systems is mediated by a light field which allows the coupling of the two systems in a modular way over long distances. Coupling to internal degrees of freedom of atoms opens up the possibility to employ high-frequency mechanical resonators in the MHz to GHz regime, such as optomechanical crystal structures, and to benefit from the rich toolbox of quantum control over internal atomic states. Previous schemes involving atomic motional states are rather limited in both of these aspects. We derive a full quantum model for the effective coupling including the main sources of decoherence. As an application we show that sympathetic ground-state cooling and strong coupling between the two systems is possible.
The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.
Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C
2016-10-01
The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods.
The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.
Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C
2016-10-01
The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods. PMID:27363728
Coherent 40-Hz Oscillation Characterizes Dream State in Humans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llinas, Rodolfo; Ribary, Urs
1993-03-01
Magnetic recording from five normal human adults demonstrates large 40-Hz coherent magnetic activity in the awake and in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep states that is very reduced during delta sleep (deep sleep characterized by delta waves in the electroencephalogram). This 40-Hz magnetic oscillation has been shown to be reset by sensory stimuli in the awake state. Such resetting is not observed during REM or delta sleep. The 40 Hz in REM sleep is characterized, as is that in the awake state, by a fronto-occiptal phase shift over the head. This phase shift has a maximum duration of thickapprox12-13 msec. Because 40-Hz oscillation is seen in wakefulness and in dreaming, we propose it to be a correlate of cognition, probably resultant from coherent 40-Hz resonance between thalamocortical-specific and nonspecific loops. Moreover, we proposed that the specific loops give the content of cognition, and a nonspecific loop gives the temporal binding required for the unity of cognitive experience.
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-15
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
A new two-parameter family of potentials with a tunable ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fellows, Jonathan M.; Smith, Robert A.
2011-08-01
In a previous paper (Fellows and Smith 2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 335303) we solved a countably infinite family of one-dimensional Schrödinger equations by showing that they were supersymmetric partner potentials of the standard quantum harmonic oscillator. In this work we extend these results to find the complete set of real partner potentials of the harmonic oscillator, showing that these depend upon two continuous parameters. Their spectra are identical to that of the harmonic oscillator, except that the ground state energy becomes a tunable parameter. We finally use these potentials to analyse the physical problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in an atomic gas trapped in a dimple potential.
On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
2011-08-15
Highlights: > The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. > Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. > The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.
Triaxiality of the ground states in the 174W
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ya, Tu; Chen, Y. S.; Liu, L.; Gao, Z. C.
2016-05-01
We have performed calculations for the ground states in 174W by using the projected total energy surface (PTES) calculations. Both the ground state (g.s.) band and its γ band reproduce the experimental data. Further discussion about the triaxiality in 174W has been made by transition quardrupole moment (Qt) and comparing between the PTES and TRS methods.
Interface Representations of Critical Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondev, Jane
1995-01-01
We study the critical properties of the F model, the three-coloring model on the honeycomb lattice, and the four-coloring model on the square lattice, by mapping these models to models of rough interfaces. In particular, we construct operators in a systematic way, which is provided by the interface representation, and we show that their scaling dimensions can be related to the stiffness of the interface. Two types of operators are found, and they correspond to electric and magnetic charges in the Coulomb gas which is related to the interface model by the usual duality transformation. Furthermore, we find that the stiffness of the interface models, and therefore all the critical exponents, can be calculated exactly by considering the contour correlation function which measures the probability that two points on the interface belong to the same contour loop. The exact information about the stiffness also allows us to analyze in detail the conformal field theories (CFT) that represent the scaling limits of the interface models. We find that CFT's associated with the F model, the three -coloring model, and the four-coloring model, have chiral symmetry algebras given by the su(2)_{k=1 }, su(3)_{k=1}, and su(4) _{k=1} Kac-Moody algebras, respectively. The three-coloring and the four coloring-model are ground states of certain antiferromagnetic Potts models, and the behavior of these Potts models at small but finite temperatures is determined by topological defects that can be defined in the associated interface models. In this way we calculate the correlation length and the specific heat of the Potts models, and they are in good agreement with numerical simulations. We also present our Monte-Carlo results for the scaling dimensions of operators in the four-coloring model, and they are in excellent agreement with our analytical results. Finally, we define geometrical exponents for contour loops on self -affine interfaces and calculate their values as a function of the
Rydberg-Stark states in oscillating electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.
2015-12-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of weak radio-frequency electric fields on Rydberg-Stark states with electric dipole moments as large as 10,000 D are reported. High-resolution laser spectroscopic studies of Rydberg states with principal quantum number n = 52 and 53 were performed in pulsed supersonic beams of metastable helium with the excited atoms detected by pulsed electric field ionisation. Experiments were carried out in the presence of sinusoidally oscillating electric fields with frequencies of 20 MHz, amplitudes of up to 120 mV/cm, and dc offsets of up to 4.4 V/cm. In weak fields, the experimentally recorded spectra are in excellent agreement with the results of calculations carried out using Floquet methods to account for electric dipole couplings in the oscillating fields. This highlights the validity of these techniques for the accurate calculation of the Stark energy level structure in such fields, and the limitations of the calculations in stronger fields where n-mixing and higher order contributions become important.
Squeezed states from a quantum deformed oscillator Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, R.; Reboiro, M.
2016-03-01
The spectrum and the time evolution of a system, which is modeled by a non-hermitian quantum deformed oscillator Hamiltonian, is analyzed. The proposed Hamiltonian is constructed from a non-standard realization of the algebra of Heisenberg. We show that, for certain values of the coupling constants and for a range of values of the deformation parameter, the deformed Hamiltonian is a pseudo-hermitic Hamiltonian. We explore the conditions under which the Hamiltonian is similar to a Swanson Hamiltonian. Also, we show that the lowest eigenstate of the system is a squeezed state. We study the time evolution of the system, for different initial states, by computing the corresponding Wigner functions.
Handbook for state ground water managers
Not Available
1992-05-01
;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.
Ground states of stealthy hyperuniform potentials: I. Entropically favored configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.
2015-08-01
Systems of particles interacting with "stealthy" pair potentials have been shown to possess infinitely degenerate disordered hyperuniform classical ground states with novel physical properties. Previous attempts to sample the infinitely degenerate ground states used energy minimization techniques, introducing algorithmic dependence that is artificial in nature. Recently, an ensemble theory of stealthy hyperuniform ground states was formulated to predict the structure and thermodynamics that was shown to be in excellent agreement with corresponding computer simulation results in the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit). In this paper, we provide details and justifications of the simulation procedure, which involves performing molecular dynamics simulations at sufficiently low temperatures and minimizing the energy of the snapshots for both the high-density disordered regime, where the theory applies, as well as lower densities. We also use numerical simulations to extend our study to the lower-density regime. We report results for the pair correlation functions, structure factors, and Voronoi cell statistics. In the high-density regime, we verify the theoretical ansatz that stealthy disordered ground states behave like "pseudo" disordered equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. The pair statistics obey certain exact integral conditions with very high accuracy. These results show that as the density decreases from the high-density limit, the disordered ground states in the canonical ensemble are characterized by an increasing degree of short-range order and eventually the system undergoes a phase transition to crystalline ground states. In the crystalline regime (low densities), there exist aperiodic structures that are part of the ground-state manifold but yet are not entropically favored. We also provide numerical evidence suggesting that different forms of stealthy pair potentials produce the same ground-state ensemble in the zero
Ground state and constrained domain walls in Gd /Fe multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Aken, Bas B.; Prieto, José L.; Mathur, Neil D.
2005-03-01
The magnetic ground state of antiferromagnetically coupled Gd /Fe multilayers and the evolution of in-plane domain walls is modeled with micromagnetics. The twisted state is characterized by a rapid decrease of the interface angle with increasing magnetic field. We found that for certain ratios MFe:MGd, the twisted state is already present at low fields. However, the magnetic ground state is not only determined by the ratio MFe:MGd but also by the thicknesses of the layers; that is by the total moments of the layer. The dependence of the magnetic ground state is explained by the amount of overlap of the domain walls at the interface. Thicker layers suppress the Fe-aligned and the Gd-aligned state in favor of the twisted state. On the other hand, ultrathin layers exclude the twisted state, since wider domain walls cannot form in these ultrathin layers.
Phase diagram of the ground states of DNA condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Trinh X.; Trinh, Hoa Lan; Giacometti, Achille; Podgornik, Rudolf; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos
2015-12-01
The phase diagram of the ground states of DNA in a bad solvent is studied for a semiflexible polymer model with a generalized local elastic bending potential characterized by a nonlinearity parameter x and effective self-attraction promoting compaction. x =1 corresponds to the wormlike chain model. Surprisingly, the phase diagram as well as the transition lines between the ground states are found to be a function of x . The model provides a simple explanation for the results of prior experimental and computational studies and makes predictions for the specific geometries of the ground states. The results underscore the impact of the form of the microscopic bending energy at macroscopic observable scales.
Oscillating edge states in one-dimensional MoS2 nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hai; Liu, Shuanglong; Ding, Zijing; Tan, Sherman J. R.; Yam, Kah Meng; Bao, Yang; Nai, Chang Tai; Ng, Man-Fai; Lu, Jiong; Zhang, Chun; Loh, Kian Ping
2016-10-01
Reducing the dimensionality of transition metal dichalcogenides to one dimension opens it to structural and electronic modulation related to charge density wave and quantum correlation effects arising from edge states. The greater flexibility of a molecular scale nanowire allows a strain-imposing substrate to exert structural and electronic modulation on it, leading to an interplay between the curvature-induced influences and intrinsic ground-state topology. Herein, the templated growth of MoS2 nanowire arrays consisting of the smallest stoichiometric MoS2 building blocks is investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy. Our results show that lattice strain imposed on a nanowire causes the energy of the edge states to oscillate periodically along its length in phase with the period of the substrate topographical modulation. This periodic oscillation vanishes when individual MoS2 nanowires join to form a wider nanoribbon, revealing that the strain-induced modulation depends on in-plane rigidity, which increases with system size.
Oscillating edge states in one-dimensional MoS2 nanowires
Xu, Hai; Liu, Shuanglong; Ding, Zijing; Tan, Sherman J. R.; Yam, Kah Meng; Bao, Yang; Nai, Chang Tai; Ng, Man-Fai; Lu, Jiong; Zhang, Chun; Loh, Kian Ping
2016-01-01
Reducing the dimensionality of transition metal dichalcogenides to one dimension opens it to structural and electronic modulation related to charge density wave and quantum correlation effects arising from edge states. The greater flexibility of a molecular scale nanowire allows a strain-imposing substrate to exert structural and electronic modulation on it, leading to an interplay between the curvature-induced influences and intrinsic ground-state topology. Herein, the templated growth of MoS2 nanowire arrays consisting of the smallest stoichiometric MoS2 building blocks is investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy and non-contact atomic force microscopy. Our results show that lattice strain imposed on a nanowire causes the energy of the edge states to oscillate periodically along its length in phase with the period of the substrate topographical modulation. This periodic oscillation vanishes when individual MoS2 nanowires join to form a wider nanoribbon, revealing that the strain-induced modulation depends on in-plane rigidity, which increases with system size. PMID:27698478
Prospects of charged-oscillator quantum-state generation with Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Robin; Minář, Jiří; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-10-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that in principle permits versatile dissipative creation of squeezed and other nonclassical states which are central to sensing applications or for studies of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects. We show that these features survive thermal coupling of the oscillator with the environment. We perform a detailed feasibility study finding that current state-of-the-art parameters result in atom-oscillator couplings which are too weak to efficiently implement the proposed oscillator state preparation protocol. Finally, we comment on ways to circumvent the present limitations.
A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate
Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.
1990-01-16
A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.
Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems
Michalakis, Spyridon; Hamza, Eman; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert
2009-01-01
We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.
The factorization method and ground state energy bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmutz, M.
1985-04-01
We discuss the relationship between the factorization method and the Barnsley bound to the ground state energy. The latter method is extended in such a way that both lower and upper analytic bounds can be obtained.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Ground-state properties of the periodic Anderson model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blankenbecler, R.; Fulco, J. R.; Gill, W.; Scalapino, D. J.
1987-01-01
The ground-state energy, hybridization matrix element, local moment, and spin-density correlations of a one-dimensional, finite-chain, periodic, symmetric Anderson model are obtained by numerical simulations and compared with perturbation theory and strong-coupling results. It is found that the local f-electron spins are compensated by correlation with other f-electrons as well as band electrons leading to a nonmagnetic ground state.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481
A new set of coherent states for the isotropic harmonic oscillator: Coherent angular momentum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, A. J.; Leemon, H. I.
1981-04-01
The Hamiltonian for the oscillator has earlier been written in the form where ν† and ν are raising and lowering operators for ν†ν, which has eigenvalues k (the ''radial'' quantum number), and λ† and λ are raising and lowering 3-vector operators for λ†ṡλ, which has eigenvalues l (the total angular momentum quantum number). A new set of coherent states for the oscillator is now defined by diagonalizing ν and λ. These states bear a similar relation to the commuting operators H, L2, and L3 (where L is the angular momentum of the system) as the usual coherent states do to the commuting number operators N1, N2, and N3. It is proposed to call them coherent angular momentum states. They are shown to be minimum-uncertainty states for the variables ν, ν†, λ, and λ†, and to provide a new quasiclassical description of the oscillator. This description coincides with that provided by the usual coherent states only in the special case that the corresponding classical motion is circular, rather than elliptical; and, in general, the uncertainty in the angular momentum of the system is smaller in the new description. The probabilities of obtaining particular values for k and l in one of the new states follow independent Poisson distributions. The new states are overcomplete, and lead to a new representation of the Hilbert space for the oscillator, in terms of analytic functions on C×K3, where K3 is the three-dimensional complex cone. This space is related to one introduced recently by Bargmann and Todorov, and carries a very simple realization of all the representations of the rotation group.
Generation of macroscopic Schrödinger-cat states in qubit-oscillator systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Huang, Jin-Feng; Tian, Lin
2016-03-01
We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic Schrödinger-cat states in a quantum harmonic oscillator (electromagnetic field or mechanical resonator) coupled to a quantum bit (two-level system) via a conditional displacement mechanism. By driving the qubit monochromatically, the oscillation of the qubit state modifies the effective frequency of the driving force acting on the oscillator, and a resonant or near-resonant driving on the oscillator can be achieved. The displacement of the oscillator is then significantly enhanced due to the small detuning of the driving force and can exceed that of the zero-point fluctuation. This effect can be used to prepare quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct coherent states in the oscillator. We present detailed studies on this state-generation scheme in both the closed- and open-system cases. This approach can be implemented in various experimental platforms, such as cavity- or circuit-QED systems, electromechanical systems, and spin-cantilever systems.
Toward Triplet Ground State NaLi Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebadi, Sepehr; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2016-05-01
The NaLi molecule is expected to have a long lifetime in the triplet ground-state due to its fermionic nature, large rotational constant, and weak spin-orbit coupling. The triplet state has both electric and magnetic dipole moments, affording unique opportunities in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. We have mapped the excited state NaLi triplet potential by means of photoassociation spectroscopy. We report on this and our further progress toward the creation of the triplet ground-state molecules using STIRAP. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.
Formation of ground and excited states of antihydrogen
Nahar, S.N.; Wadehra, J.M.
1988-06-01
Differential and integrated cross sections for the formation of antihydrogen by the impact of intermediate-energy (20--500 keV) antiprotons on positronium are calculated using the first Born approximation. The calculations are carried out for the formation of antihydrogen in ground and various excited electronic states (n = 1--3) when positronium, the target atom, is in the ground state, and for the formation of antihydrogen in the ground state when the positronium is in various excited electronic states (n = 1--2). The 1/n/sup 3/ behavior for the capture cross sections is used to calculate the total (that is, all states added together) integrated cross sections. The cross sections for the formation of antihydrogen presented here are obtained from those for the formation of positronium by the impact of positrons on hydrogen atoms by using charge invariance and the principle of detailed balance.
Magnetization ground state and reversal modes of magnetic nanotori
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojkovic, Smiljan; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Altbir, Dora; Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L.
2016-07-01
In this work, and by means of micromagnetic simulations, we study the magnetic properties of toroidal nanomagnets. The magnetization ground state for different values of the aspect ratio between the toroidal and polar radii of the nanotorus has been obtained. Besides, we have shown that the vortex and the in-plane single domain states can appear as ground states for different ranges of the aspect ratio, while a single domain state with an out-of-plane magnetization is not observed. The hysteresis curves are also obtained, evidencing the existence of two reversal modes depending on the geometry: a vortex mode and a coherent rotation. A comparison between toroidal and cylindrical nanoparticles has been performed evidencing that nanotori can accommodate a vortex as the ground state for smaller volume than cylindrical nanorings.
Ground-state geometric quantum computing in superconducting systems
Solinas, P.; Moettoenen, M.
2010-11-15
We present a theoretical proposal for the implementation of geometric quantum computing based on a Hamiltonian which has a doubly degenerate ground state. Thus the system which is steered adiabatically, remains in the ground-state. The proposed physical implementation relies on a superconducting circuit composed of three SQUIDs and two superconducting islands with the charge states encoding the logical states. We obtain a universal set of single-qubit gates and implement a nontrivial two-qubit gate exploiting the mutual inductance between two neighboring circuits, allowing us to realize a fully geometric ground-state quantum computing. The introduced paradigm for the implementation of geometric quantum computing is expected to be robust against environmental effects.
Efficient algorithm for approximating one-dimensional ground states
Aharonov, Dorit; Arad, Itai; Irani, Sandy
2010-07-15
The density-matrix renormalization-group method is very effective at finding ground states of one-dimensional (1D) quantum systems in practice, but it is a heuristic method, and there is no known proof for when it works. In this article we describe an efficient classical algorithm which provably finds a good approximation of the ground state of 1D systems under well-defined conditions. More precisely, our algorithm finds a matrix product state of bond dimension D whose energy approximates the minimal energy such states can achieve. The running time is exponential in D, and so the algorithm can be considered tractable even for D, which is logarithmic in the size of the chain. The result also implies trivially that the ground state of any local commuting Hamiltonian in 1D can be approximated efficiently; we improve this to an exact algorithm.
Nature of ground and electronic excited states of higher acenes.
Yang, Yang; Davidson, Ernest R; Yang, Weitao
2016-08-30
Higher acenes have drawn much attention as promising organic semiconductors with versatile electronic properties. However, the nature of their ground state and electronic excited states is still not fully clear. Their unusual chemical reactivity and instability are the main obstacles for experimental studies, and the potentially prominent diradical character, which might require a multireference description in such large systems, hinders theoretical investigations. Here, we provide a detailed answer with the particle-particle random-phase approximation calculation. The (1)Ag ground states of acenes up to decacene are on the closed-shell side of the diradical continuum, whereas the ground state of undecacene and dodecacene tilts more to the open-shell side with a growing polyradical character. The ground state of all acenes has covalent nature with respect to both short and long axes. The lowest triplet state (3)B2u is always above the singlet ground state even though the energy gap could be vanishingly small in the polyacene limit. The bright singlet excited state (1)B2u is a zwitterionic state to the short axis. The excited (1)Ag state gradually switches from a double-excitation state to another zwitterionic state to the short axis, but always keeps its covalent nature to the long axis. An energy crossing between the (1)B2u and excited (1)Ag states happens between hexacene and heptacene. Further energetic consideration suggests that higher acenes are likely to undergo singlet fission with a low photovoltaic efficiency; however, the efficiency might be improved if a singlet fission into multiple triplets could be achieved. PMID:27528690
Nature of ground and electronic excited states of higher acenes.
Yang, Yang; Davidson, Ernest R; Yang, Weitao
2016-08-30
Higher acenes have drawn much attention as promising organic semiconductors with versatile electronic properties. However, the nature of their ground state and electronic excited states is still not fully clear. Their unusual chemical reactivity and instability are the main obstacles for experimental studies, and the potentially prominent diradical character, which might require a multireference description in such large systems, hinders theoretical investigations. Here, we provide a detailed answer with the particle-particle random-phase approximation calculation. The (1)Ag ground states of acenes up to decacene are on the closed-shell side of the diradical continuum, whereas the ground state of undecacene and dodecacene tilts more to the open-shell side with a growing polyradical character. The ground state of all acenes has covalent nature with respect to both short and long axes. The lowest triplet state (3)B2u is always above the singlet ground state even though the energy gap could be vanishingly small in the polyacene limit. The bright singlet excited state (1)B2u is a zwitterionic state to the short axis. The excited (1)Ag state gradually switches from a double-excitation state to another zwitterionic state to the short axis, but always keeps its covalent nature to the long axis. An energy crossing between the (1)B2u and excited (1)Ag states happens between hexacene and heptacene. Further energetic consideration suggests that higher acenes are likely to undergo singlet fission with a low photovoltaic efficiency; however, the efficiency might be improved if a singlet fission into multiple triplets could be achieved.
Ground-Water Availability in the United States
Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.
2008-01-01
Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.
Chimera states in networks of phase oscillators: The case of two small populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.; Ashwin, Peter; Laing, Carlo R.
2016-01-01
Chimera states are dynamical patterns in networks of coupled oscillators in which regions of synchronous and asynchronous oscillation coexist. Although these states are typically observed in large ensembles of oscillators and analyzed in the continuum limit, chimeras may also occur in systems with finite (and small) numbers of oscillators. Focusing on networks of 2 N phase oscillators that are organized in two groups, we find that chimera states, corresponding to attracting periodic orbits, appear with as few as two oscillators per group and demonstrate that for N >2 the bifurcations that create them are analogous to those observed in the continuum limit. These findings suggest that chimeras, which bear striking similarities to dynamical patterns in nature, are observable and robust in small networks that are relevant to a variety of real-world systems.
Chimera states in networks of phase oscillators: The case of two small populations.
Panaggio, Mark J; Abrams, Daniel M; Ashwin, Peter; Laing, Carlo R
2016-01-01
Chimera states are dynamical patterns in networks of coupled oscillators in which regions of synchronous and asynchronous oscillation coexist. Although these states are typically observed in large ensembles of oscillators and analyzed in the continuum limit, chimeras may also occur in systems with finite (and small) numbers of oscillators. Focusing on networks of 2N phase oscillators that are organized in two groups, we find that chimera states, corresponding to attracting periodic orbits, appear with as few as two oscillators per group and demonstrate that for N>2 the bifurcations that create them are analogous to those observed in the continuum limit. These findings suggest that chimeras, which bear striking similarities to dynamical patterns in nature, are observable and robust in small networks that are relevant to a variety of real-world systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eugen Drăgănescu, Gheorghe
2013-03-01
To describe a series of phenomena that occur in micro- and nano-systems, we have used the discrete variable Kravchuk and Meixner oscillators for which some sets of coherent states and some squeezed states were established. For a system consisting of molecular oscillators interacting with the coherent radiation field, an oscillatory variation of the refractive index was established.
Graph states as ground states of two-body frustration-free Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darmawan, Andrew S.; Bartlett, Stephen D.
2014-07-01
The framework of measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) allows us to view the ground states of local Hamiltonians as potential resources for universal quantum computation. A central goal in this field is to find models with ground states that are universal for MBQC and that are also natural in the sense that they involve only two-body interactions and have a small local Hilbert space dimension. Graph states are the original resource states for MBQC, and while it is not possible to obtain graph states as exact ground states of two-body Hamiltonians, here we construct two-body frustration-free Hamiltonians that have arbitrarily good approximations of graph states as unique ground states. The construction involves taking a two-body frustration-free model that has a ground state convertible to a graph state with stochastic local operations, then deforming the model such that its ground state is close to a graph state. Each graph state qubit resides in a subspace of a higher dimensional particle. This deformation can be applied to two-body frustration-free Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) models, yielding Hamiltonians that are exactly solvable with exact tensor network expressions for ground states. For the star-lattice AKLT model, the ground state of which is not expected to be a universal resource for MBQC, applying such a deformation appears to enhance the computational power of the ground state, promoting it to a universal resource for MBQC. Transitions in computational power, similar to percolation phase transitions, can be observed when Hamiltonians are deformed in this way. Improving the fidelity of the ground state comes at the cost of a shrinking gap. While analytically proving gap properties for these types of models is difficult in general, we provide a detailed analysis of the deformation of a spin-1 AKLT state to a linear graph state.
Fast ground-state cooling of mechanical resonators with time-dependent optical cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yong; Wu, Lian-Ao; Wang, Z. D.
2011-04-01
We propose a feasible scheme to cool down a mechanical resonator (MR) in a three-mirror cavity optomechanical system with controllable external optical driving fields. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the whole dynamics of the mechanical resonator and cavities is reduced to that of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator, whose effective frequency can be controlled through the optical driving fields. The fast cooling of the MR can be realized by controlling the amplitude of the optical driving fields. Significantly, we further show that the ground-state cooling may be achieved via the three-mirror cavity optomechanical system without the resolved sideband condition.
Modulation of Cortical Oscillations by Low-Frequency Direct Cortical Stimulation Is State-Dependent
Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Schmidt, Stephen L.; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won; Frӧhlich, Flavio
2016-01-01
Cortical oscillations play a fundamental role in organizing large-scale functional brain networks. Noninvasive brain stimulation with temporally patterned waveforms such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) have been proposed to modulate these oscillations. Thus, these stimulation modalities represent promising new approaches for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses in which these oscillations are impaired. However, the mechanism by which periodic brain stimulation alters endogenous oscillation dynamics is debated and appears to depend on brain state. Here, we demonstrate with a static model and a neural oscillator model that recurrent excitation in the thalamo-cortical circuit, together with recruitment of cortico-cortical connections, can explain the enhancement of oscillations by brain stimulation as a function of brain state. We then performed concurrent invasive recording and stimulation of the human cortical surface to elucidate the response of cortical oscillations to periodic stimulation and support the findings from the computational models. We found that (1) stimulation enhanced the targeted oscillation power, (2) this enhancement outlasted stimulation, and (3) the effect of stimulation depended on behavioral state. Together, our results show successful target engagement of oscillations by periodic brain stimulation and highlight the role of nonlinear interaction between endogenous network oscillations and stimulation. These mechanistic insights will contribute to the design of adaptive, more targeted stimulation paradigms. PMID:27023427
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le, G.; Chen, S.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Huang, C.-S.; Petrinec, S. S.; Moore, T. E.; Samson, J.; Singer, H. J.
2005-01-01
In this paper, we present in situ observations of surface waves at the magnetopause and oscillatory magnetospheric field lines, and coordinated observations Pc5 waves at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft, and on the ground by CANOPUS and 210 Degree Magnetic Meridian (210MMJ magnetometer arrays. On February 7,2002 during a highspeed solar wind stream, the Polar spacecraft was skimming the magnetopause in a post-noon meridian plane for approximately 3 hours. During this interval, it made two short excursions and a few partial crossings into the magnetosheath and observed quasi-periodic cold ion bursts in the region adjacent to the magnetopause current layer. The multiple magnetopause crossings as well as the velocity of the cold ion bursts indicate that the magnetopause was oscillating with about 6 minute period. Simultaneous observations of Pc5 waves at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES spacecraft and on the ground by the CANOPUS magnetometer array reveal that these magnetospheric pulsations were forced oscillations of magnetic field lines directly driven by the magnetopause oscillations. The magnetospheric pulsations occurred only in a limited longitudinal region in the post-noon dayside sector, and were not a global phenomenon as one would expect for global field line resonance. Thus, the magnetopause oscillations at the source were also limited to a localized region spanning about 4 hours in local time.
Spin of the sup 219 Ra ground state
Hackett, E.D.; Kuehner, J.A.; Waddington, J.C. ); Jones, G.D.
1989-09-01
The {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,3{ital n}){sup 223}Th reaction at 83 MeV bombarding energy was used to populate the alpha-radioactive nucleus {sup 223}Th. Out-of-beam alpha-gamma coincidences were recorded at correlation angles of 90{degree} and 180{degree}. The {ital a}{sub 2} angular correlation coefficient was extracted for an alpha-gamma cascade to the {sup 215}Rn ground state via the 0.316 MeV excited state. This limited the assignment of the ground-state spin of {sup 219}Ra to ((7/2, 11) / 2 ){sup +}. .AE
Photoionization of ground and excited states of Ti I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nahar, Sultana N.
2015-07-01
Detailed photoionization of ground and many excited states with autoionizing resonances of neutral Ti are presented. Ti I with 22 electrons forms a large number of bound states, the present work finds a total of 908 bound states with n ⩽ 10 and l ⩽ 8 . Photoionization cross sections (σPI) for all these bound states have been obtained. Calculations were carried out in the close-coupling R-matrix method using a wave function expansion that included 36 states of core ion Ti II. It is found that the resonances enhance the low energy region of photoionization of the ground and low lying excited states. The resonant features will increase the opacity, as expected of astrophysical observation, and hence play important role in determination of abundances in the elements in the astronomical objects. The excited states also show prominent structures of Seaton or photo-excitation-of-core resonances.
Barut—Girardello Coherent States for Nonlinear Oscillator with Position-Dependent Mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Naila; Iqbal, Shahid
2016-07-01
Using ladder operators for the non-linear oscillator with position-dependent effective mass, realization of the dynamic group SU(1,1) is presented. Keeping in view the algebraic structure of the non-linear oscillator, coherent states are constructed using Barut—Girardello formalism and their basic properties are discussed. Furthermore, the statistical properties of these states are investigated by means of Mandel parameter and second order correlation function. Moreover, it is shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results obtained for the non-linear oscillator with spatially varying mass reduce to corresponding results of the linear oscillator with constant mass.
Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state.
Lang, F; Winkler, K; Strauss, C; Grimm, R; Denschlag, J Hecker
2008-09-26
We report here on the production of an ultracold gas of tightly bound Rb2 triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state, close to quantum degeneracy. This is achieved by optically transferring weakly bound Rb2 molecules to the absolute lowest level of the ground triplet potential with a transfer efficiency of about 90%. The transfer takes place in a 3D optical lattice which traps a sizeable fraction of the tightly bound molecules with a lifetime exceeding 200 ms. PMID:18851446
Ground states of a prescribed mean curvature equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Pino, Manuel; Guerra, Ignacio
We study the existence of radial ground state solutions for the problem -div({∇u√{1+|})=u, u>0 in R, u(x)→0 as |x|→∞, N⩾3, q>1. It is known that this problem has infinitely many ground states when q⩾N+2}/{N-2}, while no solutions exist if q⩽N/N-2. A question raised by Ni and Serrin in [W.-M. Ni, J. Serrin, Existence and non-existence theorems for ground states for quasilinear partial differential equations, Atti Convegni Lincei 77 (1985) 231-257] is whether or not ground state solutions exist for N/N-2ground states with fast decay O(|) as |x|→+∞ provided that q lies below but close enough to the critical exponent {N+2}/{N-2}. These solutions develop a bubble-tower profile as q approaches the critical exponent.
Spectroscopy of ground and excited states of pseudoscalar and vector charmonium and bottomonium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negash, Hluf; Bhatnagar, Shashank
2016-07-01
In this paper, we calculate the mass spectrum, weak decay constants, two photon decay widths, and two-gluon decay widths of ground (1S) and radially excited (2S, 3S,…) states of pseudoscalar charmoniuum and bottomonium such as ηc and ηb, as well as the mass spectrum and leptonic decay constants of ground state (1S), excited (2S, 1D, 3S, 2D, 4S,…, 5D) states of vector charmonium and bottomonium such as J/ψ, and Υ, using the formulation of Bethe-Salpeter equation under covariant instantaneous ansatz (CIA). Our results are in good agreement with data (where ever available) and other models. In this framework, from the beginning, we employ a 4 × 4 representation for two-body (qq¯) BS amplitude for calculating both the mass spectra as well as the transition amplitudes. However, the price we have to pay is to solve a coupled set of equations for both pseudoscalar and vector quarkonia, which we have explicitly shown get decoupled in the heavy-quark approximation, leading to mass spectral equation with analytical solutions for both masses, as well as eigenfunctions for all the above states, in an approximate harmonic oscillator basis. The analytical forms of eigenfunctions for ground and excited states so obtained are used to evaluate the decay constants and decay widths for different processes.
Ferromagnetic Ground States in Face-Centered Cubic Hubbard Clusters
Souza, T. X. R.; Macedo, C. A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the ground state energies of face-centered cubic Hubbard clusters are analyzed using the Lanczos method. Examination of the ground state energy as a function of the number of particle per site n showed an energy minimum for face-centered cubic structures. This energy minimum decreased in n with increasing coulombic interaction parameter U. We found that the ground state energy had a minimum at n = 0.6, when U = 3W, where W denotes the non-interacting energy bandwidth and the face-centered cubic structure was ferromagnetic. These results, when compared with the properties of nickel, shows strong similarity with other finite temperature analyses in the literature and supports the Hirsh’s conjecture that the interatomic direct exchange interaction dominates in driving the system into a ferromagnetic phase. PMID:27583653
Ferromagnetic Ground States in Face-Centered Cubic Hubbard Clusters.
Souza, T X R; Macedo, C A
2016-01-01
In this study, the ground state energies of face-centered cubic Hubbard clusters are analyzed using the Lanczos method. Examination of the ground state energy as a function of the number of particle per site n showed an energy minimum for face-centered cubic structures. This energy minimum decreased in n with increasing coulombic interaction parameter U. We found that the ground state energy had a minimum at n = 0.6, when U = 3W, where W denotes the non-interacting energy bandwidth and the face-centered cubic structure was ferromagnetic. These results, when compared with the properties of nickel, shows strong similarity with other finite temperature analyses in the literature and supports the Hirsh's conjecture that the interatomic direct exchange interaction dominates in driving the system into a ferromagnetic phase. PMID:27583653
Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation
Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Halder, Amal
2015-05-15
Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.
Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-05-21
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.
Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-05-21
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures. PMID:20867055
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-07-01
We investigate the emergence of different kinds of imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We find that the complete synchronization in population I and existence of solitary oscillators which escape from the synchronized group in population II lead to imperfectly synchronized states for sufficiently small values of nonisochronicity parameter. Interestingly, upon increasing the strength of this parameter further there occurs an onset of mixed imperfectly synchronized states where the solitary oscillators occur from both the populations. Synchronized oscillators from both the populations are locked to a common average frequency. In both cases of imperfectly synchronized states, synchronized oscillators exhibit periodic motion while the solitary oscillators are quasiperiodic in nature. In this region, for spatially prepared initial conditions, we can observe the mixed chimera states where the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations occur from both the populations. On the other hand, imperfectly synchronized states are not always stable, and they can drift aperiodically due to instability caused by an increase of nonisochronicity parameter. We observe that these states are robust to the introduction of frequency mismatch between the two populations.
Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M
2016-07-01
We investigate the emergence of different kinds of imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We find that the complete synchronization in population I and existence of solitary oscillators which escape from the synchronized group in population II lead to imperfectly synchronized states for sufficiently small values of nonisochronicity parameter. Interestingly, upon increasing the strength of this parameter further there occurs an onset of mixed imperfectly synchronized states where the solitary oscillators occur from both the populations. Synchronized oscillators from both the populations are locked to a common average frequency. In both cases of imperfectly synchronized states, synchronized oscillators exhibit periodic motion while the solitary oscillators are quasiperiodic in nature. In this region, for spatially prepared initial conditions, we can observe the mixed chimera states where the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations occur from both the populations. On the other hand, imperfectly synchronized states are not always stable, and they can drift aperiodically due to instability caused by an increase of nonisochronicity parameter. We observe that these states are robust to the introduction of frequency mismatch between the two populations. PMID:27575152
Premalatha, K; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M
2016-07-01
We investigate the emergence of different kinds of imperfectly synchronized states and chimera states in two interacting populations of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We find that the complete synchronization in population I and existence of solitary oscillators which escape from the synchronized group in population II lead to imperfectly synchronized states for sufficiently small values of nonisochronicity parameter. Interestingly, upon increasing the strength of this parameter further there occurs an onset of mixed imperfectly synchronized states where the solitary oscillators occur from both the populations. Synchronized oscillators from both the populations are locked to a common average frequency. In both cases of imperfectly synchronized states, synchronized oscillators exhibit periodic motion while the solitary oscillators are quasiperiodic in nature. In this region, for spatially prepared initial conditions, we can observe the mixed chimera states where the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations occur from both the populations. On the other hand, imperfectly synchronized states are not always stable, and they can drift aperiodically due to instability caused by an increase of nonisochronicity parameter. We observe that these states are robust to the introduction of frequency mismatch between the two populations.
A Remark on the Ground State Energy of Bosonic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogreve, H.
2011-08-01
Monotonicity properties of the ground state energy of bosonic atoms as established in a recent paper by M.K.H. Kiessling [J. Stat. Phys. 139:1063 (2009)] are studied. Symmetry and scaling arguments lead to a more direct proof of a slightly stronger result of this monotonicity and the behavior of the ground state energy as a function of the number of bosonic electrons. Furthermore, invoking appropriate lower and upper bounds on two-electron systems, the stability of the bosonics He- ion is rigorously demonstrated.
Ground state microstructure of a ferrofluid thin layer
Prokopieva, T. A.; Danilov, V. A.; Kantorovich, S. S.
2011-09-15
Using a fine weave of theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we found various aggregates of magnetic single-domain nanoparticles, which can form in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) ferrofluid layer at low temperatures. Our theoretical investigation allowed us to obtain exact expressions and their asymptotes for the energies of each configuration. Thus, for ferrofluid q2D layers it proved possible to identify the ground states as a function of the particle number, size, and other system parameters. Our suggested approach can be used for the investigation of ground state structures in systems with more complex interparticle interactions.
Two-electron photoionization of ground-state lithium
Kheifets, A. S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.
