Science.gov

Sample records for osiris reactor

  1. Improvement of Nuclear Heating Evaluation Inside the Core of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péron, Arthur; Malouch, Fadhel; Diop, Cheikh M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a nuclear heating from neutron and photon rays calculation scheme mainly based on the Monte-Carlo neutral particle transport code TRIPOLI-4® which takes into account the axial distributions of fuel element compositions. This calculation scheme is applied to the OSIRIS reactor in order to evaluate the effect of using realistic axially heterogeneous compositions instead of uniform ones. After a description of nuclear heating evaluation, the calculation scheme is described. Numerical simulations and related results are detailed and analysed to determine the impact of axially heterogeneous compositions on fluxes, power and nuclear heating.

  2. Online monitoring of the Osiris reactor with the Nucifer neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boireau, G.; Bouvet, L.; Collin, A. P.; Coulloux, G.; Cribier, M.; Deschamp, H.; Durand, V.; Fechner, M.; Fischer, V.; Gaffiot, J.; Gérard Castaing, N.; Granelli, R.; Kato, Y.; Lasserre, T.; Latron, L.; Legou, P.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Mention, G.; Mueller, Th. A.; Nghiem, T.-A.; Pedrol, N.; Pelzer, J.; Pequignot, M.; Piret, Y.; Prono, G.; Scola, L.; Starzinski, P.; Vivier, M.; Dumonteil, E.; Mancusi, D.; Varignon, C.; Buck, C.; Lindner, M.; Bazoma, J.; Bouvier, S.; Bui, V. M.; Communeau, V.; Cucoanes, A.; Fallot, M.; Gautier, M.; Giot, L.; Guilloux, G.; Lenoir, M.; Martino, J.; Mercier, G.; Milleto, T.; Peuvrel, N.; Porta, A.; Le Quéré, N.; Renard, C.; Rigalleau, L. M.; Roy, D.; Vilajosana, T.; Yermia, F.; Nucifer Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Originally designed as a new nuclear reactor monitoring device, the Nucifer detector has successfully detected its first neutrinos. We provide the second-shortest baseline measurement of the reactor neutrino flux. The detection of electron antineutrinos emitted in the decay chains of the fission products, combined with reactor core simulations, provides a new tool to assess both the thermal power and the fissile content of the whole nuclear core and could be used by the International Agency for Atomic Energy to enhance the safeguards of civil nuclear reactors. Deployed at only 7.2 m away from the compact Osiris research reactor core (70 MW) operating at the Saclay research center of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, the experiment also exhibits a well-suited configuration to search for a new short baseline oscillation. We report the first results of the Nucifer experiment, describing the performances of the ˜0.85 m3 detector remotely operating at a shallow depth equivalent to ˜12 m of water and under intense background radiation conditions. Based on 145 (106) days of data with the reactor on (off), leading to the detection of an estimated 40760 ν¯ e , the mean number of detected antineutrinos is 281 ±7 (stat )±18 (syst )ν¯ e/day , in agreement with the prediction of 277 ±23 ν¯ e/day . Because of the large background, no conclusive results on the existence of light sterile neutrinos could be derived, however. As a first societal application we quantify how antineutrinos could be used for the Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement.

  3. Monte-Carlo Simulations of the Nuclear Energy Deposition Inside the CARMEN-1P Differential Calorimeter Irradiated into OSIRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M.; Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. These measurements are then used for other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. Nuclear heating is a great deal of interest at the moment as the measurement of such heating is an important issue for MTRs reactors. This need is especially generated by the new Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), under construction at CEA/Cadarache 'French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission'. This new reactor, that will be operational in late 2019, is a new facility for the nuclear research on materials and fuels. Indeed the expected nuclear heating rate is about 20 W/g for nominal capacity of 100 MW. The present Monte Carlo calculation works belong to the IN-CORE (Instrumentation for Nuclear radiation and Calorimetry On line in Reactor): a joint research program between the CEA and Aix- Marseille University in 2009. One scientific aim of this program is to design and develop a multi-sensors device, called CARMEN, dedicated to the measurements of main physical parameters simultaneously encountered inside JHR's experimental channels (core and reflector) such as neutron fluxes, photon fluxes, temperature, and nuclear heating. A first prototype was already developed. This prototype includes two mock-ups dedicated respectively to neutronic measurements (CARMEN-1N) and to photonic measurements (CARMEN-1P) with in particular a specific differential calorimeter. Two irradiation campaigns were performed successfully in the periphery of OSIRIS reactor (a MTR located at Saclay, France) in 2012 for nuclear heating levels up to 2 W/g. First Monte Carlo calculations reduced to the graphite sample of the calorimeter were

  4. New Dosimetric Interpretation of the DV50 Vessel-Steel Experiment Irradiated in the OSIRIS MTR Reactor Using the Monte-Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2016-02-01

    An irradiation program DV50 was carried out from 2002 to 2006 in the OSIRIS material testing reactor (CEA-Saclay center) to assess the pressure vessel steel toughness curve for a fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) equivalent to a French 900-MWe PWR lifetime of 50 years. This program allowed the irradiation of 120 specimens out of vessel steel, subdivided in two successive irradiations DV50 n∘1 and DV50 n∘2. To measure the fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) received by specimens after each irradiation, sample holders were equipped with activation foils that were withdrawn at the end of irradiation for activity counting and processing. The fast effective cross-sections used in the dosimeter processing were determined with a specific calculation scheme based on the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-3 (and the nuclear data ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90). In order to put vessel-steel experiments at the same standard, a new dosimetric interpretation of the DV50 experiment has been performed by using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 and more recent nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 and IRDF-2002). This paper presents a comparison of previous and recent calculations performed for the DV50 vessel-steel experiment to assess the impact on the dosimetric interpretation.

  5. First in-core simultaneous measurements of nuclear heating and thermal neutron flux obtained with the innovative mobile calorimeter CALMOS inside the OSIRIS reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lepeltier, Valerie; Bubendorff, Jacques; Carcreff, Hubert; Salmon, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear heating inside a MTR reactor has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry. The innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new type of calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. This development required preliminary modelling and irradiation of mock-ups of the calorimetric probe in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g{sup -1}. The calorimeter working modes, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe, the main modeling and experimental results and expected advantages of this new technique have been already presented. However, these first in-core measurements were not performed beyond 6 W.g{sup -1}, due to an inside temperature limitation imposed by a safety authority requirement. In this paper, we present the first in-core simultaneous measurements of nuclear heating and conventional thermal neutron flux obtained by the CALMOS device at the 70 MW nominal reactor power. For the first time, this experimental system was operated in nominal in-core conditions, with nominal neutron flux up to 2.7 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and nuclear heating up to 12 W.g{sup -1}. A comprehensive measurement campaign carried out from 2013 to 2015 inside all accessible irradiation locations of the core, allowed to qualify definitively this new device, not only in terms of measurement ability but also in terms of reliability. After a brief reminder of the calorimetric cell configuration and displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions at nominal power are presented and discussed. In order to reinforce the heating evaluation, a systematic comparison is made between results obtained by

  6. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Gus J.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Milbrath, B. D.; Jordan, D. V.; Warren, G. A.; Wilmer, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  7. OSIRIS-REx: Journey to an Asteroid

    NASA Video Gallery

    OSIRIS-REx will pluck samples from an asteroid and return them to Earth. The samples could help explain our solar system's formation and how life began. OSIRIS-REx (short for Origins-Spectral Inter...

  8. OSIRIS 4.0: new version of the OSIRIS framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Tableman, Adam; Vieira, Jorge; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, LuíS.

    2016-10-01

    OSIRIS is a state of the art, fully relativistic massively parallel particle in cell code, that is widely used in kinetic plasma modeling for many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios. Over the years the code has been continuously improved, adding new features and algorithms, resulting in a large and complex code base with the inherent difficulties on maintenance and development. We report on the new version of the OSIRIS framework, focusing on the new structure of the code that leverages on the object oriented features of Fortran 2003, that are now widely supported by available compilers. Details on the new object-oriented structure, that allows for the encapsulation of specific features, and better collaboration between the development team, are given. We also focus on the new strategy for run-time selection of simulation mode, that allows for a single binary to be used with all code features, and report on the template based code generation for multiple interpolation levels. Finally, we report on our experience on implementing these features with multiple compilers, and the code changes required to ensure a wide compiler support. This work was partially supported by NSF ACI 1339893 and PTDC/FIS-PLA/2940/2014.

  9. OSIRIS Large Guaranteed Time Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Ramón-Pérez, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Alfaro, E. J.; Castaneda, H. O.; Cervino, M.; Gallego, J.; González, J. J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Lara-López, M. A.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Jones, D. H.

    2017-03-01

    The status of OTELO and Lockman SpReSO surveys, the two large guaranteed time programs currently under way using OSIRIS at the 10.4m GTC is presented. The OTELO project, designed to detect the main optical emission lines from Hα to Lyα at redshifts from 0.4 through 7, is the deepest emission line survey to date, with unprecedented sensitivity in the detection of small equivalent widths. Lockman SpReSO is aimed to obtaining optical spectra, up to 24.5 AB magnitudes, in the central 24×24 square arcminutes of the Lockman Hole field, which has been observed with ROSAT and XMM–Newton at the highest depth. Lockman SpReSO mainly targets Far Infrared sources detected with the Herschel Space Observatory.

  10. NASA Now: Primitive Asteroids: OSIRIS-Rex

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Joseph A. Nuth III, project scientist for the new Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer mission, provides an in-depth look at why the OSIRIS-REx mis...

  11. OSIRIS camera barrel optomechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Alejandro; Tejada, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jesus; Cobos, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Beatriz; Fuentes, Javier; Ruiz, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.

  12. OSIRIS-REx, Returning the Asteroid Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajluni, Thomas, M.; Everett, David F.; Linn, Timothy; Mink, Ronald; Willcockson, William; Wood, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the technical aspects of the sample return system for the upcoming Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission. The overall mission design and current implementation are presented as an overview to establish a context for the technical description of the reentry and landing segment of the mission.The prime objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to sample a primitive, carbonaceous asteroid and to return that sample to Earth in pristine condition for detailed laboratory analysis. Targeting the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, the mission launches in September 2016 with an Earth reentry date of September 24, 2023.OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize asteroid Bennu providing knowledge of the nature of near-Earth asteroids that is fundamental to understanding planet formation and the origin of life. The return to Earth of pristine samples with known geologic context will enable precise analyses that cannot be duplicated by spacecraft-based instruments, revolutionizing our understanding of the early Solar System. Bennu is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid and one of the most potentially Earth-hazardous asteroids known. Study of Bennu addresses multiple NASA objectives to understand the origin of the Solar System and the origin of life and will provide a greater understanding of both the hazards and resources in near-Earth space, serving as a precursor to future human missions to asteroids.This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) design and concept of operations, including trajectory design and reentry retrieval. Highlights of the mission are included below.The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft provides the essential functions for an asteroid characterization and sample return mission: attitude control propulsion power thermal control telecommunications command and data handling structural support to ensure successful

  13. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  14. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  15. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  16. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  17. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  18. Stratospheric Ozone Trends Inferred from the OSIRIS Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, Doug; Bourassa, Adam; Roth, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin platform has been making high quality, vertically resolved ozone measurements since the autumn of 2001. These measurements, that span an altitude range that covers the cloud tops to 60 km, have been used within multiple studies to determine stratospheric ozone trends. In particular the OSIRIS measurements are an important component of the HARMOZ data set produced within the ESA ozone_cci program and the OSIRIS measurements have been merged with similar SAGE II measurements to produce ozone trend results that cover the period from the launch of SAGE II up to the present. As OSIRIS is the longest lived instrument that currently measures vertical ozone profiles, as long as the results remain of sufficiently high quality, its data products become exponentially more important every year. This paper will detail recent advancements in the OSIRIS ozone retrieval algorithm that have made the results more robust. A recent pointing correction will also be discussed. This correction has resulted in a reduction in magnitude of the positive trends reported recently by groups using the OSIRIS data record. These new results will be verified through comparison with trends derived using MLS measurements merged with SAGE II data where the merging process for the SAGE II - OSIRIS and SAGE II - MLS data sets was done in an identical fashion.

  19. OTI-010 Osiris Therapeutics/JCR Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Osiris Therapeutics is developing the donor-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy OTI-010, which repopulates the bone marrow stroma and thus supports engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from the same donor. This stem cell therapy, which has been awarded Orphan Drug status, is currently in development for the potential enhancement of bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, for the prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Japanese licensee JCR Pharmaceuticals is investigating the therapy for the potential treatment of GVHD in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation to treat leukemia. Phase II clinical trials in acute gastrointestinal GVHD and in adult and pediatric patients with treatment-refractory severe GVHD are currently underway.

  20. Measurement of the fast Fission Yields of 233U with OSIRIS at Studsvik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, J.; Fogelberg, B.; Storrer, F.; Rudstam, G.; Mach, H.

    1998-10-01

    The current investigations of accelerator driven energy systems (ADS) for transmutation purposes of nuclear wastes give a strong motivation to improve Fission Yield Data (FYD) for the 232Th/233U nuclear fuel cycle. The dominant part of the neutron spectrum in most of the proposed ADS correspond to fast neutrons and can be simulated by ≈500 keV. A measurement of the fast 233U FYD was recently initiated in collaboration between the Reactor Studies Department of CEA (Cadarache, France) and the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala University (Studsvik, Sweden) using the OSIRIS facility on-line mass separator coupled with the R2-0 thermal (water cooled, moderated) reactor as a neutron source. The target of 233U was shielded from thermal and epithermal neutrons by a boron carbide neutron absorber.A detailed description of this experiment and the method of analysis will be presented in the present paper.

  1. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  2. The OSIRIS imaging system for Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft will be launched in January 2003. After a series of encounters with Mars, the Earth-Moon system and two main belt asteroids, Rosetta will encounter the nucleus of comet Wirtanen in 2012. This will start a detailed long-term investigation of the nucleus and its activity lasting through to perihelion in July 2013. The main imaging system on the spacecraft is called OSIRIS. OSIRIS comprises a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to high resolution studies of the nucleus, and a wide angle camera (WAC), which is designed to investigate the dust emission and the innermost gas coma. The NAC is an f/8, 3-mirror, off-axis, telescope made out of SiC. The 727 mm focal length system provides an angular scale of 18.? microrad/px when combined with the 13.5 micron 2k x 2k CCD detector. Dual filters comprising a total of 12 interference filters covering the range 250 nm to 1 micron are in the light path. The filter wheels also carry a re-focussing plate, so that when Rosetta makes its closest approach to the comet (at an estimated distance of just 1 km from the surface), the system will remain in focus. The WAC is an f/5.6, 2-mirror, off-axis telescope. The 140 mm focal length system provides a resolution ratio of 5 with the NAC. The filter wheel contains 14 filters (mostly narrow-band) for investigation of dust and gas radical emissions (e.g. OH, CN, O1D, and NH2). Two broad-band filters have also been included for redundancy reasons. Identical focal plane assemblies, filter wheels, shutters and door mechanisms (for protection against cometary dust emission) are used in both cameras. The presentation will describe the system as built. The flight model cameras were delivered to the spacecraft at the end of 2001 after a short but extensive calibration campaign. Over 300 Gbytes of data were acquired. These data are still being investigated. Here, however, we present initial results from the calibration activities and assess the

  3. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  4. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  5. Merging the SAGE II and OSIRIS Stratospheric Aerosol Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Landon; Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug

    2016-04-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite, launched in 2001 and currently operational, measures limb-scattered sunlight from which profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction at 750nm are retrieved. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) II instrument was operational from 1985 to 2005, and provided aerosol extinction at several visible and near infrared wavelengths. This work compares the SAGE II and OSIRIS aerosol extinction measurements during the four years of instrument overlap by interpolating the SAGE II data to 750nm using the 525 and 1020nm channels. Agreement is generally favourable in the tropics and mid-latitudes with differences less than 10% for the majority of the aerosol layer. However, near the UTLS and outside of the tropics agreement is poorer and reasons for this are investigated. Comparisons between the OSIRIS and SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements at 750nm are used to develop a merged aerosol climatology as a function of time, latitude and altitude at the native SAGE II wavelength of 525nm. Error due to assumptions in the OSIRIS retrieval and wavelength conversion are explored through simulation studies over a range of particle size distributions and is found to be approximately 20% for the majority of low-to-moderate volcanic loading conditions and OSIRIS geometries. Other sources of error such as cloud contamination in the UTLS are also explored.

  6. Plugin for OsiriX: mean shift segmentation.

    PubMed

    Vides, Cañas S; Azpíroz, Leehan J; Jiménez, Alaniz J R

    2007-01-01

    Open source and plugin-based software provide the possibilities for a flexible and free transportation of algorithms to final users. In medical image processing, OsiriX is an instance of the fulfillment of this potential. This work presents the plugin implementation of the mean shift segmentation algorithm. It presents the modeling of the methodology using Object-Oriented tools, as a part of software development process. The resultant models have been represented through Unified Modeling Language (UML). The model parts have been implemented and proved as an OsiriX plugin, helping bridge the divide between algorithms devised in research laboratories and the application of these tools in the clinical setting.

  7. Odin-OSIRIS detection of the Chelyabinsk meteor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, L. A.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    On February 15th, 2013 the Chelyabinsk meteor exploded at 23 km altitude, scattering approximately 11,000 tons of material and causing the most energetic impact event since the 1908 Tunguska blast. Some of this material was ejected into the stratosphere in a large mushroom cloud and was subsequently detected by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). This work confirms the presence and lifetime of the stratospheric debris using the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) onboard the Odin satellite. Although OSIRIS coverage begins in mid-March, the measurements show a high-altitude polar belt of enhanced scattering present until May of 2013.

  8. Scientific assessment of the quality of OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Kovacs, G.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Fornasier, S.; Lara, L.; La Forgia, F.; Magrin, S.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Besse, S.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez-Marques, P.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hoekzema, N.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Moissl, R.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. OSIRIS, the scientific imaging system onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, has been imaging the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its dust and gas environment since March 2014. The images serve different scientific goals, from morphology and composition studies of the nucleus surface, to the motion and trajectories of dust grains, the general structure of the dust coma, the morphology and intensity of jets, gas distribution, mass loss, and dust and gas production rates. Aims: We present the calibration of the raw images taken by OSIRIS and address the accuracy that we can expect in our scientific results based on the accuracy of the calibration steps that we have performed. Methods: We describe the pipeline that has been developed to automatically calibrate the OSIRIS images. Through a series of steps, radiometrically calibrated and distortion corrected images are produced and can be used for scientific studies. Calibration campaigns were run on the ground before launch and throughout the years in flight to determine the parameters that are used to calibrate the images and to verify their evolution with time. We describe how these parameters were determined and we address their accuracy. Results: We provide a guideline to the level of trust that can be put into the various studies performed with OSIRIS images, based on the accuracy of the image calibration.

  9. Improved OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm: description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Rieger, Landon A.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Roth, Chris Z.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Berthet, Gwenaël; Catoire, Valéry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; McLinden, Chris A.

    2017-03-01

    A new retrieval algorithm for OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles is described and validated. The algorithm relies on spectral fitting to obtain slant column densities of NO2, followed by inversion using an algebraic reconstruction technique and the SaskTran spherical radiative transfer model (RTM) to obtain vertical profiles of local number density. The validation covers different latitudes (tropical to polar), years (2002-2012), all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn), different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (from denoxified polar vortex to polar summer), a range of solar zenith angles (68.6-90.5°), and altitudes between 10.5 and 39 km, thereby covering the full retrieval range of a typical OSIRIS NO2 profile. The use of a larger spectral fitting window than used in previous retrievals reduces retrieval uncertainties and the scatter in the retrieved profiles due to noisy radiances. Improvements are also demonstrated through the validation in terms of bias reduction at 15-17 km relative to the OSIRIS operational v3.0 algorithm. The diurnal variation of NO2 along the line of sight is included in a fully spherical multiple scattering RTM for the first time. Using this forward model with built-in photochemistry, the scatter of the differences relative to the correlative balloon NO2 profile data is reduced.

  10. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  11. Simulations of 3D LPI's relevant to IFE using the PIC code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Winjum, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We will study three dimensional effects of laser plasma instabilities, including backward raman scattering, the high frequency hybrid instability, and the two plasmon instability using OSIRIS in 3D Cartesian geometry and cylindrical 2D OSIRIS with azimuthal mode decompositions. With our new capabilities we hope to demonstrate that we are capable of studying single speckle physics relevant to IFE in an efficent manner.

  12. The OSIRIS-REx laser altimeter (OLA): Development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M.; Barnouin, O.; Johnson, C.; Bierhaus, E.; Seabrook, J.; Dickinson, C.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Cunningham, G.; Lauretta, D.; Boynton, W.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The NASA New Frontiers Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission will be the first to sample the B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu [1]. This asteroid is thought to be primitive and carbonaceous, and is probably closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites [2]. The OSIRIS-REx mission hopes to better understand both the physical and geochemical origin and evolution of carbonaceous asteroids through its investigation of Bennu. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will launch in September 2016, and arrive at Bennu two years later. The Canadian Space Agency is contributing a scanning lidar system known as the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), to the OSIRIS-REx Mission. The OLA instrument is part of suite of onboard instruments [3] including cameras (OCAMS) [4], a visible and near- infrared spectrometer (OVIRS) [5], a thermal emission spectrometer (OTES), and an X-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) [6]. OLA Objectives: The OLA instrument has a suite of scientific and mission operations purposes. At a global scale, it will update the shape and mass of Bennu to provide insights on the geological origin and evolution of Bennu, by, for example, further refining constraints on its bulk density. With a carefully undertaken geodesy campaign, OLA-based precision ranges, constraints from radio science (2-way tracking) data and stereo OCAMS images, it will yield broad-scale, quantitative constraints on any internal heterogeneity of Bennu and hence provide further clues to Bennu's origin and subsequent collisional evolution. OLA-derived global asteroid maps of slopes, elevation relative to the asteroid geoid, and vertical roughness will provide quantitative insights on how local-regional surfaces on Bennu evolved subsequent to the formation of the asteroid. In addition, OLA data and derived products support the assessment of the safety and sampleability of potential sample sites. At the sample-site scale, the OLA instrument

  13. Opening the terahertz window on the OSIRIS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; McPhail, D.; Crawford, J.; Maxwell, D.; Pokhilchuk, K.; Garcia-Sakai, V.; Mukhopadyay, S.; Telling, M. T. F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Skipper, N. T.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

    2015-01-01

    A cooled and mechanically retractable beryllium filter has been installed and commissioned on the low-energy OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS. This instrument development extends the energy-transfer range of the spectrometer up to ca. 20 meV (˜ 5 THz), leading to an excellent resolution at THz frequencies and substantial gains in detected flux relative to existing capabilities on the neighbouring IRIS spectrometer. Herein, we provide a concise account of this new capability for high-resolution neutron spectroscopy in the THz domain, as well as outline a number of ongoing and potential scientific opportunities in condensed-matter physics, chemistry, and materials science.

  14. Thermophysical Characteristics of OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liangliang; Ji, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermophysical properties, including thermal inertia, roughness fraction and surface grain size of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu by using a thermophysical model with the recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model (Nolan et al., 2013) and mid-infrared observations (Müller et al. 2012, Emery et al., 2014). We find that the asteroid bears an effective diameter of 510+6 -40 m, a geometric albedo of 0.047+0.0083 -0.0011, a roughness fraction of 0.04+0.26 -0.04, and thermal inertia of 240+440 -60 Jm-2s-0.5K-1 for our best-fit solution. The best-estimate thermal inertia suggests that fine-grained regolith may cover a large portion of Bennu's surface, where a grain size may vary from 1.3 to 31 mm. Our outcome suggests that Bennu is suitable for the OSIRIS-REx mission to return samples to Earth.