2009-12-15
We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to single-photon two-electron ionization of the lithium atom in its ground state. We treat this reaction as single-electron photon absorption followed by inelastic scattering of the photoelectron on a heliumlike Li{sup +} ion. The latter scattering process can be described accurately within the CCC formalism. We obtain integrated cross sections of single photoionization leading to the ground and various excited states of the Li{sup +} ion as well as double photoionization extending continuously from the threshold to the asymptotic limit of infinite photon energy. Comparison with available experimental and theoretical data validates the CCC model.
Q-switched laser at 912 nm using ground-state-depleted neodymium in yttrium orthosilicate.
Beach, R; Albrecht, G; Solarz, R; Krupke, W; Comaskey, B; Mitchell, S; Brandle, C; Berkstresser, G
1990-09-15
A ground-state-depleted laser is demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. By using Nd(3+) as the active ion and Y(2)SiO(5) as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest-lying Stark level of the Nd(3+4)F(?) level to a Stark level 355 cm(-1) above the lowest-lying one in the (4)I(9/2) manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground (4)I(9/2) manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach-wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. With KNbO(3), noncritical phase matching is possible at 140 degrees C using d(32) and is demonstrated. PMID:19770985
Theory of quantum oscillations in the vortex-liquid state of high-Tc superconductors.
Banerjee, Sumilan; Zhang, Shizhong; Randeria, Mohit
2013-01-01
The observation of quantum oscillations in underdoped cuprates has generated intense debate about the nature of the field-induced resistive state and its implications for the 'normal state' of high-Tc superconductors. Quantum oscillations suggest an underlying Fermi liquid at high magnetic fields H and low temperatures, in contrast with the pseudogap seen in zero-field, high-temperature spectroscopic experiments. Recent specific heat measurements show quantum oscillations in addition to a large field-dependent suppression of the electronic density of states. Here we present a theoretical analysis that reconciles these seemingly contradictory observations. We model the resistive state as a vortex liquid with short-range d-wave pairing correlations. We show that this state exhibits quantum oscillations, with a period determined by a Fermi surface reconstructed by a competing order parameter, in addition to a large suppression of the density of states that goes like √H at low fields.
Solar g-mode oscillations: Comparison of SMM-ACRIM and ground-based observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scherrer, Philip H.
1989-01-01
Progress was made in access to data and in developing programs for its analysis. The difficulties in completing the work in the planned time can be traced to several factors. The correction of the Stanford oscillation using gridded intensity data was not successful. It was concluded that due to poor continuity of the 1985 and 1986 data due to clouds, that a joint analysis with the ACRIM data (best solar oscillation data to date) on the summer 1987 observations should be performed. The 1988 Stanford oscillation data are being examined and the cross comparison of the ACRIM spectrum with the Standford spectrum for 1987 in the g-mode regime will shortly begin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nkomo, Simbarashe; Tinsley, Mark R.; Showalter, Kenneth
2016-09-01
Chimera and chimera-like states are characterized in populations of photochemically coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillators. Simple chimeras and chimera states with multiple and traveling phase clusters, phase-slip behavior, and chimera-like states with phase waves are described. Simulations with a realistic model of the discrete BZ system of populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous oscillators are compared with each other and with experimental behavior.
Tuning ground states and excitations in complex electronic materials
Bishop, A.R.
1996-09-01
Modern electronic materials are characterized by a great variety of broken-symmetry ground states and excitations. Their control requires understanding and tuning underlying driving forces of spin-charge-lattice coupling, critical to macroscopic properties and applications. We report representative model calculations which demonstrate some of the richness of the phenomena and the challenges for successful microscopic modeling.
Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations: FRDM(2012)
Moller, P.; Sierk, A. J.; Ichikawa, T.; Sagawa, H.
2016-03-25
Here, we tabulate the atomic mass excesses and binding energies, ground-state shell-plus-pairing corrections, ground-state microscopic corrections, and nuclear ground-state deformations of 9318 nuclei ranging from 16O to A=339. The calculations are based on the finite-range droplet macroscopic and the folded-Yukawa single-particle microscopic nuclear-structure models, which are completely specified. Relative to our FRDM(1992) mass table in Möller et al. (1995), the results are obtained in the same model, but with considerably improved treatment of deformation and fewer of the approximations that were necessary earlier, due to limitations in computer power. The more accurate execution of the model and the more extensivemore » and more accurate experimental mass data base now available allow us to determine one additional macroscopic-model parameter, the density-symmetry coefficient LL, which was not varied in the previous calculation, but set to zero. Because we now realize that the FRDM is inaccurate for some highly deformed shapes occurring in fission, because some effects are derived in terms of perturbations around a sphere, we only adjust its macroscopic parameters to ground-state masses.« less
Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations: FRDM(2012)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Möller, P.; Sierk, A. J.; Ichikawa, T.; Sagawa, H.
2016-05-01
We tabulate the atomic mass excesses and binding energies, ground-state shell-plus-pairing corrections, ground-state microscopic corrections, and nuclear ground-state deformations of 9318 nuclei ranging from 16O to A = 339. The calculations are based on the finite-range droplet macroscopic and the folded-Yukawa single-particle microscopic nuclear-structure models, which are completely specified. Relative to our FRDM(1992) mass table in Möller et al. (1995), the results are obtained in the same model, but with considerably improved treatment of deformation and fewer of the approximations that were necessary earlier, due to limitations in computer power. The more accurate execution of the model and the more extensive and more accurate experimental mass data base now available allow us to determine one additional macroscopic-model parameter, the density-symmetry coefficient L, which was not varied in the previous calculation, but set to zero. Because we now realize that the FRDM is inaccurate for some highly deformed shapes occurring in fission, because some effects are derived in terms of perturbations around a sphere, we only adjust its macroscopic parameters to ground-state masses.
Selected bibliography of ground-water in the United States
Ward-McLemore, E.
1984-01-01
This bibliography contains 899 records related to the hydrology of the US. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: aquifers; artesian wells; geophysics; ground water; flow models; pollution; tritium; water levels; water policy; and legal aspects. The subject index provides listings of records related to each state. Some of the items (81) are themselves bibliographies.
The Ground State Energy of Heavy Atoms: The Leading Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handrek, Michael; Siedentop, Heinz
2015-10-01
For heavy atoms (large atomic number Z) described by no-pair operators in the Furry picture, we find the ground state's leading energy correction. We compare the result with (semi-)empirical values and Schwinger's prediction showing more than qualitative agreement.
Inverted pendulum state of a polariton Rabi oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronova, N. S.; Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2016-07-01
Exciton-photon beats known as polariton Rabi oscillations in semiconductor microcavities are usually excited by short pulses of light. We consider a different pumping scheme, assuming a cw pumping of the Rabi oscillator from an exciton reservoir. We account for the initial pulse of light setting the phase, exciton decay due to exciton-phonon and exciton-exciton scattering, photon leakage, and blueshift of the exciton resonance due to interactions. We find nontrivial stationary solutions reminiscent of the Kapitza pendulum, where polaritons are accumulated at the upper branch while the lower branch empties.
Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States
Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.
2007-01-01
Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas
Attractive Correlated Electron-Pair Ground State of Resonant Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraverty, B. K.
We consider a strictly one-band Hamiltonian of electrons with attractive interaction between them. We show that in the interesting intermediate density regime, where V ≤ ɛF, the system admits a mixed state of free fermions and dynamic correlated pairs or resonant bosons. The inevitable coupling between the two sub-system produces a superconducting ground state. This should be called Schafroth Condensation.
Measured atomic ground-state polarizabilities of 35 metallic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lei; Indergaard, John; Zhang, Baiqian; Larkin, Ilia; Moro, Ramiro; de Heer, Walt A.
2015-01-01
Advanced pulsed cryogenic molecular-beam electric deflection methods involving position-sensitive mass spectrometry and 7.87-eV ionizing radiation were used to measure the polarizabilities of more than half of the metallic elements in the Periodic Table. Concurrent Stern-Gerlach deflection measurements verified the ground-state condition of the measured atoms. Comparison with state-of-the-art calculations exposes significant systematic and isolated discrepancies throughout the Periodic Table.
Stonestrom, David A.; Harrill, James R.
2007-01-01
Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly but irregularly control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Anthropogenically induced climate change likely will reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations, and perhaps through increased drought. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge directly through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area, and indirectly through climate change. High ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legendziewicz, J.; Oczko, G.; Strȩk, W.
1984-03-01
The oscillator strengths of the f-f transitions for the europium perchlorate, chloride and nitrate in mono- and disubstituted amides have been measured at 25°C. The obtained values were used for the computation of the Judd-Ofelt parameters, not only from the 7F 0 ground state, but also from the 7F 1 excited state. Using the enlarged number of the electron transitions, we have found a set of the good estimated Ω λ parameters.
Measured Atomic Ground State Polarizabilities of 35 Metallic Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indergaard, John; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Baiqian; Larkin, Ilia; Moro, Ramiro; de Heer, Walter
2015-03-01
Advanced pulsed cryogenic molecular beam electric deflection methods utilizing a position-sensitive mass spectrometer and 7.87 eV ionizing radiation were used to measure the polarizabilities of more than half of the metallic elements in the periodic table for the first time. These measurements increase the total number of experimentally obtained atomic polarizabilities from 23 to 57. Concurrent Stern-Gerlach deflection measurements verified the ground state condition of the measured atoms. Generating higher temperature beams allowed for the comparison of relative populations of the ground and excited states in order to extract the true temperature of the atomic beam, which followed the nominal temperature closely over a wide temperature range. Comparison of newly measured polarizabilities with state-of-the-art calculations exposes significant systematic and isolated discrepancies throughout the periodic table. Cluster Lab at Georgia Tech.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swain, Debadatta; Kishore Kumar, K.; John, Sherine Rachel; Ramkumar, Geetha
The middle atmospheric dynamics is modulated strongly by long period waves and oscilla-tions apart from short period gravity waves, tides and planetary scale waves. Owing to the importance of these phenomena in the middle atmosphere, several studies have been carried out globally using in situ measurements and models to identify and investigate the waves and oscillations as well as their forcing mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to investigate the long period oscillations in winds, temperature and ozone simultaneously over a low lati-tude station, Trivandrum (8.5o N, 77o E) using a combination of ground and satellite based observations. The long term measurements of various atmospheric parameters like winds from radiosonde/rocket flights, atmospheric radars (under ISRO's MIDAS campaign) along with temperature and ozone from SABER on TIMED satellite has for the first time enabled the simultaneous investigation of the chemistry, dynamics and thermal structure of the middle at-mosphere over this location. The study revealed several interesting features of stratospheric and mesospheric long period oscillations bringing out the salient features of QBO and SAO in particular. It was observed that stratospheric and mesospheric QBO and SAO in temperature and winds are exactly in opposite phases. The peaking altitudes of stratospheric and meso-spheric SAO in case of the three parameters are also different. The comprehensive analysis of the long period oscillations in winds, temperature and ozone simultaneously is one of the first of its kind over this location involving the three parameters contributing to middle atmospheric dynamics.
Influence of fluid and volume state on PaO2 oscillations in mechanically ventilated pigs.
Bodenstein, Marc; Bierschock, Stephan; Boehme, Stefan; Wang, Hemei; Vogt, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert; David, Matthias; Markstaller, Klaus
2013-03-01
Varying pulmonary shunt fractions during the respiratory cycle cause oxygen oscillations during mechanical ventilation. In artificially damaged lungs, cyclical recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for varying shunt according to published evidence. We introduce a complimentary hypothesis that cyclically varying shunt in healthy lungs is caused by cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion. Administration of crystalloid or colloid infusions would decrease oxygen oscillations if our hypothesis was right. Therefore, n=14 mechanically ventilated healthy pigs were investigated in 2 groups: crystalloid (fluid) versus no-fluid administration. Additional volume interventions (colloid infusion, blood withdrawal) were carried out in each pig. Intra-aortal PaO2 oscillations were recorded using fluorescence quenching technique. Phase shift of oxygen oscillations during altered inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) ventilation ratio and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) served as control methods to exclude that recruitment of atelectasis is responsible for oxygen oscillations. In hypovolemia relevant oxygen oscillations could be recorded. Fluid and volume state changed PaO2 oscillations according to our hypothesis. Fluid administration led to a mean decline of 105.3 mmHg of the PaO2 oscillations amplitude (P<0.001). The difference of the amplitudes between colloid administration and blood withdrawal was 62.4 mmHg in pigs not having received fluids (P=0.0059). Fluid and volume state also changed the oscillation phase during altered I:E ratio. EIT excluded changes of regional ventilation (i.e., recruitment of atelectasis) to be responsible for these oscillations. In healthy pigs, cyclical redistribution of pulmonary perfusion can explain the size of respiratory-dependent PaO2 oscillations.
Dirac bound states of anharmonic oscillator in external fields
Hamzavi, Majid; Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Falaye, Babatunde J.
2014-02-15
We explore the effect of the external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle subjects to mixed scalar and vector anharmonic oscillator field in the two-dimensional (2D) space. We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized two-spinor-components wave functions in terms of the chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. -- Highlights: • Effect of the external fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle with the anharmonic oscillator is investigated. • The solutions are discussed in view of spin and pseudospin symmetries limits. • The energy levels and wave function are presented by the Nikiforov–Uvarov method.
New Measurement of the 5H Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNeel, Daniel G.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Bedoor, S.; Newton, A. S.; Brown, K. W.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Buhro, W. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Showalter, R. H.; Tsang, M. B.; Winklebauer, J. R.; Marley, S. T.; Shetty, D. V.
2015-10-01
We have studied the ground state of 5H using the 6He(d,3He)5H reaction in inverse kinematics. Existing data for 5H are in conflict with each other and with many theoretical predictions. This measurement provides a clear evidence for the 5H ground state, and the previously unreported 6He(d,t)5Heg.s. reaction is also observed. A 6He beam at 55 MeV/A produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University bombarded a 1.9 mg/cm2 (CD2)n target. The reaction products were detected with HiRA (the High Resolution Array). The 3He and 3H particles from the 6He(d,3He/3H)5H/5He reactions were detected in coincidence with the decay products of the unstable 5H and 5He nuclei, providing signatures for the transitions of interest. The properties of the 5He ground state provide information about the calibration and response of the apparatus. Details of the measurement, and a comparison of the data with earlier results and theoretical calculations, will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts DE-FG02-04ER41320 and DE-FG02-87ER40316, and the U. S. National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers PHY-1068217 and PHY-1068192.
Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert
2016-11-01
We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c ( p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2 d and J in a left neighborhood of J c ( p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes ( d = 2) or slabs ( d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.
Mixed configuration ground state in iron(II) phthalocyanine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Toby, Brian; van Veenendaal, Michel
2015-06-01
We calculate the angular dependence of the x-ray linear and circular dichroism at the L2 ,3 edges of α -Fe(II) Phthalocyanine (FePc) thin films using a ligand-field model with full configuration interaction. We find the best agreement with the experimental spectra for a mixed ground state of 3Eg(a1g 2eg3b2g 1) and 3B2 g(a1g 1eg4b2g 1) with the two configurations coupled by the spin-orbit interaction. The 3Eg(b ) and 3B2 g states have easy-axis and easy-plane anisotropies, respectively. Our model accounts for an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy and the measured magnitudes of the in-plane orbital and spin moments. The proximity in energy of the two configurations allows a switching of the magnetic anisotropy from easy plane to easy axis with a small change in the crystal field, as recently observed for FePc adsorbed on an oxidized Cu surface. We also discuss the possibility of a quintet ground state (5A1 g is 250 meV above the ground state) with planar anisotropy by manipulation of the Fe-C bond length by depositing the complex on a substrate that is subjected to a mechanical strain.
Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert
2016-06-01
We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c (p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2d and J in a left neighborhood of J c (p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes (d = 2) or slabs (d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.
Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States
Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.
1985-06-01
Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs.
Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Clopath, Claudia
2014-01-01
Oscillations play a critical role in cognitive phenomena and have been observed in many brain regions. Experimental evidence indicates that classes of neurons exhibit properties that could promote oscillations, such as subthreshold resonance and electrical gap junctions. Typically, these two properties are studied separately but it is not clear which is the dominant determinant of global network rhythms. Our aim is to provide an analytical understanding of how these two effects destabilize the fluctuation-driven state, in which neurons fire irregularly, and lead to an emergence of global synchronous oscillations. Here we show how the oscillation frequency is shaped by single neuron resonance, electrical and chemical synapses.The presence of both gap junctions and subthreshold resonance are necessary for the emergence of oscillations. Our results are in agreement with several experimental observations such as network responses to oscillatory inputs and offer a much-needed conceptual link connecting a collection of disparate effects observed in networks. PMID:25405458
Terahertz spectroscopy of ground state HD18O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Miller, Charles E.; Kobayashi, Kaori; Matsushima, Fusakazu
2016-10-01
Terahertz absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the ground state pure rotational transitions of the water isotopologue HD18O . A total of 105 pure rotational transitions were observed in the 0.5-5.0 THz region with ∼ 100 kHz accuracy for the first time. The observed positions were fit to experimental accuracy using the Euler series expansion of the asymmetric-top Hamiltonian together with the literature Microwave, Far-IR and IR data in the ground state and ν2 . The new measurements and predictions reported here support the analysis of astronomical observations by high-resolution spectroscopic telescopes such as SOFIA and ALMA where laboratory rest frequencies with uncertainties of 1 MHz or less are required for proper analysis of velocity resolved astrophysical data.
Ground states of trapped spin-1 condensates in magnetic field
Matuszewski, Michal
2010-11-15
We consider a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a harmonic potential under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field. We investigate spatial and spin structure of the mean-field ground states under constraints on the number of atoms and the total magnetization. We show that the trapping potential can make the antiferromagnetic condensate separate into three distinct phases and ferromagnetic condensate into two distinct phases. In the ferromagnetic case, the magnetization is located in the center of the harmonic trap, while in the antiferromagnetic case magnetized phases appear in the outer regions. We describe how the transition from the Thomas-Fermi regime to the single-mode approximation regime with decreasing number of atoms results in the disappearance of the domains. We suggest that the ground states can be created in experiment by adiabatically changing the magnetic-field strength.
Nuclear quadrupole moment of the {sup 99}Tc ground state
Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan
2008-05-15
By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2{sup +} ground state of {sup 99}Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc{sub 2} and ZrTc{sub 2}. If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the {sup 99}Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced.
Ground-state rotational constants of 12CH 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chackerian, C.; Guelachvili, G.
1980-12-01
An analysis of ground-state combination differences in the ν2( A1) fundamental band of 12CH 3D ( ν0 = 2200.03896 cm -1) has been made to yield values for the rotational constants B0, D0J, D0JK, H0JJJ, H0JJK, H0JKK, LJJJJ, L0JJJK, and order of magnitude values for L0JJKK and L0JKKK. These constants should be useful in assisting radio searches for this molecule in astrophysical sources. In addition, splittings of A1A2 levels ( J ≥ 17, K = 3) have been measured in both the ground and excited vibrational states of this band.
Kac-Moody symmetries of critical ground states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondev, Jané; Henley, Christopher L.
1996-02-01
The symmetries of critical ground states of two-dimensional lattice models are investigated. We show how mapping a critical ground state to a model of a rough interface can be used to identify the chiral symmetry algebra of the conformal field theory that describes its scaling limit. This is demonstrated in the case of the six-vertex model, the three-coloring model on the honeycomb lattice, and the four-coloring model on the square lattice. These models are critical and they are described in the continuum by conformal field theories whose symmetry algebras are the su(2) k=1 , su(3) k=1 , and the su(4) k=1 Kac-Moody algebra, respectively. Our approach is based on the Frenkel-Kac-Segal vertex operator construction of level-one Kac-Moody algebras.
The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium
Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.
2015-01-01
A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. Our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials. PMID:26601219
Room temperature skyrmion ground state stabilized through interlayer exchange coupling
Chen, Gong Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; N'Diaye, Alpha T.
2015-06-15
Possible magnetic skyrmion device applications motivate the search for structures that extend the stability of skyrmion spin textures to ambient temperature. Here, we demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize a room temperature skyrmion ground state in chiral magnetic films via exchange coupling across non-magnetic spacer layers. Using spin polarized low-energy electron microscopy to measure all three Cartesian components of the magnetization vector, we image the spin textures in Fe/Ni films. We show how tuning the thickness of a copper spacer layer between chiral Fe/Ni films and perpendicularly magnetized Ni layers permits stabilization of a chiral stripe phase, a skyrmion phase, and a single domain phase. This strategy to stabilize skyrmion ground states can be extended to other magnetic thin film systems and may be useful for designing skyrmion based spintronics devices.
Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastianello, Alvise; Sotiriadis, Spyros
2016-08-01
A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.
The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium
Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.
2015-07-10
A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.
NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE
Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan
2009-09-01
The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.
First evidence for a virtual 18B ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spyrou, A.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Blanchon, G.; Bonaccorso, A.; Breitbach, E.; Brown, J.; Christian, G.; DeLine, A.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Russel, A.; Schiller, A.; Strongman, M. J.; Thoennessen, M.
2010-01-01
The decay of the neutron unbound ground state of 18B was studied for the first time through a single-proton knockout reaction from a 62 MeV/u 19C beam. The decay energy spectrum was reconstructed from coincidence measurements between the emitted neutron and the 17B fragment using the MoNA/Sweeper setup. An s-wave line shape was used to describe the experimental spectrum resulting in an upper limit for the scattering length of - 50 fm which corresponds to a decay energy <10 keV. Observing an s-wave decay of 18B provides an experimental verification that the ground state of 19C includes a large s-wave component. The presence of this s-wave component shows that s-d mixing is still present in 18B and that the s1 / 2 orbital has not moved significantly below the d5 / 2 orbital.
Tuning the Ground State Symmetry of Acetylenyl Radicals
2015-01-01
The lowest excited state of the acetylenyl radical, HCC, is a 2Π state, only 0.46 eV above the ground state, 2Σ+. The promotion of an electron from a π bond pair to a singly occupied σ hybrid orbital is all that is involved, and so we set out to tune those orbital energies, and with them the relative energetics of 2Π and 2Σ+ states. A strategy of varying ligand electronegativity, employed in a previous study on substituted carbynes, RC, was useful, but proved more difficult to apply for substituted acetylenyl radicals, RCC. However, π-donor/acceptor substitution is effective in modifying the state energies. We are able to design molecules with 2Π ground states (NaOCC, H2NCC (2A″), HCSi, FCSi, etc.) and vary the 2Σ+–2Π energy gap over a 4 eV range. We find an inconsistency between bond order and bond dissociation energy measures of the bond strength in the Si-containing molecules; we provide an explanation through an analysis of the relevant potential energy curves. PMID:27162981
Tuning the Ground State Symmetry of Acetylenyl Radicals.
Zeng, Tao; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Ananth, Nandini; Hoffmann, Roald
2015-08-26
The lowest excited state of the acetylenyl radical, HCC, is a (2)Π state, only 0.46 eV above the ground state, (2)Σ(+). The promotion of an electron from a π bond pair to a singly occupied σ hybrid orbital is all that is involved, and so we set out to tune those orbital energies, and with them the relative energetics of (2)Π and (2)Σ(+) states. A strategy of varying ligand electronegativity, employed in a previous study on substituted carbynes, RC, was useful, but proved more difficult to apply for substituted acetylenyl radicals, RCC. However, π-donor/acceptor substitution is effective in modifying the state energies. We are able to design molecules with (2)Π ground states (NaOCC, H2NCC ((2)A″), HCSi, FCSi, etc.) and vary the (2)Σ(+)-(2)Π energy gap over a 4 eV range. We find an inconsistency between bond order and bond dissociation energy measures of the bond strength in the Si-containing molecules; we provide an explanation through an analysis of the relevant potential energy curves. PMID:27162981
Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nada; Decleva, Piero
2016-02-01
Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy.
Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states.
Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nađa; Decleva, Piero
2016-02-28
Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy. PMID:26931702
Tuning the Ground State Symmetry of Acetylenyl Radicals.
Zeng, Tao; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Ananth, Nandini; Hoffmann, Roald
2015-08-26
The lowest excited state of the acetylenyl radical, HCC, is a (2)Π state, only 0.46 eV above the ground state, (2)Σ(+). The promotion of an electron from a π bond pair to a singly occupied σ hybrid orbital is all that is involved, and so we set out to tune those orbital energies, and with them the relative energetics of (2)Π and (2)Σ(+) states. A strategy of varying ligand electronegativity, employed in a previous study on substituted carbynes, RC, was useful, but proved more difficult to apply for substituted acetylenyl radicals, RCC. However, π-donor/acceptor substitution is effective in modifying the state energies. We are able to design molecules with (2)Π ground states (NaOCC, H2NCC ((2)A″), HCSi, FCSi, etc.) and vary the (2)Σ(+)-(2)Π energy gap over a 4 eV range. We find an inconsistency between bond order and bond dissociation energy measures of the bond strength in the Si-containing molecules; we provide an explanation through an analysis of the relevant potential energy curves.
Electronic and ground state properties of ThTe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhardwaj, Purvee; Singh, Sadhna
2016-05-01
The electronic properties of ThTe in cesium chloride (CsCl, B2) structure are investigated in the present paper. To study the ground state properties of thorium chalcogenide, the first principle calculations have been calculated. The bulk properties, including lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results.
Improvement in a phenomenological formula for ground state binding energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, G.
2016-07-01
The phenomenological formula for ground state binding energy derived earlier [G. Gangopadhyay, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 20 (2011) 179] has been modified. The parameters have been obtained by fitting the latest available tabulation of experimental values. The major modifications include a new term for pairing and introduction of a new neutron magic number at N = 160. The new formula reduced the root mean square deviation to 363keV, a substantial improvement over the previous version of the formula.
Ground-state energy and relativistic corrections for positronium hydride
Bubin, Sergiy; Varga, Kalman
2011-07-15
Variational calculations of the ground state of positronium hydride (HPs) are reported, including various expectation values, electron-positron annihilation rates, and leading relativistic corrections to the total and dissociation energies. The calculations have been performed using a basis set of 4000 thoroughly optimized explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions. The relative accuracy of the variational energy upper bound is estimated to be of the order of 2x10{sup -10}, which is a significant improvement over previous nonrelativistic results.
Variable energy, high flux, ground-state atomic oxygen source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source is described which is comprised of a means for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O(-) ions when bombarded with electrons; a means of producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream of electrons and O(-) ions; means for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O(-) ions; means for directing a multiple pass laser beam through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O(-) ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means for deflecting the path of the O(-) ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means for stopping the O(-) ions and the electrons and for allowing only the ground-state O atoms to continue as the source of the atoms of interest. The method and apparatus are also adaptable for producing other ground-state atoms and/or molecules.
Alternative ground states enable pathway switching in biological electron transfer
Abriata, Luciano A.; Alvarez-Paggi, Damian; Ledesma, Gabirela N.; Blackburn, Ninian J.; Vila, Alejandro J.; Murgida, Daniel H.
2012-10-10
Electron transfer is the simplest chemical reaction and constitutes the basis of a large variety of biological processes, such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Nature has evolved specific proteins and cofactors for these functions. The mechanisms optimizing biological electron transfer have been matter of intense debate, such as the role of the protein milieu between donor and acceptor sites. Here we propose a mechanism regulating long-range electron transfer in proteins. Specifically, we report a spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical study on WT and single-mutant CuA redox centers from Thermus thermophilus, which shows that thermal fluctuations may populate two alternative ground-state electronicmore » wave functions optimized for electron entry and exit, respectively, through two different and nearly perpendicular pathways. In conclusion, these findings suggest a unique role for alternative or “invisible” electronic ground states in directional electron transfer. Moreover, it is shown that this energy gap and, therefore, the equilibrium between ground states can be fine-tuned by minor perturbations, suggesting alternative ways through which protein–protein interactions and membrane potential may optimize and regulate electron–proton energy transduction.« less
Alternative ground states enable pathway switching in biological electron transfer
Abriata, Luciano A.; Álvarez-Paggi, Damián; Ledesma, Gabriela N.; Blackburn, Ninian J.; Vila, Alejandro J.; Murgida, Daniel H.
2012-01-01
Electron transfer is the simplest chemical reaction and constitutes the basis of a large variety of biological processes, such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Nature has evolved specific proteins and cofactors for these functions. The mechanisms optimizing biological electron transfer have been matter of intense debate, such as the role of the protein milieu between donor and acceptor sites. Here we propose a mechanism regulating long-range electron transfer in proteins. Specifically, we report a spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical study on WT and single-mutant CuA redox centers from Thermus thermophilus, which shows that thermal fluctuations may populate two alternative ground-state electronic wave functions optimized for electron entry and exit, respectively, through two different and nearly perpendicular pathways. These findings suggest a unique role for alternative or “invisible” electronic ground states in directional electron transfer. Moreover, it is shown that this energy gap and, therefore, the equilibrium between ground states can be fine-tuned by minor perturbations, suggesting alternative ways through which protein–protein interactions and membrane potential may optimize and regulate electron–proton energy transduction. PMID:23054836
Coherent Transfer of Photoassociated Molecules into the Rovibrational Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inouye, Shin
2011-05-01
Recently, there have been impressive advances in methods of creating ultracold molecules from ultracold atomic gases. One of the key technologies used there is Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP), which has been successfully used for transferring Feshbach molecules into the rovibrational ground state. Since STIRAP relies on quantum coherence, it is unclear if STIRAP is also useful for non-polarized sample, like photo-associated molecules in a magneto-optical trap. Here we report on the SITRAP transfer of weakly bound molecules produced by photoassociation (PA). Laser cooled 41 K and 87 Rb atoms were first photo-associated into loosely-bound molecules in the X 1 Σ potential. Using v = 41, J = 1 level in the (3) 1 Σ potential as an intermediate level, we succeeded in transferring molecules in the v = 91, J = 0 level into the absolute ground state (X 1 Σ , v = 0, N = 0). High-resolution spectroscopy based on the coherent transfer revealed the hyperfine structure of both weakly-bound and tightly-bound molecules. Our results show that a pure sample of ultracold ground-state molecules is achieved via the all-optical association of laser-cooled atoms, opening possibilities to coherently manipulate a wide variety of molecules.In collaboration with Kiyotaka Aikawa, Kohei Oasa, University of Tokyo; Masahito Ueda, University of Tokyo, JST, ERATO; Jun Kobayashi, University of Tokyo; and Tetsuo Kishimoto, University of Electro-Communications.
Coherent states for nonlinear harmonic oscillator and some of its properties
Amir, Naila E-mail: naila.amir@sns.nust.edu.pk; Iqbal, Shahid E-mail: siqbal@sns.nust.edu.pk
2015-06-15
A one-dimensional nonlinear harmonic oscillator is studied in the context of generalized coherent states. We develop a perturbative framework to compute the eigenvalues and eigenstates for the quantum nonlinear oscillator and construct the generalized coherent states based on Gazeau-Klauder formalism. We analyze their statistical properties by means of Mandel parameter and second order correlation function. Our analysis reveals that the constructed coherent states exhibit super-Poissonian statistics. Moreover, it is shown that the coherent states mimic the phenomena of quantum revivals and fractional revivals during their time evolution. The validity of our results has been discussed in terms of various parametric bounds imposed by our computational scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picallo, Clara B.; Riecke, Hermann
2011-03-01
Motivated by recent observations in neuronal systems we investigate all-to-all networks of nonidentical oscillators with adaptive coupling. The adaptation models spike-timing-dependent plasticity in which the sum of the weights of all incoming links is conserved. We find multiple phase-locked states that fall into two classes: near-synchronized states and splay states. Among the near-synchronized states are states that oscillate with a frequency that depends only very weakly on the coupling strength and is essentially given by the frequency of one of the oscillators, which is, however, neither the fastest nor the slowest oscillator. In sufficiently large networks the adaptive coupling is found to develop effective network topologies dominated by one or two loops. This results in a multitude of stable splay states, which differ in their firing sequences. With increasing coupling strength their frequency increases linearly and the oscillators become less synchronized. The essential features of the two classes of states are captured analytically in perturbation analyses of the extended Kuramoto model used in the simulations.
Generation of macroscopic Schroedinger's cat states in qubit-oscillator systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jin-Feng; Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin
We study a scheme to generate macroscopic Schroedinger's cat states in a quantum oscillator (electromagnetic field or mechanical resonator) coupled to a quantum bit (two-level system) via a conditional displacement mechanism. By driving the qubit monochromatically, the oscillation of the qubit state modifies the effective frequency of the driving force acting on the oscillator, and a resonant or near resonant driving on the oscillator can be achieved. The displacement of the oscillator is then significantly enhanced due to the small detuning of the driving force and can exceed that of the zero-point fluctuation. This effect can be used to prepare quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct coherent states in the oscillator. We present detailed studies on this state generation scheme in both closed and open system cases. This approach can be implemented in various experimenta J.F.H. is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 11447102 and No. 11505055. J.Q.L and L.T. are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.
Spin Number Coherent States and the Problem of Two Coupled Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.; Granados, V. D.
2015-07-01
From the definition of the standard Perelomov coherent states we introduce the Perelomov number coherent states for any su(2) Lie algebra. With the displacement operator we apply a similarity transformation to the su(2) generators and construct a new set of operators which also close the su(2) Lie algebra, being the Perelomov number coherent states the new basis for its unitary irreducible representation. We apply our results to obtain the energy spectrum, the eigenstates and the partition function of two coupled oscillators. We show that the eigenstates of two coupled oscillators are the SU(2) Perelomov number coherent states of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator with an appropriate choice of the coherent state parameters. Supported by SNI-México, COFAA-IPN, EDD-IPN, EDI-IPN, SIP-IPN Project No. 20150935
Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2016-10-01
It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state's spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state's extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.
Two different ground states in K-intercalated polyacenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, Quynh T. N.; Heguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Takehito; Nozue, Yasuo; Tanigaki, Katsumi
2016-02-01
The electronic states of potassium- (K-) intercalated zigzag-type polycyclic aromatic (PLA) hydrocarbon [polyacene PLAs] Kx(PLAs ) are studied for a series of the four smallest molecules: naphthalene (NN), anthracene (AN), tetracene (TN), and pentacene (PN), focusing on their 1:1 stoichiometric phases. Clear experimental differences are identified between the first group [K1(NN ) and K1(AN ) ] and the second group [K1(TN ) and K1(PN ) ] by magnetic, vibrational, and optical measurements. The first group is categorized as a Mott insulator with an antiferromagnetic ground state with energy of ˜10 meV, whereas the second group is classified as a band insulator via dimer formation due to the spin Peierls instability. In the latter system, the first thermally accessible triplet states are located far apart from the singlet ground states and are not detected by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy until 300 K being very different from what is observed for the hole-doped PN reported earlier. The results give a new systematic understanding on the electronic states of electron-doped PLAs sensitive to the energetic balance among on-site Coulomb repulsion, bandwidth, and the Peierls instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ouyang, Guang; Guang, Jing; Zhang, Mingsha; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Zhou, Changsong
2016-01-01
Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations. The reconciliation of SOCs and SOs is demonstrated both in the sandpile model and robustly in biologically plausible neuronal networks. The oscillations can be suppressed if external inputs eliminate the prominent slow accumulation process, providing a potential explanation of the widely studied Berger effect or event-related desynchronization in neural response. The features of neural oscillations and suppression are confirmed during task processing in monkey eye-movement experiments. Our results suggest that finite-size, columnar neural circuits may play an important role in generating neural oscillations around the critical states, potentially enabling functional advantages of both SOCs and oscillations for sensitive response to transient stimuli.
Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ouyang, Guang; Guang, Jing; Zhang, Mingsha; Wong, K Y Michael; Zhou, Changsong
2016-01-01
Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations. The reconciliation of SOCs and SOs is demonstrated both in the sandpile model and robustly in biologically plausible neuronal networks. The oscillations can be suppressed if external inputs eliminate the prominent slow accumulation process, providing a potential explanation of the widely studied Berger effect or event-related desynchronization in neural response. The features of neural oscillations and suppression are confirmed during task processing in monkey eye-movement experiments. Our results suggest that finite-size, columnar neural circuits may play an important role in generating neural oscillations around the critical states, potentially enabling functional advantages of both SOCs and oscillations for sensitive response to transient stimuli. PMID:26799044
Optomechanical self-oscillations in an anharmonic potential: engineering a nonclassical steady state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Manuel; Bruder, Christoph; Lörch, Niels
2016-09-01
We study self-oscillations of an optomechanical system, where coherent mechanical oscillations are induced by a driven optical or microwave cavity, for the case of an anharmonic mechanical oscillator potential. A semiclassical analytical model is developed to characterize the limit cycle for large mechanical amplitudes corresponding to a weak nonlinearity. As a result, we predict conditions to achieve subpoissonian phonon statistics in the steady state, indicating classically forbidden behavior. We compare with numerical simulations and find very good agreement. Our model is quite general and can be applied to other physical systems such as trapped ions or superconducting circuits.
Ground state of naphthyl cation: Singlet or triplet?
Dutta, Achintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana Pal, Sourav; Manohar, Prashant U.
2014-03-21
We present a benchmark theoretical investigation on the electronic structure and singlet-triplet(S-T) gap of 1- and 2-naphthyl cations using the CCSD(T) method. Our calculations reveal that the ground states of both the naphthyl cations are singlet, contrary to the results obtained by DFT/B3LYP calculations reported in previous theoretical studies. However, the triplet states obtained in the two structural isomers of naphthyl cation are completely different. The triplet state in 1-naphthyl cation is (π,σ) type, whereas in 2-naphthyl cation it is (σ,σ{sup ′}) type. The S-T gaps in naphthyl cations and the relative stability ordering of the singlet and the triplet states are highly sensitive to the basis-set quality as well as level of correlation, and demand for inclusion of perturbative triples in the coupled-cluster ansatz.