  15. OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go (TAG) Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIES-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper will summarize the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and present analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and +-2 cms of the targeted contact velocity. The paper will describe some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.

  16. OSIRI-REx Touch and Go (TAG) Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper also summarizes the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and presents analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and 2 cm/s of the targeted contact velocity. The paper describes some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.

  17. Comet 67P as seen by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe L.; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    In September 2016, the ESA Rosetta mission will come to its ending. Having escorted comet 67P for more than two years, the scientific camera system OSIRIS onboard Rosetta witnessed all important milestones of the mission: after the first characterization and the Philae landing we saw the comet's activity increasing while it was approaching the Sun. During the peak of activity around perihel in August 2015, the spacecraft had to retreat to a safe distance but we witnessed strong but predictable jet activity and, at the same time, short lived eruptions, some of these being big outbursts. When the activity declined post perihelion and allowed the spacecraft to go back closer, comparison with the early characterization revealed numerous morphologic changes on the surface, which can be attributed to the strong activity during perihelion passage.The paper will give an overview of latest OSIRIS science and discoveries including the morphology, activity, and surface changes mentioned above. Implications on the nature of the comet and its mechanisms will be drawn from these. The current plan for the mission is to go to very close distances in August and September 2016 and finally land the spacecraft on 67P.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre

  18. Modeling of Ionization Physics with the PIC Code OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Tsung, F.; Lee, S.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; O'Connell, C.; Dodd, E.; Decker, F.J.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Hemker, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Joshi, C.; Ren, C.; Raimondi, P.; Wang, S.; Walz, D.; /Southern California U. /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    When considering intense particle or laser beams propagating in dense plasma or gas, ionization plays an important role. Impact ionization and tunnel ionization may create new plasma electrons, altering the physics of wakefield accelerators, causing blue shifts in laser spectra, creating and modifying instabilities, etc. Here we describe the addition of an impact ionization package into the 3-D, object-oriented, fully parallel PIC code OSIRIS. We apply the simulation tool to simulate the parameters of the upcoming E164 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We find that impact ionization is dominated by the plasma electrons moving in the wake rather than the 30 GeV drive beam electrons. Impact ionization leads to a significant number of trapped electrons accelerated from rest in the wake.

  19. The OSIRIS-REx Contamination Control and Witness Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Adelman, L.; Ajluni, T. M.; Andronikov, A. V.; Ballou, D. M.; Bartels, A. E.; Beshore, E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W. V.; Brucato, J. R.; Callahan, M. P.; Benton, B. C.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Enos, H. L.; Elsila, J. E.; Everett, D. F.; Franchi, I. A.; Fust, J. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Hendershot, J. E.; Harris, J. W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Jayne, G.; Jenkins, R. W.; Kretsch, W. E.; Kuhns, R. M.; Lauretta, D. S.; Ladewig, J. V.; Lorentson, C. C.; Marshall, J. R.; Matthias, L. L.; McLain, H. L.; Messenger, S. R.; Mink, R. G.; Moore, J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nuth, J. A.; Righter, K.; Roher, W. D.; Sandford, S. A.; Schepis, J. P.; Sovinski, M. F.; Walker, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security Regolith Explorer) is the third NASA New Frontiers mission. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The primary objective of the mission is to return at least 60 g of "pristine" material from the B-type near- Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, which is spectrally similar to organic-rich CI or CM meteorites [1]. The study of these samples will advance our understanding of materials available for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. The spacecraft will rendezvous with Bennu in 2018 and spend at least a year characterizing the asteroid before executing a maneuver to recover a sample of regolith in the touch-and-go sample acquisition mechanism (TAGSAM). The TAGSAM and sample is stowed in the sample return capsule (SRC) and returned to Earth in 2023.

  20. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  1. Analysis of Opposition effect on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's nucleus from Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Leyrat, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Osiris Team

    2015-10-01

    We aim to assess two mechanisms involved in opposition effect phenomenon, i.e. shadow hiding effect (SHOE) and coherent backscattering effect (CBOE), using OSIRIS images taken on the 14th of February 2015.

  2. The OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission from Asteroid Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Dante; Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security‒Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return and analyze a sample of pristine regolith from asteroid 101955 Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid and also a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. Returned samples are expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. In addition, the OSIRIS-REx mission will obtain valuable information on sample context by imaging the sample site; characterize its global geology; map global chemistry and mineralogy; investigate dynamic history by measuring the Yarkovsky effect; and advance asteroid astronomy by characterizing surface properties for direct comparison with ground-based telescopic observations of the entire asteroid population. Following launch in September 2016, the spacecraft will encounter Bennu in August 2018, then embark on a systematic study of geophysical and morphological characteristics of this ~500-meter-diameter object, including a systematic search for satellites and plumes. For determination of context, composition, and sampleability of various candidate sites, advanced instruments for remote global observations include OVIRS (visible to mid-IR spectrometric mapper), OTES (mid- to far-IR mineral and thermal emission mapper), OLA (mapping laser altimeter), and a suite of scientific cameras (OCAMS) with sub-cm pixel size from low-altitude Reconnaissance passes. A unique sample acquisition mechanism (SAM) capable of collecting up to one liter of regolith under ideal conditions (abundant small particulates < 2 cm) is expected to obtain at least 60 g of bulk regolith as well as surface grains on contact pads for analysis upon return to Earth. Using touch-and-go (TAG), a few seconds of contact is adequate for the gas-driven collection technique to acquire sample. This TAGSAM system has been developed and

  3. OsiriX plugin for integrated cardiac imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüllebrand, Markus; Hennemuth, Anja; Messroghli, Daniel; Kühne, Titus

    2014-03-01

    Strongly evolving imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays provide a multitude of new complementary techniques for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue properties, function, and hemodynamics. The purpose of the presented work is to provide a research tool, which enables a quick validation of newly developed imaging techniques and supports the co-development of clinically usable analysis tools, which allow an integration with existing complementary examination methods. The concepts combined to this end consist of an integration with the open source research PACS OsiriX, an advanced heuristic DICOM classification and preprocessing as well as an integrative data model, which accumulates patient-specific image data, results and the data relations. Specific processing and analysis plugins can easily be integrated in such a way that they use the data integration and visualization infrastructure as well as results from other existing plugins. The presented example applications, such as the evaluation of slice orientations for cardiac function quantification or the integrated analysis of different types of image data for diagnosis of myocarditis show that the provided tool can be successfully used for a multitude of research applications in cardiovascular imaging.

  4. Recent fluffy dust observations by Rosetta / GIADA and OSIRIS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, Marco; Rotundi, Alessandra; Sierks, Holger; Guettler, Carsten; Della corte, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    During the 18 months of ongoing operations of ESA Rosetta Mission at comet 67P, the GIADA dust detector on-board the Rosetta orbiter has observed tens of showers of hundreds of mm-sized particles lasting a few seconds each. These particles had always a momentum below the detection threshold and speeds below 0.1 m/s. During campaigns investigating the source of false stars affecting the performance of Rosetta star-trackers, the OSIRIS Wide-Angle Camera has as well detected showers of mm-sized dust floating close to the spacecraft at speeds of a few cm/s. The observed low speeds, much lower than the escaping velocity from 67P nucleus, imply a strong dust deceleration at the spacecraft, possibly by its negative potential, which charges and fragments cm-sized fluffy parents of very low density (possibly close to 1 kg per cubic meter). The spacecraft electric field decelerates the approaching charged fragments, which are then accelerated away from the spacecraft in all the directions. This continuously replenished cloud of fluffy fragments, much denser than the surrounding dust coma, may be the source of Rosetta star-tracker issues, and should drive the software of star-trackers of future cometary missions. The presence of extremely fluffy particles in 67P nucleus puts strong constraints on the accretion history of the nuclei of the Jupiter Family Comets.

  5. OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, and ultimately return a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately 3 months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid finally becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, which slow the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu on Nov 18, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroids shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.

  6. OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, ultimately returning a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately three months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, slowing the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu in Nov, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroid's shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.

  7. The OVIRS Visible/IR Spectrometer on the OSIRIS-Rex Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, D. C.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer) Mission is a planetary science mission to study, and return a sample from, the carbonaceous asteroid 1999 RQ-36. The third mission selected under NASA's New Frontiers Program, it is scheduled to be launched in 2016. It is led by PI Dante Lauretta at the University of Arizona and managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The spacecraft and the asteroid sampling mechanism, TAGSAM (Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism) will be provided by Lockheed Martin Space Systems. Instrumentation for studying the asteroid include: OCAMS (the OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite), OLA (the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter, a scanning LIDAR), OTES (The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer, a 4-50 micron point spectrometer) and OVIRS (the OSIRIS-REx Visible and IR Spectrometer, a 0.4 to 4.3 micron point spectrometer). The payload also includes REXIS (the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) a student provided experiment. This paper presents a description of the OVIRS instrument.

  8. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; McCoy, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location [e.g. 1]. In preparation for these observations, we spectrally characterized a suite of analog samples across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and used these in initial tests of phase detection and abundance determination software algorithms. Here we present the thermal infrared laboratory measurements of the analog sample suite measured under asteroidlike conditions, which are relevant to the interpretation of spectroscopic observations by the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) [2, 3]. This suite of laboratory measurements of asteroid analogs under asteroid-like conditions is the first of their kind.

  9. Communicating Science on YouTube and Beyond: OSIRIS-REx Presents 321Science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Anna H.; Dykhuis, Melissa; Platts, Symeon; Keane, James T.; Tanquary, Hannah E.; Zellem, Robert; Hawley, Tiffany; Lauretta, Dante; Beshore, Ed; Bottke, Bill; Hergenrother, Carl; Dworkin, Jason P.; Patchell, Rose; Spitz, Sarah E.; Bentley, Zoe

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched OSIRIS-REx Presents 321Science!, a series of short videos, in December 2013 at youtube.com/osirisrex. A multi-disciplinary team of communicators, film and graphic arts students, teens, scientists, and engineers produces one video per month on a science and engineering topic related to the OSIRIS-REx mission. The format is designed to engage all members of the public, but especially younger audiences with the science and engineering of the mission. The videos serve as a resource for team members and others, complementing more traditional formats such as formal video interviews, mission animations, and hands-on activities. In creating this new form of OSIRIS-REx engagement, we developed 321Science! as an umbrella program to encourage expansion of the concept and topics beyond the OSIRIS-REx mission through partnerships. Such an expansion strengthens and magnifies the reach of the OSIRIS-REx efforts.321Science! has a detailed proposed schedule of video production through launch in 2016. Production plans are categorized to coincide with the course of the mission beginning with Learning the basics - about asteroids and the mission - and proceeding to Building the spacecraft, Run up to launch, Cruising to Bennu, Run up to rendezvous, Mapping Bennu, Sampling, Analyzing data, Cruising home and Returning and analyzing the sample. The video library will host a combination of videos on broad science topics and short specialized concepts with an average length of 2-3 minutes. Video production also takes into account external events, such as other missions’ milestones, to draw attention to our videos. Production will remain flexible and responsive to audience interests and needs and to developments in the mission, science, and external events. As of August 2014, 321Science! videos have over 22,000 views. We use YouTube analytics to evaluate our success and we are investigating additional and more rigorous evaluation

  10. The dust coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Davidsson, B.; Güttler, C.; Lara, L. M.; Moreno, F.; Cremonese, G.; La Forgia, F.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    The dust coma of 67P was detected and monitored by OSIRIS, the scientific camera onboard Rosetta, since the beginning of the post-hibernation operations in March 2014. A complete description of the coma during the approach phase to the comet was presented in [5], including the detection of a sudden cometary outburst at the end of April 2014. OSIRIS images acquired at the end of the approach (July 2014) and during the escort phase were used to characterize dust particles present in the comet's inner coma ([4], [3], [2], [1]).

  11. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; McCoy, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.

  12. OSIRIS' decimeter observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Clément; Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jorda, Laurent; Thomas, Nicolas; Pommerol, Antoine; Jost, Bernhard; Poch, Olivier; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since July 2014, the ESA spacecraft Rosetta has been escorting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, thus allowing for a detailed analysis of both inner coma and nucleus of the comet. The on-board scientific imaging system OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007), has been key to understand the structure (Massironi et al., 2015), the morphology and the processes occurring on the comet (Vincent et al., 2015 ; Thomas et al., 2015).On the 14th of February 2015, the spacecraft performed a flyby-manoeuvre close to the frontier between Ash, Apis and Imhotep regions, and came in as close as 6km to the nucleus surface. During this flyby, the Narrow-Angle Camera imaged this region at a resolution of 11cm per pixel, while the phase angle varied between 0° and 37° thus allowing us to investigate the opposition effect.We will present here the results of our photometric and spectrophotometric analyses of the 14th February 2015 flyby dataset. Using a dedicated digital terrain model, we were able to compute the 3D geometry of each frame with a sub-meter accuracy, which were used to correct for the illumination conditions. We fitted our dataset with the Hapke radiative transfer model that included a porosity correction (Helfenstein et al., 2011).This unique observations at decimetre scale indicate that the comet surface is heterogeneous both in terms of absolute reflectance (variations up to 40%) and colours. Furthermore, according to our photometric analysis, this flown-by region is as sombre as the comet's nucleus (geometric albedo : 6.8 %), the single-scattering albedo is quite low (0.038) and we found a similar high porosity (86%) of the uppermost layer. The opposition effect is dominated by the shadow hiding phenomenon, while the coherent backscattering contribution is found to be negligible.The spectral reddening effect observed by Fornasier et al., 2015 globally on the comet surface is also observed locally on the flown-by region, but with a less steep behaviour.The comparisons of the

  13. OSIRIS tunable imager and spectrograph for the GTC: from design to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Aguiar-González, Marta; Barreto, Roberto; Becerril, Santiago; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Correa, Santiago; Chapa, Oscar; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Espejo, Carlos; Farah, Alejandro; Fragoso, Ana Belén.; Fernández, Patricia; Flores, Rubén.; Fuentes, F. Javier; Gago, Fernando; Garfias, Fernando; Gigante, José Vicente; González, Jesús; González-Escalera, Victor; Hernández, Belén.; Hernandez, Elvio; Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Guillermo; Joven, Enrique; Langarica, Rosalia; Lara, Gerardo; López, José Carlos; López, Roberto; Militellon, Carmelo; Moreno, Heidy; Peraza, Lorenzo; Pérez, Angeles; Pérez, Jaime; Rasilla, José Luis; Rosich, Josefina; Tejada, Carlos; Tinoco, Silvio; Vaz, Txinto; Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) was the optical Day One instrument for the 10.4m Spanish telescope GTC. It is installed at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). This instrument has been operational since March-2009 and covers from 360 to 1000 nm. OSIRIS observing modes include direct imaging with tunable and conventional filters, long slit and low resolution spectroscopy. OSIRIS wide field of view and high efficiency provide a powerful tool for the scientific exploitation of GTC. OSIRIS was developed by a Consortium formed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM). The latter was in charge of the optical design, the manufacture of the camera and collaboration in the assembly, integration and verification process. The IAC was responsible for the remaining design of the instrument and it was the project leader. The present paper considers the development of the instrument from its design to its present situation in which is in used by the scientific community.

  14. Curation of Asteroid Bennu Samples for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Nakumara-Messenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission will collect approximately150 g of material from carbonaceous asteroid Bennu and return it to Earth in 2023. The sample will be curated along with NASA's other astromaterials sample collections at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. As part of the mission planning, JSC will be engaged in the following four general activities.

  15. OSIRIS-REx Will Return a Sample of Asteroid 1999 RQ36 for Astrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) is the third mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. OSIRIS-REx launches in 2016 and will return the first pristine samples of carbonaceous material from the surface of a primitive asteroid in 2023. The target, (101955) 1999 RQ36, is 1/2 km diameter roughly spherical Apollo near-Earth asteroid. It is expected to be carbonaceous, similar to CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites. This organic-rich remnant from the early Solar System is also among the most potentially hazardous asteroids known with a 1 in 2500 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. OSIRIS-REx will measure the Yarkovsky effect to better constrain future orbit and impact potential of this and other asteroids. OSIRIS-REx will image, map, and spectrally characterize RQ36 from 0.4-50 icron. The returned sample of regolith will be >60g (and up to 2kg) and thus the largest extraterrestrial sample returned from space since Apollo 17. Unlike meteorites, the sample will come from a known, well-characterized source and will be collected and transported to Earth pristine from terrestrial contamination. It will be available for study by the global astrochemistry community to address fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system and the life it harbors.

  16. Use of OsiriX in developing a digital radiology teaching library.

    PubMed

    Shamshuddin, S; Matthews, H R

    2014-10-01

    Widespread adoption of digital imaging in clinical practice and for the image-based examinations of the Royal College of Radiologists has created a desire to provide a digital radiology teaching library in many hospital departments around the UK. This article describes our experience of using OsiriX software in developing digital radiology teaching libraries.

  17. Correction: Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source.

    PubMed

    Telling, Mark T F; Campbell, Stuart I; Engberg, Dennis; Martín Y Marero, David; Andersen, Ken H

    2016-03-21

    Correction for 'Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source' by Mark T. F. Telling et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 1255-1261.

  18. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: the dust coma as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Güttler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger

    2016-04-01

    OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, is imaging the nucleus and the coma of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies performed with OSIRIS. Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range are used to study the unresolved coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. Individual grains are characterized in terms of color, size, distance, light curves, orbits. Images acquired spanning the phase angle range 0-165 deg are used to determine the dust phase function in different colors and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust particles by solving the inverse scattering problem.

  19. The Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN (KONA) Survey: AGN Fueling and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Erin K. S.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Malkan, Matthew A.; Yu, Po-Chieh

    In an effort to better constrain the relevant physical processes dictating the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and the galaxies in which they reside we turn to local Seyfert AGN. It is only with these local AGN that we can reach the spatial resolution needed to adequately characterize the inflow and outflow mechanisms thought to be the driving forces in establishing the relationship between black holes and their host galaxies at higher redshift. We present the first results from the KONA (Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN) survey, which takes advantage of the integral field unit OSIRIS plus laser and natural guide star adaptive optics to probe down to scales of 5-30 parsecs in a sample of 40 local Seyfert galaxies. With these K-band data we measure the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the nuclear stars, molecular gas, and ionized gas within the central few hundred parsecs.

  20. OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go (TAG) Mission Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; May, Alex; Williams, Ken; Barbee, Brent W.; Beckman, Mark; Williams, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in late 2018. After several months in formation with and orbit about the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid s surface to obtain a regolith sample. This paper describes the mission design of the TAG sequence and the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory. This paper also shows preliminary results of orbit covariance analysis and Monte-Carlo analysis that demonstrate the ability to arrive at a targeted location on the surface of RQ36 within a 25 meter radius with 98.3% confidence.

  1. An Independent Orbit Determination Simulation for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getzandanner, Kenneth; Rowlands, David; Mazarico, Erwan; Antreasian, Peter; Jackman, Coralie; Moreau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    After arriving at the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will execute a series of observation campaigns and orbit phases to accurately characterize Bennu and ultimately collect a sample of pristine regolith from its surface. While in the vicinity of Bennu, the OSIRIS-REx navigation team will rely on a combination of ground-based radiometric tracking data and optical navigation (OpNav) images to generate and deliver precision orbit determination products. Long before arrival at Bennu, the navigation team is performing multiple orbit determination simulations and thread tests to verify navigation performance and ensure interfaces between multiple software suites function properly. In this paper, we will summarize the results of an independent orbit determination simulation of the Orbit B phase of the mission performed to test the interface between the OpNav image processing and orbit determination software packages.

  2. Thermal History of Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2016-10-01

    The connection between orbital and temperature history of small Solar System bodies has only been studied through modeling. The upcoming OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission provides an opportunity to connect thermal modeling predictions with laboratory studies of meteorites to predict past heating and thus dynamical histories of bodies such as OSIRIS-REx mission target asteroid (101955) Bennu. Bennu is a desirable target for asteroid sample return due to its inferred primitive nature, likely 4.5 Gyr old, with chemistry and mineralogy established in the first 10 Myr of solar system history (Lauretta et al. 2015). Delbo & Michel (2011) studied connections between the temperature and orbital history of Bennu. Their results suggest that the surface of Bennu (assuming no regolith turnover) has a 50% probability of being heated to 500 K in the past. Further, the Delbo & Michel simulations show that the temperature within the asteroid below the top layer of regolith could remain at temperatures ~100 K below that of the surface. The Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism on OSIRIS-REx could access both the surface and near surface regolith, collecting primitive asteroid material for study in Earth-based laboratories in 2023. To quantify the effects of thermal metamorphism on the Bennu regolith, laboratory heating experiments on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites with compositions likely similar to that of Bennu were conducted from 300-1200 K. These experiments show mobilization and volatilization of a suite of labile elements (sulfur, mercury, arsenic, tellurium, selenium, antimony, and cadmium) at temperatures that could be reached by asteroids that cross Mercury's orbit. We are able to quantify element loss with temperature for several carbonaceous chondrites and use these results to constrain past orbital histories of Bennu. When OSIRIS-REx samples arrive for analysis we will be able to measure labile element loss in the material, determine maximum past

  3. The dust environment of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Deller, Jakob; Drolshagen, Esther; Frattin, Elisa; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Koschny, Detlef; Oklay, Nilda; Ott, Theresa; Shi, Xian; Sierks, Holger; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    The ESA's Rosetta spacecraft had the unique opportunity to stay in the vicinity of the comet for two years, observing how the comet evolved while approaching the Sun, passing through perihelion and then moving outwards. OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, imaged the nucleus and the dust environment of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies carried on with OSIRIS.Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range have been used to study the unresolved dust coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. A correlation has been found between the level of diurnal activity and the region of the nucleus surface in sunlight, suggesting that the topography and/or composition of the surface play an important role. The overall activity increases while the comet is approaching the Sun, peaking about a month after perihelion. Comparison with ground-based observations will allow to understand if the dust coma behaves in similar ways at small scales - as observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS - and at large scales - as observed from ground. Several times during the mission, we acquired images spanning the phase angle range 0-165 degrees. They are used to determine the dust phase function in different wavelengths, its evolution with heliocentric distance and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust aggregates by solving the inverse scattering problem. A large amount of individual aggregates is present in the vicinity of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We used OSIRIS NAC and WAC images to determine the aggregate properties: size and distance distributions, colors and rotation. Thanks to observations performed at different heliocentric distances, we address how those properties are changing with heliocentric distance.

  4. Designing to Sample the Unknown: Lessons from OSIRIS-REx Project Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, David; Mink, Ronald; Linn, Timothy; Wood, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    On September 8, 2016, the third NASA New Frontiers mission launched on an Atlas V 411. The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) will rendezvous with asteroid Bennu in 2018, collect a sample in 2020, and return that sample to Earth in September 2023. The development team has overcome a number of challenges in order to design and build a system that will make contact with an unexplored, airless, low-gravity body. This paper will provide an overview of the mission, then focus in on the system-level challenges and some of the key system-level processes. Some of the lessons here are unique to the type of mission, like discussion of operating at a largely-unknown, low-gravity object. Other lessons, particularly from the build phase, have broad implications. The OSIRIS-REx risk management process was particularly effective in achieving an on-time and under-budget development effort. The systematic requirements management and verification and the system validation also helped identify numerous potential problems. The final assessment of the OSIRIS-REx performance will need to wait until the sample is returned in 2023, but this post-launch assessment will capture some of the key systems-engineering lessons from the development team.