Experimental Proposal to Detect Topological Ground State Degeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barkeshli, Maissam; Oreg, Yuval; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2014-03-01
One of the most profound features of topologically ordered states of matter, such as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, is that they possess topology-dependent ground state degeneracies that are robust to all local perturbations. Here we present the first proposal to directly detect these topological degeneracies in an experimentally accessible setup. The detection scheme uses nonlinear electrical conductance measurements in a double layer FQH system, with appropriately patterned top and bottom gates. We propose two experimental platforms; in the first, the detection of topo- logically degenerate states coincides with the detection of ZN parafermion zero modes. We map the relevant physics to a single-channel ZN quantum impurity model, providing a novel generalization of the Kondo model. Our proposal can also be adapted to detect the ZN parafermion zero modes recently discovered in FQH line junctions proximitized with superconductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenova, N.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Anishchenko, V.
2015-11-01
We analyze nonlocally coupled networks of identical chaotic oscillators with either time-discrete or time-continuous dynamics (Henon map, Lozi map, Lorenz system). We hypothesize that chimera states, in which spatial domains of coherent (synchronous) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics coexist, can be obtained only in networks of oscillators with nonhyperbolic chaotic attractors and cannot be found in networks of systems with hyperbolic chaotic attractors. This hypothesis is supported by analytical results and numerical simulations for hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic cases.
Rabi oscillations of two-photon states in nonlinear optical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that four-wave mixing processes in high-quality nonlinear resonators can lead to Rabi-like oscillations in photon occupation numbers and second-order correlation functions, being a characteristic feature of the presence of entangled photon pairs in the optical signal. In the case of a system driven by a continuous coherent pump, the oscillations occur in the transient regime. We show that driving the system with pulsed coherent pumping would generate strongly antibunched photon states.
Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings
Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben
2015-01-01
The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005
Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben
2015-01-01
The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.
Mechanism for intensity-induced chimera states in globally coupled oscillators.
Chandrasekar, V K; Gopal, R; Venkatesan, A; Lakshmanan, M
2014-12-01
We identify the mechanism behind the existence of intensity-induced chimera states in globally coupled oscillators. We find that the effect of intensity in the system is to cause multistability by increasing the number of fixed points. This in turn increases the number of multistable attractors, and we find that their stability is determined by the strength of coupling. This causes the coexistence of different collective states in the system depending upon the initial state. We demonstrate that intensity-induced chimera is generic to both periodic and chaotic systems. We discuss possible applications of our results to real-world systems like the brain and spin torque nano-oscillators.
Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations in the Central United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramirez Guzman, L.; Boyd, O. S.; Hartzell, S.; Williams, R. A.
2010-12-01
The Central United States (CUS) includes two of the major seismic zones east of the Rockies: the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones. The winter 1811-1812 New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) events were the largest intraplate sequence ever recorded in the United States. Together with their aftershocks, these earthquakes produced large areas of liquefaction, new lakes, and landslides in the region. Seismicity in the early 1800’s was dominated by the NMSZ activity, although three low magnitude 5 earthquakes occurred in the last 40 years in the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone (WVSZ). The population and infrastructure of the CUS have drastically changed from that of the early nineteenth century, and a large earthquake would now cause significant casualties and economic losses within the country’s heartland. In this study we present three sets of numerical simulations depicting earthquakes in the region. These hypothetical ruptures are located on the Reelfoot fault and the southern axial arm of the NMSZ and in the WVSZ. Our broad-band synthetic ground motions are calculated following the Liu et al. (2006) hybrid method. Using a finite element solver we calculate low frequency ground motion (< 1 Hz) which accounts for the heterogeneity and low velocity soils of the region by using a recently developed seismic velocity model (CUSVM1) and a minimum shear wave velocity of 300 m/s. The broad-band ground motions are then generated by combining high frequency synthetics computed in a 1D velocity model with the low frequency motions at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. We primarily discuss the basin effects produced by the Mississippi embayment and investigate the effects of hypocentral location and slip distribution on ground motions in densely populated areas within the CUS.
Equatorial ground ice on Mars: Steady-state stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellon, Michael T.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Postawko, Susan E.
1993-01-01
Current Martian equatorial surface temperatures are too warm for water ice to exist at the surface for any appreciable length of time before subliming into the atmosphere. Subsurface temperatures are generally warmer still and, despite the presence of a diffusive barrier of porous regolith material, it has been shown by Smoluchowski, Clifford and Hillel, and Fanale et al. that buried ground ice will also sublime and be lost to the atmosphere in a relatively short time. We investigate the behavior of this subliming subsurface ice and show that it is possible for ice to maintain at a steady-state depth, where sublimation and diffusive loss to the atmosphere is balanced by resupply from beneath by diffusion and recondensation of either a deeper buried ice deposits or ground water. We examine the behavior of equatorial ground ice with a numercial time-marching molecular diffusion model. In our model we allow for diffusion of water vapor through a porous regolith, variations in diffusivity and porosity with ice content, and recondensation of sublimed water vapor. A regolith containing considerable amounts of ice can still be very porous, allowing water vapor to diffuse up from deeper within the ice layer where temperatures are warmer due to the geothermal gradient. This vapor can then recondense nearer to the surface where ice had previously sublimed and been lost to the atmosphere. As a result we find that ice deposits migrate to find a steady-state depth, which represents a balance between diffusive loss to the atmosphere through the overlying porous regolith and diffusive resupply through a porous icy regolith below. This depth depends primarily on the long-term mean surface temperature and the nature of the geothermal gradient, and is independent of the ice-free porosity and the regolith diffusivity. Only the rate of loss of ground ice depends on diffusive properties.
A NON-RADIAL OSCILLATION MODEL FOR PULSAR STATE SWITCHING
Rosen, R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Thompson, S. E.
2011-02-10
Pulsars are unique astrophysical laboratories because of their clock-like timing precision, providing new ways to test general relativity and detect gravitational waves. One impediment to high-precision pulsar timing experiments is timing noise. Recently, Lyne et al. showed that the timing noise in a number of pulsars is due to quasi-periodic fluctuations in the pulsars' spin-down rates and that some of the pulsars have associated changes in pulse profile shapes. Here we show that a non-radial oscillation model based on asteroseismological theory can explain these quasi-periodic fluctuations. Application of this model to neutron stars will increase our knowledge of neutron star emission and neutron star interiors and may improve pulsar timing precision.
Ground State and Excited State H-Atom Temperatures in a Microwave Plasma Diamond Deposition Reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gicquel, A.; Chenevier, M.; Breton, Y.; Petiau, M.; Booth, J. P.; Hassouni, K.
1996-09-01
Ground electronic state and excited state H-atom temperatures are measured in a microwave plasma diamond deposition reactor as a function of a low percentage of methane introduced in the feed gas and the averaged input microwave power density. Ground state H-atom temperatures (T_H) and temperature of the H-atom in the n=3 excited state (T_{Hα}) are obtained from the measurements respectively of the excitation profile by Two-photon Allowed transition Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) and the Hα line broadening by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). They are compared to gas temperatures calculated with a 1D diffusive non equilibrium H{2} plasma flow model and to ground electronic state rotational temperatures of molecular hydrogen measured previously by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy.
Calculation of electron scattering from the ground state of ytterbium
Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2011-05-15
We report on the application of the convergent close-coupling method, in both relativistic and nonrelativistic formulations, to electron scattering from ytterbium. Angle-differential and integrated cross sections are presented for elastic scattering and excitation of the states (6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}, (6s6p){sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup o}, (6s7p){sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup o}, and (6s5d){sup 1}D{sub 2}{sup e} for a range of incident electron energies. We also present calculations of the total cross section, and angle-differential Stokes parameters for excitation of the (6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 1}{sup o} state from the ground state. A comparison is made with the relativistic distorted-wave method and experiments.
An investigation of ground-based observations of solar oscillations at Stanford
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henning, Harald M. J.
1987-01-01
Data obtained in the last 8 years of solar differential Doppler observations at Stanford were considered. The four best time series of data were examined in detail. The sources of error in the data were investigated and removed where possible. In particular, the contribution resulting from transparency variations in the sky was examined. Detection method applicable to data with low signal to noise ratio and low filling factor were developed and utilized for the investigation of global solar modes of oscillations in the data. The frequencies of p-modes were measured and identified. The presence of g-modes were also determined in the Stanford data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, A.; Pease, G.
1974-01-01
Range measurements to the Pioneer 10 and Mariner 10 spacecraft were made, without the use of a ranging system per se, by using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network's new digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) device. These measurements were accomplished by controlling the linear ramps of the transmitted carrier frequency with a recently installed DCO instrument at the Goldstone facility and analyzing the received linearly ramped Doppler data with a computer program. The accuracy of these range measurements is on the order of 1.5 km.
Jain, Virendra Kumar
2015-11-01
We present ab initio theoretical calculations of various properties of the ground and excited states of basic coumarin (1) and its derivatives: 4-methylcoumarin (2), 7-aminocoumarin (3), 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin or coumarin 120 (4), 4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (5), 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin or coumarin 151 (6), silylated coumarin 120 (7) and silylated coumarin 151 (8). We calculate the following: (i) ground and excited state dipole moments (ii) energies and locations of HOMOs and LUMOs (iii) SCF total energies of ground state (iv) excitation energies with oscillator strengths for first six excited states (v) C=O and C-N bond lengths in ground and excited states (vi) ground state thermodynamic and electronic properties. The ground and excited state properties of coumarins 1-8 are obtained within the framework of density functional theory using B3LYP and long-range-corrected (LRC) ωB97X-D functionals with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. A detailed comparative analysis of different photo physical and electronic properties of silylated and unsilylated coumarins is made. On the basis of theoretical results we find many interesting features of silylation process and we can conclude that silylation will result in better long-term photo and thermodynamic stability compared to its unsilylated counterpart due to increase in the values of thermodynamic parameters like SCF total energy, G(0) and H(0), etc. Therefore, silylated molecules may become good candidates for solid state dye lasers and dye sensitized solar cells. In contrast, we find that both the functional B3LYP and LRC-ωB97X-D predict nearly the same results for electronic, thermodynamic and photo physical properties of studied coumarins 1-8 in their ground states but B3LYP hybrid functional severely overestimates excited state dipole moments, underestimates vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, C=O and C-N bond lengths of studied coumarins. On the basis of our theoretical results we conclude that LRC
Photoionization of Fe7+ from the ground and metastable states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O.
2015-01-01
The B -spline Breit-Pauli R -matrix method is used to investigate the photoionization of Fe7 + from the ground and metastable states in the energy region from ionization thresholds to 172 eV. The present calculations were designed to resolve the large discrepancies between recent measurements and available theoretical results. The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method in connection with B -spline expansions is employed for an accurate representation of the initial- and final-state wave functions. The close-coupling expansion includes 99 fine-structure levels of the residual Fe8 + ion in the energy region up to 3 s23 p54 s states. It includes levels of the 3 s23 p6,3 s23 p53 d ,3 s23 p54 s , and 3 s 3 p63 d configurations and some levels of the 3 s23 p43 d2 configuration which lie in the energy region under investigation. The present photoionization cross sections in the length and velocity formulations exhibit excellent agreement. The present photoionization cross sections agree well with the Breit-Pauli R -matrix calculation by Sossah et al. and the TOPbase data in the magnitude of the background nonresonant cross sections but show somewhat richer resonance structures, which qualitatively agree with the measurements. The calculated cross sections, however, are several times lower than the measured cross sections, depending upon the photon energy. The cross sections for photoionization of metastable states were found to have approximately the same magnitude as the cross sections for photoionization of the ground state, thereby the presence of metastable states in the ion beam may not be the reason for the enhancement of the measured cross sections.
Spatial competition of the ground states in 1111 iron pnictides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, G.; Veyrat, L.; Gräfe, U.; Hammerath, F.; Paar, D.; Behr, G.; Wurmehl, S.; Grafe, H.-J.
2016-07-01
Using nuclear quadrupole resonance, the phase diagram of 1111 R FeAsO1 -xFx (R =La , Ce, Sm) iron pnictides is constructed as a function of the local charge distribution in the paramagnetic state, which features low-doping-like (LD-like) and high-doping-like (HD-like) regions. Compounds based on magnetic rare earths (Ce, Sm) display a unified behavior, and comparison with La-based compounds reveals the detrimental role of static iron 3 d magnetism on superconductivity, as well as a qualitatively different evolution of the latter at high doping. It is found that the LD-like regions fully account for the orthorhombicity of the system, and are thus the origin of any static iron magnetism. Orthorhombicity and static magnetism are not hindered by superconductivity but limited by dilution effects, in agreement with two-dimensional (2D) (respectively three-dimensional) nearest-neighbor square lattice site percolation when the rare earth is nonmagnetic (respectively magnetic). The LD-like regions are not intrinsically supportive of superconductivity, contrary to the HD-like regions, as evidenced by the well-defined Uemura relation between the superconducting transition temperature and the superfluid density when accounting for the proximity effect. This leads us to propose a complete description of the interplay of ground states in 1111 pnictides, where nanoscopic regions compete to establish the ground state through suppression of superconductivity by static magnetism, and extension of superconductivity by proximity effect.
Quantum gas of deeply bound ground state molecules.
Danzl, Johann G; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Mark, Manfred J; Hart, Russell; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Ritsch, Helmut; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2008-08-22
Molecular cooling techniques face the hurdle of dissipating translational as well as internal energy in the presence of a rich electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy spectrum. In our experiment, we create a translationally ultracold, dense quantum gas of molecules bound by more than 1000 wave numbers in the electronic ground state. Specifically, we stimulate with 80% efficiency, a two-photon transfer of molecules associated on a Feshbach resonance from a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. In the process, the initial loose, long-range electrostatic bond of the Feshbach molecule is coherently transformed into a tight chemical bond. We demonstrate coherence of the transfer in a Ramsey-type experiment and show that the molecular sample is not heated during the transfer. Our results show that the preparation of a quantum gas of molecules in specific rovibrational states is possible and that the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecules in their rovibronic ground state is within reach. PMID:18719277
Ground-state Electronic Structure of Actinide Monocarbides and Mononitrides
Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Zdzislawa; Temmerman, Walter M; Stocks, George Malcolm
2009-01-01
The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually increasing degree of f electron localization from U to Cm, with the tendency toward localization being slightly stronger in the (more ionic) nitrides compared to the (more covalent) carbides. The itinerant band picture is found to be adequate for UC and acceptable for UN, while a more complex manifold of competing localized and delocalized f-electron configurations underlies the ground states of NpC, PuC, AmC, NpN, and PuN. The fully localized 5f-electron configuration is realized in CmC (f{sup 7}), CmN (f{sup 7}), and AmN (f{sup 6}). The observed sudden increase in lattice parameter from PuN to AmN is found to be related to the localization transition. The calculated valence electron densities of states are in good agreement with photoemission data.
Meinert, Ilka; Brown, Niklas; Alt, Wilfried
2016-01-01
Background Achilles tendon injuries are known to commonly occur in runners. During running repeated impacts are transferred in axial direction along the lower leg, therefore possibly affecting the oscillation behavior of the Achilles tendon. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of different footwear modifications and different ground conditions (over ground versus treadmill) on oscillations at the Achilles tendon. Methods Oscillations were measured in 20 male runners using two tri-axial accelerometers. Participants ran in three different shoe types on a treadmill and over ground. Data analysis was limited to stance phase and performed in time and frequency space. Statistical comparison was conducted between oscillations in vertical and horizontal direction, between running shoes and between ground conditions (treadmill versus over ground running). Results Differences in the oscillation behavior could be detected between measurement directions with peak accelerations in the vertical being lower than those in the horizontal direction, p < 0.01. Peak accelerations occurred earlier at the distal accelerometer than at the proximal one, p < 0.01. Average normalized power differed between running shoes (p < 0.01) with harder damping material resulting in higher power values. Little to no power attenuation was found between the two accelerometers. Oscillation behavior of the Achilles tendon is not influenced by ground condition. Conclusion Differences in shoe configurations may lead to variations in running technique and impact forces and therefore result in alterations of the vibration behavior at the Achilles tendon. The absence of power attenuation may have been caused by either a short distance between the two accelerometers or high stiffness of the tendon. High stiffness of the tendon will lead to complete transmission of the signal along the Achilles tendon and therefore no attenuation occurs. PMID:27010929
Ground state of a resonantly interacting Bose gas
Diederix, J. M.; Heijst, T. C. F. van; Stoof, H. T. C.
2011-09-15
We show that a two-channel mean-field theory for a Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance allows for an analytic computation of the chemical potential, and therefore the universal constant {beta}, at unitarity. To improve on this mean-field theory, which physically neglects condensate depletion, we study a variational Jastrow ansatz for the ground-state wave function and use the hypernetted-chain approximation to minimize the energy for all positive values of the scattering length. We also show that other important physical quantities such as Tan's contact and the condensate fraction can be directly obtained from this approach.
All-optical reconstruction of atomic ground-state population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
London, P.; Firstenberg, O.; Shuker, M.; Ron, A.
2010-04-01
The population distribution within the ground state of an atomic ensemble is of great significance in a variety of quantum-optics processes. We present a method to reconstruct the detailed population distribution from a set of absorption measurements with various frequencies and polarizations, by utilizing the differences between the dipole matrix elements of the probed transitions. The technique is experimentally implemented on a thermal rubidium vapor, demonstrating a population-based analysis in two optical-pumping examples. The results are used to verify and calibrate an elaborated numerical model, and the limitations of the reconstruction scheme, which result from the symmetry properties of the dipole matrix elements, are discussed.
The ground state of the Frenkel-Kontorova model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babushkin, A. Yu.; Abkaryan, A. K.; Dobronets, B. S.; Krasikov, V. S.; Filonov, A. N.
2016-09-01
The continual approximation of the ground state of the discrete Frenkel-Kontorova model is tested using a symmetric algorithm of numerical simulation. A "kaleidoscope effect" is found, which means that the curves representing the dependences of the relative extension of an N-atom chain vary periodically with increasing N. Stairs of structural transitions for N ≫ 1 are analyzed by the channel selection method with the approximation N = ∞. Images of commensurable and incommensurable structures are constructed. The commensurable-incommensurable phase transitions are stepwise.
Unparticle contribution to the hydrogen atom ground state energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wondrak, Michael F.; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-08-01
In the present work we study the effect of unparticle modified static potentials on the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. By using Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory, we obtain the energy shift of the ground state and compare it with experimental data. Bounds on the unparticle energy scale ΛU as a function of the scaling dimension dU and the coupling constant λ are derived. We show that there exists a parameter region where bounds on ΛU are stringent, signaling that unparticles could be tested in atomic physics experiments.
Ground state solutions for non-autonomous fractional Choquard equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yan-Hong; Liu, Chungen
2016-06-01
We consider the following nonlinear fractional Choquard equation, {(‑Δ)su+u=(1+a(x))(Iα ∗ (|u| p))|u| p‑2uin RN,u(x)→0as |x|→∞, here s\\in (0,1) , α \\in (0,N) , p\\in ≤ft[2,∞ \\right) and \\frac{N-2s}{N+α}<\\frac{1}{p}<\\frac{N}{N+α} . Assume {{\\lim}|x|\\to ∞}a(x)=0 and satisfying suitable assumptions but not requiring any symmetry property on a(x), we prove the existence of ground state solutions for (0.1).
First Observation of Ground State Dineutron Decay: Be16
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spyrou, A.; Kohley, Z.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Christian, G.; Deyoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Lunderberg, E.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Schiller, A.; Smith, J. K.; Snyder, J.; Strongman, M. J.; Thoennessen, M.; Volya, A.
2012-03-01
We report on the first observation of dineutron emission in the decay of Be16. A single-proton knockout reaction from a 53MeV/u B17 beam was used to populate the ground state of Be16. Be16 is bound with respect to the emission of one neutron and unbound to two-neutron emission. The dineutron character of the decay is evidenced by a small emission angle between the two neutrons. The two-neutron separation energy of Be16 was measured to be 1.35(10) MeV, in good agreement with shell model calculations, using standard interactions for this mass region.
Evidence for the Ground-State Resonance of O26
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunderberg, E.; DeYoung, P. A.; Kohley, Z.; Attanayake, H.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Christian, G.; Divaratne, D.; Grimes, S. M.; Haagsma, A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Luther, B.; Mosby, S.; Nagi, T.; Peaslee, G. F.; Schiller, A.; Snyder, J.; Spyrou, A.; Strongman, M. J.; Thoennessen, M.
2012-04-01
Evidence for the ground state of the neutron-unbound nucleus O26 was observed for the first time in the single proton-knockout reaction from a 82MeV/u F27 beam. Neutrons were measured in coincidence with O24 fragments. O26 was determined to be unbound by 150-150+50keV from the observation of low-energy neutrons. This result agrees with recent shell-model calculations based on microscopic two- and three-nucleon forces.
Ground state solutions for non-autonomous fractional Choquard equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yan-Hong; Liu, Chungen
2016-06-01
We consider the following nonlinear fractional Choquard equation, {(-Δ)su+u=(1+a(x))(Iα ∗ (|u| p))|u| p-2uin RN,u(x)→0as |x|→∞, here s\\in (0,1) , α \\in (0,N) , p\\in ≤ft[2,∞ \\right) and \\frac{N-2s}{N+α}<\\frac{1}{p}<\\frac{N}{N+α} . Assume {{\\lim}|x|\\to ∞}a(x)=0 and satisfying suitable assumptions but not requiring any symmetry property on a(x), we prove the existence of ground state solutions for (0.1).
Structure of best possible strategies for finding ground states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Franz, Astrid; Salamon, Peter
2002-10-01
Finding the ground state of a system with a complex energy landscape is important for many physical problems including protein folding, spin glasses, chemical clusters, and neural networks. Such problems are usually solved by heuristic search methods whose efficacy is judged by empirical performance on selected examples. We present a proof that for a wide range of objective functions threshold accepting is the best possible strategy within a large class of algorithms that simulate random walks on the landscape. In particular, it can perform better than simulated annealing, Tsallis and Glauber statistics.
Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.
Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu
2015-12-01
Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992
Hartree-Fock many-body perturbation theory for nuclear ground-states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tichai, Alexander; Langhammer, Joachim; Binder, Sven; Roth, Robert
2016-05-01
We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree-Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radomski, M. S.; Gramling, C. J.
1997-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has spent several years developing operational Onboard Navigation Systems (ONS's) to provide real-time autonomous, high-accuracy navigation products for spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communication systems. The highly successful Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) ONS (TONS) experiment on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, flight-demonstrated the ONS for high-accuracy navigation using TDRSS forward- link communications services, In late 1994, the ground station ONS (GONS) experiment, using the same EP/EUVE flight hardware, flight-demonstrated the feasibility of high-accuracy autonomous navigation using ground station forward-link communication services, with an ultrastable oscillator (USO) as the frequency reference (1 part in 10(exp 10) over 24 hours). This paper provides a follow-on analysis of GONS performance to assess the navigation accuracy achievable if GONS uses the significantly less stable (5 parts in 10(exp 8) over 24 hours, compared with a specification of 1 part in 10(exp 6)) Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO), which is integral to the transponder, as a frequency reference rather than an external USO. The GONS TCXO experiment results from a 20-day period are used to project the expected performance of an operational system. The GONS processes Doppler data derived from nominally scheduled ground station forward-link communication services using a sequential estimation algorithm enhanced by a sophisticated process noise model to provide onboard orbit and frequency determination. To evaluate the navigation accuracies achievable if a TCXO were used, actual experiment data (which used the USO as the frequency reference) were corrupted with errors from real TDRSS one-way return tracking measurements taken from EP/EUVE's TCXO. Analysis of the GONS TCXO experiment
Photoionization of potassium atoms from the ground and excited states
Zatsarinny, O.; Tayal, S. S.
2010-04-15
The Dirac-based B-spline R-matrix method is used to investigate the photoionization of atomic potassium from the 4s ground and 4p, 5s-7s, 3d-5d excited states. The effect of the core polarization by the outer electron is included through the polarized pseudostates. Besides the dipole core polarization, we also found a noticeable influence of the quadrupole core polarization. We obtained excellent agreement with experiment for cross sections of the 4s photoionization, including accurate description of the near-threshold Cooper-Seaton minimum. We also obtained close agreement with experiment for the 4p photoionization, but there are unexpectedly large discrepancies with available experimental data for photoionization of the 5d and 7s excited states.
Ground states of partially connected binary neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baram, Yoram
1990-01-01
Neural networks defined by outer products of vectors over (-1, 0, 1) are considered. Patterns over (-1, 0, 1) define by their outer products partially connected neural networks consisting of internally strongly connected, externally weakly connected subnetworks. Subpatterns over (-1, 1) define subnetworks, and their combinations that agree in the common bits define permissible words. It is shown that the permissible words are locally stable states of the network, provided that each of the subnetworks stores mutually orthogonal subwords, or, at most, two subwords. It is also shown that when each of the subnetworks stores two mutually orthogonal binary subwords at most, the permissible words, defined as the combinations of the subwords (one corresponding to each subnetwork), that agree in their common bits are the unique ground states of the associated energy function.
The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium
Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; et al
2015-07-10
A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed bymore » valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.« less
Magnetic ground state of semiconducting transition-metal trichalcogenide monolayers
Sivadas, Nikhil; Daniels, Matthew W.; Swendsen, Robert H.; Okamoto, Satoshi; Xiao, Di
2015-06-16
Layered transition-metal trichalcogenides with the chemical formula ABX_{3} have attracted recent interest as potential candidates for two-dimensional magnets. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we investigate the magnetic ground states of monolayers of Mn- and Cr-based semiconducting trichalcogenides.We show that the second and third nearest-neighbor exchange interactions (J_{2} and J_{3}) between magnetic ions, which have been largely overlooked in previous theoretical studies, are crucial in determining the magnetic ground state. Specifically, we find that monolayer CrSiTe_{3} is an antiferromagnet with a zigzag spin texture due to significant contribution from J_{3}, whereas CrGeTe_{3} is a ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 106 K. Monolayers of Mn compounds (MnPS_{3} and MnPSe_{3}) always show antiferromagnetic N eel order. We identify the physical origin of various exchange interactions, and demonstrate that strain can be an effective knob for tuning the magnetic properties. Possible magnetic ordering in the bulk is also discussed. In conclusion, our study suggests that ABX_{3} can be a promising platform to explore two-dimensional magnetic phenomena.
Magnetic ground state of semiconducting transition-metal trichalcogenide monolayers
Sivadas, Nikhil; Daniels, Matthew W.; Swendsen, Robert H.; Okamoto, Satoshi; Xiao, Di
2015-06-16
Layered transition-metal trichalcogenides with the chemical formula ABX3 have attracted recent interest as potential candidates for two-dimensional magnets. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we investigate the magnetic ground states of monolayers of Mn- and Cr-based semiconducting trichalcogenides.We show that the second and third nearest-neighbor exchange interactions (J2 and J3) between magnetic ions, which have been largely overlooked in previous theoretical studies, are crucial in determining the magnetic ground state. Specifically, we find that monolayer CrSiTe3 is an antiferromagnet with a zigzag spin texture due to significant contribution from J3, whereas CrGeTe3 is a ferromagnet with a Curie temperaturemore » of 106 K. Monolayers of Mn compounds (MnPS3 and MnPSe3) always show antiferromagnetic N eel order. We identify the physical origin of various exchange interactions, and demonstrate that strain can be an effective knob for tuning the magnetic properties. Possible magnetic ordering in the bulk is also discussed. In conclusion, our study suggests that ABX3 can be a promising platform to explore two-dimensional magnetic phenomena.« less
Au42: a possible ground-state noble metallic nanotube.
Wang, Jing; Ning, Hua; Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Li, You-Cheng
2008-10-01
A large hollow tubelike Au(42) is predicted as a new ground-state configuration based on the scalar relativistic density functional theory. The shape of this new Au(42) cluster is similar to a (5,5) single-wall gold nanotube, the two ends of which are capped by half of a fullerenelike Au(32). In the same way, a series of Au(n) (n = 37, 42, 47, 52, 57, 62, 67, 72, ..., Delta n = 5) tubelike structures has been constructed. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps suggested a significant semiconductor-conductor alternation in n is an element of [32,47]. Similar to the predictions and speculation of Daedalus [D. E. H. Jones, New Sci. 32, 245 (1966); E. Osawa, Superaromaticity (Kagaku, Kyoto, 1970), Vol. 25, pp. 854-863; Z. Yoshida and E. Osawa, Aromaticity Chemical Monograph (Kagaku Dojin, Kyoto, Japan, 1971), Vol. 22, pp. 174-176; D. A. Bochvar and E. G. Gal'pern, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 209, 610 (1973)], here a large hollow ground-state gold nanotube was predicted theoretically. PMID:19045114
Au42: A possible ground-state noble metallic nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing; Ning, Hua; Ma, Qing-Min; Liu, Ying; Li, You-Cheng
2008-10-01
A large hollow tubelike Au42 is predicted as a new ground-state configuration based on the scalar relativistic density functional theory. The shape of this new Au42 cluster is similar to a (5,5) single-wall gold nanotube, the two ends of which are capped by half of a fullerenelike Au32. In the same way, a series of Aun (n =37,42,47,52,57,62,67,72,…, Δn =5) tubelike structures has been constructed. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps suggested a significant semiconductor-conductor alternation in n ɛ[32,47]. Similar to the predictions and speculation of Daedalus [D. E. H. Jones, New Sci. 32, 245 (1966); E. Osawa, Superaromaticity (Kagaku, Kyoto, 1970), Vol. 25, pp. 854-863; Z. Yoshida and E. Osawa, Aromaticity Chemical Monograph (Kagaku Dojin, Kyoto, Japan, 1971), Vol. 22, pp. 174-176; D. A. Bochvar and E. G. Gal'pern, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 209, 610 (1973)], here a large hollow ground-state gold nanotube was predicted theoretically.
Chimeralike states in a network of oscillators under attractive and repulsive global coupling.
Mishra, Arindam; Hens, Chittaranjan; Bose, Mridul; Roy, Prodyot K; Dana, Syamal K
2015-12-01
We report chimeralike states in an ensemble of oscillators using a type of global coupling consisting of two components: attractive and repulsive mean-field feedback. We identify the existence of two types of chimeralike states in a bistable Liénard system; in one type, both the coherent and the incoherent populations are in chaotic states (which we refer to as chaos-chaos chimeralike states) and, in another type, the incoherent population is in periodic state while the coherent population has irregular small oscillation. We find a metastable state in a parameter regime of the Liénard system where the coherent and noncoherent states migrate in time from one to another subpopulation. The relative size of the incoherent subpopulation, in the chimeralike states, remains almost stable with increasing size of the network. The generality of the coupling configuration in the origin of the chimeralike states is tested, using a second example of bistable system, the van der Pol-Duffing oscillator where the chimeralike states emerge as weakly chaotic in the coherent subpopulation and chaotic in the incoherent subpopulation. Furthermore, we apply the coupling, in a simplified form, to form a network of the chaotic Rössler system where both the noncoherent and the coherent subpopulations show chaotic dynamics. PMID:26764787
Chimeralike states in a network of oscillators under attractive and repulsive global coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Arindam; Hens, Chittaranjan; Bose, Mridul; Roy, Prodyot K.; Dana, Syamal K.
2015-12-01
We report chimeralike states in an ensemble of oscillators using a type of global coupling consisting of two components: attractive and repulsive mean-field feedback. We identify the existence of two types of chimeralike states in a bistable Liénard system; in one type, both the coherent and the incoherent populations are in chaotic states (which we refer to as chaos-chaos chimeralike states) and, in another type, the incoherent population is in periodic state while the coherent population has irregular small oscillation. We find a metastable state in a parameter regime of the Liénard system where the coherent and noncoherent states migrate in time from one to another subpopulation. The relative size of the incoherent subpopulation, in the chimeralike states, remains almost stable with increasing size of the network. The generality of the coupling configuration in the origin of the chimeralike states is tested, using a second example of bistable system, the van der Pol-Duffing oscillator where the chimeralike states emerge as weakly chaotic in the coherent subpopulation and chaotic in the incoherent subpopulation. Furthermore, we apply the coupling, in a simplified form, to form a network of the chaotic Rössler system where both the noncoherent and the coherent subpopulations show chaotic dynamics.
Deterministic and stochastic control of chimera states in delayed feedback oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, V.; Zakharova, A.; Maistrenko, Y.; Schöll, E.
2016-06-01
Chimera states, characterized by the coexistence of regular and chaotic dynamics, are found in a nonlinear oscillator model with negative time-delayed feedback. The control of these chimera states by external periodic forcing is demonstrated by numerical simulations. Both deterministic and stochastic external periodic forcing are considered. It is shown that multi-cluster chimeras can be achieved by adjusting the external forcing frequency to appropriate resonance conditions. The constructive role of noise in the formation of a chimera states is shown.
Glassy states and super-relaxation in populations of coupled phase oscillators.
Iatsenko, D; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A
2014-01-01
Large networks of coupled oscillators appear in many branches of science, so that the kinds of phenomena they exhibit are not only of intrinsic interest but also of very wide importance. In 1975, Kuramoto proposed an analytically tractable model to describe these systems, which has since been successfully applied in many contexts and remains a subject of intensive research. Some related problems, however, remain unclarified for decades, such as the existence and properties of the oscillator glass state. Here we present a detailed analysis of a very general form of the Kuramoto model. In particular, we find the conditions when it can exhibit glassy behaviour, which represents a kind of synchronous disorder in the present case. Furthermore, we discover a new and intriguing phenomenon that we refer to as super-relaxation where the oscillators feel no interaction at all while relaxing to incoherence. Our findings offer the possibility of creating glassy states and observing super-relaxation in real systems.
Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmi, Simona
2015-12-01
The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry.
Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia.
Olmi, Simona
2015-12-01
The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry.
Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia
Olmi, Simona
2015-12-15
The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry.
Chimera states in coupled Kuramoto oscillators with inertia.
Olmi, Simona
2015-12-01
The dynamics of two symmetrically coupled populations of rotators is studied for different values of the inertia. The system is characterized by different types of solutions, which all coexist with the fully synchronized state. At small inertia, the system is no more chaotic and one observes mainly quasi-periodic chimeras, while the usual (stationary) chimera state is not anymore observable. At large inertia, one observes two different kind of chaotic solutions with broken symmetry: the intermittent chaotic chimera, characterized by a synchronized population and a population displaying a turbulent behaviour, and a second state where the two populations are both chaotic but whose dynamics adhere to two different macroscopic attractors. The intermittent chaotic chimeras are characterized by a finite life-time, whose duration increases as a power-law with the system size and the inertia value. Moreover, the chaotic population exhibits clear intermittent behavior, displaying a laminar phase where the two populations tend to synchronize, and a turbulent phase where the macroscopic motion of one population is definitely erratic. In the thermodynamic limit, these states survive for infinite time and the laminar regimes tends to disappear, thus giving rise to stationary chaotic solutions with broken symmetry contrary to what observed for chaotic chimeras on a ring geometry. PMID:26723164
Chimera states in networks of Van der Pol oscillators with hierarchical connectivities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulonska, Stefan; Omelchenko, Iryna; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard
2016-09-01
Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent dynamics. We analyse chimera states in ring networks of Van der Pol oscillators with hierarchical coupling topology. We investigate the stepwise transition from a nonlocal to a hierarchical topology and propose the network clustering coefficient as a measure to establish a link between the existence of chimera states and the compactness of the initial base pattern of a hierarchical topology; we show that a large clustering coefficient promotes the occurrence of chimeras. Depending on the level of hierarchy and base pattern, we obtain chimera states with different numbers of incoherent domains. We investigate the chimera regimes as a function of coupling strength and nonlinearity parameter of the individual oscillators. The analysis of a network with larger base pattern resulting in larger clustering coefficient reveals two different types of chimera states and highlights the increasing role of amplitude dynamics.
Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Buscarino, Arturo; Chessari, Sergio; Fortuna, Luigi; Meucci, Riccardo; Frasca, Mattia
2014-09-01
Chimera states, that is, dynamical regimes characterized by the existence of a symmetry-broken solution where a coherent domain and an incoherent one coexist, have been theoretically demonstrated and numerically found in networks of homogeneously coupled identical oscillators. In this work we experimentally investigate the behavior of a closed and an open chain of electronic circuits with neuron-like spiking dynamics and first neighbor connections. Experimental results show the onset of a regime that we call chimera states with quiescent and synchronous domains, where synchronization coexists with spatially patterned oscillation death. The whole experimental bifurcation scenario, showing how disordered states, synchronization, chimera states with quiescent and synchronous domains, and oscillatory death states emerge as coupling is varied, is presented.
Robustness of chimera states for coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.
Omelchenko, Iryna; Provata, Astero; Hizanidis, Johanne; Schöll, Eckehard; Hövel, Philipp
2015-02-01
Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of spatially coherent and incoherent dynamics. This counterintuitive phenomenon was first observed in systems of identical oscillators with symmetric coupling topology. Can one overcome these limitations? To address this question, we discuss the robustness of chimera states in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. Considering networks of inhomogeneous elements with regular coupling topology, and networks of identical elements with irregular coupling topologies, we demonstrate that chimera states are robust with respect to these perturbations and analyze their properties as the inhomogeneities increase. We find that modifications of coupling topologies cause qualitative changes of chimera states: additional random links induce a shift of the stability regions in the system parameter plane, gaps in the connectivity matrix result in a change of the multiplicity of incoherent regions of the chimera state, and hierarchical geometry in the connectivity matrix induces nested coherent and incoherent regions.
Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation
Kaptan, Y. Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N.; Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K.; Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.
2014-11-10
The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.
Q -switched laser at 912 nm using ground-state-depleted neodymium in yttrium orthosilicate
Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S. ); Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G. )
1990-09-15
A ground-state-depleted laser is demonstrated in the form of a {ital Q}-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. By using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest-lying Stark level of the Nd{sup 3+} {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} level to a Stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest-lying one in the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach-wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. With KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree} C using {ital d}{sub 32} and is demonstrated.
Nuclear ground state charge radii from electromagnetic interactions
Frickle, G.; Bernhardt, C.; Heilig, K.
1995-07-01
The Tables summarize experimental results from muonic atom transition energies, nuclear charge parameters from elastic electron scattering, and K x-ray isotope shifts in so far as they provide information on nuclear ground-state charge radii. Numerous experimental results for optical isotope shifts have been published elsewhere; for eight elements the relevant information is condensed ({open_quotes}project{close_quotes}) here to one optical line per element. A model-independent analysis which combines data from all three experimental methods is applied to these elements and is presented as an illustration of the improved accuracy for the rms radii and Barrett radii which result from this analysis. 51 refs., 11 figs, 1 tab.
Ground state magnetic dipole moment of {sup 35}K
Mertzimekis, T.J.; Mantica, P.F.; Liddick, S.N.; Tomlin, B.E.; Davies, A.D.
2006-02-15
The ground state magnetic moment of {sup 35}K has been measured using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance on {beta}-emitting nuclei. The short-lived {sup 35}K nuclei were produced following the reaction of a {sup 36}Ar primary beam of energy 150 MeV/nucleon incident on a Be target. The spin polarization of the {sup 35}K nuclei produced at 2 deg. relative to the normal primary beam axis was confirmed. Together with the mirror nucleus {sup 35}S, the measurement represents the heaviest T=3/2 mirror pair for which the spin expectation value has been obtained. A linear behavior of g{sub p} vs g{sub n} has been demonstrated for the T=3/2 known mirror moments and the slope and intercept are consistent with the previous analysis of T=1/2 mirror pairs.
Antiferromagnetic Spin-S Chains with Exactly Dimerized Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michaud, Frédéric; Vernay, François; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Mila, Frédéric
2012-03-01
We show that spin S Heisenberg spin chains with an additional three-body interaction of the form (Si-1·Si)(Si·Si+1)+H.c. possess fully dimerized ground states if the ratio of the three-body interaction to the bilinear one is equal to 1/[4S(S+1)-2]. This result generalizes the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 chain, to which the present model reduces for S=1/2. For S=1, we use the density matrix renormalization group method to show that the transition between the Haldane and the dimerized phases is continuous with a central charge c=3/2. Finally, we show that such a three-body interaction appears naturally in a strong-coupling expansion of the Hubbard model, and we discuss the consequences for the dimerization of actual antiferromagnetic chains.
Cloning and Variation of Ground State Intestinal Stem Cells
Wang, Xia; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Wilson, Lane H.; Zhang, Ting; Howitt, Brooke; Farrow, Melissa A.; Kern, Florian; Ning, Gang; Hong, Yue; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Chevalier, Benoit; Bertrand, Denis; Wu, Lingyan; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Sylvester, Francisco A.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Devers, Thomas; Bronson, Roderick; Lacy, D. Borden; Ho, Khek Yu; Crum, Christopher P.; McKeon, Frank; Xian, Wa
2016-01-01
Summary Stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and other columnar epithelia collectively resist cloning in their elemental states. Here we demonstrate the cloning and propagation of highly clonogenic, “ground state” stem cells of the human intestine and colon. We show that derived stem cell pedigrees sustain limited copy number and sequence variation despite extensive serial passaging and display exquisitely precise, cell-autonomous commitment to epithelial differentiation consistent with their origins along the intestinal tract. This developmentally patterned and epigenetically maintained commitment of stem cells likely enforces the functional specificity of the adult intestinal tract. Using clonally-derived colonic epithelia, we show that toxins A or B of the enteric pathogen C. difficile recapitulate the salient features of pseudomembranous colitis. The stability of the epigenetic commitment programs of these stem cells, coupled with their unlimited replicative expansion and maintained clonogenicity, suggests certain advantages for their use in disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:26040716
Unresolved Question of the He10 Ground State Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohley, Z.; Snyder, J.; Baumann, T.; Christian, G.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Jones, M.; Lunderberg, E.; Luther, B.; Mosby, S.; Simon, A.; Smith, J. K.; Spyrou, A.; Stephenson, S. L.; Thoennessen, M.
2012-12-01
The ground state of He10 was populated using a 2p2n-removal reaction from a 59MeV/u Be14 beam. The decay energy of the three-body system, He8+n+n, was measured and a resonance was observed at E=1.60(25)MeV with a 1.8(4) MeV width. This result is in agreement with previous invariant mass spectroscopy measurements, using the Li11(-p) reaction, but is inconsistent with recent transfer reaction results. The proposed explanation that the difference, about 500 keV, is due to the effect of the extended halo nature of Li11 in the one-proton knockout reaction is no longer valid as the present work demonstrates that the discrepancy between the transfer reaction results persists despite using a very different reaction mechanism, Be14(-2p2n).
Absence of Quantum Time Crystals in Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Haruki; Oshikawa, Masaki
2015-03-01
In analogy with crystalline solids around us, Wilczek recently proposed the idea of ``time crystals'' as phases that spontaneously break the continuous time translation into a discrete subgroup. The proposal stimulated further studies and vigorous debates whether it can be realized in a physical system. However, a precise definition of the time crystal is needed to resolve the issue. Here we first present a definition of time crystals based on the time-dependent correlation functions of the order parameter. We then prove a no-go theorem that rules out the possibility of time crystals defined as such, in the ground state of a general Hamiltonian which consists of only short-range interactions.
a New Phenomenological Formula for Ground-State Binding Energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, G.
A phenomenological formula based on liquid drop model has been proposed for ground-state binding energies of nuclei. The effect due to bunching of single particle levels has been incorporated through a term resembling the one-body Hamiltonian. The effect of n-p interaction has been included through a function of valence nucleons. A total of 50 parameters has been used in the present calculation. The root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation for the binding energy values for 2140 nuclei comes out to be 0.376 MeV, and that for 1091 alpha decay energies is 0.284 MeV. The correspondence with the conventional liquid drop model is discussed.
Realization of Ground State Artificial Skyrmion Lattices at Room Temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew J.; Kirby, Brian J.; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Fischer, Peter; Liu, Kai
Artificial skyrmion lattices stable at ambient conditions offer a convenient and powerful platform to explore skyrmion physics and topological phenomena and motivates their inclusion in next-generation data and logic devices. In this work we present direct experimental evidence of artificial skyrmion lattices with a stable ground state at room temperature. Our approach is to pattern vortex-state Co nanodots (560 nm diameter) in hexagonal arrays on top of a Co/Pd multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy; the skyrmion state is prepared using a specific magnetic field sequence. Ion irradiation has been employed to suppress PMA in the underlayer and allow imprinting of the vortex structure from the nanodots to form skyrmion lattices, as revealed by polarized neutron reflectometry. Circularity control is realized through Co dot shape asymmetry, and confirmed by microscopy and FORC magnetometry. The vortex polarity is set during the field sequence and confirmed by magnetometry. Spin-transport studies further demonstrate a sensitivity to the skyrmion spin texture.Work supported by NSF (DMR-1008791, ECCS-1232275 and DMR-1543582)
Hemodynamic low-frequency oscillation reflects resting-state neuronal activity in rodent brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Liu, Peng; Li, James; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu
2015-03-01
Brain functional connectivity is mapped using spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in blood-oxygen-leveldependent (BOLD) signals using fMRI. However, the origin of spontaneous BOLD oscillations remains elusive. Specifically, the coupling of regional hemodynamic LFOs to neuronal activity in a resting brain is rarely examined directly. Here we present a method based on instantaneous-frequency (IF) analysis to detect regional LFOs of cerebral blood flow (CBF) along with local-field potential (LFP) changes of neurons in resting state to study neurovascular coupling. CBF and LFP were simultaneously acquired using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and electroencephalography in the rat's somatosensory cortex with high temporal resolution (i.e., 20Hz for CBF and 2kHz for LDF, respectively). Instead of fast Fourier transform analysis, a peak-detection algorithm was used to define the LFP activities and CBF spontaneous oscillations in the time domain and the time lapses were used to calculate the IFs of hemodynamic (i.e., CBF) oscillations and neuronal (i.e., LFP) activities. Our results showed that the CBF mostly oscillated at ~0.1Hz with a full-half-bandwidth of [0.08Hz, 0.15Hz]. In addition, the maximal frequency of LFP firings was also approximately at 0.1Hz, which collaborated with to the frequency of CBF oscillations. Interestingly, CBF increased linearly with the LFP activity up to 0.15Hz (r=0.93), and both signals then decreased rapidly as a function of activity frequency. This indicates the spontaneous hemodynamic LFOs were associated with neuronal activities, thus confirming the neuronal origin of the hemodynamic oscillations.
Basu, Chandrajit; Wessels, Peter; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar
2012-07-15
High power single frequency, single mode, linearly polarized laser output at the 1 μm regime is in demand for the interferometric gravitational wave detectors (GWDs). A robust single frequency solid state master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is a promising candidate for such applications. We present a single frequency solid state multistage MOPA system delivering 177 W of linearly polarized output power at 1 μm with 83.5% TEM(00) mode content.
Quantum dephasing of a two-state system by a nonequilibrium harmonic oscillator
Martens, Craig C.
2013-07-14
In this paper, we investigate coherent quantum dynamics in a nonequilibrium environment. We focus on a two-state quantum system strongly coupled to a single classical environmental oscillator, and explore the effect of nonstationary statistical properties of the oscillator on the quantum evolution. A simple nonequilibrium model, consisting of an oscillator with a well-defined initial phase which undergoes subsequent diffusion, is introduced and studied. Approximate but accurate analytic expressions for the evolution of the off-diagonal density matrix element of the quantum system are derived in the second-order cumulant approximation. The effect of the initial phase choice on the subsequent quantum evolution is quantified. It is observed that the initial phase can have a significant effect on the preservation of coherence on short time scales, suggesting this variable as a control parameter for optimizing coherence in many-body quantum systems.
Gamiz-Hernandez, Ana P; Magomedov, Artiom; Hummer, Gerhard; Kaila, Ville R I
2015-02-12
Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes are elementary chemical reactions involved in a broad range of radical and redox reactions. Elucidating fundamental PCET reaction mechanisms are thus of central importance for chemical and biochemical research. Here we use quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), and the algebraic diagrammatic-construction through second-order (ADC(2)) to study the mechanism, thermodynamic driving force effects, and reaction barriers of both ground state proton transfer (pT) and photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) between nitrosylated phenyl-phenol compounds and hydrogen-bonded t-butylamine as an external base. We show that the obtained reaction barriers for the ground state pT reactions depend linearly on the thermodynamic driving force, with a Brønsted slope of 1 or 0. Photoexcitation leads to a PCET reaction, for which we find that the excited state reaction barrier depends on the thermodynamic driving force with a Brønsted slope of 1/2. To support the mechanistic picture arising from the static potential energy surfaces, we perform additional molecular dynamics simulations on the excited state energy surface, in which we observe a spontaneous PCET between the donor and the acceptor groups. Our findings suggest that a Brønsted analysis may distinguish the ground state pT and excited state PCET processes.
Tunable All-Solid-State Local Oscillators to 1900 GHz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ward, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Maestrini, Alain; Schlecht, Erich; Gill, John; Javadi, Hamid; Pukala, David; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran
2004-01-01
We present a status report of an ongoing effort to develop robust tunable all-solid-state sources up to 1900 GHz for the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory. GaAs based multi-chip power amplifier modules at W-band are used to drive cascaded chains of multipliers. We have demonstrated performance from chains comprised of four doublers up to 1600 GHz as well as from a x2x3x3 chain to 1900 GHz. Measured peak output power of 23 (micro)W at 1782 GHz and 2.6 (micro)W at 1900 GHz has been achieved when the multipliers are cooled to 120K. The 1900 GHz tripler was pumped with a four anode tripler that produces a peak of 4 mW at 630 GHz when cooled to 120 K. We believe that these sources can now be used to pump hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne mixers.ter (HEB) heterodyne mixers.
Tunable ground states in helical p-wave Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Qiang; Zhang, Kunhua; Yu, Dongyang; Chen, Chongju; Zhang, Yinhan; Jin, Biao
2016-07-01
We study new types of Josephson junctions composed of helical p-wave superconductors with {k}x\\hat{x}+/- {k}y\\hat{y} and {k}y\\hat{x}+/- {k}x\\hat{y}-pairing symmetries using quasi-classical Green’s functions with generalized Riccati parametrization. The junctions can host rich ground states: π phase, 0 + π phase, φ 0 phase and φ phase. The phase transition can be tuned by rotating the magnetization in the ferromagnetic interface. We present the phase diagrams in the parameter space formed by the orientation of the magnetization or by the magnitude of the interfacial potentials. The selection rules for the lowest order current which are responsible for the formation of the rich phases are summarized from the current-phase relations based on the numerical calculation. We construct a Ginzburg–Landau type of free energy for the junctions with d-vectors and the magnetization, which not only reveals the interaction forms of spin-triplet superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but can also directly lead to the selection rules. In addition, the energies of the Andreev bound states and the novel symmetries in the current-phase relations are also investigated. Our results are helpful both in the prediction of novel Josephson phases and in the design of quantum circuits.
Antiferromagnetic ground state in NpCoGe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colineau, E.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Gaczyński, P.; Khmelevskyi, S.; Shick, A. B.; Caciuffo, R.
2014-03-01
NpCoGe, the neptunium analog of the ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe, has been investigated by dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, 237Np Mössbauer spectroscopy, and local spin-density approximation (LSDA) calculations. NpCoGe exhibits an antiferromagnetic ground state with a Néel temperature TN≈13 K and an average ordered magnetic moment <μNp>=0.80μB. The magnetic phase diagram has been determined and shows that the antiferromagnetic structure is destroyed by the application of a magnetic field (≈3 T). The value of the isomer shift suggests a Np3+ charge state (configuration 5f4). A high Sommerfeld coefficient value for NpCoGe (170 mJ mol-1 K-2) is inferred from specific heat. LSDA calculations indicate strong magnetic anisotropy and easy magnetization along the c axis. Mössbauer data and calculated exchange interactions support the possible occurrence of an elliptical spin-spiral structure in NpCoGe. The comparison with NpRhGe and uranium analogs suggests the leading role of 5f-d hybridization, the rather delocalized character of 5f electrons in NpCoGe, and the possible proximity of NpRuGe or NpFeGe to a magnetic quantum critical point.
Dissociative recombination of the ground state of N2(+)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guberman, Steven L.
1991-01-01
Large-scale calculations of the dissociative recombination cross sections and rates for the v = 0 level of the N2(+) ground state are reported, and the important role played by vibrationally excited Rydberg states lying both below and above the v = 0 level of the ion is demonstrated. The large-scale electronic wave function calculations were done using triple zeta plus polarization nuclear-centered-valence Gaussian basis sets. The electronic widths were obtained using smaller wave functions, and the cross sections were calculated on the basis of the multichannel quantum defect theory. The DR rate is calculated at 1.6 x 10 to the -7th x (Te/300) to the -0.37 cu cm/sec for Te in the range of 100 to 1000 K, and is found to be in excellent agreement with prior microwave afterglow experiments but in disagreement with recent merged beam results. It is inferred that the dominant mechanism for DR imparts sufficient energy to the product atoms to allow for escape from the Martian atmosphere.
Tunable ground states in helical p-wave Josephson junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Qiang; Zhang, Kunhua; Yu, Dongyang; Chen, Chongju; Zhang, Yinhan; Jin, Biao
2016-07-01
We study new types of Josephson junctions composed of helical p-wave superconductors with {k}x\\hat{x}+/- {k}y\\hat{y} and {k}y\\hat{x}+/- {k}x\\hat{y}-pairing symmetries using quasi-classical Green’s functions with generalized Riccati parametrization. The junctions can host rich ground states: π phase, 0 + π phase, φ 0 phase and φ phase. The phase transition can be tuned by rotating the magnetization in the ferromagnetic interface. We present the phase diagrams in the parameter space formed by the orientation of the magnetization or by the magnitude of the interfacial potentials. The selection rules for the lowest order current which are responsible for the formation of the rich phases are summarized from the current-phase relations based on the numerical calculation. We construct a Ginzburg-Landau type of free energy for the junctions with d-vectors and the magnetization, which not only reveals the interaction forms of spin-triplet superconductivity and ferromagnetism, but can also directly lead to the selection rules. In addition, the energies of the Andreev bound states and the novel symmetries in the current-phase relations are also investigated. Our results are helpful both in the prediction of novel Josephson phases and in the design of quantum circuits.
Kislovsky, V; Kovaleva, M; Jayaprakash, K R; Starosvetsky, Y
2016-07-01
In the present paper, we study the mechanism of formation and bifurcations of highly nonstationary regimes manifested by different energy transport intensities, emerging in an anharmonic trimer model. The basic model under investigation comprises a chain of three coupled anharmonic oscillators subject to localized excitation, where the initial energy is imparted to the first oscillator only. We report the formation of three basic nonstationary transport states traversed by locally excited regimes. These states differ by spatial energy distribution, as well as by the intensity of energy transport along the chain. In the current study, we focus on numerical and analytical investigation of the intricate resonant mechanism governing the inter-state transitions of locally excited regimes. Results of the analytical study are in good agreement with the numerical simulations of the trimer model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kislovsky, V.; Kovaleva, M.; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Starosvetsky, Y.
2016-07-01
In the present paper, we study the mechanism of formation and bifurcations of highly nonstationary regimes manifested by different energy transport intensities, emerging in an anharmonic trimer model. The basic model under investigation comprises a chain of three coupled anharmonic oscillators subject to localized excitation, where the initial energy is imparted to the first oscillator only. We report the formation of three basic nonstationary transport states traversed by locally excited regimes. These states differ by spatial energy distribution, as well as by the intensity of energy transport along the chain. In the current study, we focus on numerical and analytical investigation of the intricate resonant mechanism governing the inter-state transitions of locally excited regimes. Results of the analytical study are in good agreement with the numerical simulations of the trimer model.
El Niño-Southern Oscillation and snow level in the western United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoma, Bohumil M.
2011-12-01
The relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the elevation of snow level in the western United States is established. Snow level variability is quantified from records of (1) wet-bulb zero heights at ten rawinsonde sites (1957-2010), (2) empirically estimated snow levels over ten adjacent watersheds from precipitation and snowfall observations (˜1924-2009), and (3) 850-700 hPa thicknesses (1948-2010). The statistical relationship between these variables and the Southern Oscillation Index is established through the examination of the change in the empirical probability density function from moderate values of the Southern Oscillation Index to extreme values of the Southern Oscillation Index. For all data sources, results suggest that El Niño events are linked to higher snow levels across much of the western United States. Considering the known effects of El Niño on airflow over the western United States, the elevated snow levels are likely due to the more maritime characteristics of midlatitude cyclones. The strength of this signal decreases with distance from the Pacific Ocean and the southern Rockies display slightly decreased snow levels during El Niño events, likely due to the transition of maritime air masses to continental air masses. A snow covered area analysis derived from the Terra MODIS observations supports this El Niño signal in snow level. There is little evidence for a significant and spatially coherent La Niña relationship with snow level. This ENSO signal in snow level is apparent in the data with trend removed and for the cold and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerez, S.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Montávez, J. P.; Trigo, R. M.
2013-05-01
This contribution assesses non-antropogenic variations in ground-level aerosol concentrations over Europe associated to changes in the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO controls a large amount of the European climate variability with asymmetric impacts in both time and space. Based on simulated data and focusing on how the local atmospheric processes (without considering large-scale mechanisms) governed by the NAO affect the levels of various aerosol species, this study highlights that positive NAO phases favor increased aerosols levels in southern (northern) regions in winter (summer), while negative NAO phases enhance them in northern (southern) regions in winter (summer). Variations are up to and over 100% for most aerosols, being clearly related to the NAO-impact on precipitation and wind, as they act to clean the atmosphere through removal and dispersion processes, and to the NAO-impact on the radiation balance (i.e. cloudiness) as it rebounds on the biogenic emitting activity and on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Beyond deepening on the understanding of fundamental interactions between climate and air quality, these results provide a basis for improving the potential predictability of this later since much work is being done in order to gain accuracy in the NAO predictions.
Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
2016-01-01
Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers. PMID:26753772
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
2016-01-01
Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.
Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
2016-01-01
Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers. PMID:26753772
Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
2016-01-12
Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.
Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Souza, Gabriel L. C.; Brown, Alex
2014-12-01
We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10-3).
Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO2 isomers.
de Souza, Gabriel L C; Brown, Alex
2014-12-21
We present a computational study on HIO2 molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10(-3)). PMID:25527931
Probing ground and low-lying excited states for HIO{sub 2} isomers
Souza, Gabriel L. C. de; Brown, Alex
2014-12-21
We present a computational study on HIO{sub 2} molecules. Ground state properties such as equilibrium structures, relative energetics, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities were obtained for all the isomers at the coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set and ECP-28-PP effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The HOIO structure is confirmed as the lowest energy isomer. The relative energies are shown to be HOIO < HOOI < HI(O)O. The HO(O)I isomer is only stable at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. The transition states determined show interconversion of the isomers is possible. In order to facilitate future experimental identification, vibrational frequencies are also determined for all corresponding deuterated species. Vertical excitation energies for the three lowest-lying singlet and triplet excited states were determined using the configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)/B3LYP, TD-DFT/G96PW91, and equation of motion-CCSD approaches with the LANL2DZ basis set plus effective core potential for iodine and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set for hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is shown that HOIO and HOOI isomers have excited states accessible at solar wavelengths (<4.0 eV) but these states have very small oscillator strengths (<2 × 10{sup −3})
New Ground-State Crystal Structure of Elemental Boron.
An, Qi; Reddy, K Madhav; Xie, Kelvin Y; Hemker, Kevin J; Goddard, William A
2016-08-19
Elemental boron exhibits many polymorphs in nature based mostly on an icosahedral shell motif, involving stabilization of 13 strong multicenter intraicosahedral bonds. It is commonly accepted that the most thermodynamic stable structure of elemental boron at atmospheric pressure is the β rhombohedral boron (β-B). Surprisingly, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that pure boron powder contains grains of two different types, the previously identified β-B containing a number of randomly spaced twins and what appears to be a fully transformed twinlike structure. This fully transformed structure, denoted here as τ-B, is based on the Cmcm orthorhombic space group. Quantum mechanics predicts that the newly identified τ-B structure is 13.8 meV/B more stable than β-B. The τ-B structure allows 6% more charge transfer from B_{57} units to nearby B_{12} units, making the net charge 6% closer to the ideal expected from Wade's rules. Thus, we predict the τ-B structure to be the ground state structure for elemental boron at atmospheric pressure. PMID:27588864
New Ground-State Crystal Structure of Elemental Boron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Qi; Reddy, K. Madhav; Xie, Kelvin Y.; Hemker, Kevin J.; Goddard, William A.
2016-08-01
Elemental boron exhibits many polymorphs in nature based mostly on an icosahedral shell motif, involving stabilization of 13 strong multicenter intraicosahedral bonds. It is commonly accepted that the most thermodynamic stable structure of elemental boron at atmospheric pressure is the β rhombohedral boron (β -B ). Surprisingly, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that pure boron powder contains grains of two different types, the previously identified β -B containing a number of randomly spaced twins and what appears to be a fully transformed twinlike structure. This fully transformed structure, denoted here as τ -B , is based on the C m c m orthorhombic space group. Quantum mechanics predicts that the newly identified τ -B structure is 13.8 meV /B more stable than β -B . The τ -B structure allows 6% more charge transfer from B57 units to nearby B12 units, making the net charge 6% closer to the ideal expected from Wade's rules. Thus, we predict the τ -B structure to be the ground state structure for elemental boron at atmospheric pressure.
Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States
Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Focazio, Michael J.
2000-01-01
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in rocks, soils, and the waters in contact with them. Recognized as a toxic element for centuries, arsenic today also is a human health concern because it can contribute to skin, bladder, and other cancers (National Research Council, 1999). Recently, the National Research Council (1999) recommended lowering the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) allowed for arsenic in drinking water of 50 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), citing risks for developing bladder and other cancers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) will propose a new, and likely lower, arsenic MCL during 2000 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). This fact sheet provides information on where and to what extent natural concentrations of arsenic in ground water exceed possible new standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected and analyzed arsenic in potable (drinkable) water from 18,850 wells in 595 counties across the United States during the past two decades. These wells are used for irrigation, industrial purposes, and research, as well as for public and private water supply. Arsenic concentrations in samples from these wells are similar to those found in nearby public supplies (see Focazio and others, 1999). The large number of samples, broad geographic coverage, and consistency of methods produce a more accurate and detailed picture of arsenic concentrations than provided by any previous studies.
Multiplicity of singular synchronous states in the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators.
Komarov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady
2013-11-15
We study the Kuramoto model of globally coupled oscillators with a biharmonic coupling function. We develop an analytic self-consistency approach to find stationary synchronous states in the thermodynamic limit and demonstrate that there is a huge multiplicity of such states, which differ microscopically in the distributions of locked phases. These synchronous regimes already exist prior to the linear instability transition of the fully asynchronous state. In the presence of white Gaussian noise, the multiplicity is lifted, but the dependence of the order parameters on coupling constants remains nontrivial.
Williams, Caitlin R. S.; Sorrentino, Francesco; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi
2013-12-15
We experimentally study the complex dynamics of a unidirectionally coupled ring of four identical optoelectronic oscillators. The coupling between these systems is time-delayed in the experiment and can be varied over a wide range of delays. We observe that as the coupling delay is varied, the system may show different synchronization states, including complete isochronal synchrony, cluster synchrony, and two splay-phase states. We analyze the stability of these solutions through a master stability function approach, which we show can be effectively applied to all the different states observed in the experiment. Our analysis supports the experimentally observed multistability in the system.
Chen, Y. F.
2011-03-15
The geometry of classical dynamics in coupled oscillators with SU(2) transformations is explored and found to be relevant to a family of continuous-transformation orbits between Lissajous and trochoidal curves. The quantum wave-packet coherent states are derived analytically to correspond exactly to the transformation geometry of classical dynamics. By using the quantum wave-packet coherent states derived herein, stationary coherent states are constructed and are shown to possess spatial patterns identical to the transformation geometry between Lissajous and trochoidal orbits.
Effects of climate oscillations on wind resource variability in the United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamlington, B. D.; Hamlington, P. E.; Collins, S. G.; Alexander, S. R.; Kim, K.-Y.
2015-01-01
Natural climate variations in the United States wind resource are assessed by using cyclostationary empirical orthogonal functions (CSEOFs) to decompose wind reanalysis data. Compared to approaches that average climate signals or assume stationarity of the wind resource on interannual time scales, the CSEOF analysis isolates variability associated with specific climate oscillations, as well as their modulation from year to year. Contributions to wind speed variability from the modulated annual cycle (MAC) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are quantified, and information provided by the CSEOF analysis further allows the spatial variability of these effects to be determined. The impacts of the MAC and ENSO on the wind resource are calculated at existing wind turbine locations in the United States, revealing variations in the wind speed of up to 30% at individual sites. The results presented here have important implications for predictions of wind plant power output and siting.
The state space of a model for the Bray-Liebhafsky oscillating reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, G.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.
2007-09-01
It has been known for a long time that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by hydrogen and iodate ions, the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction, can generate oscillations in a batch reactor. Recently, mixed-mode oscillations and chaos have also been observed in a CSTR. The model we had previously proposed to explain the kinetics in a batch reactor can also simulate these new complex behaviors. Time series give only a limited view of the features of the calculated behaviors and more information is obtained studying the properties of the state space. We use projections of the trajectories, calculation of the correlation dimension of the attractor, Poincaré sections, and return maps. As the state space of the model is six-dimensional, we try to answer the questions of whether the projections into a 3D subspace give correct pictures of the real trajectories and whether we have reasons to prefer a special subspace.
Transition from homogeneous to inhomogeneous steady states in oscillators under cyclic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Bidesh K.; Hens, Chittaranjan; Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Pal, Pinaki; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-01-01
We report a transition from homogeneous steady state to inhomogeneous steady state in coupled oscillators, both limit cycle and chaotic, under cyclic coupling and diffusive coupling as well when an asymmetry is introduced in terms of a negative parameter mismatch. Such a transition appears in limit cycle systems via pitchfork bifurcation as usual. Especially, when we focus on chaotic systems, the transition follows a transcritical bifurcation for cyclic coupling while it is a pitchfork bifurcation for the conventional diffusive coupling. We use the paradigmatic Van der Pol oscillator as the limit cycle system and a Sprott system as a chaotic system. We verified our results analytically for cyclic coupling and numerically check all results including diffusive coupling for both the limit cycle and chaotic systems.
Measurement of the squeezed vacuum state by a bichromatic local oscillator.
Li, Wei; Yu, Xudong; Zhang, Jing
2015-11-15
We present the experimental measurement of a squeezed vacuum state by means of a bichromatic local oscillator (BLO). A pair of local oscillators at ±5 MHz around the central frequency ω(0) of the fundamental field with equal power are generated by three acousto-optic modulators and phase-locked technology and used as a BLO. The squeezed vacuum light is detected by a phase-sensitive balanced-homodyne detection with a BLO. The baseband signal around ω(0) combined with a broad squeezed field can be detected with the sensitivity below the shot-noise limit, in which the baseband signal is shifted to the vicinity of 5 MHz (the half of the BLO separation). This work has important applications in quantum state measurement and quantum information. PMID:26565859
Molecular spectroscopy for ground-state transfer of ultracold RbCs molecules.
Debatin, Markus; Takekoshi, Tetsu; Rameshan, Raffael; Reichsöllner, Lukas; Ferlaino, Francesca; Grimm, Rudolf; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2011-11-14
We perform one- and two-photon high resolution spectroscopy on ultracold samples of RbCs Feshbach molecules with the aim to identify a suitable route for efficient ground-state transfer in the quantum-gas regime to produce quantum gases of dipolar RbCs ground-state molecules. One-photon loss spectroscopy allows us to probe deeply bound rovibrational levels of the mixed excited (A(1)Σ(+)-b(3)Π)0(+) molecular states. Two-photon dark state spectroscopy connects the initial Feshbach state to the rovibronic ground state. We determine the binding energy of the lowest rovibrational level |v'' = 0, J'' = 0> of the X(1)Σ(+) ground state to be D = 3811.5755(16) cm(-1), a 300-fold improvement in accuracy with respect to previous data. We are now in the position to perform stimulated two-photon Raman transfer to the rovibronic ground state. PMID:21853182
Impact of hyperbolicity on chimera states in ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenova, N.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Anishchenko, V.
2016-06-01
In this work we analyse nonlocally coupled networks of identical chaotic oscillators. We study both time-discrete and time-continuous systems (Henon map, Lozi map, Lorenz system). We hypothesize that chimera states, in which spatial domains of coherent (synchronous) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics coexist, can be obtained only in networks of chaotic non-hyperbolic systems and cannot be found in networks of hyperbolic systems. This hypothesis is supported by numerical simulations for hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic cases.
Effect of pendulum oscillations on the accuracy of a solid state wave gyroscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarapulov, S. A.; Kisilenko, S. P.
The accuracy of a solid state wave gyroscope is investigated as a function of the pendulum eigenmodes. Expressions are obtained which relate the natural frequencies and attenuation coefficients of a nonideal resonator to the parameters of its pendulum oscillations. The results of the analysis can be used in developing balancing methods for improving the Q-factor and uniformity of the damping properties of the system.
Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.
Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinnola, Francesco Paolo
2016-10-01
The statistical characterization of the oscillator response with non-integer order damping under Gaussian noise represents an important challenge in the modern stochastic mechanics. In fact, this kind of problem appears in several issues of different type (wave propagation in viscoelastic media, Brownian motion, fluid dynamics, RLC circuit, etc.). The aim of this paper is to provide a stochastic characterization of the stationary response of linear fractional oscillator forced by normal white noise. In particular, this paper shows a new method to obtain the correlation function by exact complex spectral moments. These complex quantities contain all the information to describe the random processes but in the considered case their analytical evaluation needs some mathematical manipulations. For this reason such complex spectral moment characterization is used in conjunction with a fractional-order state variable analysis. This kind of analysis permits to find the exact expression of complex spectral moments, and the correlation function by using the Mellin transform. Moreover, the proposed approach provides an analytical expression of the response variance of the fractional oscillator. Capability and efficiency of the present method are shown in the numerical examples in which correlation and variance of fractional oscillator response are found and compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vance, William; Ross, John
1988-05-01
We study experimentally continuous transitions from quasiperiodic to periodic states for a time-periodically forced chemical oscillator. The chemical reaction is the hydration of 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol, and is carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Periodic oscillatory states are observed to arise in the autonomous system through supercritical Hopf bifurcations as either the total flow rate or the cooling coil temperature is changed. Under conditions of oscillation for the autonomous system, small-amplitude periodic variation of the total flow rate generates an attracting two-torus from the stable limit cycle. From the experiments we determine the structure of the toroidal flow, stroboscopic phase portraits, and circle maps as a function of the forcing amplitude and period. A continuous transition from the quasiperiodic to a periodic state, in which the two-torus contracts to a closed curve (Neimark-Sacker torus bifurcation), is observed as the forcing amplitude is increased at a constant forcing period, or as the forcing period is changed at a constant moderate forcing amplitude. Qualitative theoretical predictions compare well with the experimental observations. This paper presents the first experimental observation of a Neimark-Sacker torus bifurcation in a forced chemical oscillator system, and relates the bifurcation diagram of the unforced system to that of the forced system.
Arbitrary-quantum-state preparation of a harmonic oscillator via optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojan, Katharina; Reich, Daniel M.; Dotsenko, Igor; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Koch, Christiane P.; Morigi, Giovanna
2014-08-01
The efficient initialization of a quantum system is a prerequisite for quantum technological applications. Here we show that several classes of quantum states of a harmonic oscillator can be efficiently prepared by means of a Jaynes-Cummings interaction with a single two-level system. This is achieved by suitably tailoring external fields which drive the dipole and/or the oscillator. The time-dependent dynamics that leads to the target state is identified by means of optimal control theory (OCT) based on Krotov's method. Infidelities below 10-4 can be reached for the parameters of the experiment of Raimond, Haroche, Brune and co-workers, where the oscillator is a mode of a high-Q microwave cavity and the dipole is a Rydberg transition of an atom. For this specific situation we analyze the limitations on the fidelity due to parameter fluctuations and identify robust dynamics based on pulses found using ensemble OCT. Our analysis can be extended to quantum-state preparation of continuous-variable systems in other platforms, such as trapped ions and circuit QED.
Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.
Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H
2013-12-12
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jinwoo; Chang, Eonho; Anstine, Dylan M.; Chakraborty, Himadri
2016-05-01
We study the ground state properties of C60 and C240 molecules in a spherical frame of local density approximation (LDA). Within this mean-field theory, two different approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) functional are used: (i) The Gunnerson-Lundqvist parametrization augmented by a treatment to correct for the electron self-interaction and (ii) the van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB94) model potential that inclusively restores electron's asymptotic properties. Results show differences in the ground-state potential, level energies and electron densities between the two xc choices. We then use the ground structure to find the excited and ionized states of the systems and calculate dipole single-photoionization cross sections in a time-dependent LDA method that incorporates linear-response dynamical correlations. Comparative effects of the choices of xc on collective plasmon and single-excitation Auger resonances as well as on geometry driven cavity oscillations are found significant. The work is supported by the NSF, USA.
El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Snow Level in the western United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoma, B. M.
2013-12-01
Snow level, the elevation that snowfall transitions to rainfall, is directly related to the snow covered area resulting from a given snowfall event. With snow level variability quantified from records of (1) wet-bulb zero heights at ten rawinsonde sites (1957-2010), (2) empirical snow level estimates from precipitation and snowfall observations in ten watersheds (~1924-2009), and (3) 850-700 hPa thicknesses (1948-2010), the relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the elevation of snow level in the western United States is established. The statistical relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index and these snow level proxies is determined by the change in the empirical probability density function from moderate values of the Southern Oscillation Index to extreme values of the Southern Oscillation Index. For all three data sources, the results suggest that El Niño events are linked to higher snow levels across nearly the entire western United States. The strength of this signal generally decreases with distance from the Pacific Ocean and results suggest that the southern Rockies experience slightly decreased snow levels during El Niño events. A snow covered area analysis derived from observations by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) supports this El Niño signal in snow level. There is little evidence for a significant and spatially coherent La Niña relationship with snow level. It is likely that the elevated snow levels are due to the tendency for more maritime characteristics of mid-latitude cyclones during El Niño events while decreased snow levels in the southern Rockies are likely due to the transition of maritime air masses to continental air masses along with deeper troughs. To lend support for this hypothesis, the leading modes of synoptic scale flow during winter precipitation events will be identified for separate regions of the western United States using the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset.