  5. Odin/OSIRIS detections of orographic gravity waves in PMC brightness and occurrence frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, Svetlana; Rusch, David

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument (OSIRIS) on the polar orbiting Odin satellite observes Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) via the limb scattering in both hemispheres since 2002. The orbit period of Odin is 96 minutes and the maximum latitudinal coverage in the orbit plane is between 82.2 N and 82.2 S. Longitudinal distribution of Odin/OSIRIS PMC brightness and detection frequency in each hemisphere for all northern and southern SH PMC seasons of 2002-2009 is analyzed in this work. In the southern hemisphere, the cloud brightness was consistently up to 30% lower around 250-300o E (70-120° W) -above the Antarctic peninsular. In the northern hemisphere, the above parameter was systematically 20-30% lower around 50-130o E -above Ural Mountains. OSIRIS PMC occurrence frequency, although less suitable for such study because of the high instrument sensitivity to mesospheric ice particles, displayed similar pattern. Comparable results have been obtained for the PMC 2007-08 season in Antarctica and PMC-2007 Arctic season by one of the instruments on a recently launched Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. We attribute this effect to the influence of orographic gravity waves that propagate to the upper mesospheric altitudes.

  6. Rosetta/OSIRIS: Nucleus morphology and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, Holger

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency arrived on August 6, 2014, at the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for broad-band nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.OSIRIS images the nucleus and the coma of comet 67P/C-G from the arrival throughout early mapping phase, PHILAE landing, and escort phase with close fly-by beginning of the year 2015.The team paper presents the surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets and the larger scale coma studied by OSIRIS.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.Additional Information: The OSIRIS team is H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M. A'Hearn, I. Bertini, F. Angrilli, M. A. Barucci, J. L. Bertaux, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, P. Gutierrez, S. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H. U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J. J. Lopez, S. Lowry, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, L

  7. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  9. Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, M.F.; Puccetti, M.G.

    1988-01-04

    The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.

  10. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - First Science Results by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Angrilli, F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Bodewits, D.; Capanna, C.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Gutiérrez, P.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W. H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Joerg, K.; Kramm, R.; Kuhrt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lara, L.; Lazzarin, M.; Leyrat, C.; Moreno, J. F.; Lowry, S.; Magrin, S.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Account, T.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract ESA's Rosetta mission arrived on August 6, 2014, at target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations. We present the first science results achieved by OSIRIS from the arrival at the comet throughout the mapping phase. The overview will cover surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets. Acknowledgements OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. The support of the national funding agencies of Germany (DLR), France (CNES), Italy (ASI), Spain (MEC), Sweden (SNSB), and the ESA Technical Directorate is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre at ESOC and the Rosetta Project at ESTEC for their outstanding work enabling the science return of the Rosetta Mission.

  11. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: First science results by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael; Angrilli, Francesco; Barucci, Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Capanna, Claire; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gaskell, Robert; Groussin, Olivier; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedroj; Hviid, Stubbe; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Keller, Horst Uwe; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; LaForgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa; Lazzarin, Monica; Leyrat, Cedric; Lopez Moreno, Jose Juan; Lowry, Stephen; Magrin, Sara; Marchi, Simone; Marzari, Francesco; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Sabau, Lola; Snodgrass, Colin; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Wenzel, Peter

    2014-11-01

    ESA’s Rosetta mission arrived on August 6, 2014, at target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.We present the first science results achieved by OSIRIS from the arrival at the comet throughout the mapping phase. The overview will cover surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets.AcknowledgementsOSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. The support of the national funding agencies of Germany (DLR), France (CNES), Italy (ASI), Spain (MEC), Sweden (SNSB), and the ESA Technical Directorate is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre at ESOC and the Rosetta Project at ESTEC for their outstanding work enabling the science return of the Rosetta Mission.

  12. Calculation to experiment comparison of SPND signals in various nuclear reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbot, Loic; Radulovic, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka; Tarchalski, Mikolaj; Dewynter-Marty, Veronique; Malouch, Fadhel

    2015-07-01

    In the perspective of irradiation experiments in the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (France) is developing a numerical tool for SPND design, simulation and operation. In the frame of the SPND numerical tool qualification, dedicated experiments have been performed both in the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor (JSI) and very recently in the French CEA Saclay OSIRIS reactor, as well as a test of two detectors in the core of the Polish MARIA reactor (NCBJ). A full description of experimental set-ups and neutron-gamma calculations schemes are provided in the first part of the paper. Calculation to experiment comparison of the various SPNDs in the different reactors is thoroughly described and discussed in the second part. Presented comparisons show promising final results. (authors)

  13. Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

  14. Benchmarking the codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC with Laser Wakefield Acceleration Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, K.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cowan, B.; Cary, J. R.; Huang, C.; Mori, W. B.; Tsung, F. S.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Fonseca, R. A.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

    2009-01-22

    Three-dimensional laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) simulations have recently been performed to benchmark the commonly used particle-in-cell (PIC) codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC. The simulations were run in parallel on over 100 processors, using parameters relevant to LWFA with ultra-short Ti-Sapphire laser pulses propagating in hydrogen gas. Both first-order and second-order particle shapes were employed. We present the results of this benchmarking exercise, and show that accelerating gradients from full PIC agree for all values of a{sub 0} and that full and reduced PIC agree well for values of a{sub 0} approaching 4.

  15. Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer Planning (OSIRIS-REx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Righter, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Scientists at ARES are preparing to curate and analyze samples from the first U.S. mission to return samples from an asteroid. The Origins-Spectral Interpretation- Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx, was selected by NASA as the third mission in its New Frontiers Program. The robotic spacecraft will launch in 2016 and rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, in 2020. A robotic arm will collect at least 60 grams of material from the surface of the asteroid to be returned to Earth in 2023 for worldwide distribution by the NASA Astromaterials Curation Facility at ARES.

  16. Crowd-sourcing Near-Earth Asteroid Science with the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Hill, Dolores H.; Spitz, Anna; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Binzel, Richard P.; Beshore, Ed; Bottke, William; Brucato, John Robert; Clark, Beth E.; Cloutis, Edward; Connolly, Harold C.; Delbo, Marco; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ieva, Simone; Licandro, Javier; Nolan, Michael C.; Perna, Davide; Sandford, Scott A.; Takir, Driss; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-11-01

    OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! is an award-winning citizen science project conducted as part of the Communications and Public Engagement program of the NASA OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. The project furthers the study of near-Earth asteroids (NEA) and promotes interest among the amateur astronomy community. The goal of Target Asteroids! is to expand the pool of observers who can contribute to the characterization of NEAs. We also seek to coordinate the observation of specific asteroids in order to maximize the usefulness of the data and to minimize duplication of effort.Target Asteroids! was originally focused on a list of ~80 NEAs suitable for spacecraft sample return compiled by the OSIRIS-REx science team. The list was constrained to NEAs with absolute magnitude H < 21.5, perihelion distance > 0.8 AU, aphelion distance < 2.0 AU and inclination < 8°. Since many sample return targets are beyond the reach of typical amateur telescopes (limiting magnitudes of ~14 to 20), the program was expanded to include other objects, namely asteroids that shed light on the properties of OSIRIS-REx target (101955) Bennu, bright NEAs making relatively close approaches to Earth and radar target NEAs. An introductory paper on the goals and methods of Target Asteroids! was published in the Minor Planet Bulletin (Hergenrother & Hill, Minor Planet Bulletin 40, 164-166, 2013).Since 2012, over 100 participants with a wide range of instrumentation and experience from around the world have contributed photometry of 53 asteroids. While small telescope users cannot produce high S/N observations for faint objects, they do have the advantage of being able to make observations often. A large number of low S/N observations are useful if made over different observing geometries. Utilizing many photometric observations made at different times and phase angles, small telescope users can produce direct measurements of the phase function, absolute magnitude, broadband color, and rotation

  17. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  18. Lessons Learned from Preparing OSIRIS-REx Spectral Analog Samples for Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D. L.; McCoy, T. J.; Cody, G. D.; King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Russell, S. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Keller, L. P.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Bowles, N.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, J. P.; Applin, D. M.; Lauretta, D. S.; Clark, B. E.; Hamilton, V. E.; Lim, L.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission launched on September 8th, 2016 to rendezvous with B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu in 2018. Type C and B asteroids have been linked to carbonaceous chondrites because of their similar visible - to - near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral properties [e.g., 1,2]. The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) will make spectroscopic observations of Bennu during the encounter. Constraining the presence or absence of hydrous minerals (e.g., Ca-carbonate, phyllosilicates) and organic molecules will be key to characterizing Bennu [3] prior to sample site selection. The goal of this study was to develop a suite of analog and meteorite samples and obtain their spectral properties over the wavelength ranges of OVIRS (0.4- 4.3 micrometer) and OTES (5.0-50 micrometer). These spectral data were used to validate the mission science-data processing system. We discuss the reasoning behind the study and share lessons learned.

  19. Scaling for high-end HPC systems: New features in OSIRIS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Marti, Michael; Gargate, Luis; Silva, Luis; Tongue, John; Tsung, Frank; Mori, Warren

    2006-10-01

    The OSIRIS 2.0 framework [1] is an integrated framework for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This framework is based on a three-dimensional, fully relativistic, massively parallel, object oriented particle-in-cell code, that has successfully been applied to a number of problems, ranging from laser-plasma interaction and inertial fusion to plasma shell collisions in astrophysical scenarios. One-to-One modeling of ongoing and future experiments require state of the art computer systems, with a number of computing nodes going up to tens of thousand. To make efficient of such systems it is crucial to maintain an evenly balanced load on all computing nodes. We describe the dynamic load balancing algorithm that we implemented in OSIRIS to allow for near perfect scaling up to tens of thousand of computing nodes. Details on the partition selection scheme and simulation space repartition routines are given. We present the results on the performance impact for simulation using large number of nodes. Some details on other issues pertaining efficient use of large computer systems, such as parallel I/O and hardware tuning, are also shown. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342-351, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002)

  20. Gravity waves in polar mesospheric clouds measured by Odin/OSIRIS since 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument (OSIRIS) on the limb-viewing Odin satellite observes Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) in both hemispheres since November, 2001. The orbit period of Odin is 96 minutes and the maximum latitudinal coverage in the orbit plane is between 82.2 N and 82.2 S. In this work, the longitudinal distribution of Odin/OSIRIS PMC brightness in each hemisphere during a 4-week period around the summer solstice from 2002 until 2009 is analyzed. It is found that in the southern hemisphere, the cloud brightness was consistently up to 30% lower around 250-300°E (70-120°W) - above the Antarctic peninsular. In the northern hemisphere, the PMC brightness was systematically 20-30% lower around 50-130°E - above Ural Mountains. Similar results have been obtained for the PMC 2007-08 season in Antarctica and PMC-2007 Arctic season by one of the instruments on a recently launched Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. We attribute this effect to the influence of gravity waves generated by the Earth's terrain.

  1. Surface Thermophysical Characteristics of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianghui; YU, Liangliang

    2015-08-01

    The NASA OSIRIS-REx mission will launch a spacecraft to explore asteroid (101955) Bennu (hereafter, Bennu) in 2016 and return sample to Earth in 2023. Herein we have investigated thermophysical properties of Bennu, where the thermal inertia plays a key role of understanding the nature of the asteroid's surface, and will provide a substantial information on the sampling return mission. Using the thermophysical model in incorporation with the most-recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model \\citep{Nolan2013}, and mid-infrared observations of Spitzer-PUI, Spitzer-IRAC, Herschel/PACS and ESO VLT/VISIR \\citep{Muller2012,Emery2014}, we obtain the surface physical properties of Bennu. For the best-fitting solution, we find that Bennu has an effective diameter of 510±6 m, a geometry albedo of 0.047^{+0.0031}_{-0.0011} and the thermal inertia of 240^{+80}_{-40} Jm^{-2}s^{-0.5}K^{-1}. Such thermal inertia indicates that fine-grained regolith is likely to spread over the surface of Bennu. It seems that Bennu would be a suitable target for the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission.