Incoherent chimera and glassy states in coupled oscillators with frustrated interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Chol-Ung; Ri, Ji-Song; Kim, Ryong-Son
2016-09-01
We suggest a site disorder model that describes the population of identical oscillators with quenched random interactions for both the coupling strength and coupling phase. We obtain the reduced equations for the suborder parameters, on the basis of Ott-Antonsen ansatz theory, and present a complete bifurcation analysis of the reduced system. New effects include the appearance of the incoherent chimera and glassy state, both of which are caused by heterogeneity of the coupling phases. In the incoherent chimera state, the system displays an exotic symmetry-breaking behavior in spite of the apparent structural symmetry where the oscillators for both of the two subpopulations are in a frustrated state, while the phase distribution for each subpopulation approaches a steady state that differs from each other. When the incoherent chimera undergoes Hopf bifurcation, the system displays a breathing incoherent chimera. The glassy state that occurs on a surface of three-dimensional parameter space exhibits a continuum of metastable states with zero value of the global order parameter. Explicit formulas are derived for the system's Hopf, saddle-node, and transcritical bifurcation curves, as well as the codimension-2 crossing points, including the Takens-Bogdanov point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, L.; Scuderi, L. A.
2014-12-01
Drought, a natural phenomenon that has affected western North America for millennia, is characterized by significant changes in precipitation with rapid shifts between wet and dry states. General Circulation Model projections indicate increased aridity in the 21st century for the Western U.S., and as such the impact of drought will likely become more significant on the environment and the economy. In the pursuit of improving drought predictability, as well as increasing our ability to better characterize the onset of drought, we ask whether defined climate regime shift signals can be identified and if there are variations in this signal for different drought periods, and if so, whether these shifts may be periodic. Annual growth rings of precipitation sensitive trees in the upper and lower Colorado River Basin regions are analyzed using 1) edge detection filters to determine the timing and significance of climate regime induced precipitation shifts, 2) digital filters to identify long and short-term precipitation variability within the site mean chronologies, and 3) wavelet analysis to determine the presence of significant periodicities in the chronologies. Results show that the edge detection algorithms are successful in identifying significant shifts in climatic regimes, and wavelet analysis indicates that some of these shifts may be periodic, suggesting larger scale atmospheric circulation forcing on timescales of decades to centuries. These results are used to identify specific patterns and timing of drought over the upper and lower Colorado River Basins in relation to oceanic oscillations such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation. Establishing a relationship between the timing and pattern of the drought and the timing of the oceanic oscillations can lead to improved drought predictability in this region and increase our ability to respond to the environmental and economic impacts of drought.
Line strengths of rovibrational and rotational transitions in the X2 Π ground state of OH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Western, Colin M.; Sneden, Christopher; Afşar, Melike; Li, Gang; Gordon, Iouli E.
2016-01-01
A new line list including positions and absolute transition strengths (in the form of Einstein A values and oscillator strengths) has been produced for the OH ground X2 Π state rovibrational (Meinel system) and pure rotational transitions. All possible transitions are included with v‧ and v ″ up to 13, and J up to between 9.5 and 59.5, depending on the band. An updated fit to determine molecular constants has been performed, which includes some new rotational data and a simultaneous fitting of all molecular constants. The absolute transition strengths are based on a new dipole moment function, which is a combination of two high level ab initio calculations. The calculations show good agreement with an experimental v = 1 lifetime, experimental μv values, and Δv=2 line intensity ratios from an observed spectrum. To achieve this good agreement, an alteration in the method of converting matrix elements from Hund's case (b) to (a) was made. Partitions sums have been calculated using the new energy levels, for the temperature range 5-6000 K, which extends the previously available (in HITRAN) 70-3000 K range. The resulting absolute transition strengths have been used to calculate O abundances in the Sun, Arcturus, and two red giants in the Galactic open and globular clusters M67 and M71. Literature data based mainly on [O I] lines are available for the Sun and Arcturus, and excellent agreement is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhiqiang; Chakravarty, Sudip
2016-05-01
The Onsager rule determines the relationship between Fermi surface area and frequencies of quantum oscillations in magnetic fields. We show that this rule remains intact to an excellent approximation in the mixed-vortex state of the underdoped cuprates even though the Landau level index n may be fairly low, n ˜10 . The models we consider are fairly general, consisting of a variety of density wave states combined with d -wave superconductivity within a mean field theory. Vortices are introduced as quenched disorder and averaged over many realizations, which can be considered as snapshots of a vortex liquid state. We also show that the oscillations ride on top of a field independent density of states ρ (B ) for higher fields. This feature appears to be consistent with recent specific heat measurements [C. Marcenat et al., Nature Communications 6, 7927 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8927]. The experimental data do not go to low fields at the lowest temperature 3 K. Thus, we cannot compare the density of state for the entire field range. Of course, the high temperature data are linear in the field at lower fields, as they should be, but our theory is only valid at very low temperatures, ideally at zero temperature. At lower fields and zero temperature we model the system as an ordered vortex lattice, and show that its density of states follows a dependence ρ (B ) ∝√{B } in agreement with the semiclassical results [JETP Lett 58, 469 (1993)].
Vortex states and quantum magnetic oscillations in conventional type-II superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniv, Tsofar; Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Vagner, Israel; Wyder, Peter
2001-10-01
The theory of pure type-II superconductors at high magnetic fields and low temperatures has recently attracted much attention due to the discovery of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations deep in the vortex state. In this article the authors review the state of the art in this rapidly growing new field of research. The very existence of quantum magnetic oscillations deep in the vortex state poses challenging questions to the theorists working in this field. For a conventional extreme type-II superconductor in magnetic fields just below the upper critical field Hc2, the quasiparticle spectrum is gapless and the de Haas-van Alphen effect is suppressed with respect to the corresponding normal-state signal due to superconducting induced currents near the vortex cores, which are of paramagnetic nature. Numerical simulations of the quasiparticle band structure in the Abrikosov vortex lattice show the existence of well-separated Landau bands below Hc2. An analytical perturbative approach, which emphasizes the importance of phase coherence in quasiparticle scattering by the pair potential in the Abrikosov lattice, predicts a relatively weak magnetic breakdown of the corresponding cyclotron orbits. In contrast to the situation in the Abrikosov lattice state, a theory based on a random vortex lattice model yields large exponential decay of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with the superconducting order parameter below Hc2. The disordered nature of the vortex state near Hc2 in real superconductors, where long-range phase coherence in the superconducting order parameter is destroyed, could explain the success of this model in interpreting experimental data below Hc2. In the Abrikosov vortex lattice state, which usually stabilizes well below Hc2, the residual damping of the de Haas-van Alphen amplitude is significantly reduced. In quasi-two-dimensional superconductors, phase fluctuations associated with sliding Bragg chains along principal axes in the vortex lattice lead to a weak
Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films
Zapata, Luis E.
1994-01-01
A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.
Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films
Zapata, L.E.
1994-08-02
A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.
Encoding-related EEG oscillations during memory formation are modulated by mood state.
Gärtner, Matti; Bajbouj, Malek
2014-12-01
Mood states have a strong impact on how we process incoming information. It has been proposed that positive mood facilitates elaborative, relational encoding, whereas negative mood promotes a more careful, stimulus-driven encoding style. Previous electrophysiological studies have linked successful information encoding to power increases in slow (<8 Hz) delta/theta and fast (>30 Hz) gamma oscillations, as well as to power decreases in midrange (8-30 Hz) alpha/beta oscillations. Whether different mood states modulate encoding-related oscillations has not been investigated yet. In order to address this question, we used an experimental mood induction procedure and recorded electroencephalograms from 20 healthy participants while they performed a free recall memory task after positive and negative mood induction. We found distinct oscillatory patterns in positive and negative mood. Successful encoding in positive mood was accompanied by widespread power increases in the delta band, whereas encoding success in negative mood was specifically accompanied by frontal power decreases in the beta band. On the behavioral level, memory performance was enhanced in positive mood. Our findings show that mood differentially modulates the neural correlates of successful information encoding and thus contribute to an understanding of how mood shapes different processing styles.
Electronic ground state properties of Coulomb blockaded quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Satyadev Rajesh
Conductance through quantum dots at low temperature exhibits random but repeatable fluctuations arising from quantum interference of electrons. The observed fluctuations follow universal statistics arising from the underlying universality of quantum chaos. Random matrix theory (RMT) has provided an accurate description of the observed universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) in "open" quantum dots (device conductance ≥e 2/h). The focus of this thesis is to search for and decipher the underlying origin of similar universal properties in "closed" quantum dots (device conductance ≤e2/ h). A series of experiments is presented on electronic ground state properties measured via conductance measurements in Coulomb blockaded quantum dots. The statistics of Coulomb blockade (CB) peak heights with zero and non-zero magnetic field measured in various devices agree qualitatively with predictions from Random Matrix Theory (RMT). The standard deviation of the peak height fluctuations for non-zero magnetic field is lower than predicted by RMT; the temperature dependence of the standard deviation of the peak height for non-zero magnetic field is also measured. The second experiment summarizes the statistics of CB peak spacings. The peak spacing distribution width is observed to be on the order of the single particle level spacing, Delta, for both zero and non-zero magnetic field. The ratio of the zero field peak spacing distribution width to the non-zero field peak spacing distribution width is ˜1.2; this is good agreement with predictions from spin-resolved RMT predictions. The standard deviation of the non-zero magnetic field peak spacing distribution width shows a T-1/2 dependence in agreement with a thermal averaging model. The final experiment summarizes the measurement of the peak height correlation length versus temperature for various quantum dots. The peak height correlation length versus temperature saturates in small quantum dots, suggesting spectral scrambling
No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul
2013-05-01
Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerez, Sonia; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.
2013-04-01
Air pollution is a major environmental and health problem. Hence, understanding when and why episodes of air pollution arise becomes essential. Besides emissions, air pollution levels depend on the atmospheric conditions handling and transforming them through processes related to chemistry, transport and removal. In this sense, this contribution assesses the variation in ground-level aerosols concentrations over Europe associated to changes in the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) motivated by the well-known strong impact of the NAO on the European climate variability. For that we used a high-resolution (25 km) air quality simulation spanning the period 1970-1999 and covering western Europe and most of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, we used observed aerosol data from the EMEP database whose observational periods range between 1993 and 2010. The simulation was performed by using climatological boundary conditions for the aerosols concentrations, hence allowing to isolate the influence of the local atmospheric processes, as they are governed by the NAO, on the levels of the various aerosol species analyzed (namely sea salt, wind-blown and resuspended dust, secondary inorganic aerosols, organic matter and elemental carbon) from the influence of large-scale mechanisms. The results highlight that positive NAO phases favor increased aerosols levels in southern (northern) regions in winter (summer), while negative NAO phases enhance them in northern (southern) regions in winter (summer), being generally in good agreement with the analysis based on the observational database. Variations are up to and over 100% for most aerosols, being clearly related to the NAO-impact on local precipitation and wind, as they act to clean the atmosphere through removal and dispersion processes, but equally resulting from the NAO-impact on the radiation balance (i.e. cloudiness) as it rebounds on the biogenic emitting activity and on the oxidative capacity of the
Ground-state modulation-enhancement by two-state lasing in quantum-dot laser devices
Röhm, André; Lingnau, Benjamin; Lüdge, Kathy
2015-05-11
We predict a significant increase of the 3 dB-cutoff-frequency on the ground-state lasing wavelength for two-state-lasing quantum-dot lasers using a microscopically motivated multi-level rate-equation model. After the onset of the second lasing line, the excited state acts as a high-pass filter, improving the ground-state response to faster modulation frequencies. We present both numerically simulated small-signal and large-signal modulation results and compare the performance of single and two-state lasing devices. Furthermore, we give dynamical arguments for the advantages of two-state lasing on data-transmission capabilities.
Bistability of self-modulation oscillations in an autonomous solid-state ring laser
Dudetskii, V Yu
2013-11-30
Bistable self-modulation regimes of generation for a ring YAG : Nd chip laser with the counterpropagating waves asymmetrically coupled via backward scattering are simulated numerically. Two branches of bistable self-modulation regimes of generation are found in the domain of the parametric resonance between the selfmodulation and relaxation oscillations. The self-modulation regimes observed in earlier experiments pertain to only one of the branches. Possible reasons for such a discrepancy are considered, related to the influence of technical and natural noise on the dynamics of solid-state ring lasers. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Generalized q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff oscillator algebra and associated coherent states
Chung, Won Sang; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert Arjika, Sama
2014-08-15
In this paper, we propose a full characterization of a generalized q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff oscillator algebra and investigate its main mathematical and physical properties. Specifically, we study its various representations and find the condition satisfied by the deformed q-number to define the algebra structure function. Particular Fock spaces involving finite and infinite dimensions are examined. A deformed calculus is performed as well as a coordinate realization for this algebra. A relevant example is exhibited. Associated coherent states are constructed. Finally, some thermodynamics aspects are computed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian
2016-07-01
We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.
Shao, J. M.; Yao, J. D.; Yang, G. W.
2015-05-21
We describe a theoretical study of the terahertz (THz) radiation field-induced dc transport response of the surface state of a 3D topological insulator that has been subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field. Using the Landau–Floquet state and linear response theory, we obtain the photoconductivity characteristics for various types of polarized THz field. The longitudinal photoconductivity shows a clear oscillatory dependence on ω/ω{sub B}, where ω{sub B}=v{sub F}√(2eB/ℏ). This oscillation occurs because of the oscillatory structure of the Landau density of states and occurs in agreement with the photon-assisted transitions between the different Landau levels. The THz field's polarization has a major influence on the photoconductivity. A linear transverse polarization will lead to the most obvious oscillation, while the circular polarization is next to it, but the longitudinal polarization has no influence. We also discuss the broadening effect on the impurity potential and its influence. The findings with regard to the interactions between topological insulators and THz fields actually open a path toward the development of THz device applications of topological insulators.
Quantum oscillations and hall anomaly of surface states in the topological insulator Bi2Te3.
Qu, Dong-Xia; Hor, Y S; Xiong, Jun; Cava, R J; Ong, N P
2010-08-13
Topological insulators are insulating materials that display massless, Dirac-like surface states in which the electrons have only one spin degree of freedom on each surface. These states have been imaged by photoemission, but little information on their transport parameters, for example, mobility, is available. We report the observation of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations arising from the surface states in nonmetallic crystals of Bi(2)Te(3). In addition, we uncovered a Hall anomaly in weak fields, which enables the surface current to be seen directly. Both experiments yield a surface mobility (9000 to 10,000 centimeter(2) per volt-second) that is substantially higher than in the bulk. The Fermi velocity of 4 x 10(5) meters per second obtained from these transport experiments agrees with angle-resolved photoemission experiments.
Development of three-dimensional state-space wake theory and application in dynamic ground effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Ke
In topics of rotorcraft wake analysis, state-space wake theory has a recognized reputation for advantages in real-time simulation, preliminary design and eigenvalue analysis. Developments in the past decades greatly improved range of validity and accuracy of the state-space modeling approach. This work focuses on further improvement of the state-space wake theory and applications in representing dynamic ground effect. Extended state-space model is developed to represent non-zero mass flux on rotor disk. Its instant practical application, representing ground effect with a mass source ground rotor, is evaluated in both steady and dynamic aspects. Investigations of partial ground effect simulation by state-space model are carried out in different rotor configurations. Additional work is done in improving simulation efficiency of practical application of state-space modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silber, I.; Price, C. G.; Rodger, C. J.
2015-11-01
Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequencies (VLF) narrow-band subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D-region (at altitudes of ~65 and ~85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D-region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D-region is due to NOx molecules transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D-region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D-region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Rodger, Craig J.
2016-03-01
Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large-scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequency (VLF) narrowband (NB) subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D region (at altitudes of ˜ 65 and ˜ 85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D region is NOx molecule transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.
Probing commensurate ground states of Josephson vortex in layered superconductors.
Takahashi, Y; Luo, M-B; Nishizaki, T; Kobayashi, N; Hu, X
2014-04-01
Because of the commensurability condition between the vortex lattice constant determined by external magnetic field and the nano-scale layered structure, interlayer Josephson vortices (JVs) in high-Tc cuprate superconductors can take various configurations. We have simulated with Langevin scheme the in-plane flux-flow dynamics of JVs subject to point-like pinning centers. Oscillation in resistivity is found with the applied magnetic field, where the resistivity peaks occur around commensurate JV configurations. We have also measured the resistivity experimentally using single crystals of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy with the anisotropy parameter gamma approximately equal to 50. A unique JV lattice has been detected for the first time.
Exact ground states of large two-dimensional planar Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardella, G.; Liers, F.
2008-11-01
Studying spin-glass physics through analyzing their ground-state properties has a long history. Although there exist polynomial-time algorithms for the two-dimensional planar case, where the problem of finding ground states is transformed to a minimum-weight perfect matching problem, the reachable system sizes have been limited both by the needed CPU time and by memory requirements. In this work, we present an algorithm for the calculation of exact ground states for two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with free boundary conditions in at least one direction. The algorithmic foundations of the method date back to the work of Kasteleyn from the 1960s for computing the complete partition function of the Ising model. Using Kasteleyn cities, we calculate exact ground states for huge two-dimensional planar Ising spin-glass lattices (up to 30002 spins) within reasonable time. According to our knowledge, these are the largest sizes currently available. Kasteleyn cities were recently also used by Thomas and Middleton in the context of extended ground states on the torus. Moreover, they show that the method can also be used for computing ground states of planar graphs. Furthermore, we point out that the correctness of heuristically computed ground states can easily be verified. Finally, we evaluate the solution quality of heuristic variants of the L. Bieche approach.
Bes, D. R.; Civitarese, O.
2010-01-15
Theoretical matrix elements, for the ground-state to ground-state two-neutrino double-{beta}-decay mode (2{nu}{beta}{sup -}{beta}{sup -}gs->gs) of {sup 128,130}Te isotopes, are calculated within a formalism that describes interactions between neutrons in a superfluid phase and protons in a normal phase. The elementary degrees of freedom of the model are proton-pair modes and pairs of protons and quasineutrons. The calculation is basically a parameter-free one, because all relevant parameters are fixed from the phenomenology. A comparison with the available experimental data is presented.
Oscillations in Spurious States of the Associative Memory Model with Synaptic Depression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, Shin; Otsubo, Yosuke; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato
2014-12-01
The associative memory model is a typical neural network model that can store discretely distributed fixed-point attractors as memory patterns. When the network stores the memory patterns extensively, however, the model has other attractors besides the memory patterns. These attractors are called spurious memories. Both spurious states and memory states are in equilibrium, so there is little difference between their dynamics. Recent physiological experiments have shown that the short-term dynamic synapse called synaptic depression decreases its efficacy of transmission to postsynaptic neurons according to the activities of presynaptic neurons. Previous studies revealed that synaptic depression destabilizes the memory states when the number of memory patterns is finite. However, it is very difficult to study the dynamical properties of the spurious states if the number of memory patterns is proportional to the number of neurons. We investigate the effect of synaptic depression on spurious states by Monte Carlo simulation. The results demonstrate that synaptic depression does not affect the memory states but mainly destabilizes the spurious states and induces periodic oscillations.
Transient scaling and resurgence of chimera states in networks of Boolean phase oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Haynes, Nicholas D.; Schöll, Eckehard; Gauthier, Daniel J.
2014-09-01
We study networks of nonlocally coupled electronic oscillators that can be described approximately by a Kuramoto-like model. The experimental networks show long complex transients from random initial conditions on the route to network synchronization. The transients display complex behaviors, including resurgence of chimera states, which are network dynamics where order and disorder coexists. The spatial domain of the chimera state moves around the network and alternates with desynchronized dynamics. The fast time scale of our oscillators (on the order of 100ns) allows us to study the scaling of the transient time of large networks of more than a hundred nodes, which has not yet been confirmed previously in an experiment and could potentially be important in many natural networks. We find that the average transient time increases exponentially with the network size and can be modeled as a Poisson process in experiment and simulation. This exponential scaling is a result of a synchronization rate that follows a power law of the phase-space volume.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danilowicz, R.
1973-01-01
Ground-state properties of quantum crystals have received considerable attention from both theorists and experimentalists. The theoretical results have varied widely with the Monte Carlo calculations being the most successful. The molecular field approximation yields ground-state properties which agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. This approach evaluates the dynamical behavior of each pair of molecules in the molecular field of the other N-2 molecules. In addition to predicting ground-state properties that agree well with experiment, this approach yields data on the relative importance of interactions of different nearest neighbor pairs.
Ground state properties of superheavy nuclei with Z=117 and Z=119
Ren Zhongzhou; Chen Dinghan; Xu Chang
2006-11-02
We review the current studies on the ground-state properties of superheavy nuclei. It is shown that there is shape coexistence for the ground state of many superheavy nuclei from different models and many superheavy nuclei are deformed. This can lead to the existence of isomers in superheavy region and it plays an important role for the stability of superheavy nuclei. Some new results on Z=117 and Z=119 isotopes are presented. The agreement between theoretical results and experimental data clearly demonstrates the validity of theoretical models for the ground-state properties of superheavy nuclei.
Ground-state energies of the nonlinear sigma model and the Heisenberg spin chains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Shoucheng; Schulz, H. J.; Ziman, Timothy
1989-01-01
A theorem on the O(3) nonlinear sigma model with the topological theta term is proved, which states that the ground-state energy at theta = pi is always higher than the ground-state energy at theta = 0, for the same value of the coupling constant g. Provided that the nonlinear sigma model gives the correct description for the Heisenberg spin chains in the large-s limit, this theorem makes a definite prediction relating the ground-state energies of the half-integer and the integer spin chains. The ground-state energies obtained from the exact Bethe ansatz solution for the spin-1/2 chain and the numerical diagonalization on the spin-1, spin-3/2, and spin-2 chains support this prediction.
Molecular spectroscopy for producing ultracold ground-state NaRb molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dajun; Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier
2016-05-01
Recently, we have successfully created an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state NaRb molecules by two-photon Raman transfer of weakly bound Feshbach molecules. Here we will present the detailed spectroscopic investigations on both the excited and the rovibrational ground states for finding the two-photon path. For the excited state, we focus on the A1Σ+ /b3 Π singlet and triplet admixture. We discovered an anomalously strong coupling between the Ω =0+ and 0- components which renders efficient population transfer possible. In the ground state, the pure nuclear hyperfine levels have been clearly resolved, which allows us to create molecules in the absolute ground state directly with Raman transfer. This work is jointly supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (#ANR-13- IS04-0004-01) and Hong Kong Research Grant Council (#A-CUHK403/13) through the COPOMOL project.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salter, Latasha M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Geometrical structures and energetic properties for different tautomers of adenine are calculated in this study, using multi-configurational wave functions. Both the ground and the lowest singlet excited state potential energy surfaces are studied. Four tautomeric forms are considered, and their energetic order is found to be different on the ground and the excited state potential energy surfaces. Minimum energy reaction paths are obtained for hydrogen atom transfer (tautomerization) reactions in the ground and the lowest excited electronic states. It is found that the barrier heights and the shapes of the reaction paths are different for the ground and the excited electronic states, suggesting that the probability of such tautomerization reaction is higher on the excited state potential energy surface. This tautomerization process should become possible in the presence of water or other polar solvent molecules and should play an important role in the photochemistry of adenine.
One-dimensional extended Hubbard model with spin-triplet pairing ground states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Akinori
2016-10-01
We show that the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model has saturated ferromagnetic ground states with the spin-triplet electron pair condensation in a certain range of parameters. The ground state wave functions with fixed electron numbers are explicitly obtained. We also construct two ground states in which both the spin-rotation and the gauge symmetries are broken, and show that these states are transferred from one to the other by applying the edge operators. The edge operators are reduced to the Majorana fermions in a special case. These symmetry breaking ground states are shown to be stabilized by a superconducting mean field Hamiltonian which is related to the Kitaev chain with the charge-charge interaction.
State diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin-torque oscillators
Zhang, Mengwei; Wang, Longze; Wei, Dan; Gao, Kai-Zhong
2015-05-07
The state diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin torque oscillator (STO) with perpendicular reference layer and planar field generation layer (FGL) is studied by the macrospin model and the micromagnetic model. The state diagrams of current densities are calculated under various external fields. The simulation shows that there are two phase-lock current density regions. In the phase-locked STOs in low current region I, the spin configuration of FGL is uniform; in high current region II, the spin configuration of FGL is highly nonuniform. In addition, the results with different STOs separation L{sub s} are compared, and the coupling between two STOs is largely decreased when L{sub s} is increased from 40 nm to 60 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xiang; Jin, Rui; Zeng, De-Ling; Han, Xiao-Ying; Yan, Jun; Li, Jia-Ming
2015-11-01
The electron and photon scattering data of an atom are crucial for many scientific fields, including plasma physics, astrophysics, and so on. For high enough but nonrelativistic incident energies, the first Born approximation is applicable for calculating these data, in which the key physics quantity is the generalized oscillator strength (GOS). In high-energy electron impact excitation processes, atoms will be excited into various excited states including strongly perturbed Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. How to calculate these quantities of a nontrivial many-electron atom rapidly and accurately is still a great challenge. Based on our eigenchannel R -matrix method R -eigen, we further extend it to calculate the GOS of a whole channel in an atom, which includes all Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. The Jπ=1- states of argon are chosen as an illustrating example. The calculation results are in good agreement with the available benchmark absolute experimental measurements. The calculated eigenchannel GOS matrix elements are smooth functions of the excitation energy and momentum transfer. From such smooth eigenchannel GOS matrix elements, we can obtain the GOS of any specific excited state through multichannel quantum defect theory, e.g., infinite Rydberg (including a strongly perturbed one), autoionization, and continuum states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui
2016-10-01
The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.
2013-01-01
We investigate the nature of the S* excited state in carotenoids by performing a series of pump–probe experiments with sub-20 fs time resolution on spirilloxanthin in a polymethyl-methacrylate matrix varying the sample temperature. Following photoexcitation, we observe sub-200 fs internal conversion of the bright S2 state into the lower-lying S1 and S* states, which in turn relax to the ground state on a picosecond time scale. Upon cooling down the sample to 77 K, we observe a systematic decrease of the S*/S1 ratio. This result can be explained by assuming two thermally populated ground state isomers. The higher lying one generates the S* state, which can then be effectively frozen out by cooling. These findings are supported by quantum chemical modeling and provide strong evidence for the existence and importance of ground state isomers in the photophysics of carotenoids. PMID:23577754
Calixto, M. Pérez-Romero, E.
2014-08-01
We revise the unireps. of U(2, 2) describing conformal particles with continuous mass spectrum from a many-body perspective, which shows massive conformal particles as compounds of two correlated massless particles. The statistics of the compound (boson/fermion) depends on the helicity h of the massless components (integer/half-integer). Coherent states (CS) of particle-hole pairs (“excitons”) are also explicitly constructed as the exponential action of exciton (non-canonical) creation operators on the ground state of unpaired particles. These CS are labeled by points Z (2×2 complex matrices) on the Cartan-Bergman domain D₄=U(2,2)/U(2)², and constitute a generalized (matrix) version of Perelomov U(1, 1) coherent states labeled by points z on the unit disk D₁=U(1,1)/U(1)². First, we follow a geometric approach to the construction of CS, orthonormal basis, U(2, 2) generators and their matrix elements and symbols in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space H{sub λ}(D₄) of analytic square-integrable holomorphic functions on D₄, which carries a unitary irreducible representation of U(2, 2) with index λϵN (the conformal or scale dimension). Then we introduce a many-body representation of the previous construction through an oscillator realization of the U(2, 2) Lie algebra generators in terms of eight boson operators with constraints. This particle picture allows us for a physical interpretation of our abstract mathematical construction in the many-body jargon. In particular, the index λ is related to the number 2(λ – 2) of unpaired quanta and to the helicity h = (λ – 2)/2 of each massless particle forming the massive compound.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calixto, M.; Pérez-Romero, E.
2014-08-01
We revise the unireps. of U(2, 2) describing conformal particles with continuous mass spectrum from a many-body perspective, which shows massive conformal particles as compounds of two correlated massless particles. The statistics of the compound (boson/fermion) depends on the helicity h of the massless components (integer/half-integer). Coherent states (CS) of particle-hole pairs ("excitons") are also explicitly constructed as the exponential action of exciton (non-canonical) creation operators on the ground state of unpaired particles. These CS are labeled by points Z (2 × 2 complex matrices) on the Cartan-Bergman domain {D}_4=U(2,2)/U(2)^2, and constitute a generalized (matrix) version of Perelomov U(1, 1) coherent states labeled by points z on the unit disk {D}_1=U(1,1)/U(1)^2. First, we follow a geometric approach to the construction of CS, orthonormal basis, U(2, 2) generators and their matrix elements and symbols in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space H_λ ({D}_4) of analytic square-integrable holomorphic functions on {D}_4, which carries a unitary irreducible representation of U(2, 2) with index λ in {N} (the conformal or scale dimension). Then we introduce a many-body representation of the previous construction through an oscillator realization of the U(2, 2) Lie algebra generators in terms of eight boson operators with constraints. This particle picture allows us for a physical interpretation of our abstract mathematical construction in the many-body jargon. In particular, the index λ is related to the number 2(λ - 2) of unpaired quanta and to the helicity h = (λ - 2)/2 of each massless particle forming the massive compound.
Optical pumping of metastable NH radicals into the paramagnetic ground state
Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de; Mosk, Allard P.; Jongma, Rienk T.; Sartakov, Boris G.; Meijer, Gerard
2003-09-01
We here report on the optical pumping of both {sup 14}NH and {sup 15}NH radicals from the metastable a {sup 1}{delta} state into the X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -} ground state in a molecular beam experiment. By inducing the hitherto unobserved spin-forbidden A {sup 3}{pi} <- a {sup 1}{delta} transition, followed by spontaneous emission to the X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -} state, a unidirectional pathway for population transfer from the metastable state into the electronic ground state is obtained. The optical pumping scheme demonstrated here opens up the possibility to accumulate NH radicals in a magnetic or optical trap.
Switching between ground and excited states by optical feedback in a quantum dot laser diode
Virte, Martin; Breuer, Stefan; Sciamanna, Marc; Panajotov, Krassimir
2014-09-22
We demonstrate switching between ground state and excited state emission in a quantum-dot laser subject to optical feedback. Even though the solitary laser emits only from the excited state, we can trigger the emission of the ground state by optical feedback. We observe recurrent but incomplete switching between the two emission states by variation of the external cavity length in the sub-micrometer scale. We obtain a good qualitative agreement of experimental results with simulation results obtained by a rate equation that accounts for the variations of the feedback phase.
Ground states of stealthy hyperuniform potentials. II. Stacked-slider phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.
2015-08-01
Stealthy potentials, a family of long-range isotropic pair potentials, produce infinitely degenerate disordered ground states at high densities and crystalline ground states at low densities in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd. In the previous paper in this series, we numerically studied the entropically favored ground states in the canonical ensemble in the zero-temperature limit across the first three Euclidean space dimensions. In this paper, we investigate using both numerical and theoretical techniques metastable stacked-slider phases, which are part of the ground-state manifold of stealthy potentials at densities in which crystal ground states are favored entropically. Our numerical results enable us to devise analytical models of this phase in two, three, and higher dimensions. Utilizing this model, we estimated the size of the feasible region in configuration space of the stacked-slider phase, finding it to be smaller than that of crystal structures in the infinite-system-size limit, which is consistent with our recent previous work. In two dimensions, we also determine exact expressions for the pair correlation function and structure factor of the analytical model of stacked-slider phases and analyze the connectedness of the ground-state manifold of stealthy potentials in this density regime. We demonstrate that stacked-slider phases are distinguishable states of matter; they are nonperiodic, statistically anisotropic structures that possess long-range orientational order but have zero shear modulus. We outline some possible future avenues of research to elucidate our understanding of this unusual phase of matter.
Ground-state depleted laser in neodymium-doped yttrium orthosilicate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, Raymond J.; Albrecht, George F.; Solarz, Richard W.; Krupke, William F.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Mitchell, Scott C.; Brandle, Charles D.; Berkstresser, George W.
1990-04-01
A ground state depleted (GSD)1,2 laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd3+ as the active ion and Y2SiO5 as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd3+4F3/2 level to a stark level 355 cm-1 above the lowest lying one in the 4I9/2 manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground 4I9/2 manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of A1GaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO3, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140°C using d32 and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO3 will be presented. Orthosilicate is a monoclinic biaxial crystal. An oriented spectroscopic evaluation consisting of a Judd-Ofelt analysis of oriented absorption spectra and the measurements of oriented emission spectra has been completed and will be presented. Results of modeling using these spectroscopically determined parameters will be compared with the actual laser performance. The performance of this laser at 911 nm which allows accessing Cs atomic resonance filters through harmonic doubling will also be discussed. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 x 10-20cm2 (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm2 must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y2SiO5 bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface
Bott Periodicity for Z_2 Symmetric Ground States of Gapped Free-Fermion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, R.; Zirnbauer, M. R.
2016-03-01
Building on the symmetry classification of disordered fermions, we give a proof of the proposal by Kitaev, and others, for a "Bott clock" topological classification of free-fermion ground states of gapped systems with symmetries. Our approach differs from previous ones in that (i) we work in the standard framework of Hermitian quantum mechanics over the complex numbers, (ii) we directly formulate a mathematical model for ground states rather than spectrally flattened Hamiltonians, and (iii) we use homotopy-theoretic tools rather than K-theory. Key to our proof is a natural transformation that squares to the standard Bott map and relates the ground state of a d-dimensional system in symmetry class s to the ground state of a ( d + 1)-dimensional system in symmetry class s + 1. This relation gives a new vantage point on topological insulators and superconductors.
Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States
... Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of minerals dissolving from weathered rocks and soils. Several types of cancer have been linked to ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naniĭ, O. E.; Paleev, M. R.
1993-07-01
An expression is derived for the frequency of relaxation oscillations of a solid-state ring laser for arbitrary polarizations of the radiation, for an arbitrary feedback parameter, and for a cavity with amplitude and frequency nonreciprocity. The analysis is also applicable to linear double-mode and two-channel solid-state lasers.
Mass coefficient and Grodzins relation for the ground-state band and {gamma} band
Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von
2006-12-15
It is shown that the available experimental data on the energies of the first and the {gamma}-vibrational 2{sup +} states and the reduced E2 transition probabilities from these states to the ground state require for the explanation significantly different values of the mass coefficients for the rotational motion and {gamma}-vibrations.
Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime.
Kadigrobov, A M; Fistul, M V
2016-06-29
We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, [Formula: see text], where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59).
Lower bounds to energies for cusped-gaussian wavefunctions. [hydrogen atom ground state
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaves, J. O.; Walsh, B. C.; Steiner, E.
1974-01-01
Calculations for the ground states of H, He, and Be, conducted by Steiner and Sykes (1972), show that the inclusion of a very small number of cusp functions can lead to a substantial enhancement of the quality of the Gaussian basis used in molecular wavefunction computations. The properties of the cusped-Gaussian basis are investigated by a calculation of lower bounds concerning the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.
Ground state properties of solid and liquid spin-aligned atomic hydrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danilowicz, R. L.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Etters, R. D.
1976-01-01
Calculations of the ground state energy in the solid phase were performed with the aid of a variational approach. The Morse potential form of the atomic triple potential computed by Kolos and Wolniewicz (1965) was employed for the calculations. The ground state energies of both the liquid and solid phases of spin-aligned atomic hydrogen around the volume of the transition are presented in a graph.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferruzzo Correa, Diego Paolo; Wulff, Claudia; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho
2015-05-01
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying time-delayed coupled networks of oscillators since these occur in many real life applications. In many cases symmetry patterns can emerge in these networks, as a consequence a part of the system might repeat itself, and properties of this subsystem are representative of the dynamics on the whole phase space. In this paper an analysis of the second order N-node time-delay fully connected network is presented which is based on previous work: synchronous states in time-delay coupled periodic oscillators: a stability criterion. Correa and Piqueira (2013), for a 2-node network. This study is carried out using symmetry groups. We show the existence of multiple eigenvalues forced by symmetry, as well as the existence of Hopf bifurcations. Three different models are used to analyze the network dynamics, namely, the full-phase, the phase, and the phase-difference model. We determine a finite set of frequencies ω , that might correspond to Hopf bifurcations in each case for critical values of the delay. The Sn map is used to actually find Hopf bifurcations along with numerical calculations using the Lambert W function. Numerical simulations are used in order to confirm the analytical results. Although we restrict attention to second order nodes, the results could be extended to higher order networks provided the time-delay in the connections between nodes remains equal.
Equilibrium states and ground state of two-dimensional fluid foams
Graner, F.; Jiang, Y.; Janiaud, E.; Flament, C.
2001-01-01
We study the equilibrium energies of two-dimensional (2D) noncoarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas. The equilibrium states correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. We present a theoretical derivation of energy minima; experiments with ferrofluid foams, which can be either highly distorted, locally relaxed, or globally annealed; and Monte Carlo simulations using the extended large-Q Potts model. For a dry foam with small size variance we develop physical insight and an electrostatic analogy, which enables us to (i) find an approximate value of the global minimum perimeter, accounting for (small) area disorder, the topological distribution, and physical boundary conditions; (ii) conjecture the corresponding pattern and topology: small bubbles sort inward and large bubbles sort outward, topological charges of the same signs ''repel'' while charges of the opposite signs ''attract;'' (iii) define local and global markers to determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state; (iv) conjecture that, in a local perimeter minimum at prescribed topology, the pressure distribution and thus the edge curvature are unique. Some results also apply to 3D foams.
The interaction potential of NO-H2 in ground and A Rydberg state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pajón-Suárez, Pedro; Valentín-Rodríguez, Mónica; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón
2016-08-01
The interaction potential for the ground and A Rydberg state of NO-H2 has been calculated using high level ab initio methods. The complex is very floppy in nature and large amplitude motions are expected to characterize its dynamics. The ground state is characterized by two very close-lying states which exhibit crossings. By analogy with other complexes the Rydberg state is characterized by much smaller well depth and larger intermolecular distance. We compare with model potentials used in previous molecular dynamics simulations of photoexcitation and relaxation and conclude on the importance of performing new studies.