  2. Surface thermophysical properties determination of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, LiangLiang; Ji, Jianghui

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermophysical properties of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu (hereafter Bennu), where thermal inertia plays an important role in understanding the nature of the asteroid's surface, and will definitely provide substantial information for the sampling return mission. Using a thermophysical model incorporating, the recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model and mid-infrared observations of Spitzer-PUI, Spitzer-IRAC, Herschel/PACS and ESO VLT/VISIR, we derive the surface thermophysical properties of Bennu. The asteroid has an effective diameter of 510^{+6}_{-40} m, a geometry albedo of 0.047^{+0.0083}_{-0.0011}, a roughness fraction of 0.04^{+0.26}_{-0.04} and thermal inertia of 240^{+440}_{-60} Jm^{-2} s^{-0.5} K^{-1} for a best-fitting solution at 1σ level. The best-estimate thermal inertia indicates that fine-grained regolith may cover a large area of Bennu's surface, with a grain size that may range from 1.3 to 31 mm, and our outcome further supports that Bennu would be a suitable target for the OSIRIS-REx mission to return samples from the asteroid to Earth.

  3. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  4. Transmission Spectroscopy of HAT-P-32Ab with GTC/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nortmann, Lisa; Pallé, Enric; Murgas, Felipe; Dreizler, Stefan; Iro, Nicolas; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    I will present one of the latest results of our GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. Over the last years our group has obtained ground-based optical (538 nm - 918 nm) spectrophotometric transit observations for several hot Jupiters including HAT-P-32Ab using the OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument at the Spanish 10-meter telescope GTC.I will discuss the source, nature and proper correction of instrument specific systematic noise we found to affect our data. After its correction, we were able to yield high quality results with a precision between 482 and 1703 ppm depending on the wavelength channel. We measure a flat optical transmission spectrum for HAT-P-32Ab, consistent with the results of Gibson et al. (2013, MNRAS, 436, 2974) obtained with GMOS at Gemini-North. This independent reproduction of consistent results re-establishes faith in the reliability of ground-based transmission spectroscopy and emphasizes the high potential of OSIRIS at the GTC as a tool to complement current and future space-based observations.

  5. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  6. Characterization of the Abydos region through OSIRIS high-resolution images in support of CIVA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Jorda, L.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Massironi, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-01-01

    Context. On 12 November 2014, the European mission Rosetta delivered the Philae lander on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). After the first touchdown, the lander bounced three times before finally landing at a site named Abydos. Aims: We provide a morphologically detailed analysis of the Abydos landing site to support Philae's measurements and to give context for the interpretation of the images coming from the Comet Infrared and Visible Analyser (CIVA) camera system onboard the lander. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 6 December 2014 to perform the analysis of the Abydos landing site, which provided the geomorphological map, the gravitational slope map, the size-frequency distribution of the boulders. We also computed the albedo and spectral reddening maps. Results: The morphological analysis of the region could suggest that Philae is located on a primordial terrain. The Abydos site is surrounded by two layered and fractured outcrops and presents a 0.02 km2 talus deposit rich in boulders. The boulder size frequency distribution gives a cumulative power-law index of -4.0 + 0.3/-0.4, which is correlated with gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. The average value of the albedo is 5.8% at λ1 = 480.7 nm and 7.4% at λ2 = 649.2 nm, which is similar to the global albedos derived by OSIRIS and CIVA, respectively.

  7. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, D.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  8. Evolution of Australian Bushfire 2009 Plume in the UTLS region investigated using the OSIRIS limb profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddaway, J. M.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Major Bushfires in south-eastern Victoria, Australia, produced a smoke plume on 7 February 2009 that was injected into the troposphere, vertically advecting to the lower stratosphere. In order to investigate both horizontal and vertical evolution of this smoke plume, global maps of limb-scattered radiances were produced. These maps were plotted using observations at various altitudes from the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) instrument onboard the Odin satellite. The OSIRIS Level 1 radiances, taken at a 2 km vertical step, were averaged for OSIRIS CCD pixels 1205-1220 (at around 800 nm), and were used to monitor the position and intensity of the aerosol smoke plume as it was transported vertically and horizontally. The results of this analysis suggest that the plume moved eastward from its initial source to New Zealand and reached an altitude of 14 km by 11 February. The plume remained fairly stationary until 13 February, during which time other large radiance perturbations over Indonesia, northern Australia and the Tasman Sea were observed, often extending from 12 to 18 km. On 14 February the bushfire plume was observed at about 19 km and remained over the Tasman Sea until 19 February, gradually moving upwards to 21 km. Subsequently the plume was observed to be moving westward within the 19-21 altitude range over the Indian Ocean, reaching Madagascar at the end of February. It remained stationary over Madagascar until late February and then moved across southern Africa. At that time another convection event was observed by OSIRIS over southern Africa from the beginning of March which had a vertical distribution from ~14-18 km, which the bushfire plume was seen to pass through. This resulted in radiance perturbations over southern Africa for over a week. The plume arrived at South America on 9 March and was observed at 20-22 km altitude. Over the next few weeks it remained over the South American region. Throughout this period the aerosol

  9. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  12. Kinetic Simulations - Oshun (Vlasov-Fokker-Planck) and PIC (Osiris) - Physics and Open Source Software In The UCLA PICKSE Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tableman, Adam; Tzoufras, Michail; Fonseca, Ricardo; Mori, W. B.

    2016-10-01

    We present physics results and general updates for two plasma kinetic simulation codes developed under the UCLA PICKSE initiative. We also discuss the issues around making these codes open source such that they can be used (and contributed too) by a large audience. The first code discussed is Oshun - a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code. Recent simulations with the VFP code OSHUN will be presented for all of the aforementioned problems. The algorithmic improvements that have facilitated these studies will be also be discussed. The second code discussed is the PIC code Osiris. Osiris is a widely respected code used in hundreds of papers. Osiris was first developed for laser-plasma interactions but has grown into a robust framework covering most areas of plasma research. One defining feature of Osiris is that it is highly optimized for a variety of hardware configurations and scales linearly over 1 million + CPU nodes. We will discuss the recently released version 4.0 written in modern, fully-object oriented FORTRAN. Funding provided by Grants NSF ACI 1339893 and DOE DE NA 0001833.

  13. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  14. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  15. Early results on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.; Küppers, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Hviid, S.; Mottola, S.; Osiris Team

    2014-07-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is the target comet of the ESA Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014. After 36 months of deep space hibernation, Rosetta is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 au from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with wavelength range 250--1000 nm and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240--720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20×2.22 deg) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of the surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has much lower spatial resolution but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35×12.11 deg). This allows observations of the 3-dimensional flow field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide long-term monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other hand, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning in March 2014, OSIRIS took first images of comet 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when 67P was in the same orbital arc as it will be in March/April 2014, show that the comet was already active at 4.3 au inbound and that its behavior was repetitive during the last three apparitions (Snodgrass et al. 2013). We therefore expect to detect early comet activity by OSIRIS in

  16. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  17. Performance evaluation of OSIRIS EM-PIC on a Xeon Phi cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The quest towards exascale computing has lead to the development of hybrid systems with add-on accelerator cards such as the Xeon Phi accelerators powering for example the Tianhe-2 system in China (currently the #1 system in the world) and the SuperMIC at LZR in Germany. In this work we report on our efforts on deploying the OSIRIS electromagnetic particle-in-cell code on the latter system, focusing not only on algorithm details and single card performance but also on multiple card use. Our benchmarks show code performance of ~ 600(2D) / 300(3D) million particle pushes per second on a single board, and above 74% (strong)/ 94% (weak) scaling efficiency up to 32 boards.

  18. (21) Lutetia spectrophotometry from Rosetta-OSIRIS images and comparison to ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Massironi, M.; Ferri, F.; da Deppo, V.; Barbieri, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    Here we present some preliminary results on surface variegation found on (21) Lutetia from ROSETTA-OSIRIS images acquired on 2010-07-10. The spectrophotometry obtained by means of the two cameras NAC and WAC (Narrow and Wide Angle Cameras) is consistent with ground based observations, and does not show surface diversity above the data error bars. The blue and UV images (shortward 500 nm) may, however, indicate a variegation of the optical properties of the asteroid surface on the Baetica region (Sierks et al., 2011). We also speculate on the contribution due to different illumination and to different ground properties (composition or, more probably, grain size diversity). In particular a correlation with geologic units independently defined by Massironi et al. (2012) is evident, suggesting that the variegation of the ground optical properties is likely to be real.

  19. The resolution of the tof-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS: Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; Pokhilchuk, K.

    2014-12-01

    The energy resolution of an indirect time of flight (tof) spectrometer is determined mainly by the pulse shape of the incoming pulse and the contribution of the crystal analyser. We performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations for the indirect near-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS utilising the McStas neutron ray-traycing package. The simulations are accompanied by analytical calculations for the energy resolution. From simulation and calculation an excellent description for the width of the line is achieved for the PG002 and PG004 energy setting. The simulations and calculations reveal that the secondary spectrometer and hence the analyser geometry is the dominating term for the energy resolution at zero energy transfer. The remaining differences in the lineshape can be traced to a not perfectly modeled hydrogen moderator. The simulations and calculations predict a superb energy resolution of less than 100 μeV at an energy transfer of 15 meV.

  20. GTC/OSIRIS Transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-09-01

    Of the several extrasolar planets discovered to date, only a few of them have orbital periods of less than a day. Such planets are interesting candidates to study tidal effects and, in the case of short period Hot Jupiters, they offer an excellent oportunity to detect and study their atmosphere due to their generally large atmospheric scale heights. We used Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range (520-1040 nm) of the planetary host star WASP-43 (and a reference star) during a transit event. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fitted transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio RP/RS across wavelength.

  1. Spatially Resolved Emission of a z~3 Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxy with Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Holly; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    The damped Lyman alpha (DLA) class of galaxies contains most of the neutral hydrogen gas over cosmic time. Few DLAs have been detected directly, which limits our knowledge of fundamental properties like size and mass. We present Keck/OSIRIS infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of a DLA that was first detected in absorption toward a background quasar. Our observations use the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system to reduce the point-spread function of the quasar, making it possible to spatially resolve the DLA emission. We map this emission in O[III] 5007 Å. At redshift z~3, this DLA represents one of the highest redshift DLAs mapped with IFU spectroscopy. We present measurements of the star formation rate, metallicity, and gas mass of the galaxy.This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  2. Pre-hibernation performances of the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Da Deppo, V.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Ferri, F.; Pajola, M.; Barbieri, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, C.; Tubiana, C.; Küppers, M.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Sierks, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The ESA cometary mission Rosetta was launched in 2004. In the past years and until the spacecraft hibernation in June 2011, the two cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system (Narrow Angle and Wide Angle Camera, NAC and WAC) observed many different sources. On 20 January 2014 the spacecraft successfully exited hibernation to start observing the primary scientific target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: A study of the past performances of the cameras is now mandatory to be able to determine whether the system has been stable through the time and to derive, if necessary, additional analysis methods for the future precise calibration of the cometary data. Methods: The instrumental responses and filter passbands were used to estimate the efficiency of the system. A comparison with acquired images of specific calibration stars was made, and a refined photometric calibration was computed, both for the absolute flux and for the reflectivity of small bodies of the solar system. Results: We found a stability of the instrumental performances within ±1.5% from 2007 to 2010, with no evidence of an aging effect on the optics or detectors. The efficiency of the instrumentation is found to be as expected in the visible range, but lower than expected in the UV and IR range. A photometric calibration implementation was discussed for the two cameras. Conclusions: The calibration derived from pre-hibernation phases of the mission will be checked as soon as possible after the awakening of OSIRIS and will be continuously monitored until the end of the mission in December 2015. A list of additional calibration sources has been determined that are to be observed during the forthcoming phases of the mission to ensure a better coverage across the wavelength range of the cameras and to study the possible dust contamination of the optics.