Periodic ground state for the charged massive Schwinger model
Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Polonyi, J.
2004-11-15
It is shown that the charged massive Schwinger model supports a periodic vacuum structure for arbitrary charge density, similar to the common crystalline layout known in solid state physics. The dynamical origin of the inhomogeneity is identified in the framework of the bosonized model and in terms of the original fermionic variables.
Sharing Common Ground: Texas and the Common Core State Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vasinda, Sheri; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia
2013-01-01
When browsing through professional catalogs or attending national conferences, one cannot help but notice the growing emphasis on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). So, what does this mean for Texas teachers? As part of a special four-part series in our Texas Journal of Literacy Education, a special task force from the TALE Board will share…
Metachronal waves for deterministic switching two-state oscillators with hydrodynamic interaction.
Cosentino Lagomarsino, M; Jona, P; Bassetti, B
2003-08-01
We employ a model system, called rowers, as a generic physical framework to define the problem of the coordinated motion of cilia (the metachronal wave) as a far from equilibrium process. Rowers are active (two-state) oscillators in a low Reynolds number fluid, and interact solely through the forces of hydrodynamic origin. In this work, we consider the case of fully deterministic dynamics, find analytical solutions of the equation of motion in the long-wavelength (continuum) limit, and investigate numerically the short-wavelength limit. We prove the existence of metachronal waves below a characteristic wavelength. Such waves are unstable and become stable only if the sign of the coupling is reversed. We also find that with normal hydrodynamic interaction, the metachronal pattern has the form of stable trains of traveling wave packets sustained by the onset of anti-coordinated beating of consecutive rowers.
Metachronal waves for deterministic switching two-state oscillators with hydrodynamic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagomarsino, M. Cosentino; Jona, P.; Bassetti, B.
2003-08-01
We employ a model system, called rowers, as a generic physical framework to define the problem of the coordinated motion of cilia (the metachronal wave) as a far from equilibrium process. Rowers are active (two-state) oscillators in a low Reynolds number fluid, and interact solely through the forces of hydrodynamic origin. In this work, we consider the case of fully deterministic dynamics, find analytical solutions of the equation of motion in the long-wavelength (continuum) limit, and investigate numerically the short-wavelength limit. We prove the existence of metachronal waves below a characteristic wavelength. Such waves are unstable and become stable only if the sign of the coupling is reversed. We also find that with normal hydrodynamic interaction, the metachronal pattern has the form of stable trains of traveling wave packets sustained by the onset of anti-coordinated beating of consecutive rowers.
Ground state of Ho atoms on Pt(111) metal surfaces: Implications for magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karbowiak, M.; Rudowicz, C.
2016-05-01
We investigated the ground state of Ho atoms adsorbed on the Pt(111) surface, for which conflicting results exist. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations yielded the Ho ground state as | Jz=±8 > . Interpretation of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra and the magnetization curves indicated the ground state as | Jz=±6 > . Superposition model is employed to predict the crystal-field (CF) parameters based on the structural data for the system Ho/Pt(111) obtained from the DFT modeling. Simultaneous diagonalization of the free-ion (HFI) and the trigonal CF Hamiltonian (HCF) within the whole configuration 4 f10 of H o3 + ion was performed. The role of the trigonal CF terms, neglected in the pure uniaxial CF model used previously for interpretation of experimental spectra, is found significant, whereas the sixth-rank CF terms may be neglected in agreement with the DFT predictions. The results provide substantial support for the experimental designation of the | Jz=±6 > ground state, albeit with subtle difference due to admixture of other | Jz> states, but run against the DFT-based designation of the | Jz=±8 > ground state. A subtle splitting of the ground energy level with the state (predominantly), | Jz=±6 > is predicted. This paper provides better insight into the single-ion magnetic behavior of the Ho/Pt(111) system by helping to resolve the controversy concerning the Ho ground state. Experimental techniques with greater resolution powers are suggested for direct confirmation of this splitting and C3 v symmetry experienced by the Ho atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toner, D. L. K.; Grima, R.
2013-02-01
It is well known that internal or molecular noise induces concentration oscillations in chemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit damped oscillations. In this article we show, using the linear-noise approximation of the chemical master equation, that noise can also induce oscillations in systems whose deterministic descriptions admit no damped oscillations, i.e., systems with a stable node. This non-intuitive phenomenon is remarkable since, unlike noise-induced oscillations in systems with damped deterministic oscillations, it cannot be explained by noise excitation of the deterministic resonant frequency of the system. We here prove the following general properties of stable-node noise-induced oscillations for systems with two species: (i) the upper bound of their frequency is given by the geometric mean of the real eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the system, (ii) the upper bound of the Q-factor of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the distance between the real eigenvalues of the Jacobian, and (iii) these oscillations are not necessarily exhibited by all interacting chemical species in the system. The existence and properties of stable-node oscillations are verified by stochastic simulations of the Brusselator, a cascade Brusselator reaction system, and two other simple chemical systems involving auto-catalysis and trimerization. It is also shown how external noise induces stable node oscillations with different properties than those stimulated by internal noise.
Toner, D L K; Grima, R
2013-02-01
It is well known that internal or molecular noise induces concentration oscillations in chemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit damped oscillations. In this article we show, using the linear-noise approximation of the chemical master equation, that noise can also induce oscillations in systems whose deterministic descriptions admit no damped oscillations, i.e., systems with a stable node. This non-intuitive phenomenon is remarkable since, unlike noise-induced oscillations in systems with damped deterministic oscillations, it cannot be explained by noise excitation of the deterministic resonant frequency of the system. We here prove the following general properties of stable-node noise-induced oscillations for systems with two species: (i) the upper bound of their frequency is given by the geometric mean of the real eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the system, (ii) the upper bound of the Q-factor of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the distance between the real eigenvalues of the Jacobian, and (iii) these oscillations are not necessarily exhibited by all interacting chemical species in the system. The existence and properties of stable-node oscillations are verified by stochastic simulations of the Brusselator, a cascade Brusselator reaction system, and two other simple chemical systems involving auto-catalysis and trimerization. It is also shown how external noise induces stable node oscillations with different properties than those stimulated by internal noise. PMID:23406149
Mott Insulating Ground State on a Triangular Surface Lattice
Weitering, H.; Shi, X.; Weitering, H.; Johnson, P.; Chen, J.; DiNardo, N.; DiNardo, N.; Kempa, K.
1997-02-01
Momentum-resolved direct and inverse photoemission spectra of the K/Si(111)-({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree}-B interface reveals the presence of strongly localized surface states. The K overlayer remains nonmetallic up to the saturation coverage. This system most likely presents the first experimental realization of a frustrated spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bandyopadhyay, Subhajit; Roy, Saswata
2014-01-01
This paper describes an inexpensive experiment to determine the carbonyl stretching frequency of an organic keto compound in its ground state and first electronic excited state. The experiment is simple to execute, clarifies some of the fundamental concepts of spectroscopy, and is appropriate for a basic spectroscopy laboratory course. The…
Delin, Geoffrey N.; Risser, Dennis W.
2007-01-01
Increased demands on water resources by a growing population and recent droughts have raised awareness about the adequacy of ground-water resources in humid areas of the United States. The spatial and temporal variability of ground-water recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of ground-water resources. Ground-water recharge is defined herein as the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water-table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). In response to the need for better estimates of ground-water recharge, the Ground-Water Resources Program (GWRP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an initiative in 2003 to estimate ground-water recharge rates in the relatively humid areas of the United States.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is "extensive" in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.
Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward
2015-12-15
In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is “extensive” in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.
Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is "extensive" in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.
Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.
2008-01-01
Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maamache, Mustapha; Bouguerra, Yacine; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2016-06-01
A Gaussian wave packet of the inverted oscillator is investigated using the invariant operator method together with the unitary transformation method. A simple wave packet directly derived from the eigenstates of the invariant operator of the system corresponds to a plane wave that is fully delocalized. However, we can construct a weighted wave packet in terms of such plane waves, which corresponds to a Gaussian wave. This wave packet is associated with the generalized coherent state, which can be crucially utilized for investigating the classical limit of quantum wave mechanics. Various quantum properties of the system, such as fluctuations of the canonical variables, the uncertainty product, and the motion of the wave packet or quantum particle, are analyzed by means of this wave packet. We have confirmed that the time behavior of such a wave packet is very similar to the counterpart classical state. The wave packet runs away from the origin in the positive or negative direction in the 1D coordinate depending on the condition of the initial state. We have confirmed that this wave packet not only moves acceleratively but also spreads out during its propagation.
Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources
Thomson, Allison M. ); Brown, Robert A. ); Rosenberg, Norman J. ); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Legler, David; Srinivasan, Ragahvan
2003-02-01
The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.
Generation of large coherent states by bang–bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator
Alonso, J.; Leupold, F. M.; Solèr, Z. U.; Fadel, M.; Marinelli, M.; Keitch, B. C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Home, J. P.
2016-01-01
Fast control of quantum systems is essential to make use of quantum properties before they degrade by decoherence. This is important for quantum-enhanced information processing, as well as for pushing quantum systems towards the boundary between quantum and classical physics. ‘Bang–bang' control attains the ultimate speed limit by making large changes to control fields much faster than the system can respond, but is often challenging to implement experimentally. Here we demonstrate bang–bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator using nanosecond switching of the trapping potentials. We perform controlled displacements with which we realize coherent states with up to 10,000 quanta of energy. We use these displaced states to verify the form of the ion-light interaction at high excitations far outside the usual regime of operation. These methods provide new possibilities for quantum-state manipulation and generation, alongside the potential for a significant increase in operational clock speed for trapped-ion quantum information processing. PMID:27046513
Ground-state properties of linear-exchange quantum spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danu, Bimla; Kumar, Brijesh; Pai, Ramesh V.
2012-10-01
We study a class of one-dimensional antiferromagnetic quantum spin-1/2 models using DMRG. The exchange interaction in these models decreases linearly with the separation between the spins, Jij = R - |i - j| for |i - j| < R, where R is a positive integer ⩾2. For |i - j| ⩾ R, the interaction is zero. It is known that all the odd-R models have the same exact dimer ground state as the Majumdar-Ghosh (MG) model. In fact, R = 3 is the MG model. However, for an even R, the exact ground state is not known in general, except for R = 2 (the integrable nearest-neighbor Heisenberg chain) and the asymptotic limit of R in which the MG dimer state emerges as the exact ground state. Therefore, we numerically study the ground-state properties of the finite even-R ≠ 2 models, particularly for R = 4, 6 and 8. We find that, unlike R = 2, the higher even-R models are spin-gapped, and exhibit robust dimer order of the MG type in the ground state. The spin-spin correlations decay rapidly to zero, albeit showing weak periodic revivals.
{alpha} decay of nuclei in the range 67{<=}Z{<=}91 from the ground state and isomeric state
Santhosh, K. P.; Joseph, Jayesh George; Sahadevan, Sabina
2010-12-15
The Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN) is used to study the favored and unfavored {alpha} decay of nuclei in the range 67{<=}Z{<=}91 from both the ground state (g.s.) and isomeric state (i.s.). The computed half-lives are in good agreement with experimental data. The standard deviation of half-life is found to be 0.44. Geiger-Nuttall (GN) plots for various parent isotopes are studied. It is found that all four types of transitions (g.s.{yields}g.s., g.s.{yields}i.s., i.s.{yields}g.s., i.s.{yields}i.s.) lie on a straight line. The isomeric state {alpha} decay shows a behavior similar to that of the ground state and the nuclear structure of the isomeric states imitates that of the ground states. Some predictions are done for {alpha} transition from both ground and isomeric states, which will be useful for future experiments.
Ground states at the filling factors ν = 7 / 3 and 8 / 3 in the second Landau level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Toru; Shibata, Naokazu; Nomura, Kentaro; Department of Physics, Tohoku University Team
2013-03-01
The Laughlin state successfully describe the fractional quantum Hall state at ν = 1 / 3 in the lowest Landau level. However, it is known that the Laughlin wavefunction has little overlap with the ground state wavefunction at ν = 7 / 3 in the second Landau level. The ground states at ν = 7 / 3 and 8 / 3 are still unknown.To determine the ground states at these fillings, we use the exact diagonalization method and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We calculate overlaps between the ground state and the trial wavefunctions, the ground state energies, and the ground-state pair-correlation functions. We find that the ground state wavefunction at ν = 8 / 3 have very high overlap between the parafermion state, and the ground state energy of the parafermion state is lower than that of the Laughlin state. Further, the short-range structures of pair-correlation functions are significantly different from that of the Lauglin state.From these results, we consider that the parafermion state is a strong candidate of the ground state at ν = 7 / 3 and ν = 8 / 3 .
Surface modification using low energy ground state ion beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A method of effecting modifications at the surfaces of materials using low energy ion beams of known quantum state, purity, flux, and energy is presented. The ion beam is obtained by bombarding ion-generating molecules with electrons which are also at low energy. The electrons used to bombard the ion generating molecules are separated from the ions thus obtained and the ion beam is directed at the material surface to be modified. Depending on the type of ion generating molecules used, different ions can be obtained for different types of surface modifications such as oxidation and diamond film formation. One area of application is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices from semiconductor wafers.
Ab initio calculations of the ground and excited states of I 2- and ICl -
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslen, P. E.; Faeder, J.; Parson, R.
1996-12-01
We performed all-electron ab initio calculations of the first six states of I 2- and ICl - using a multi-reference configuration interaction method. Spin-orbit coupling is included via an empirical one-electron operator and has a large effect on the dissociation energy. The ground state dissociation energies were in error by 20-30%, probably due to deficiencies in the one electron basis sets. The electronic wavefunctions at the equilibrium geometry were used to calculate the electronic absorption spectrum from the ground state, and good agreement was found with the experimental data.
Robinson, A P; Woods, P J; Seweryniak, D; Davids, C N; Carpenter, M P; Hecht, A A; Peterson, D; Sinha, S; Walters, W B; Zhu, S
2005-07-15
Ground-state proton radioactivity has been identified from 121Pr. A transition with a proton energy of E(p)=882(10) keV [Q(p)=900(10) keV] and half-life t(1/2)=10(+6)(-3) ms has been observed and is assigned to the decay of a highly prolate deformed 3/2(+) or 3/2(-) Nilsson state. The present result is found to be incompatible with a previously reported observation of ground-state proton radioactivity from 121Pr, which would have represented the discovery of this phenomenon.
Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom
Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain
2010-07-28
This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.
Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain
2010-07-01
This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function. The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.
Formation of antihydrogen in the ground state and {ital n}=2 level
Tripathi, S.; Biswas, R.; Sinha, C.
1995-05-01
The cross sections of antihydrogen formation in the ground state and {ital n}=2 level by the impact of antiprotons on the ground state of positronium have been calculated under the framework of the eikonal approximation for incident energy of 30--1000 keV. The excited-state capture cross sections are quite appreciable and are even larger than the ground-state cross sections for impact energies {le}75 keV. The total eikonal cross sections ({sigma}={sigma}{sub 1{ital s}}+{sigma}{sub 2{ital s}}+{sigma}{sub 2{ital p}}) are always higher than the corresponding first-order Born approximation cross section throughout the present energy span.
Ground state and magnetic susceptibility of intermediate-valence Tm impurities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allub, R.; Aligia, A. A.
1995-09-01
We consider the appropriate generalization of the Anderson model for a Tm impurity in a cubic crystal field. In the 4f12 configuration we include only the two multiplets of lowest energy: a single Γ1 and a triplet Γ4. Similarly we include only the doublet ground state of the 4f13 configuration, and (to make our numerical method feasible) we assume that the conduction-electron partial waves with symmetry Γ8 can be neglected. We study the model using Wilson's renormalization group. The resulting ground state is a singlet or a doublet depending mainly of the relative strength of the hybridization of the 4f13 doublet with both 4f12 states. A doublet ground state is consistent with the experimental evidence.
Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Introduction and National Summary
Miller, James A.
1999-01-01
The Ground Water Atlas of the United States provides a summary of the most important information available for each principal aquifer, or rock unit that will yield usable quantities of water to wells, throughout the 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Atlas is an outgrowth of the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program that investigated 24 of the most important aquifers and aquifer systems of the Nation and one in the Caribbean Islands (fig. 1). The objectives of the RASA program were to define the geologic and hydrologic frameworks of each aquifer system, to assess the geochemistry of the water in the system, to characterize the ground-water flow system, and to describe the effects of development on the flow system. Although the RASA studies did not cover the entire Nation, they compiled much of the data needed to make the National assessments of ground-water resources presented in the Ground Water Atlas of the United States. The Atlas, however, describes the location, extent, and geologic and hydrologic characteristics of all the important aquifers in the United States, including those not studied by the RASA program. The Atlas is written so that it can be understood by readers who are not hydrologists. Simple language is used to explain technical terms. The principles that control the presence, movement, and chemical quality of ground water in different climatic, topographic, and geologic settings are clearly illustrated. The Atlas is, therefore, useful as a teaching tool for introductory courses in hydrology or hydrogeology at the college level and as an overview of ground-water conditions for consultants who need information about an individual aquifer. It also serves as an introduction to regional and National ground-water resources for lawmakers, personnel of local, State, or Federal agencies, or anyone who needs to understand ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality. The
Hydrogeologic factors that influence ground water movement in the desert southwest United States
Chuang, Frank C.; McKee, Edwin H.; Howard, Keith A.
2003-01-01
A project to study ground-water and surface-water interactions in the desert southwestern United States was initiated in 2001 by the Tucson, Arizona office of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the goals of the Southwest Ground-water Resources Project was to develop a regional synthesis that includes the use of available digital geologic data, which is growing rapidly due to the increasing use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Included in this report are the digital maps and databases of geologic information that should have a direct impact on the studies of ground-water flow and surface-water interaction. Ground-water flow is governed by many geologic factors or elements including rock and soil permeability, stratigraphy and structural features. These elements directly influence ground-water flow, which is key to understanding the possible inter-connectivity of aquifer systems in desert basins of the southwestern United States. We derive these elements from the evaluation of regional geology and localized studies of hydrogeologic basins. These elements can then be applied to other unstudied areas throughout the desert southwest. This report presents a regional perspective of the geologic elements controlling ground-water systems in the desert southwest that may eventually lead to greater focus on smaller sub-regions and ultimately, to individual ground-water basins.
Stability and related properties of vacua and ground states
Wreszinski, Walter F. Jaekel, Christian D.
2008-02-15
We consider the formal non-relativistic limit (nrl) of the :{phi}{sup 4}:{sub s+1} relativistic quantum field theory (rqft), where s is the space dimension. Following the work of R. Jackiw [R. Jackiw, in: A. Ali, P. Hoodbhoy (Eds.), Beg Memorial Volume, World Scientific, Singapore, 1991], we show that, for s = 2 and a given value of the ultraviolet cutoff {kappa}, there are two ways to perform the nrl: (i) fixing the renormalized mass m{sup 2} equal to the bare mass m{sub 0}{sup 2}; (ii) keeping the renormalized mass fixed and different from the bare mass m{sub 0}{sup 2}. In the (infinite-volume) two-particle sector the scattering amplitude tends to zero as {kappa} {yields} {infinity} in case (i) and, in case (ii), there is a bound state, indicating that the interaction potential is attractive. As a consequence, stability of matter fails for our boson system. We discuss why both alternatives do not reproduce the low-energy behaviour of the full rqft. The singular nature of the nrl is also nicely illustrated for s = 1 by a rigorous stability/instability result of a different nature.
Exact ground states and topological order in interacting Kitaev/Majorana chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsura, Hosho; Schuricht, Dirk; Takahashi, Masahiro
2015-09-01
We study a system of interacting spinless fermions in one dimension that, in the absence of interactions, reduces to the Kitaev chain [Kitaev, Phys. Usp. 44, 131 (2001), 10.1070/1063-7869/44/10S/S29]. In the noninteracting case, a signal of topological order appears as zero-energy modes localized near the edges. We show that the exact ground states can be obtained analytically even in the presence of nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions when the on-site (chemical) potential is tuned to a particular function of the other parameters. As with the noninteracting case, the obtained ground states are twofold degenerate and differ in fermionic parity. We prove the uniqueness of the obtained ground states and show that they can be continuously deformed to the ground states of the noninteracting Kitaev chain without gap closing. We also demonstrate explicitly that there exists a set of operators each of which maps one of the ground states to the other with opposite fermionic parity. These operators can be thought of as an interacting generalization of Majorana edge zero modes.
Precision molecular spectroscopy for ground state transfer of molecular quantum gases.
Danzl, Johann G; Mark, Manfred J; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Ritsch, Helmut; Hart, Russell; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2009-01-01
One possibility for the creation of ultracold, high phase space density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibronic ground state relies on first associating weakly-bound molecules from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and then transferring the molecules via several steps of coherent two-photon stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) into the rovibronic ground state. Here, in ultracold samples of Cs2 Feshbach molecules produced out of ultracold samples of Cs atoms, we observe several optical transitions to deeply-bound rovibrational levels of the excited 0(u)+ molecular potentials with high resolution. At least one of these transitions, although rather weak, allows efficient STIRAP transfer into the deeply-bound vibrational level (see text for symbols)v = 73 > of the singlet X1 sigma(g)+ ground state potential, as recently demonstrated (J. G. Danzl, E. Haller, M. Gustavsson, M. J. Mark, R. Hart, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, H. Ritsch, and H.-C. Nägerl, Science, 2008, 321, 1062). From this level, the rovibrational ground state (see text for symbols)v = 0, J = 0 > can be reached with one more transfer step. In total, our results show that coherent ground state transfer for Cs2 is possible using a maximum of two successive two-photon STIRAP processes or one single four-photon STIRAP process. PMID:20151549
Interactions leading to disordered ground states and unusual low-temperature behavior.
Batten, Robert D; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore
2009-09-01
We have shown that any pair potential function v(r) possessing a Fourier transform V(k) that is positive and has compact support at some finite wave number K yields classical disordered ground states for a broad density range [R. D. Batten, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033504 (2008)]. By tuning a constraint parameter chi (defined in the text), the ground states can traverse varying degrees of local order from fully disordered to crystalline ground states. Here, we show that in two dimensions, the " k -space overlap potential," where V(k) is proportional to the intersection area between two disks of diameter K whose centers are separated by k , yields anomalous low-temperature behavior, which we attribute to the topography of the underlying energy landscape. At T=0 , for the range of densities considered, we show that there is continuous energy degeneracy among Bravais-lattice configurations. The shear elastic constant of ground-state Bravais-lattice configurations vanishes. In the harmonic regime, a significant fraction of the normal modes for both amorphous and Bravais-lattice ground states have vanishing frequencies, indicating the lack of an internal restoring force. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we observe negative thermal-expansion behavior at low temperatures, where upon heating at constant pressure, the system goes through a density maximum. For all temperatures, isothermal compression reduces the local structure of the system unlike typical single-component systems. PMID:19905060
Creation of an Ultracold Gas of Ground-State Dipolar 23Na 87 Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun
2016-05-01
We report the successful production of an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules formed via magnetoassociation, the lowest rovibrational and hyperfine level of the electronic ground state is populated following a high-efficiency and high-resolution two-photon Raman process. The high-purity absolute ground-state samples have up to 8000 molecules and densities of over 1011 cm-3 . By measuring the Stark shifts induced by external electric fields, we determined the permanent electric dipole moment of the absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb and demonstrated the capability of inducing an effective dipole moment over 1 D. Bimolecular reaction between ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules is endothermic, but we still observed a rather fast decay of the molecular sample. Our results pave the way toward investigation of ultracold molecular collisions in a fully controlled manner and possibly to quantum gases of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions.
Creation of an Ultracold Gas of Ground-State Dipolar ^{23}Na^{87}Rb Molecules.
Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun
2016-05-20
We report the successful production of an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb molecules. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules formed via magnetoassociation, the lowest rovibrational and hyperfine level of the electronic ground state is populated following a high-efficiency and high-resolution two-photon Raman process. The high-purity absolute ground-state samples have up to 8000 molecules and densities of over 10^{11} cm^{-3}. By measuring the Stark shifts induced by external electric fields, we determined the permanent electric dipole moment of the absolute ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb and demonstrated the capability of inducing an effective dipole moment over 1 D. Bimolecular reaction between ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb molecules is endothermic, but we still observed a rather fast decay of the molecular sample. Our results pave the way toward investigation of ultracold molecular collisions in a fully controlled manner and possibly to quantum gases of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. PMID:27258875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurtzman, Daniel; Scanlon, Bridget R.
2007-10-01
Understanding and predicting regional impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on winter (October-March) precipitation can provide valuable inputs to agricultural and water resources managers. Effects of ENSO and PDO on winter precipitation were assessed in 165 climate divisions throughout the southern United States. A continuous region of significantly (P < 0.05) increased (decreased) winter precipitation in response to El Niño (La Niña) conditions in the preceding summer (June-September Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)) extends across the entire southern United States and as far north as South Dakota. Within this region stronger correlations (r ≤ -0.45) are found along the Gulf of Mexico, southern Arizona, and central Nebraska. Winter precipitation differs significantly (P < 0.1) between warm and cold phase PDO periods only in the south central region, with greatest significance centered in Oklahoma. Enhanced negative La Niña anomalies during PDO cold phases are dominant in the central region (Texas to South Dakota) whereas enhanced positive El Niño anomalies during PDO warm phases are dominant in the southwest (Arizona, Nevada, and California) and southeast (Louisiana to Florida). Validation tests of winter precipitation predictions based on summer SOI and/or PDO-phase show a decrease of 9% to 16% in the relative Mean Absolute Error (MAE) from the MAE obtained by using the mean as a predictor in areas with strong correlation (r < -0.45) between SOI and precipitation. Logistic regression probability models of having above or below average winter precipitation had up to 77% successful predictions. The advantage of having probabilities of exceeding certain precipitation thresholds at the beginning of a hydrologic year makes logistic regression models attractive for decision makers.
Boron: do we know the ground state structure?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogitsu, Tadashi
2006-03-01
Boron is only the fifth element in the periodic table, having a simple electronic configuration, yet, it is known to form one of the most complicated crystal structures, β-rhombohedral structure. Up to date, the best estimate on the number of atoms in its hexagonal unit cell is 320.1, not even an integer number. The key concept to understand its complexity is covalency and electron deficiency: It does not have enough valence electrons to form a simple covalent crystal, like carbon or silicon. Instead it forms a complicated packing of icosahedrons. The structural model of β-boron was developed in the 1960s based on X-ray experiment. Although this model structure captures the most of the structural characteristics of β-boron, it has a crucial pitfall; the number of atoms per cell estimated by X-ray experiment does not agree with the number of atoms estimated by the pycnometric density. In 1988, Slack et al. discovered four more POS, by which the discrepancy in the number of atoms is reconciled [J. of Solid State Chem. 76, 52 (1988)]. There still remains an unanswered question; how are these POS atoms configured? Is it completely random? Or there is some kind of order as it has been suggested in Slack’s paper? A major challenge here is the astronomical number of possible configurations, roughly 150 million even for the irreducible cell. We tackle this problem using ab-initio simulated annealing coupled with a Lattice Model Monte Carlo simulated annealing. Our results reveal that the stable structure, indeed, has a certain type of correlation in its POS configuration. More detail on the structural property and its impact on electronic property of β-boron will be discussed at the presentation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/ LLNL under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.
Anomalous magnetic hyperfine structure of the 229Th ground-state doublet in muonic atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkalya, E. V.
2016-07-01
The magnetic hyperfine (MHF) splitting of the ground and low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV) levels in the 229Th nucleus in the muonic atom (μ1S1 /2 -229Th) * is calculated considering the distribution of the nuclear magnetization in the framework of the collective nuclear model with wave functions of the Nilsson model for the unpaired neutron. It is shown that (a) deviation of the MHF structure of the isomeric state exceeds 100% from its value for a pointlike nuclear magnetic dipole (the order of sublevels is reversed); (b) partial inversion of levels of the 229Th ground-state doublet and spontaneous decay of the ground state to the isomeric state occur; (c) the E 0 transition, which is sensitive to differences in the mean-square charge radii of the doublet states, is possible between mixed sublevels with F =2 ; and (d) MHF splitting of the 3 /2+ isomeric state may be in the optical range for certain values of the intrinsic gK factor and a reduced probability of a nuclear transition between the isomeric and the ground states.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.; Constantoudis, Vasilios
2009-01-01
In Planck's model of the harmonic oscillator (HO) a century ago, both the energy and the phase space were quantized according to epsilon[subscript n] = nhv, n = 0, 1, 2..., and [double integral]dp[subscript x] dx = h. By referring to just these two relations, we show how the adoption of "cycle-averaged phase-space states" (CAPSSs) leads to the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.
2014-10-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability in the climate system and has worldwide influences on the occurrences and forecasts of heavy precipitation. This paper investigates the sensitivity of precipitation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) in a case study (boreal 2004-05 winter). Several major storms affected the western and eastern CONUS producing substantial economic and social impacts including loss of lives. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to perform experiments to test the significance of the MJO amplitude. The control simulation uses the MJO amplitude observed by reanalysis, whereas the amplitude is modified in perturbation experiments. WRF realistically simulates the precipitation variability over the CONUS, although large biases occur over the Western and Midwest United States. Daily precipitation is aggregated in western, central and eastern sectors and the frequency distribution is analyzed. Increases in MJO amplitude produce moderate increases in the median and interquartile range and large and robust increases in extreme (90th and 95th percentiles) precipitation. The MJO amplitude clearly affects the transport of moisture from the tropical Pacific and Gulf of Mexico into North America providing moist rich air masses and the dynamical forcing that contributes to heavy precipitation.
Lengyel, Istvan; Epstein, Irving R.
1991-07-01
The dynamical behavior of two coupled cells or reactors is described. The cells are coupled by diffusion, e.g., through a semipermeable membrane, and the chemical reactions and initial or feed concentrations of all species are the same in the two cells. Each cell has only a single stable steady state in the absence of coupling, and the coupled system may exhibit multiple steady states, periodic oscillation, or chaos. The attractors of the coupled system may be either homogeneous (the two cells have equal concentrations) or inhomogeneous. Three two-variable kinetic models are examined: the Brusselator, a model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction, and the Degn-Harrison model. The dynamical behavior of the coupled system is determined by the nonlinearities in the uncoupled subsystems and by two ratios, that of the diffusion constants of the two species and that of the area of the membrane to the product of the membrane thickness and the volume of a cell. PMID:12779898
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lengyel, István; Epstein, Irving R.
1991-07-01
The dynamical behavior of two coupled cells or reactors is described. The cells are coupled by diffusion, e.g., through a semipermeable membrane, and the chemical reactions and initial or feed concentrations of all species are the same in the two cells. Each cell has only a single stable steady state in the absence of coupling, and the coupled system may exhibit multiple steady states, periodic oscillation, or chaos. The attractors of the coupled system may be either homogeneous (the two cells have equal concentrations) or inhomogeneous. Three two-variable kinetic models are examined: the Brusselator, a model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction, and the Degn-Harrison model. The dynamical behavior of the coupled system is determined by the nonlinearities in the uncoupled subsystems and by two ratios, that of the diffusion constants of the two species and that of the area of the membrane to the product of the membrane thickness and the volume of a cell.
Model-independent dark energy equation of state from unanchored baryon acoustic oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evslin, Jarah
2016-09-01
Ratios of line of sight baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peaks at two redshifts only depend upon the average dark energy equation of states between those redshifts, as the dependence on anchors such as the BAO scale or the Hubble constant is canceled in a ratio. As a result, BAO ratios provide a probe of dark energy which is independent of both the cosmic distance ladder and the early evolution of universe. In this note, we use ratios to demonstrate that the known tension between the Lyman alpha forest BAO measurement and other probes arises entirely from recent (0.57 < z < 2.34) cosmological expansion. Using ratios of the line of sight Lyman alpha forest and BOSS CMASS BAO scales, we show that there is already more than 3 σ tension with the standard ΛCDM cosmological model which implies that either (i) The BOSS Lyman alpha forest measurement of the Hubble parameter was too low as a result of a statistical fluctuation or systematic error or else (ii) the dark energy equation of state falls steeply at high redshift.
Correlation between spectral state and quasi-periodic oscillation parameters in GX 5-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Der Klis, M.; Jansen, F.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sztajno, M.
1987-01-01
In a series of seven Exosat observations, the bimodal spectral behavior and the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)/red noise properties of GX 5-1 show a strict correlation. In one of the two spectral states (characterized by a 'horizontal branch' in the hardness-intensity diagram), strong 20-40 Hz QPO and red noise below about 60 Hz were always present. In the other ('normal branch'), no QPO between 6 and 60 Hz or red noise above 1 Hz were detected, but there was an indication for weak QPO near 5 Hz. In both states 'very low frequency noise' (VLFN) is detected below 0.1 Hz which has a power-law shape and and which extends down to the lowest observed frequencies (0.0001 Hz). The VLFN is probably not directly related to the QPO. The results are compared to those on Sco X-1 and Cyg X-2 and it is concluded that, although all three sources show bimodal spectral and QPO/red noise behavior, there is a qualitative difference between GX 5-1 and Cyg X-2 on one hand and Sco X-1 on the other.
Limit cycle oscillations in a nonlinear state space model of the human cochlea.
Ku, Emery M; Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben
2009-08-01
It is somewhat surprising that linear analysis can account for so many features of the cochlea when it is inherently nonlinear. For example, the commonly detected spacing between adjacent spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) is often explained by a linear theory of "coherent reflection" [Zweig and Shera (1995). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 2018-2047]. The nonlinear saturation of the cochlear amplifier is, however, believed to be responsible for stabilizing the amplitude of a SOAE. In this investigation, a state space model is used to first predict the linear instabilities that arise, given distributions of cochlear inhomogeneities, and then subsequently to simulate the time-varying spectra of the nonlinear models. By comparing nonlinear simulation results to linear predictions, it is demonstrated that nonlinear effects can have a strong impact on the steady-state response of an unstable cochlear model. Sharply tuned components that decay away exponentially within 100 ms are shown to be due to linearly resonant modes of the model generated by the cochlear inhomogeneities. Some oscillations at linearly unstable frequencies are suppressed over a longer time scale, whereas those that persist are due to linear instabilities and their distortion products. PMID:19640040
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drachman, Richard J.
2006-01-01
Formation of triplet positron-helium bound state by stripping of positronium atoms in collision with ground state helium JOSEPH DI RlENZI, College of Notre Dame of Maryland, RICHARD J. DRACHMAN, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center - The system consisting of a positron and a helium atom in the triplet state e(+)He(S-3)(sup e) was conjectured long ago to be stable [1]. Its stability has recently been established rigorously [2], and the values of the energies of dissociation into the ground states of Ps and He(+) have also been reported [3] and [4]. We have evaluated the cross-section for this system formed by radiative attachment of a positron in triplet He state and found it to be small [5]. The mechanism of production suggested here should result in a larger cross-section (of atomic size) which we are determining using the Born approximation with simplified initial and final wave functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.
2012-06-01
Ground and excited state dipole moments of probe quinine sulphate (QS) was obtained using Solvatochromic shift method. Higher dipole moment is observed for excited state as compared to the ground state which is attributed to the higher polarity of excited state.
Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takahashi; Han, Tian -Heng; Lee, Young S.
2015-11-06
Here, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χkagome, deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with themore » magnetic field dependence of χkagome that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap.« less
Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takashi; Han, Tian-Heng; Lee, Young S
2015-11-01
The kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χ(kagome), deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with the magnetic field dependence of χ(kagome) that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap. PMID:26542565
Ordering and Magnetism in Fe-Co: Dense Sequence of Ground-State Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drautz, Ralf; Díaz-Ortiz, Alejandro; Fähnle, Manfred; Dosch, Helmut
2004-08-01
We discover that Fe-Co alloys develop a series of ordered ground-state structures in addition to the known CsCl-type structure. This new set of structures is found from a combinatorial ground-state search of 1.5×1010 bcc-based structures. The energies of the searched bcc structures are constructed with the cluster expansion method from few first-principles calculations of ordered Fe-Co structures. The set of new ground-state structures is explained from the decay behavior of the cluster expansion coefficients which allows us to identify a simple geometric motif common to all structures. The appearance of these FeCo superstructures offers a broader view of the ordering reactions in bipartite-lattice based binary alloys.
The Network Source Location Problem: Ground State Energy, Entropy and Effects of Freezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haiping; Raymond, Jack; Wong, K. Y. Michael
2014-07-01
Ground state entropy of the network source location problem is evaluated at both the replica symmetric level and one-step replica symmetry breaking level using the entropic cavity method. The regime that is a focus of this study, is closely related to the vertex cover problem with randomly quenched covered nodes. The resulting entropic message passing inspired decimation and reinforcement algorithms are used to identify the optimal location of sources in single instances of transportation networks. The conventional belief propagation without taking the entropic effect into account is also compared. We find that in the glassy phase the entropic message passing inspired decimation yields a lower ground state energy compared to the belief propagation without taking the entropic effect. Using the extremal optimization algorithm, we study the ground state energy and the fraction of frozen hubs, and extend the algorithm to collect statistics of the entropy. The theoretical results are compared with the extremal optimization results.