  3. Error Analysis of Stereophotoclinometry in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W.; Weirich, John R.

    2015-11-01

    Stereophotoclinometry has been used on numerous planetary bodies to derive the shape model, most recently 67P-Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Jorda, et al., 2014), the Earth (Palmer, et al., 2014) and Vesta (Gaskell, 2012). SPC is planned to create the ultra-high resolution topography for the upcoming mission OSIRIS-REx that will sample the asteroid Bennu, arriving in 2018. This shape model will be used both for scientific analysis as well as operational navigation, to include providing the topography that will ensure a safe collection of the surface.We present the initial results of error analysis of SPC, with specific focus on how both systematic and non-systematic error propagate through SPC into the shape model. For this testing, we have created a notional global truth model at 5cm and a single region at 2.5mm ground sample distance. These truth models were used to create images using GSFC's software Freespace. Then these images were used by SPC to form a derived shape model with a ground sample distance of 5cm.We will report on both the absolute and relative error that the derived shape model has compared to the original truth model as well as other empirical and theoretical measurement of errors within SPC.Jorda, L. et al (2014) "The Shape of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/Osiris Images", AGU Fall Meeting, #P41C-3943. Gaskell, R (2012) "SPC Shape and Topography of Vesta from DAWN Imaging Data", DSP Meeting #44, #209.03. Palmer, L. Sykes, M. V. Gaskll, R.W. (2014) "Mercator — Autonomous Navigation Using Panoramas", LPCS 45, #1777.

  4. OsiriX: an open-source software for navigating in multidimensional DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Antoine; Spadola, Luca; Ratib, Osman

    2004-09-01

    A multidimensional image navigation and display software was designed for display and interpretation of large sets of multidimensional and multimodality images such as combined PET-CT studies. The software is developed in Objective-C on a Macintosh platform under the MacOS X operating system using the GNUstep development environment. It also benefits from the extremely fast and optimized 3D graphic capabilities of the OpenGL graphic standard widely used for computer games optimized for taking advantage of any hardware graphic accelerator boards available. In the design of the software special attention was given to adapt the user interface to the specific and complex tasks of navigating through large sets of image data. An interactive jog-wheel device widely used in the video and movie industry was implemented to allow users to navigate in the different dimensions of an image set much faster than with a traditional mouse or on-screen cursors and sliders. The program can easily be adapted for very specific tasks that require a limited number of functions, by adding and removing tools from the program's toolbar and avoiding an overwhelming number of unnecessary tools and functions. The processing and image rendering tools of the software are based on the open-source libraries ITK and VTK. This ensures that all new developments in image processing that could emerge from other academic institutions using these libraries can be directly ported to the OsiriX program. OsiriX is provided free of charge under the GNU open-source licensing agreement at http://homepage.mac.com/rossetantoine/osirix.

  5. The Shape of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/Osiris Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Hviid, S. F.; Capanna, C.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P.; Philippe, L.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Keller, H. U.; Joerg, K.; Kuhrt, E.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J. B.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The ROSETTA mission has reached the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in early August, allowing a detailed mapping of its surface with the onboard OSIRIS imaging system, up to resolutions of 50 cm or even better in some areas. Shape reconstruction techniques have been used since July 2014 to build a very detailed 3D model of the comet surface and to retrieve highly accurate rotational parameters. The attached Figure shows an early 3D shape of the comet. The most striking property of the global shape is the presence of two clearly separated components. We use a combination of images and 3D models to quantitatively characterize their bulk and surface properties: relative position, volume, topography and roughness. The position of the center of mass and the direction of the principal axis of rotation are used to constrain the internal mass distribution. Digital terrain models, slope, gravity, and geo-referenced images of the most interesting features observed at the surface of the comet are presented and consequences for their formation are discussed. If they are detected, topographic changes which could have occured between August and December 2014 are also presented. Acknowledgements. OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala

  6. The Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN Survey: Tracing Inflow within the Central 200 pc of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Erin K. S.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Malkan, Matthew A.; Yu, Po-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to identify the fundamental processes driving feeding and feedback in AGN we turn to local Seyfert galaxies and rely on a multi-wavelength approach. With the integral field unit OSIRIS and adaptive optics we characterize the nuclear stars and gas down to scales of 5-30 parsecs in a sample of 40 Seyfert galaxies with the Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN (KONA) survey. The complex gas kinematics in these near-IR data are interpreted using an integrative approach through comparison with data available at a range of wavelengths. We present first results from the survey with a focus on work aimed at constraining the mechanism(s) driving inflow of material within the central 200 pc. Particularly useful in the identification of inflow mechanisms (e.g. nuclear spiral, external accretion) is spatial correlation of the molecular gas distribution and kinematics with dust features revealed in HST imaging (optical and near-IR). Also informative is comparison with X-ray emission to identify locations likely influenced by interactions with outflows. The stellar kinematics in the sample galaxies (traced by CO bandheads at 2.3 microns) indicate a stellar population within the central few 100 parsecs in circular rotation, and in the majority of the galaxies the molecular gas (traced by H2 emission at 2.1218 microns) is found to have a rotating component co-spatial with the stellar disk. A significant fraction of the galaxies also exhibit kinematic signatures of inflow superimposed on this disk rotation, with inflow driven by secular and non-secular processes identified. We explore statistical trends of the nuclear stellar and molecular gas properties, including primary fueling mechanism, with Seyfert type, AGN luminosity, and host environment with the goal of disentangling which properties are fundamental to the nature of the AGN.

  7. Circular depressions on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S. B.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Pajola, M.

    2015-10-01

    Since it close encounter with comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, the OSIRIS instrument [1] on-board the Rosetta Spacecraft has imaged the surface of the nucleus with unprecedented resolution. From its global morphology description, numerous circular depressions of different sizes and shapes have been observed [2, 3]. Few of these circular depressions, also called pits, have shown sign of activity with the detection of faint jet-like features originated most likely from their walls [4]. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these morphological features is not yet well understood, although different hypotheses have been raised such as the collapse of a ceiling above internal voids [4]. These voids could either be due to primordial structure of the comet's interior, or they could have been created with subsequentevolution of the nucleus. In both case, these features provide important constrains on the formation and evolution of cometary nucleus. Follow-up observations of the OSIRIS instrument should both confirm the nature of the activity (i.e., sporadic vs. regular) and the number of active depressions. In this analysis, we provide a thorough identificationand description of the circular depressions on the surface of the comet nucleus. These circular depressions exhibit different shapes, from pits to alcoves, with sizes varying from tens to hundred of meters, and ultimately with different texture on their walls (i.e., with fractures and polygons, or not). The accumulation of boulders at the bottom of some of these depressions indicates that whatever is creating these features, they are changing and evolving significantly trough time. These variations may reflect different formation mechanisms, or/and time of formation and evolution, and also probably internal heterogeneities below the comet's surface.

  8. Resolving Gas Flows in the Ultraluminous Starburst IRAS 23365+3604 with Keck LGSAO/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Soto, Kurt T.

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The data were obtained with the OH Supressing Infrared Spectrograph (OSIRIS) behind the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  10. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  11. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  14. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Activity between March and July 2014 as observed from Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Fornasier, S.; Guettler, C.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Magrin, S.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    We present results about the early activity of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) and its evolution with heliocentric distance between approximately 4.3 AU to 3.7 AU inbound, based on OSIRIS images. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the target comet of the ESA's Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014 after 30 months of deep space hibernation, it is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 AU from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, OSIRIS [1], is the camera system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with a wavelength range 250 - 1000 nm and aWide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240 - 720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20o × 2.22o) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of its surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has spatial resolution ˜ 5 times lower than the NAC but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35o × 12.11o). This allows observations of the 3- dimensional flow-field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide longterm monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on the one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning at the end of March 2014, OSIRIS began imaging 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when the comet was in the same orbital arc as it was in March-April 2014, show that 67P was already active at 4.3 AU

  15. Characterization of OSIRIS NAC filters for the interpretation of multispectral data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Besse, S.; Pajola, M.; Bertini, I.; Rickman, H.; La Forgia, F.; Barucci, A. M.; Fornasier, S.; Barbieri, C.; Koschny, D.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We interpret multicolor data from OSIRISNAC for the remote-sensing exploration of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: We determine the most meaningful definition of color maps for the characterization of surface variegation with filters available on OSIRIS NAC. Methods: We analyzed laboratory spectra of selected minerals and olivine-pyroxene mixtures seen through OSIRIS NAC filters, with spectral methods existing in the literature: reflectance ratios, minimum band wavelength, spectral slopes, band tilt, band curvature, and visible tilt. Results: We emphasize the importance of reflectance ratios and particularly the relation of visible tilt vs. band tilt. This technique provides a reliable diagnostic of the presence of silicates. Color maps constructed by red-green-blue colors defined with the green, orange, red, IR, and Fe2O3 filters let us define regions that may significantly differ in composition. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  17. Diamond fly cutting of aluminum thermal infrared flat mirrors for the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher E.; Underhill, Matthew; Farkas, Zoltan; Pelham, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We present the fabrication and measurement of monolithic aluminum flat mirrors designed to operate in the thermal infrared for the OSIRIS-Rex Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) space instrument. The mirrors were cut using a conventional fly cutter with a large radius diamond cutting tool on a high precision Kern Evo 3-axis CNC milling machine. The mirrors were measured to have less than 150 angstroms RMS surface error.

  18. Stellar Occultations in the Coma of Comet 67/P Chuyumov-Gerasimenko Observed by the OSIRIS Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl, Richard; Kueppers, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of an analysis on a large part of the existing Image data from the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft, in which stars of sufficient brightness (down to a limiting magnitude of 6) have been observed through the coma of Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko ("C-G"). Over the course of the Rosetta main mission the Coma of the comet underwent large changes in density and structure, owed to the changing insolation along the orbit of C-G. We report on the changes of the stellar signals in the wavelength ranges, covered by the filters of the OSIRIS Narrow-Angle (NAC) and Wide-Angle (WAC) cameras.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.

  19. Transport and evolution of the 2009 Australian Black Saturday bushfire smoke in the lower stratosphere observed by OSIRIS on Odin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddaway, J. M.; Petelina, S. V.

    2011-03-01

    We report the transport and evolution of the Victorian Black Saturday bushfire smoke plume in the lower stratosphere during the February-June 2009 period. Vertical profiles of limb-scattered spectral solar radiation measured by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite are used for this purpose. According to OSIRIS measurements, the main smoke material penetrated above the tropopause on 11 February 2009. It traveled westward and circled the globe in about 6 weeks from its first detection in the lower stratosphere, remaining in the tropical channel between 5°S and 25°S. The main plume gradually advected from ˜19 km in mid-February to ˜22 km in April, with a vertical extent varying from 2 to 6 km. The background radiances at corresponding altitudes and latitudes were subtracted from the plume-containing radiances to obtain net plume peak radiances. The latter parameter, governed by the number, size, and chemical composition of smoke particles, decreased by half every 19 days from 11 February until the end of April 2009. Pollution of the lower stratosphere at 18-22 km altitudes and 5°S-25°S latitudes, caused by the smoke plume dispersion, was up to 35% above the background. By mid-June 2009, OSIRIS radiances at these altitudes and latitudes had almost returned to their background levels.

  20. A historical hypothesis of the first recorded neurosurgical operation: Isis, Osiris, Thoth, and the origin of the djed cross.

    PubMed

    Filler, Aaron G

    2007-01-01

    A new textual analysis of the central religious aspect of the ancient Egyptian creation myth reveals what appears to be a description of the oldest recorded neurosurgical operation, occurring circa 3000 BC. The analysis results in a hypothesis suggesting that traction reduction was used successfully to reverse a paralyzing cervical spine injury of an early Egyptian leader (Osiris), which inspired the story of his resurrection. The Egyptian mother god Isis, working with the god Thoth (the inventor of medicine), resurrects Osiris by treating his damaged cervical spine. Numerous references in the Papyrus of Ani (Book of the Dead) to Osiris regaining the strength and control of his legs are linked textually to the treatment of his spine. The connection between the intact spine and the ability to rise and stand is used as a distinct metaphor for life and death by the spinal representation of the "djed column" painted on the back of the numerous Egyptian sarcophagi for thousands of years. Controversy over the translation of the vertebral references in Egyptian texts is clarified by considering the specific neurosurgical meanings of hieroglyphs appearing in both the Edwin Smith medical papyrus and in the Papyrus of Ani, and in light of recent scholarly reassessments of those hieroglyphs in the Egyptological literature.