Ground State Properties of the 1/2 Flux Harper Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Colin; Burton, William Cody; Chung, Woo Chang; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2015-05-01
The Harper Hamiltonian describes the motion of charged particles in an applied magnetic field - the spectrum of which exhibits the famed Hofstadter's butterfly. Recent advances in driven optical lattices have made great strides in simulating nontrivial Hamiltonians, such as the Harper model, in the time-averaged sense. We report on the realization of the ground state of bosons in the Harper Hamiltonian for 1/2 flux per plaquette utilizing a tilted two-dimensional lattice with laser assisted tunneling. We detail progress in studying various ground state properties of the 1/2 flux Harper Hamiltonian including ground state degeneracies, gauge-dependent observables, effects of micromotion, adiabatic loading schemes, and emergence and decay of coherence. Additionally, we describe prospects for flux rectification using a period-tripled superlattice and generalizations to three dimensions. MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Tree based machine learning framework for predicting ground state energies of molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Himmetoglu, Burak
2016-10-01
We present an application of the boosted regression tree algorithm for predicting ground state energies of molecules made up of C, H, N, O, P, and S (CHNOPS). The PubChem chemical compound database has been incorporated to construct a dataset of 16 242 molecules, whose electronic ground state energies have been computed using density functional theory. This dataset is used to train the boosted regression tree algorithm, which allows a computationally efficient and accurate prediction of molecular ground state energies. Predictions from boosted regression trees are compared with neural network regression, a widely used method in the literature, and shown to be more accurate with significantly reduced computational cost. The performance of the regression model trained using the CHNOPS set is also tested on a set of distinct molecules that contain additional Cl and Si atoms. It is shown that the learning algorithms lead to a rich and diverse possibility of applications in molecular discovery and materials informatics.
Relativistic Quark-Model Results for Baryon Ground and Resonant States
Plessas, W.; Melde, T.
2008-10-13
Latest results from a study of baryon ground and resonant states within relativistic constituent quark models are reported. After recalling some typical spectral properties, the description of ground states, especially with regard to the nucleon and hyperon electromagnetic structures, is addressed. In the following, recent covariant predictions for pion, eta, and kaon partial decay widths of light and strange baryon resonances below 2 GeV are summarized. These results exhibit a characteristic pattern that is distinct from nonrelativistic or relativized decay studies performed so far. Together with a detailed analysis of the spin, flavor, and spatial structures of the wave functions, it supports a new and extended classification scheme of baryon ground and resonant states into SU(3) flavor multiplets.
Ground-state and transition charge densities in /sup 192/Os
Reuter, W.; Shera, E.B.; Hoehn, M.V.; Hersman, F.W.; Milliman, T.; Finn, J.M.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Lourie, R.; Pugh, B.; Bertozzi, W.
1984-11-01
Elastic and inelastic electron-scattering cross sections of an Os-Pt transition region nucleus, /sup 192/Os, have been measured in a momentum transfer range from 0.6 to 2.9 fm/sup -1/. The data for the ground and the J/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/, 2/sup +/', 4/sup +/, and 3/sup -/ states were analyzed model independently with a Fourier-Bessel parametrization of the ground state and transition charge densities. The normalization of the (e,e') cross sections was obtained from a combined analysis with muonic-atom data for the ground and first 2/sup +/ states. The densities and their radial moments are compared with theoretical predictions of the Davydov model and with axially symmetric deformed density-matrix-expansion Hartree-Fock calculations (including the Legendre expansion and the small-amplitude vibration model extensions).
Antibonding hole ground state in InAs quantum dot molecules
Planelles, Josep
2015-01-22
Using four-band k⋅p Hamiltonians, we study how strain and position-dependent effective masses influence hole tunneling in vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Strain reduces the tunneling and hence the critical interdot distance required for the ground state to change from bonding to antibonding. Variable mass has the opposite effect and a rough compensation leaves little affected the critical bonding-to-antibonding ground state crossover. An alternative implementation of the magnetic field in the envelope function Hamiltonian is given which retrieves the experimental denial of possible after growth reversible magnetically induced bonding-to-antibonding ground state transition, predicted by the widely used Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Andrea
2014-02-01
We study the unexpected asymptotic behavior of the degeneracy of the first few energy levels in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on triangulations of closed Riemann surfaces. There are strong mathematical and physical reasons to expect that the number of ground states (i.e., degeneracy) of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangulations of a fixed closed Riemann surface is exponential in the number of vertices. In the set of plane triangulations, the degeneracy equals the number of perfect matchings of the geometric duals, and thus it is exponential by a recent result of Chudnovsky and Seymour. From the physics point of view, antiferromagnetic triangulations are geometrically frustrated systems, and in such systems exponential degeneracy is predicted. We present results that contradict these predictions. We prove that for each closed Riemann surface S of positive genus, there are sequences of triangulations of S with exactly one ground state. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is that exponential degeneracy would be found in the excited states with energy close to the ground state energy. However, as our second result, we show the existence of a sequence of triangulations of a closed Riemann surface of genus 10 with exactly one ground state such that the degeneracy of each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited energy levels belongs to O( n), O( n 2), O( n 3) and O( n 4), respectively.
Arsenic in ground water of the United States: occurrence and geochemistry
Welch, Alan H.; Westjohn, D.B.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Wanty, Richard B.
2000-01-01
Concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic in ground water vary regionally due to a combination of climate and geology. Although slightly less than half of 30,000 arsenic analyses of ground water in the United States were ≤ 1 µg/L, about 10% exceeded 0 µg/L. At a broad regional scale, arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 µg/L appear to be more frequently observed in the western United States than in the eastern half. Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the Appalachian Highlands and the Atlantic plain generally are very low (≤ 1 µg/L). Concentrations are somewhat greater in the Interior Plains and the Rocky Mountain System, investigations of ground water in New England, Michigan, Minnesota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin within the last decade suggest that arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 µg/L are more widespread and common than previously recognized. Arsenic release from iron oxide appears to be the most common cause of widespread arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 µg/L a ground water. This can occur in response to different geochemical conditions, including release of arsenic to ground water through reaction of iron oxide with either natural or anthropogenic (i.e., petroleum products) organic carbon. Iron oxide also can release arsenic to alkaline ground water, such as that found in some felsic volcanic rocks and alkaline aquifers of the Western United States. Sulfide minerals are both a source and sink for arsenic. Geothermal water and high evaporation rates also are associated with arsenic concentrations ≥ 10g/L in ground and surface water, particularly in the west.
Cold collisions of ground-state calcium atoms in a laser field: A theoretical study
Bussery-Honvault, Beatrice; Launay, Jean-Michel; Moszynski, Robert
2003-09-01
State-of-the-art ab initio techniques have been applied to compute the potential-energy curves for the ground X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and excited {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(4s3d) states of the calcium dimer in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The weakly bound ground state was calculated by symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, while the strongly bound excited state was computed using a combination of the linear-response theory within the coupled-cluster singles and doubles framework for the core-valence electronic correlation and of the full configuration interaction for the valence-valence correlation. The ground-state potential has been corrected by considering the relativistic terms resulting from the first-order many-electron Breit theory, and the retardation corrections. The magnetic electronic transition dipole moment governing the {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(leftarrow){sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} transitions has been obtained as the first residue of the polarization propagator computed with the coupled-cluster method restricted to single and double excitations. The computed energies and transition moments have been analytically fitted and used in the dynamical calculations of the rovibrational energy levels, ground-state scattering length, photoassociation intensities at ultralow temperatures, and spontaneous emission coefficients from the {sup 1}{pi}{sub g}(4s3d) to the X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state. The spectroscopic constants of the theoretical ground-state potential are in a good agreement with the experimental values derived from the Fourier-transform spectra [O. Allard et al., Eur. Phys. J. D (to be published)]. The theoretical s-wave scattering length for the ground state is a=44 bohrs, suggesting that it should be possible to obtain a stable Bose-Einstein condensate of calcium atoms. Finally, the computed photoassociation intensities and spontaneous emission coefficients suggest that it should be possible to obtain cold calcium molecules by
Oscillating Bloembergen-Rowland interaction in three-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinov, V. I.
2016-07-01
Magnetic impurities deposited on the surface of a thin film experience oscillating-in-space indirect exchange interaction even if the chemical potential is pinned to a middle gap position in the surface electron spectrum, preventing free electrons and holes to exist in the ground state. Oscillating interaction mediated by massive Dirac fermions is a signature of the topologically nontrivial state.
Oyama, Katsuaki; Azai, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Tanaka, Syun; Terauchi, Kazuki
2016-01-01
The cyanobacterial circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, with ATP. KaiC is the only protein with circadian rhythmic activities. In the present study, we tracked the complex formation of the three Kai proteins over time using blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), in which proteins are charged with the anionic dye Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB). KaiC was separated as three bands: the KaiABC complex, KaiC hexamer and KaiC monomer. However, no KaiC monomer was observed using gel filtration chromatography and CBB-free native PAGE. These data indicate two conformational states of KaiC hexamer and show that the ground-state KaiC (gs-KaiC) is stable and competent-state KaiC (cs-KaiC) is labile and degraded into monomers by the binding of CBB. Repeated conversions from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC were observed over 24 h using an in vitro reconstitution system. Phosphorylation of KaiC promoted the conversion from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC. KaiA sustained the gs-KaiC state, and KaiB bound only cs-KaiC. An E77Q/E78Q-KaiC variant that lacked N-terminal ATPase activity remained in the gs-KaiC state. Taken together, ATP hydrolysis induces the formation of cs-KaiC and promotes the binding of KaiB, which is a trigger for circadian oscillations. PMID:27580682
Oyama, Katsuaki; Azai, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kaori; Tanaka, Syun; Terauchi, Kazuki
2016-01-01
The cyanobacterial circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro by mixing three clock proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, with ATP. KaiC is the only protein with circadian rhythmic activities. In the present study, we tracked the complex formation of the three Kai proteins over time using blue native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), in which proteins are charged with the anionic dye Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB). KaiC was separated as three bands: the KaiABC complex, KaiC hexamer and KaiC monomer. However, no KaiC monomer was observed using gel filtration chromatography and CBB-free native PAGE. These data indicate two conformational states of KaiC hexamer and show that the ground-state KaiC (gs-KaiC) is stable and competent-state KaiC (cs-KaiC) is labile and degraded into monomers by the binding of CBB. Repeated conversions from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC were observed over 24 h using an in vitro reconstitution system. Phosphorylation of KaiC promoted the conversion from gs-KaiC to cs-KaiC. KaiA sustained the gs-KaiC state, and KaiB bound only cs-KaiC. An E77Q/E78Q-KaiC variant that lacked N-terminal ATPase activity remained in the gs-KaiC state. Taken together, ATP hydrolysis induces the formation of cs-KaiC and promotes the binding of KaiB, which is a trigger for circadian oscillations. PMID:27580682
Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, David
2009-03-01
The simulation of quantum many-body systems is a notoriously hard problem in condensed matter physics, but it could easily be handled by a quantum computer [4,1]. There is however one catch: while a quantum computer can naturally implement the dynamics of a quantum system --- i.e. solve Schr"odinger's equation --- there was until now no general method to initialize the computer in a low-energy state of the simulated system. We present a quantum algorithm [5] that can prepare the ground state and thermal states of a quantum many-body system in a time proportional to the square-root of its Hilbert space dimension. This is the same scaling as required by the best known algorithm to prepare the ground state of a classical many-body system on a quantum computer [3,2]. This provides strong evidence that for a quantum computer, preparing the ground state of a quantum system is in the worst case no more difficult than preparing the ground state of a classical system. 1 D. Aharonov and A. Ta-Shma, Adiabatic quantum state generation and statistical zero knowledge, Proc. 35th Annual ACM Symp. on Theo. Comp., (2003), p. 20. F. Barahona, On the computational complexity of ising spin glass models, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen., 15 (1982), p. 3241. C. H. Bennett, E. Bernstein, G. Brassard, and U. Vazirani, Strengths and weaknessess of quantum computing, SIAM J. Comput., 26 (1997), pp. 1510--1523, quant-ph/9701001. S. Lloyd, Universal quantum simulators, Science, 273 (1996), pp. 1073--1078. D. Poulin and P. Wocjan, Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer, 2008, arXiv:0809.2705.
Sethia, Gautam C; Sen, Abhijit
2011-12-01
We investigate the existence and stability of traveling-wave solutions in a continuum field of nonlocally coupled identical phase oscillators with distance-dependent propagation delays. A comprehensive stability diagram in the parametric space of the system is presented that shows a rich structure of multistable regions and illuminates the relative influences of time delay, the nonlocality parameter and the intrinsic oscillator frequency on the dynamics of these states. A decrease in the intrinsic oscillator frequency leads to a break-up of the stability domains of the traveling waves into disconnected regions in the parametric space. These regions exhibit a tongue structure for high connectivity, whereas they submerge into the stable region of the synchronous state for low connectivity. One finding is the existence of forbidden regions in the parametric space where no phase-locked solutions are possible. We also discover a new class of nonstationary breather states for this model system that are characterized by periodic oscillations of the complex order parameter.
Lee, Wai Shing; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M
2013-09-01
This paper addresses the behavior of large systems of heterogeneous, globally coupled oscillators each of which is described by the generic Landau-Stuart equation, which incorporates both phase and amplitude dynamics of individual oscillators. One goal of our paper is to investigate the effect of a spread in the amplitude growth parameter of the oscillators and of the effect of a homogeneous nonlinear frequency shift. Both of these effects are of potential relevance to recently reported experiments. Our second goal is to gain further understanding of the macroscopic system dynamics at large coupling strength, and its dependence on the nonlinear frequency shift parameter. It is proven that at large coupling strength, if the nonlinear frequency shift parameter is below a certain value, then there is a unique attractor for which the oscillators all clump at a single amplitude and uniformly rotating phase (we call this a single-cluster "locked state"). Using a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we show that at higher values of the nonlinear frequency shift parameter, the single-cluster locked state attractor continues to exist, but other types of coexisting attractors emerge. These include two-cluster locked states, periodic orbits, chaotic orbits, and quasiperiodic orbits.
Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Arentoft, Torben; Kjeldsen, Hans; Gruberbauer, Michael; Guenther, David B.; Houdek, Guenter; Kallinger, Thomas; Weiss, Werner W.; Matthews, Jaymie M.
2011-04-20
We compare the simultaneous 2007 space-based MOST photometry and ground-based radial velocity (RV) observations of the F5 star Procyon. We identify slow variations in the MOST data that are similar to those reported in the RV time series and confirm by comparison with the Sun that these variations are likely the signature of stellar activity. The MOST power spectrum yields clear evidence for individual oscillation frequencies that match those found in the RV data by Bedding et al. We identify the same ridges due to modes of different spherical degree in both data sets, but are not able to confirm a definite ridge identification using the MOST data. We measure the luminosity amplitude per radial mode A{sub l=0,phot} = 9.1 {+-} 0.5 ppm. Combined with the estimate for the RV data by Arentoft et al., this gives a mean amplitude ratio of A{sub l=0,phot}/A{sub l=0,RV} = 0.24 {+-} 0.02 ppm cm{sup -1} s, considerably higher than expected from scaling relations but in reasonable agreement with theoretical models by Houdek. We also compare the amplitude ratio as a function of frequency and find that the maximum of the oscillation envelope is shifted to higher frequencies in photometry than in velocity.
Wang, Hongfang; Follmer, L.R.; Chao-li, Liu
2000-01-01
The ??13C of soil carbonate in rhizoconcretions collected from a loess-paleosol sequence in the central United States indicates that growing-season C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated by 35% on a 900 ?? 200 yr time scale during the late Wisconsinan glaciation. The pattern appears in phase with advance and retreat of the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, suggesting influence by paleo-El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation cycles. The ??13C of soil organic matter indicates that the annual average C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated only by 18%, with a periodicity of 450 ?? 100 yr, and closely matched the cyclic pattern of loess-paleosol layers. It suggests a periodic enhancement of the penetration of the Gulf of Mexico air over the region during this time.
Electronic ground state conformers of β-carotene and their role in ultrafast spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukeš, Vladimír; Christensson, Niklas; Milota, Franz; Kauffmann, Harald F.; Hauer, Jürgen
2011-04-01
We present a study of ground state conformations of all-trans β-carotene using Density Functional Theory (DFT). To reproduce the carotenoid spectrum, the DFT approach was combined with the Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction. Our results show that the global minimum corresponds to an asymmetric structure where the β-ionone rings are twisted with respect to the polyene chain. The next higher-lying conformer is more s-cis symmetric and is populated at room temperature (30%). We discuss the relation of these conformers to S∗ and show that our model readily explains the temperature dependence and the narrowing of the ground state bleach at long population times.
Meron ground state of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled dipolar bosons.
Wilson, Ryan M; Anderson, Brandon M; Clark, Charles W
2013-11-01
We study the effects of dipolar interactions on a Bose-Einstein condensate with synthetically generated Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The dipolar interaction we consider includes terms that couple spin and orbital angular momentum in a way perfectly congruent with the single-particle Rashba coupling. We show that this internal spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the rich ground-state phase diagram of the trapped condensate. In particular, we predict the emergence of a thermodynamically stable ground state with a meron spin configuration.
Investigation of the ground state of the anisotropic extended Hubbard chain at weak coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hanqin; Zhang, Jun
2016-09-01
We study a one-dimensional anisotropic extended Hubbard model, where the inter-site density (V) and exchange (J) interactions are spin-dependent. Use of bosonization and renormalization helps investigate phase diagram. At half filling, the ground state characterizes insulating phases. The spin-dependent repulsion leads to a bond-spin-density-wave (BSDW) phase. The antiferromagnetic exchange enhances the bond-order-wave (BOW) phase while weakens the charge-density-wave (CDW) phase. When J > 4 V, the BSDW and CDW phases disappear. Away from half filling, the ground state exhibits superconducting behavior. The anisotropic interactions have an important effect on the phase structures.
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2016-02-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.
On Asymptotic Stability in Energy Space of Ground States for Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuccagna, Scipio; Mizumachi, Tetsu
2008-11-01
We consider nonlinear Schrödinger equations iu_t +Δ u +β (|u|^2)u=0 , text{for} (t,x)in mathbb{R}× mathbb{R}^d, where d ≥ 3 and β is smooth. We prove that symmetric finite energy solutions close to orbitally stable ground states converge to a sum of a ground state and a dispersive wave as t → ∞ assuming the so called the Fermi Golden Rule (FGR) hypothesis. We improve the “sign condition” required in a recent paper by Gang Zhou and I.M.Sigal.
Ground-state and finite-temperature energetics and topologies of germanium microclusters
Antonio, G.A.; Feuston, B.P.; Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.
1988-06-15
We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature properties of Ge microclusters (N = 2 to 14) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation along with the method of steepest-descent quench (SDQ). The interaction potential adopted is the three-body Stillinger--Weber potential as modified by Ding and Andersen for amorphous Ge. Our results indicate that the experimentally observed greater stability of certain cluster sizes can be explained by the topology and energetics of the clusters at finite temperature rather than by the binding energies of the ground-state structures.
Ground State of Magnetic Dipoles on a Two-Dimensional Lattice: Structural Phases in Complex Plasmas
Feldmann, J. D.; Kalman, G. J.; Hartmann, P.; Rosenberg, M.
2008-02-29
We study analytically and by molecular dynamics simulations the ground state configuration of a system of magnetic dipoles fixed on a two-dimensional lattice. We find different phases, in close agreement with previous results. Building on this result and on the minimum energy requirement we determine the equilibrium lattice configuration, the magnetic order (ferromagnetic versus antiferromagnetic), and the magnetic polarization direction of a system of charged mesoscopic particles with magnetic dipole moments, in the domain where the strong electrostatic coupling leads to a crystalline ground state. Orders of magnitudes of the parameters of the system relevant to possible future dusty plasma experiments are discussed.
Ground state mass of 81Kr and the solar neutrino problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouzes, R. T.; Lowry, M. M.; Bennett, C. L.
1982-02-01
The 81Br(3He,t)81Kr, reaction has been used to determine an improved value for the ground state mass of 81Kr. A comparison is made with 51V(3He,t)51Cr and the implications for calibration of the proposed bromine solar neutrino detector are presented. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 81Br(3He,t)81Kr, 51V(3He,t)51Cr, 87Rb(3He,t)87Sr, 85Rb(3He,t)85Sr, E(3He)=24.7 MeV; Q values measured, ground state 81Kr mass inferred.
Ground states of spin-2 condensates in an external magnetic field
Zheng, G.-P.; Tong, Y.-G.; Wang, F.-L.
2010-06-15
The possible ground states of spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in an external magnetic field are obtained analytically and classified systematically according to the population of the condensed atoms at the hyperfine sublevels. It is shown that the atoms can populate simultaneously at four hyperfine sublevels in a weak magnetic field with only the linear Zeeman energy, in contrast to that in a stronger magnetic field with the quadratic Zeeman energy, where condensed atoms can at most populate at three hyperfine sublevels in the ground states. Any spin configuration we obtained will give a closed subspace in the order parameter space of the condensates.
Ground-state properties of third-row elements with nonlocal density functionals
Bagno, P.; Jepsen, O.; Gunnarsson, O.
1989-07-15
The cohesive energy, the lattice parameter, and the bulk modulus of third-row elements are calculated using the Langreth-Mehl-Hu (LMH), the Perdew-Wang (PW), and the gradient expansion functionals. The PW functional is found to give somewhat better results than the LMH functional and both are found to typically remove half the errors in the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, while the gradient expansion gives worse results than the local-density approximation. For Fe both the LMH and PW functionals correctly predict a ferromagnetic bcc ground state, while the LSD approximation and the gradient expansion predict a nonmagnetic fcc ground state.
Dimerized ground state in the one-dimensional spin-1 boson Hubbard model
Apaja, Vesa; Syljuaasen, Olav F.
2006-09-15
We have investigated the one-dimensional spin-1 boson Hubbard model with antiferromagnetic interactions using quantum Monte Carlo methods. We obtain the shapes of the two lowest Mott lobes and show that the ground state within the lowest Mott lobe is dimerized. The results presented here are relevant for optically trapped antiferromagnetic spin-1 bosons. An experimental signature of the dimerized ground state is modulated Bragg peaks in the noise distribution of the atomic cloud obtained after switching off the trap. These Bragg peaks are located at wave vectors corresponding to half-integer multiples of the reciprocal wave vector of the optical lattice.
Preparing Ground States of Quantum Many-Body Systems on a Quantum Computer
Poulin, David; Wocjan, Pawel
2009-04-03
Preparing the ground state of a system of interacting classical particles is an NP-hard problem. Thus, there is in general no better algorithm to solve this problem than exhaustively going through all N configurations of the system to determine the one with lowest energy, requiring a running time proportional to N. A quantum computer, if it could be built, could solve this problem in time {radical}(N). Here, we present a powerful extension of this result to the case of interacting quantum particles, demonstrating that a quantum computer can prepare the ground state of a quantum system as efficiently as it does for classical systems.
Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods.
Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar
2015-01-25
Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical μg has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method.
Creation of Ultracold Sr2 Molecules in the Electronic Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stellmer, Simon; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian
2012-09-01
We report on the creation of ultracold Sr284 molecules in the electronic ground state. The molecules are formed from atom pairs on sites of an optical lattice using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We achieve a transfer efficiency of 30% and obtain 4×104 molecules with full control over the external and internal quantum state. STIRAP is performed near the narrow S01-P13 intercombination transition, using a vibrational level of the 1(0u+) potential as an intermediate state. In preparation of our molecule association scheme, we have determined the binding energies of the last vibrational levels of the 1(0u+), 1(1u) excited-state and the XΣg+1 ground-state potentials. Our work overcomes the previous limitation of STIRAP schemes to systems with magnetic Feshbach resonances, thereby establishing a route that is applicable to many systems beyond alkali-metal dimers.
Understanding the Yang-Mills ground state: The origin of colour confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preparata, Giuliano
1988-01-01
The essential magnetic instability of the perturbative ground state of a non-abelian Yang-Mills theory recently discovered, is shown to lead to a family of degenerate states, the Savvidy states, where the Yang-Mills fields undergo an infinite (when the ultraviolet cut-off Λ-->∞M) condensation process. These states build up the real Yang-Mills ground state, in which colour is confined and governed by the effective lagrangian of anisotropic chromodynamics (ACD), proposed by the present author a few years ago. This appears to solve the problem of confinement in QCD. On leave of absence from Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fakhri, H.; Hashemi, A.
2016-01-01
This paper has been motivated by a recent paper by Dey [Phys. Rev. D 91, 044024 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.044024] on the known Arik-Coon q oscillator. We construct q coherent, even and odd q -cat states in Fock representation for the Biedenharn-Macfarlane q oscillator with q >1 and study their nonclassical properties. The q -coherent states minimize the Heisenberg uncertainty relation between the generalized position and momentum operators as well as the x and y components of a q -deformed su(1 ,1 ) algebra in the Schwinger boson representation. The latter is also minimized by the even and odd q -cat states. We show that, contrary to the undeformed harmonic oscillator, the squeezing effect in both position and momentum operators can be exhibited by odd q -cat states. It is also violated by even q -cat states. Furthermore, it is shown that the antibunching effect and sub-Poissonian or super-Poissonian statistics can simultaneously appear by each of the even or odd q -cat states. Finally, a unitary Fock representation of the q -deformed su(1 ,1 ) algebra is obtained by the q -deformed Bargmann-Fock realization.
Ground state spin and excitation energies in half-filled Lieb lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ţolea, M.; Niţǎ, M.
2016-10-01
We present detailed spectral calculations for small Lieb lattices having up to N =4 number of cells, in the regime of half-filling, an instance of particular relevance for the nanomagnetism of discrete systems such as quantum dot arrays, due to the degenerate levels at midspectrum. While for the Hubbard interaction model—and even number of sites—the ground state spin is given by the Lieb theorem, the inclusion of long-range interaction—or odd number of sites—makes the spin state not known a priori, which justifies our approach. We calculate also the excitation energies, which are of experimental importance, and find significant variation induced by the interaction potential. One obtains insights on the mechanisms involved that impose as ground state the Lieb state with lower spin rather than the Hund one with maximum spin for the degenerate levels, showing this in the first and second orders of the interaction potential for the smaller lattices. The analytical results agree with the numerical ones, which are performed by exact diagonalization calculations or by a combined mean-field and configuration interaction method. While the Lieb state is always lower in energy than the Hund state, for strong long-range interaction, when possible, another minimal spin state is imposed as ground state.
Nowik-Boltyk, P; Dzyapko, O; Demidov, V E; Berloff, N G; Demokritov, S O
2012-01-01
A gas of magnons in magnetic films differs from all other known systems demonstrating Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), since it possesses two energetically degenerate lowest-energy quantum states with non-zero wave vectors ±k(BEC). Therefore, BEC in this system results in a spontaneously formed two-component Bose-Einstein condensate described by a linear combination of two spatially non-uniform wave-functions ∝exp(±ik(BEC)z), while condensates found in other physical systems are characterized by spatially uniform wave-functions. Here we report a study of BEC of magnons with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. We experimentally confirm the existence of the two wave-functions and show that their interference results in a non-uniform ground state of the condensate with the density oscillating in space. Additionally, we observe stable topological defects in the condensate. By comparing the experimental results with predictions of a theoretical model based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation, we identify these defects as quantized vortices.
Nowik-Boltyk, P.; Dzyapko, O.; Demidov, V. E.; Berloff, N. G.; Demokritov, S. O.
2012-01-01
A gas of magnons in magnetic films differs from all other known systems demonstrating Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), since it possesses two energetically degenerate lowest-energy quantum states with non-zero wave vectors ±kBEC. Therefore, BEC in this system results in a spontaneously formed two-component Bose-Einstein condensate described by a linear combination of two spatially non-uniform wave-functions ∝exp(±ikBECz), while condensates found in other physical systems are characterized by spatially uniform wave-functions. Here we report a study of BEC of magnons with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. We experimentally confirm the existence of the two wave-functions and show that their interference results in a non-uniform ground state of the condensate with the density oscillating in space. Additionally, we observe stable topological defects in the condensate. By comparing the experimental results with predictions of a theoretical model based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation, we identify these defects as quantized vortices. PMID:22761990
Reactive ground-state pathways are not ubiquitous in red/green cyanobacteriochromes.
Chang, Che-Wei; Gottlieb, Sean M; Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S
2013-09-26
Recent characterization of the red/green cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) NpR6012g4 revealed a high quantum yield for its forward photoreaction [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 130-133] that was ascribed to the activity of hidden, productive ground-state intermediates. The dynamics of the pathways involving these ground-state intermediates was resolved with femtosecond dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, the first such study reported for any CBCR. To address the ubiquity of such second-chance initiation dynamics (SCID) in CBCRs, we examined the closely related red/green CBCR NpF2164g6 from Nostoc punctiforme. Both NpF2164g6 and NpR6012g4 use phycocyanobilin as the chromophore precursor and exhibit similar excited-state dynamics. However, NpF2164g6 exhibits a lower quantum yield of 32% for the generation of the isomerized Lumi-R primary photoproduct, compared to 40% for NpR6012g4. This difference arises from significantly different ground-state dynamics between the two proteins, with the SCID mechanism deactivated in NpF2164g6. We present an integrated inhomogeneous target model that self-consistently fits the pump-probe and pump-dump-probe signals for both forward and reverse photoreactions in both proteins. This work demonstrates that reactive ground-state intermediates are not ubiquitous phenomena in CBCRs. PMID:23725062
Polarization memory in the nonpolar magnetic ground state of multiferroic CuFeO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beilsten-Edmands, J.; Magorrian, S. J.; Foronda, F. R.; Prabhakaran, D.; Radaelli, P. G.; Johnson, R. D.
2016-10-01
We investigate polarization memory effects in single-crystal CuFeO2, which has a magnetically induced ferroelectric phase at low temperatures and applied B fields between 7.5 and 13 T. Following electrical poling of the ferroelectric phase, we find that the nonpolar collinear antiferromagnetic ground state at B =0 T retains a strong memory of the polarization magnitude and direction, such that upon reentering the ferroelectric phase a net polarization of comparable magnitude to the initial polarization is recovered in the absence of external bias. This memory effect is very robust: in pulsed-magnetic-field measurements, several pulses into the ferroelectric phase with reverse bias are required to switch the polarization direction, with significant switching only seen after the system is driven out of the ferroelectric phase and ground state either magnetically (by application of B >13 T) or thermally. The memory effect is also largely insensitive to the magnetoelastic domain composition, since no change in the memory effect is observed for a sample driven into a single-domain state by application of stress in the [1 1 ¯0 ] direction. On the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the ground-state spin configurations, we propose that the memory effect is due to the existence of helical domain walls within the nonpolar collinear antiferromagnetic ground state, which would retain the helicity of the polar phase for certain magnetothermal histories.
Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled UN: Determination of the ground state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthew, Daniel J.; Morse, Michael D.
2013-05-01
The optical transitions of supersonically cooled uranium nitride (UN) have been investigated in the range from 19 200 to 23 900 cm-1 using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. A large number of bands have been observed, of which seven have been rotationally resolved and analyzed. All are found to arise from the same state, which is presumably the ground state of the molecule. From the analysis of the bands, the ground state has Ω = 3.5, with a bond length of 1.7650(12) Å. Comparisons to the known isovalent molecules are made, and the variations in ground state configuration are explained in terms of the configurational reordering that occurs with changes in the nuclear and ligand charges. It is concluded that the UN molecule is best considered as a U3+N3- species in which the closed shell nitride ligand interacts with a U3+ ion. The ground state of the molecule derives from a U3+ ion in its 7s15f 2 atomic configuration.
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
Wang, Hanquan
2014-10-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method.
Calculated ground state potential surface and excitation energies for the copper trimer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, S. P.; Laskowski, B. C.
1986-01-01
In the context of their relevance to catalysis and to materials science problems, transition metals and transition metal (TM) compounds are currently of considerable interest, and studies have been conducted of the copper trimer, Cu3. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the ground state surface and several groups of excited states in order to improve the understanding of the spectroscopy of Cu3. Differences of the current study from previous investigations are related to an employment of larger basis sets and a more extensive electron correlation. This was done with the objective to obtain a more accurate definition of the ground state surface. Features of the bonding in the copper dimer are considered to obtain a basis for an understanding of the copper trimer. Attention is given to calculational details, the ground state surface, and calculated vertical excitation energies. The results of SCF/SDCI calculations are reported for portions of the ground surface, for two groups of excited states, and for the ionization potential of Cu3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhan-Bin; Dong, Chen-Zhong; Xie, Lu-You; Jiang, Jun
2014-03-01
Electron impact excitation cross sections from the ground state and the lowest metastable state 5p56s J = 2 to the excited states of the 5p57p configuration of xenon are calculated systematically using the fully relativistic distorted wave method. Special attention is paid to the configuration interaction effects in the wave-function expansion of target states. The results are in good agreement with the recent experimental data by Jung et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80 (2009) 062708] over the measured energy range. These accurate theoretical results can be used in the modeling and diagnosis of plasmas containing xenon.
Ruben, Eliza A; Schwans, Jason P; Sonnett, Matthew; Natarajan, Aditya; Gonzalez, Ana; Tsai, Yingssu; Herschlag, Daniel
2013-02-12
We compared the binding affinities of ground state analogues for bacterial ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) with a wild-type anionic Asp general base and with uncharged Asn and Ala in the general base position to provide a measure of potential ground state destabilization that could arise from the close juxtaposition of the anionic Asp and hydrophobic steroid in the reaction's Michaelis complex. The analogue binding affinity increased ~1 order of magnitude for the Asp38Asn mutation and ~2 orders of magnitude for the Asp38Ala mutation, relative to the affinity with Asp38, for KSI from two sources. The increased level of binding suggests that the abutment of a charged general base and a hydrophobic steroid is modestly destabilizing, relative to a standard state in water, and that this destabilization is relieved in the transition state and intermediate in which the charge on the general base has been neutralized because of proton abstraction. Stronger binding also arose from mutation of Pro39, the residue adjacent to the Asp general base, consistent with an ability of the Asp general base to now reorient to avoid the destabilizing interaction. Consistent with this model, the Pro mutants reduced or eliminated the increased level of binding upon replacement of Asp38 with Asn or Ala. These results, supported by additional structural observations, suggest that ground state destabilization from the negatively charged Asp38 general base provides a modest contribution to KSI catalysis. They also provide a clear illustration of the well-recognized concept that enzymes evolve for catalytic function and not, in general, to maximize ground state binding. This ground state destabilization mechanism may be common to the many enzymes with anionic side chains that deprotonate carbon acids.
EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?
Scarpelli, Serena; D'Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
2015-01-01
Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5-8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences.
EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?
Scarpelli, Serena; D’Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
2015-01-01
Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5–8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences. PMID:25999908
Rayleigh approximation to ground state of the Bose and Coulomb glasses
Ryan, S. D.; Mityushev, V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Berlyand, L.
2015-01-16
Glasses are rigid systems in which competing interactions prevent simultaneous minimization of local energies. This leads to frustration and highly degenerate ground states the nature and properties of which are still far from being thoroughly understood. We report an analytical approach based on the method of functional equations that allows us to construct the Rayleigh approximation to the ground state of a two-dimensional (2D) random Coulomb system with logarithmic interactions. We realize a model for 2D Coulomb glass as a cylindrical type II superconductor containing randomly located columnar defects (CD) which trap superconducting vortices induced by applied magnetic field. Ourmore » findings break ground for analytical studies of glassy systems, marking an important step towards understanding their properties.« less
Rayleigh approximation to ground state of the Bose and Coulomb glasses
Ryan, S. D.; Mityushev, V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Berlyand, L.
2015-01-16
Glasses are rigid systems in which competing interactions prevent simultaneous minimization of local energies. This leads to frustration and highly degenerate ground states the nature and properties of which are still far from being thoroughly understood. We report an analytical approach based on the method of functional equations that allows us to construct the Rayleigh approximation to the ground state of a two-dimensional (2D) random Coulomb system with logarithmic interactions. We realize a model for 2D Coulomb glass as a cylindrical type II superconductor containing randomly located columnar defects (CD) which trap superconducting vortices induced by applied magnetic field. Our findings break ground for analytical studies of glassy systems, marking an important step towards understanding their properties.
Bibliography on ground water in glacial-aquifer systems in the Northeastern United States
Wiltshire, Denise A.; Lyford, Forest P.; Cohen, A.J.
1986-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey established the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program to evaluate major interconnected aquifers or groups of aquifers that share similar characteristics within a region. One of the objectives of the Northeastern Glacial RASA is to provide information on the occurrence and quality of ground water in glacial deposits in ten States: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. To help meet the objectives of the RASA program, an automated bibliographic data base was developed. The data base contains references to ground-water resources of glacial-aquifer systems in the ten States listed above. This bibliography contains more than 700 ground-water related references that date from 1839 through 1984. The bibliography lists books, journal articles, conference proceedings, government and other technical reports, theses, and maps. Unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, newspaper articles, and book reviews are omitted from the bibliography.
Resetting transcription factor control circuitry toward ground-state pluripotency in human.
Takashima, Yasuhiro; Guo, Ge; Loos, Remco; Nichols, Jennifer; Ficz, Gabriella; Krueger, Felix; Oxley, David; Santos, Fatima; Clarke, James; Mansfield, William; Reik, Wolf; Bertone, Paul; Smith, Austin
2014-09-11
Current human pluripotent stem cells lack the transcription factor circuitry that governs the ground state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here, we report that short-term expression of two components, NANOG and KLF2, is sufficient to ignite other elements of the network and reset the human pluripotent state. Inhibition of ERK and protein kinase C sustains a transgene-independent rewired state. Reset cells self-renew continuously without ERK signaling, are phenotypically stable, and are karyotypically intact. They differentiate in vitro and form teratomas in vivo. Metabolism is reprogrammed with activation of mitochondrial respiration as in ESC. DNA methylation is dramatically reduced and transcriptome state is globally realigned across multiple cell lines. Depletion of ground-state transcription factors, TFCP2L1 or KLF4, has marginal impact on conventional human pluripotent stem cells but collapses the reset state. These findings demonstrate feasibility of installing and propagating functional control circuitry for ground-state pluripotency in human cells. PMID:25215486
The ground state of a spin-1 anti-ferromagnetic atomic condensate for Heisenberg limited metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ling-Na; You, Li
2016-05-01
The ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with anti-ferromagnetic interaction can be applied to quantum metrology approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, atoms in an anti-ferromagnetic ground state condensate exist as spin singlet pairs, whose inherent correlation promises metrological precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p = 0 . 4 c corresponding to a magnetic field of 28 . 6 μ G with c = h × 50 Hz (for 23 Na atom condensate in the F = 1 state at a typical density of ~1014cm-3), the scaled QFI can reach ~ 0 . 48 N , which is close to the limits of N for NooN state, or 0 . 5 N for twin-Fock state. We hope our work will stimulate experimental efforts towards reaching the anti-ferromagnetic condensate ground state at extremely low magnetic fields.
Resetting Transcription Factor Control Circuitry toward Ground-State Pluripotency in Human
Takashima, Yasuhiro; Guo, Ge; Loos, Remco; Nichols, Jennifer; Ficz, Gabriella; Krueger, Felix; Oxley, David; Santos, Fatima; Clarke, James; Mansfield, William; Reik, Wolf; Bertone, Paul; Smith, Austin
2014-01-01
Summary Current human pluripotent stem cells lack the transcription factor circuitry that governs the ground state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here, we report that short-term expression of two components, NANOG and KLF2, is sufficient to ignite other elements of the network and reset the human pluripotent state. Inhibition of ERK and protein kinase C sustains a transgene-independent rewired state. Reset cells self-renew continuously without ERK signaling, are phenotypically stable, and are karyotypically intact. They differentiate in vitro and form teratomas in vivo. Metabolism is reprogrammed with activation of mitochondrial respiration as in ESC. DNA methylation is dramatically reduced and transcriptome state is globally realigned across multiple cell lines. Depletion of ground-state transcription factors, TFCP2L1 or KLF4, has marginal impact on conventional human pluripotent stem cells but collapses the reset state. These findings demonstrate feasibility of installing and propagating functional control circuitry for ground-state pluripotency in human cells. PMID:25215486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Mandal, Sudhansu
The internal structure and topology of the ground states for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are determined by the relative angular momenta between all the possible pairs of electrons. Laughlin wave function is the only known microscopic wave function for which these relative angular momenta are homogeneous (same) for any pair of electrons and depend solely on the filling factor. Without invoking any microscopic theory, considering only the relationship between number of flux quanta and particles in spherical geometry, and allowing the possibility of inhomogeneous (different) relative angular momenta between any two electrons, we develop a general method for determining a closed-form ground state wave function for any incompressible FQHE state. Our procedure provides variationally obtained very accurate wave functions, yet having simpler structure compared to any other known complex microscopic wave functions for the FQHE states. This method, thus, has potential in predicting a very accurate ground state wave function for the puzzling states such as the state at filling fraction 5/2. We acknowledge support from Department of Science and Technology, India.
Bao, Weizhu; Chern, I-Liang; Zhang, Yanzhi
2013-11-15
In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe–Pritchard magnetic field B(x). When B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of m{sub F}=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. When B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.
Generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models: ground state entanglement and quantum entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, José A.; Finkel, Federico; González-López, Artemio; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-03-01
We introduce a new class of generalized isotropic Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models with \\text{su}(m+1) spin and long-range non-constant interactions, whose non-degenerate ground state is a Dicke state of \\text{su}(m+1) type. We evaluate in closed form the reduced density matrix of a block of L spins when the whole system is in its ground state, and study the corresponding von Neumann and Rényi entanglement entropies in the thermodynamic limit. We show that both of these entropies scale as alog L when L tends to infinity, where the coefficient a is equal to (m - k)/2 in the ground state phase with k vanishing \\text{su}(m+1) magnon densities. In particular, our results show that none of these generalized Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models are critical, since when L\\to ∞ their Rényi entropy R q becomes independent of the parameter q. We have also computed the Tsallis entanglement entropy of the ground state of these generalized \\text{su}(m+1) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick models, finding that it can be made extensive by an appropriate choice of its parameter only when m-k≥slant 3 . Finally, in the \\text{su}(3) case we construct in detail the phase diagram of the ground state in parameter space, showing that it is determined in a simple way by the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(3) . This is also true in the \\text{su}(m+1) case; for instance, we prove that the region for which all the magnon densities are non-vanishing is an (m + 1)-simplex in {{{R}}m} whose vertices are the weights of the fundamental representation of \\text{su}(m+1) .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandratskii, L. M.
2015-10-01
We report the first-principles study of the correlated behavior of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and orbital moment anisotropy (OMA) as the functions of the thickness N of the Fe film. The work is motivated by recent experimental studies combining photoemission, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic anisotropy measurements. In agreement with experiment, the correlated oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) are obtained that have their origin in the formation of the 3d quantum well states (QWS) confined in the films. The main contribution to the oscillation amplitude comes from the surface layer. This is an interesting feature of the phenomenon consisting in the peculiar dependence of the physical quantities on the thickness of the film. We demonstrate that the band structure of the bulk Fe does not reflect adequately the properties of the 3d QWS in thin films and, therefore, does not provide the basis for understanding the oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) . A detailed point-by-point analysis in the two-dimensional (2D) Brillouin zone (BZ) of the film shows that the contribution of the Γ point, contrary to a rather common expectation, does not play an important role in the formation of the oscillations. Instead, the most important contributions come from a broad region of the 2D BZ distant from the center of the BZ. Combining symmetry arguments and direct calculations we show that orbital moments of the electronic states possess nonzero transverse components orthogonal to the direction of the spin magnetization. The account for this feature is crucial in the point-by-point analysis of the OMA. On the basis of the calculations for noncollinear spin configurations we suggest interpretations of two interesting experimental findings: fast temperature decay of the oscillation amplitude in MAE (N ) and unexpectedly strong spin mixing of the initial states of the photoemission process.
Cavity cooling to the ground state of an ensemble quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Christopher J.; Cory, David G.
2016-02-01
We describe a method for initializing an ensemble of qubits in a pure ground state by applying collective cavity cooling techniques in the presence of local dephasing noise on each qubit. To solve the dynamics of the ensemble system we introduce a method for dissipative perturbation theory that applies average Hamiltonian theory in an imaginary-time dissipative interaction frame to find an average effective dissipator for the system dynamics. We use SU(4) algebra generators to analytically solve the first-order perturbation for an arbitrary number of qubits in the ensemble. We find that to first order the effective dissipator describes local T1 thermal relaxation to the ground state of each qubit in the ensemble at a rate equal to the collective cavity cooling dissipation rate. The proposed technique should permit the parallel initialization of high purity states in large ensemble quantum systems based on solid-state spins.
Role of the helium ground state in (e,3e) processes
Ancarani, L.U.; Montagnese, T.; Dal Cappello, C.
2004-07-01
Absolute (e,3e) measurements on helium, at high incident energy, have been recently reproduced by a calculation in the first Born approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 73201 (2003)]. The theoretical model is based on the product of three Coulomb waves for the final state and the use of Pluvinage wave function for the initial helium ground state. The authors suggest that the good agreement obtained is strongly related to the quality of the initial state, in particular to the fact that it is diagonal in all Coulomb interactions. In this paper, we show that this conclusion is not correct. We construct three other helium ground states to demonstrate that diagonalizing the Hamiltonian is not the deciding factor in obtaining agreement with the absolute experimental data.
Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms
Ralchenko, Yu. Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de
2008-07-15
Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n{<=}4 are treated individually, while the states with n{>=}5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n{>=}5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasawa, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshito; Okada, Tadashi
1999-10-01
We have studied femtosecond ground state recovery dynamics of the triphenylmethane dyes brilliant green (BG) and malachite green (MG) by pump-probe spectroscopy at the center wavelength of 635 nm with a time resolution of 33 fs. The ultrafast recovery of the ground state bleach was highly nonexponential and depended on the solvent viscosity, although all time constants were shorter than the solvation times obtained from other measurements. We observed a plateau or a rise component in the signal, which indicates an intermediate state. The rise time showed a viscosity dependence, even in the ultrafast time domain. It should be noted that the decay times were always longer for BG than MG, while the rise time did not show a solute dependence. The torsional motion of the amino-substituted phenyl group may be involved in the ultrafast process to the intermediate state, but lack of a solute dependence indicates that only a small conformational change is involved.
Distribution of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water in Washington State
Frans, Lonna
2008-01-01
More than 60 percent of the population of Washington State uses ground water for their drinking and cooking needs. Nitrate concentrations in ground water are elevated in parts of the State as a result of various land-use practices, including fertilizer application, dairy operations and ranching, and septic-system use. Shallow wells generally are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination than deeper wells (Williamson and others, 1998; Ebbert and others, 2000). In order to protect public health, the Washington State Department of Health requires that public water systems regularly measure nitrate in their wells. Public water systems serving more than 25 people collect water samples at least annually; systems serving from 2 to 14 people collect water samples at least every 3 years. Private well owners serving one residence may be required to sample when the well is first drilled, but are unregulated after that. As a result, limited information is available to citizens and public health officials about potential exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations for people whose primary drinking-water sources are private wells. The U.S. Geological Survey and Washington State Department of Health collaborated to examine water-quality data from public water systems and develop models that calculate the probability of detecting elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Maps were then developed to estimate ground water vulnerability to nitrate in areas where limited data are available.
Green's function Monte Carlo calculation for the ground state of helium trimers
Cabral, F.; Kalos, M.H.
1981-02-01
The ground state energy of weakly bound boson trimers interacting via Lennard-Jones (12,6) pair potentials is calculated using a Monte Carlo Green's Function Method. Threshold coupling constants for self binding are obtained by extrapolation to zero binding.
Magnetic ground state of an individual Fe2+ ion in strained semiconductor nanostructure
Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Kobak, J.; Goryca, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.
2016-01-01
Single impurities with nonzero spin and multiple ground states offer a degree of freedom that can be utilized to store the quantum information. However, Fe2+ dopant is known for having a single nondegenerate ground state in the bulk host semiconductors and thus is of little use for spintronic applications. Here we show that the well-established picture of Fe2+ spin configuration can be modified by subjecting the Fe2+ ion to high strain, for example, produced by lattice mismatched epitaxial nanostructures. Our analysis reveals that high strain induces qualitative change in the ion energy spectrum and results in nearly doubly degenerate ground state with spin projection Sz=±2. We provide an experimental proof of this concept using a new system: a strained epitaxial quantum dot containing individual Fe2+ ion. Magnetic character of the Fe2+ ground state in a CdSe/ZnSe dot is revealed in photoluminescence experiments by exploiting a coupling between a confined exciton and the single-iron impurity. We also demonstrate that the Fe2+ spin can be oriented by spin-polarized excitons, which opens a possibility of using it as an optically controllable two-level system free of nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:26818580
Creation of a strongly dipolar gas of ultracold ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Dajun; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier
2016-05-01
We report on successful creation of an ultracold sample of ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules with a large effective electric dipole moment. Through a carefully designed two-photon Raman process, we have successfully transferred the magneto-associated Feshbach molecules to the singlet ground state with high efficiency, obtaining up to 8000 23 Na87 Rb molecules with peak number density over 1011 cm-3 in their absolute ground-state level. With an external electric field, we have induced an effective dipole moment over 1 Debye, making 23 Na87 Rb the most dipolar ultracold particle ever achieved. Contrary to the expectation, we observed a rather fast population loss even for 23 Na87 Rb in the absolute ground state with the bi-molecular exchange reaction energetically forbidden. The origin for the short lifetime and possible ways of mitigating it are currently under investigation. Our achievements pave the way toward investigation of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.
Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the ground state structure of mercury
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Vinayak; Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Chaturvedi, Shashank; Sikka, S. K.
2014-05-01
Near zero kelvin ground state structure of mercury is the body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (β Hg). However, in all previously reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations, either the rhombohedral or the HCP structure has been found to be the ground state structure. Based on the previous calculations it was predicted that the correct treatment of the SO effects would improve the result. We have performed FPLAPW calculations, with and without inclusion of the SO coupling, for determining the ground state structure. These calculations determine rhombohedral structure as the ground state structure instead of BCT structure. The calculations, without inclusion of SO effect, predict that the energies of rhombohedral and BCT structures are very close to each other but the energy of rhombohedral structure is lower than that of BCT structure at ambient as well as high pressure. On the contrary, the SO calculations predict that though at ambient conditions the rhombohedral structure is the stable structure but on applying a pressure of 3.2 GPa, the BCT structure becomes stable. Hence, instead of predicting the stability of BCT structure at zero pressure, the SO calculations predict its stability at 3.2 GPa. This small disagreement is expected when the energy differences between the structures are small.
Magnetostriction-driven ground-state stabilization in 2H perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porter, D. G.; Senn, M. S.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Cortese, A.; Waterfield-Price, N.; Radaelli, P. G.; Manuel, P.; zur-Loye, H.-C.; Mazzoli, C.; Bombardi, A.
2016-10-01
The magnetic ground state of Sr3A RuO6 , with A =(Li ,Na ) , is studied using neutron diffraction, resonant x-ray scattering, and laboratory characterization measurements of high-quality crystals. Combining these results allows us to observe the onset of long-range magnetic order and distinguish the symmetrically allowed magnetic models, identifying in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and a small ferromagnetic component along the c axis. While the existence of magnetic domains masks the particular in-plane direction of the moments, it has been possible to elucidate the ground state using symmetry considerations. We find that due to the lack of local anisotropy, antisymmetric exchange interactions control the magnetic order, first through structural distortions that couple to in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and second through a high-order magnetoelastic coupling that lifts the degeneracy of the in-plane moments. The symmetry considerations used to rationalize the magnetic ground state are very general and will apply to many systems in this family, such as Ca3A RuO6 , with A =(Li ,Na ) , and Ca3LiOsO6 whose magnetic ground states are still not completely understood.
Massless ground state for a compact SU (2) matrix model in 4D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulton, Lyonell; Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar; Restuccia, Alvaro
2015-09-01
We show the existence and uniqueness of a massless supersymmetric ground state wavefunction of a SU (2) matrix model in a bounded smooth domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is a gauge system and we provide a new framework to analyze the quantum spectral properties of this class of supersymmetric matrix models subject to constraints which can be generalized for arbitrary number of colors.
Weatherall, James Owen; Search, Christopher P.
2010-02-15
Transparent media exhibiting anomalous dispersion have been of considerable interest since Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu [Nature 406, 277 (2000)] first observed light propagate with superluminal and negative group velocities without absorption. Here, we propose an atomic model exhibiting these properties, based on a generalization of amplification without inversion in a five-level dressed interacting ground-state system. The system consists of a {Lambda} atom prepared as in standard electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with two additional metastable ground states coupled to the {Lambda} atom ground states by two rf-microwave fields. We consider two configurations by which population is incoherently pumped into the ground states of the atom. Under appropriate circumstances, we predict a pair of new gain lines with tunable width, separation, and height. Between these lines, absorption vanishes but dispersion is large and anomalous. The system described here is a significant improvement over other proposals in the anomalous dispersion literature in that it permits additional coherent control over the spectral properties of the anomalous region, including a possible 10{sup 4}-fold increase over the group delay observed by Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu.
Ground-state properties of small-size nonlinear dynamical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buonsante, P.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Penna, V.; Vezzani, A.
2007-01-01
We investigate the ground state of a system of interacting particles in small nonlinear lattices with M⩾3 sites, using as a prototypical example the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation that has been recently used extensively in the contexts of nonlinear optics of waveguide arrays and Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. We find that, in the presence of attractive interactions, the dynamical scenario relevant to the ground-state and the lowest-energy modes of such few-site nonlinear lattices reveals a variety of nontrivial features that are absent in the large/infinite lattice limits: the single-pulse solution and the uniform solution are found to coexist in a finite range of the lattice intersite coupling where, depending on the latter, one of them represents the ground state; in addition, the single-pulse mode does not even exist beyond a critical parametric threshold. Finally, the onset of the ground-state (modulational) instability appears to be intimately connected with a nonstandard (“double transcritical”) type of bifurcation that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported previously in other physical systems.
Generalized Klein-Gordon models: behavior around the ground state condensate.
Kuetche, Victor K
2014-07-01
In this work, we investigate the balance between the nonlinear and linear interaction energy of an interparticle anharmonic system in the vicinity of the ground state condensate. As a result, we find that the nonlinear interaction energy is very significant in the vicinity of each degree of freedom. We address some potential applications of the findings to miscellaneous areas of interests such as soliton theory, hydrodynamics, solid state physics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls, condensed matter physics, and particle physics, among others.
Generalized Klein-Gordon models: Behavior around the ground state condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuetche, Victor K.
2014-07-01
In this work, we investigate the balance between the nonlinear and linear interaction energy of an interparticle anharmonic system in the vicinity of the ground state condensate. As a result, we find that the nonlinear interaction energy is very significant in the vicinity of each degree of freedom. We address some potential applications of the findings to miscellaneous areas of interests such as soliton theory, hydrodynamics, solid state physics, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls, condensed matter physics, and particle physics, among others.
Gitsevich, Aleksandr
2001-01-01
An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.
Andrews, Logan D; Fenn, Tim D; Herschlag, Daniel
2013-07-01
Enzymes stabilize transition states of reactions while limiting binding to ground states, as is generally required for any catalyst. Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and other nonspecific phosphatases are some of Nature's most impressive catalysts, achieving preferential transition state over ground state stabilization of more than 10²²-fold while utilizing interactions with only the five atoms attached to the transferred phosphorus. We tested a model that AP achieves a portion of this preference by destabilizing ground state binding via charge repulsion between the anionic active site nucleophile, Ser102, and the negatively charged phosphate monoester substrate. Removal of the Ser102 alkoxide by mutation to glycine or alanine increases the observed Pi affinity by orders of magnitude at pH 8.0. To allow precise and quantitative comparisons, the ionic form of bound P(i) was determined from pH dependencies of the binding of Pi and tungstate, a P(i) analog lacking titratable protons over the pH range of 5-11, and from the ³¹P chemical shift of bound P(i). The results show that the Pi trianion binds with an exceptionally strong femtomolar affinity in the absence of Ser102, show that its binding is destabilized by ≥10⁸-fold by the Ser102 alkoxide, and provide direct evidence for ground state destabilization. Comparisons of X-ray crystal structures of AP with and without Ser102 reveal the same active site and P(i) binding geometry upon removal of Ser102, suggesting that the destabilization does not result from a major structural rearrangement upon mutation of Ser102. Analogous Pi binding measurements with a protein tyrosine phosphatase suggest the generality of this ground state destabilization mechanism. Our results have uncovered an important contribution of anionic nucleophiles to phosphoryl transfer catalysis via ground state electrostatic destabilization and an enormous capacity of the AP active site for specific and strong recognition of the phosphoryl group in
Static Properties and Stark Effect of the Ground State of the HD Molecular Ion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.
1999-01-01
We have calculated static properties of the ground state of the HD(+) ion and its lowest-lying P-state without making use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, as was done in the case of H2(+) and D2(+) [Phys. Rev. A 58, 2787 (1998)]. The ion is treated as a three-body system whose ground state is spherically symmetric. The wavefunction is of generalized Hylleraas type, but it is necessary to include high powers of the internuclear distance to localize the nuclear motion. We obtain good values of the energies of the ground S-state and lowest P-state and compare them with earlier calculations. Expectation values are obtained for various operators, the Fermi contact parameters, and the permanent quadrupole moment. The cusp conditions are also calculated. The polarizability was then calculated using second-order perturbation theory with intermediate P pseudostates. Since the nuclei in HD(+) are not of equal mass there is dipole coupling between the lowest two rotational states, which are almost degenerate. This situation is carefully analyzed, and the Stark shift is calculated variationally as a function of the applied electric field.
Vexiau, R.; Lepers, M. Aymar, M.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.; Dulieu, O.
2015-06-07
We have calculated the isotropic C{sub 6} coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}. We consider the ten species made up of {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs. Following our previous work [Lepers et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032709 (2013)], we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it is applied for each of the three contributions to the sum-over-state formula. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of inelastic and reactive collisions between ultracold bialkali molecules in deeply bound or in Feshbach levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ling-Na; You, L.
2016-03-01
We show that the ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with antiferromagnetic interactions constitutes a useful resource for quantum metrology upon approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, the antiferromagnetic ground-state condensate is a condensate of spin-singlet atom pairs. The inherent correlation between paired atoms allows for parameter estimation at precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by the scaled quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p =0.4 c , which corresponds to a magnetic field of 28.6 μ G for c =50 h Hz (for 23Na atom condensate in the F =1 state at a typical density of ˜1014cm-3 ), the scaled QFI can reach ˜0.48 N , which approaches the limit of 0.5 N for the twin-Fock state |N/2 > +|N/2 > - . Our work encourages experimental efforts to reach the ground state of an antiferromagnetic condensate at a extremely low magnetic field.
B2N2O4: Prediction of a Magnetic Ground State for a Light Main-Group Molecule
Varga, Zoltan; Truhlar, Donald G.
2015-09-08
Cyclobutanetetrone, (CO)4, has a triplet ground state. Here we predict, based on electronic structure calculations, that the B2N2O4 molecule also has a triplet ground state and is therefore paramagnetic; the structure is an analogue of (CO)4 in which the carbon ring is replaced by a (BN)2 ring. Similar to (CO)4, the triplet ground-state structure of B2N2O4 is also thermodynamically unstable. Besides analysis of the molecular orbitals, we found that the partial atomic charges are good indicators for predicting magnetic ground states.
Three-body correlations in the ground-state decay of 26O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohley, Z.; Baumann, T.; Christian, G.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Luther, B.; Lunderberg, E.; Jones, M.; Mosby, S.; Smith, J. K.; Spyrou, A.; Thoennessen, M.
2015-03-01
Background: Theoretical calculations have shown that the energy and angular correlations in the three-body decay of the two-neutron unbound 26O can provide information on the ground-state wave function, which has been predicted to have a dineutron configuration and 2 n halo structure. Purpose: To use the experimentally measured three-body correlations to gain insight into the properties of 26O , including the decay mechanism and ground-state resonance energy. Method: 26O was produced in a one-proton knockout reaction from 27F and the 24O+n +n decay products were measured using the MoNA-Sweeper setup. The three-body correlations from the 26O ground-state resonance decay were extracted. The experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations in which the resonance energy and decay mechanism were varied. Results: The measured three-body correlations were well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulations but were not sensitive to the decay mechanism due to the experimental resolutions. However, the three-body correlations were found to be sensitive to the resonance energy of 26O . A 1 σ upper limit of 53 keV was extracted for the ground-state resonance energy of 26O . Conclusions: Future attempts to measure the three-body correlations from the ground-state decay of 26O will be very challenging due to the need for a precise measurement of the 24O momentum at the reaction point in the target.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.
National and State Attitudes of US Adults Toward Tobacco-Free School Grounds, 2009–2010
Patel, Roshni; Kegler, Michelle C.; Brener, Nancy D.; King, Brian A.
2015-01-01
Introduction Schools are an important environment for addressing tobacco use among youth. Tobacco-free school policies can help reduce the social acceptability of tobacco use and prevent tobacco initiation among youth. This study assessed attitudes toward tobacco-free school grounds among US adults. Methods Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in the 50 US states and District of Columbia. Respondents were considered to have a favorable attitude toward tobacco-free school grounds if they reported tobacco use should be completely banned on school grounds, including fields and parking lots, and at all school events. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression, overall and by tobacco use status. Correlates were sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, sexual orientation, US region, and whether respondent lived with any children aged 17 years or younger. Results Nationally, 86.1% of adults had a favorable attitude toward tobacco-free school grounds, with larger percentages among nontobacco users (91.9%) than current users (76.1%). State prevalence ranged from 80.0% (Kentucky) to 90.9% (Washington). Overall odds of favorable attitudes were higher among nontobacco users (referent, current users), women (referent, men), and adults aged 25 or older (referent, aged 18–24); odds were lower among residents of the South (referent, West) and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender adults (referent, heterosexual or straight). Conclusion Nearly 9 in 10 US adults have a favorable attitude toward tobacco-free school grounds, but attitudes vary across states and subpopulations. Opportunities exist to educate the public about the benefits of tobacco-free school grounds, which might help reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:26719899
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pogorzelski, Ronald J.
2004-01-01
When electronic oscillators are coupled to nearest neighbors to form an array on a hexagonal lattice, the planar phase distributions desired for excitation of a phased array antenna are not steady state solutions of the governing non-linear equations describing the system. Thus the steady state phase distribution deviates from planar. It is shown to be possible to obtain an exact solution for the steady state phase distribution and thus determine the deviation from the desired planar distribution as a function of beam steering angle.
On the hyperfine structures of the ground state(s) in the 6Li and 7Li atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, A. M.
2016-06-01
The hyperfine structure of the ground 22 S-states of the three-electron atoms and ions is investigated. By using our recent numerical values for the doublet electron density at the atomic nucleus, we determine the hyperfine structure of the ground (doublet) 22 S-state(s) in the 6Li and 7Li atoms. Our predicted values (228.2058 and 803.5581 MHz, respectively) agree well with the experimental values 228.20528(8) MHz (6Li) and 803.50404(48) MHz (7Li [R.G. Schlecht and D.W. McColm, Phys. Rev. 142, 11 (1966)]). The hyperfine structures of a number of lithium isotopes with short lifetimes, including 8Li, 9Li, and 11Li atoms are also predicted. The same method is used to obtain the hyperfine structures of the three-electron 7Be+ and 9Be+ ions in their ground 22 S-states. Finally, we conclude that our approach can be generalized to describe the hyperfine structure in the triplet n 3 S-states of the four-electron atoms and ions.
Jorner, Kjell; Emanuelsson, Rikard; Dahlstrand, Christian; Tong, Hui; Denisova, Aleksandra V; Ottosson, Henrik
2014-07-21
A new qualitative model for estimating the properties of substituted cyclopentadienes and siloles in their lowest ππ* excited states is introduced and confirmed through quantum chemical calculations, and then applied to explain earlier reported experimental excitation energies. According to our model, which is based on excited-state aromaticity and antiaromaticity, siloles and cyclopentadienes are cross-hyperconjugated "aromatic chameleons" that adapt their electronic structures to conform to the various aromaticity rules in different electronic states (Hückel's rule in the π(2) electronic ground state (S0) and Baird's rule in the lowest ππ* excited singlet and triplet states (S1 and T1)). By using pen-and-paper arguments, one can explain polarity changes upon excitation of substituted cyclopentadienes and siloles, and one can tune their lowest excitation energies by combined considerations of ground- and excited-state aromaticity/antiaromaticity effects. Finally, the "aromatic chameleon" model can be extended to other monocyclic compound classes of potential use in organic electronics, thereby providing a unified view of the S0, T1, and S1 states of a range of different cyclic cross-π-conjugated and cross-hyperconjugated compound classes. PMID:25043523
Davis, I.L.
1983-01-01
Two methods for calculating state-changing collisional matrix elements, and hence angular-momentum-mixing cross sections, are presented for a ground state noble gas atom colliding with a Rydberg atom at thermal energies. The first is a fully quantal method using Monte Carlo integration to perform the necessary nonseparable fifteen-dimensional collision integrals. The equations are developed for general treatment in the first and higher Born approximations, the distorted wave approximations,and several close-coupling schemes. The Monte Carlo method is carefully developed and tested for use in the types of integrals involved, and variance reduction techniques are discussed and applied. The second method uses a Gegenbauer polynomial expansion of the -1/r/sup 4/ polarization potential to find the necessary matrix elements. It also employs the elliptic functions and elliptic integrals to calculate the classical trajectory of the ground state atom as it passes the ionic Rydberg core. This semiclassical method is easily transformed into a fully quantal method, retaining only the polarization potential feature, by integrating the translational wave function of the incoming ground state atom and the matrix elements calculated via the Gegenbauer polynomials. The equations of scattering for the first quantal method are then specifically developed for ground state helium colliding with Rydberg helium, and calculation of the l-mixing cross section for He(10/sup 1/P) is performed using over a half million random fifteen-dimensional points. The result, accurate to within a factor of two, gives a result of 1600 A/sup 2/ compared to the experimental value of 2580 +/- 590 A/sup 2/. This experimental value is within the variance of the Monte Carlo calculation.
Ground state cooling of a nanomechanical resonator using electron transport in hybrid systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastelli, Gianluca; Stadler, Pascal; Belzig, Wolfgang
A still open challenge in nanoelectromechanical systems is the achievement of the quantum regime via active cooling and using electron transport. I will discuss active ground state cooling in a bottom-up device, viz. a carbon nanotube quantum dot suspended between two electric nano-contacts, and for two different coherent transport regimes: (i) spin-polarized current between two ferromagnets and (ii) sub-gap Andreev current between a superconductor and a normal metal. I will show that efficient ground state cooling of the resonator can be achieved for realistic parameters of the system and varying the transport parameters, e.g. gate voltage, magnetic field, etc. Finally I will discuss the signatures in the current-voltage characteristics of the non-equilibrium state of the nanoresonator. Zukunftskolleg of the University of Konstanz; DFG through SFB 767 and BE 3803/5.
Understanding degenerate ground states of a protected quantum circuit in the presence of disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dempster, Joshua M.; Fu, Bo; Ferguson, David G.; Schuster, D. I.; Koch, Jens
2014-09-01
A recent theoretical proposal suggests that a simple circuit utilizing two superinductors may produce a qubit with ground-state degeneracy [Brooks, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052306 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052306]. We perform a full circuit analysis along with exact diagonalization of the circuit Hamiltonian to elucidate the nature of the spectrum and low-lying wave functions of this 0-π device. We show that the ground-state degeneracy is robust to disorder in charge, flux, and critical current as well as insensitive to modest variations in the circuit parameters. Our treatment is nonperturbative, provides access to excited states and matrix elements, and is immediately applicable also to intermediate parameter regimes of experimental interest.
Karolewski, Andreas; Kronik, Leeor; Kümmel, Stephan
2013-05-28
Optimally tuned range separated hybrid functionals are a new class of implicitly defined functionals. Their important new aspect is that the range separation parameter in these functionals is determined individually for each system by iteratively tuning it until a fundamental, non-empirical condition is fulfilled. Such functionals have been demonstrated to be extremely successful in predicting electronic excitations. In this paper, we explore the use of the tuning approach for predicting ground state properties. This sheds light on one of its downsides - the violation of size consistency. By analyzing diatomic molecules, we reveal size consistency errors up to several electron volts and find that binding energies cannot be predicted reliably. Further consequences of the consistent ground-state use of the tuning approach are potential energy surfaces that are qualitatively in error and an incorrect prediction of spin states. We discuss these failures, their origins, and possibilities for overcoming them.
Ground state of the Frenkel-Kontorova model with a transverse degree of freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, O. M.; Peyrard, M.
1995-05-01
We study the ground state of a generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model with a transverse degree of freedom. The model describes a lattice of atoms with a fixed concentration, interacting by long-range repulsive forces, which is submitted to a two-dimensional substrate potential periodic (sinusoidal) in one direction and symmetric (parabolic) or asymmetric (Toda-like) in the transverse direction. When the magnitude of the interatomic repulsion increases, the ground state of the model undergoes a series of bifurcations. In particular, the first bifurcation leads to a zigzag ground state and results in drastic change of system properties, including a cusp in the average elastic constant. For incommensurate cases, the bifurcation can interplay with the Aubry transition from a pinned to a sliding state. A reentrant pinned state has, for instance, been found. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the next bifurcations depends on the symmetry of the substrate potential in the transverse direction. Finally, we discuss briefly the applicability of the model to describe conductivity of superionic conductors, surface diffusion, and crystal growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Diabou Gaye, Mame; Párkányi, Cyril; Cho, Nam Sook; Von Szentpály, László
1987-01-01
The ground-state dipole moments of seven biologically important purines (purine, 6-chloropurine, 6-mercaptopurine, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and caffeine) were determined at 25°C in acetic acid (all the above compounds with the exception of purine) and in ethyl acetate (purine, theophylline and caffeine). Because of its low solubility, it was not possible to measure the dipole moment of uric acid. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments were obtained on the basis of the Bakhshiev and Chamma—Viallet equations using the variation of the Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant-refractive index term. The theoretical dipole moments for all the purines listed above and including uric acid were calculated by combining the use of the PPP (π-LCI-SCF-MO) method for the π-contribution to the overall dipole moment with the σ-contribution obtained as a vector sum of the σbond moments and group moments. The experimental and theoretical values were compared with the data available in the literature for some of the purines under study. For several purines, the calculations were carried out for different tautomeric forms. Excited singlet-state dipole moments are smaller than the ground-state values by 0.8 to 2.2 Debye units for all purines under study with the exception of 6-chloropurine. The effects of the structure upon the ground- and excited-state dipole moments of the purines are discussed.
Sign structure and ground-state properties for a spin-S t-J chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qing-Rui; Ye, Peng
2014-07-01
The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain of odd spin S is in the Haldane phase with several defining physical properties, such as thermodynamical ground-state degeneracy, symmetry-protected edge states, and nonzero string order parameter. If nonzero hole concentration δ and hole hopping energy t are considered, the spin chain is replaced by a spin-S t-J chain. The motivation of this paper is to generalize the discussions of the Haldane phase to the doped spin chain. The first result of this paper is that, for the model considered here, the Z2 sign structure in the usual Ising basis can be totally removed by two consecutive unitary transformations consisting of a spatially local one and a nonlocal one. Direct from the sign structure, the second result of this paper is that the Marshall theorem and the Lieb-Mattis theorem for pure spin systems are generalized to the t-J chain for arbitrary S and δ. A corollary of the theorem provides us with the ground-state degeneracy in the thermodynamic limit. The third result of this paper is about the phase diagram. We show that the defining properties of the Haldane phase survive in the small t /J limit. The large t /J phase supports a gapped spin sector with similar properties (ground-state degeneracy, edge state, and string order parameter) of the Haldane chain, although the charge sector is gapless.
Rota, R.; Casulleras, J.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.
2015-03-21
We present a method based on the path integral Monte Carlo formalism for the calculation of ground-state time correlation functions in quantum systems. The key point of the method is the consideration of time as a complex variable whose phase δ acts as an adjustable parameter. By using high-order approximations for the quantum propagator, it is possible to obtain Monte Carlo data all the way from purely imaginary time to δ values near the limit of real time. As a consequence, it is possible to infer accurately the spectral functions using simple inversion algorithms. We test this approach in the calculation of the dynamic structure function S(q, ω) of two one-dimensional model systems, harmonic and quartic oscillators, for which S(q, ω) can be exactly calculated. We notice a clear improvement in the calculation of the dynamic response with respect to the common approach based on the inverse Laplace transform of the imaginary-time correlation function.
Rota, R; Casulleras, J; Mazzanti, F; Boronat, J
2015-03-21
We present a method based on the path integral Monte Carlo formalism for the calculation of ground-state time correlation functions in quantum systems. The key point of the method is the consideration of time as a complex variable whose phase δ acts as an adjustable parameter. By using high-order approximations for the quantum propagator, it is possible to obtain Monte Carlo data all the way from purely imaginary time to δ values near the limit of real time. As a consequence, it is possible to infer accurately the spectral functions using simple inversion algorithms. We test this approach in the calculation of the dynamic structure function S(q, ω) of two one-dimensional model systems, harmonic and quartic oscillators, for which S(q, ω) can be exactly calculated. We notice a clear improvement in the calculation of the dynamic response with respect to the common approach based on the inverse Laplace transform of the imaginary-time correlation function. PMID:25796238
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Arentoft, Torben; Gruberbauer, Michael; Guenther, David B.; Houdek, Günter; Kallinger, Thomas; Kjeldsen, Hans; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Stello, Dennis; Weiss, Werner W.
2011-04-01
We compare the simultaneous 2007 space-based MOST photometry and ground-based radial velocity (RV) observations of the F5 star Procyon. We identify slow variations in the MOST data that are similar to those reported in the RV time series and confirm by comparison with the Sun that these variations are likely the signature of stellar activity. The MOST power spectrum yields clear evidence for individual oscillation frequencies that match those found in the RV data by Bedding et al. We identify the same ridges due to modes of different spherical degree in both data sets, but are not able to confirm a definite ridge identification using the MOST data. We measure the luminosity amplitude per radial mode A l=0,phot = 9.1 ± 0.5 ppm. Combined with the estimate for the RV data by Arentoft et al., this gives a mean amplitude ratio of A l=0,phot/A l=0,RV = 0.24 ± 0.02 ppm cm-1 s, considerably higher than expected from scaling relations but in reasonable agreement with theoretical models by Houdek. We also compare the amplitude ratio as a function of frequency and find that the maximum of the oscillation envelope is shifted to higher frequencies in photometry than in velocity. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.
{alpha} decays to ground and excited states of heavy deformed nuclei
Denisov, V. Yu.; Khudenko, A. A.
2009-09-15
The experimental data for {alpha}-decay half-lives to ground and excited states of deformed nuclei with 222{<=}A{<=}252 and 88{<=}Z{<=}102 are analyzed in the framework of the unified model for {alpha} decay and {alpha} capture. The branching ratios to excited states depend on the energy and the angular momentum of the {alpha} particle. The evaluated branching ratios for 0{sub g.s.}{sup +}{yields}0{sub g.s.}{sup +},2{sup +},4{sup +} {alpha} transitions in even-even nuclei agree with the experimental data. The experimental and calculated branching ratios for {alpha} transitions into more highly excited states are similar.