  1. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  3. The 67P nucleus composition and temporal variations observed by the OSIRIS cameras onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Feller, Clement; Deshapriya, Prasanna J. D.; Pommerol, Antoine; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; A'Hearn, Mike; Davidsson, Bjorn; Perna, Davide; Sierks, Holger

    2015-11-01

    Since August 2014, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been mapped by the NAC and WAC cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system in the 250-1000 nm wavelength range. OSIRIS got the most detailed maps at the highest spatial resolution of a comet nucleus surface. Here we report on the colors and spectrophotometry of the whole 67P nucleus from images acquired since the first Rosetta bound orbits in August 2014 up to the comet perihelion passage. Globally, the nucleus shows a red spectral behavior and it has spectrophotometric properties similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians. No clear absorption bands have been identified yet in the UV-VIS-NIR range, except for a potential absorption centered at 290 nm, possibly due to SO2 ice. The nucleus shows an important phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11%/(100 nm) to 16%/(100 nm) in the 1.3-54° phase angle range. On the basis of the spectral slope, we identified three different groups of regions, characterized by a low, medium, and high spectral slope, respectively. The three groups are distributed everywhere on the nucleus, with no evident distinction between the two lobes of the comet. The comet southern hemisphere, that has been observed by Rosetta since April 2015, shows a lack of spectrally red regions associated to the absence of wide spread smooth or dust covered terrains. Several local bright and spectrally blue patches have been identified on the nucleus and attributed to exposed water ice on the surface. In particular we observed big (> 1500 m2) bright ice rich areas in the southern hemisphere which completely sublimated in a few weeks. We see evidence of very bright patches in the NUV-blue region close to the morning shadows that are compatible with the presence of frosts/ices. These patches disappear when fully illuminated by the Sun indicating that important processes of sublimation

  4. Search for satellites near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta/OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, I.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Lara, L. M.; Marzari, F.; Moreno, F.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Magrin, S.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. TheEuropean Space Agency Rosetta mission reached and started escorting its main target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at the beginning of August 2014. Within the context of solar system small bodies, satellite searches from approaching spacecraft were extensively used in the past to study the nature of the visited bodies and their collisional environment. Aims: During the approaching phase to the comet in July 2014, the OSIRIS instrument onboard Rosetta performed a campaign aimed at detecting objects in the vicinity of the comet nucleus and at measuring these objects' possible bound orbits. In addition to the scientific purpose, the search also focused on spacecraft security to avoid hazardous material in the comet's environment. Methods: Images in the red spectral domain were acquired with the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, when the spacecraft was at a distance between 5785 km and 5463 km to the comet, following an observational strategy tailored to maximize the scientific outcome. From the acquired images, sources were extracted and displayed to search for plausible displacements of all sources from image to image. After stars were identified, the remaining sources were thoroughly analyzed. To place constraints on the expected displacements of a potential satellite, we performed Monte Carlo simulations on the apparent motion of potential satellites within the Hill sphere. Results: We found no unambiguous detections of objects larger than ~6 m within ~20 km and larger than ~1 m between ~20 km and ~110 km from the nucleus, using images with an exposure time of 0.14 s and 1.36 s, respectively. Our conclusions are consistent with independent works on dust grains in the comet coma and on boulders counting on the nucleus surface. Moreover, our analysis shows that the comet outburst detected at the end of April 2014 was not strong enough to eject large objects and to place them into a stable orbit around the nucleus. Our findings underline

  5. Activity and jets of comet 67P, as observed by OSIRIS since August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Höfner, Sebastian; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Rickman, Hans; Koschny, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography. While the latter seems to be responsible forthe larger features, high resolution imagery has shown that broad streams are composed of many smaller features (a few meters wide) that connect directly to the nucleus surface.The OSIRIS cameras on board Rosetta are monitoring these jets in high resolution images since August 2014. We followed this type of activity from 3.6 AU to perihelion (1.23 AU). We have traced the jets back to their sources on the surface and noticed a good correlation with sub-solar latitude, surface morphologies, and color variations. As the comet receives more insolation, we observed different type of jets, some of them sustained beyond the local sunset, and an increasing number of transient events with sudden release of gas and dust.We will present here how activity changes with local seasons and how it contributes to the erosion of the surface.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofi­sica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politechnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. We

  6. Lessons Learned from OSIRIS-Rex Autonomous Navigation Using Natural Feature Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, David A.; Olds, Ryan; May, Alexander; Mario, Courtney; Perry, Mark E.; Palmer, Eric E.; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (Osiris-REx) spacecraft is scheduled to launch in September, 2016 to embark on an asteroid sample return mission. It is expected to rendezvous with the asteroid, Bennu, navigate to the surface, collect a sample (July 20), and return the sample to Earth (September 23). The original mission design called for using one of two Flash Lidar units to provide autonomous navigation to the surface. Following Preliminary design and initial development of the Lidars, reliability issues with the hardware and test program prompted the project to begin development of an alternative navigation technique to be used as a backup to the Lidar. At the critical design review, Natural Feature Tracking (NFT) was added to the mission. NFT is an onboard optical navigation system that compares observed images to a set of asteroid terrain models which are rendered in real-time from a catalog stored in memory on the flight computer. Onboard knowledge of the spacecraft state is then updated by a Kalman filter using the measured residuals between the rendered reference images and the actual observed images. The asteroid terrain models used by NFT are built from a shape model generated from observations collected during earlier phases of the mission and include both terrain shape and albedo information about the asteroid surface. As a result, the success of NFT is highly dependent on selecting a set of topographic features that can be both identified during descent as well as reliably rendered using the shape model data available. During development, the OSIRIS-REx team faced significant challenges in developing a process conducive to robust operation. This was especially true for terrain models to be used as the spacecraft gets close to the asteroid and higher fidelity models are required for reliable image correlation. This paper will present some of the challenges and lessons learned from the development

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  12. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  18. OSIRIS Modeling of High Energy Electron Transport in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Yabuuchi, T.; McGuffey, C.; Wei, Ms; Beg, F.; Mori, Wb

    2016-10-01

    In experiments on the Omega EP laser, a high intensity laser beam (eA /me c > 1) is focused onto a gold foil, generating relativistic electrons. Behind the Au foil is a layer of plastic foam through which the electrons are allowed to transport, and on the far side of the CH from the gold is a copper foil; electron fluence is measured by recording the k- α from that foil. The foam layer is either pre-ionized via a shock launched from an ablator irradiated earlier with a beam perpendicular to the high intensity beam; or the foam is in the solid state when the high intensity beam is switched on. In the latter case the foam - which has an initial density of 200mg /cm3 - heats to a temperature of 40eV and rarifies to a density of 30mg /cm3 . Results show an order of magnitude decrease in k- α when the CH layer is pre-ionized compared to cold CH. OSIRIS simulations indicate that the primary explanation for the difference in transport seen in the experiment is the partial resistive collimation of the beam in the higher density material, caused by collisional resistivity. The effect seems to be mostly caused by the higher density itself, with temperature having minimal effect. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-02-17

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics.

  20. Global observations of the mesospheric sodium layer from the OSIRIS instrument on ODIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Z.; Plane, J.; Gumbel, J.; Llywellyn, E.; She, C.

    Limb-scanning observations of the Na D -line radiance at 589 nm in the earth s dayglow made from the OSIRIS instrument on the ODIN satellite have been used to retrieve absolute Na density profiles These have been ground-truthed using a Na lidar at Ft Collins Colorado Two years of data 2003 2004 have been analyzed to characterize the seasonal and latitudinal dependence of the global Na layer This paper will first describe the retrieval algorithm and error analysis and then discuss some of the important findings First is a pronounced diurnal variation in the equatorial region with the morning Na density being much lower than in early evening This is almost certainly caused by the effect of the strong diurnal tide on the local atomic oxygen density Second there is substantial depletion of Na in the presence of polar mesospheric clouds at high latitudes during summer which leads to a very marked seasonal variation in the layer Finally the vertical resolution in the retrieved profiles is good enough to resolve sporadic or sudden Na layers SSLs The global probability distribution of SSLs is rather unexpected with a much higher probability at mid- to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere

  1. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  2. RESOLVING GAS FLOWS IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS STARBURST IRAS 23365+3604 WITH KECK LGSAO/OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Crystal L.; Soto, Kurt T.

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes.

  3. Lightcurve, Color and Phase Function Photometry of the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Nolan, Michael C.; Binzel, Richard P.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.; d'Aubigny, Christian Drouet; Lazzaro, Daniela; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Clark, Beth E.; Rizk, Bashar; Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA OSIRIS-REx mission will retrieve a sample of the carbonaceous near-Earth Asteroid (101955) Bennu and return it to Earth in 2023. Photometry in the Eight Color Asteroid Survey (ECAS) filter system and Johnson-Cousins V and R filters were conducted during the two most recent apparitions in 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. Lightcurve observations over the nights of September 14-17, 2005 yielded a synodic rotation period of 4.2905 ± 0.0065 h, which is consistent with the results of Nolan et al. (2013). ECAS color measurements made during the same nights confirm the B-type classification of Clark et al. (Clark, B.E., Binzel, R.P., Howell, E.S., Cloutis, E.A., Ockert-Bell, M., Christensen, P., Barucci, M.A., DeMeo, F., Lauretta, D.S., Connolly, H., Soderberg, A., Hergenrother, C., Lim, L., Emery, J., Mueller, M. [2011]. Icarus 216, 462-475). A search for the 0.7 μm hydration feature using the method of Vilas (Vilas, F. [1994]. Icarus 111, 456-467) did not reveal its presence. Photometry was obtained over a range of phase angles from 15° to 96° between 2005 and 2012. The resulting phase function slope of 0.040 magnitudes per degree is consistent with the phase slopes of other low albedo near-Earth asteroids (Belskaya, I.N., Shevchenko, V.G. [2000]. Icarus 147, 94-105).

  4. Cleared for Launch - Lessons Learned from the OSIRIS-REx System Requirements Verification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Craig; Adams, Angela; Williams, Bradley; Goodloe, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Requirements verification of a large flight system is a challenge. It is especially challenging for engineers taking on their first role in space systems engineering. This paper describes our approach to verification of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) system requirements. It also captures lessons learned along the way from developing systems engineers embroiled in this process. We begin with an overview of the mission and science objectives as well as the project requirements verification program strategy. A description of the requirements flow down is presented including our implementation for managing the thousands of program and element level requirements and associated verification data. We discuss both successes and methods to improve the managing of this data across multiple organizational interfaces. Our approach to verifying system requirements at multiple levels of assembly is presented using examples from our work at instrument, spacecraft, and ground segment levels. We include a discussion of system end-to-end testing limitations and their impacts to the verification program. Finally, we describe lessons learned that are applicable to all emerging space systems engineers using our unique perspectives across multiple organizations of a large NASA program.

  5. Regularized OSIRIS 3D spectroscopy at the circumnuclear disk ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumard, Thibaut; Morris, Mark R.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The Galactic central black hole and the central cluster of young stars are surrounded by a clumpy gas disk (the circumnuclear disk, CND) that rotates about them at a distance of ≃ 1 pc. The gas in this warm, turbulent, magnetized disk is ultimately likely to migrate into the central cavity and fuel future star formation and black hole accretion. We have observed two fields of approximately 20″ × 20″ in the CND at NIR wavelengths with the OSIRIS integral-field spectrometer at Keck Observatory. These two fields are located at the interface between the neutral and the ionized regions. Our data cover two H2 lines as well as the Brγ line of the Hi spectrum. The signal-to-noise ratio per spatial pixel of each line varies considerably across the field and becomes quite low in some regions. In order to avoid degrading the spatial resolution, we have developed a novel three-dimensional method to analyze the data in terms of regularized parameter maps. The method proves very efficient in retrieving all the information contained in the spectral line emission while not degrading the spatial resolution. We present this new method to analyze 3D spectroscopic data and describe our preliminary results on the structure of the ionized-neutral interface.

  6. Tomographic and spectral views on the lifecycle of polar mesospheric clouds from Odin/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, Kristoffer; Gumbel, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Vertical and horizontal structures of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) have been recovered by tomographic retrieval from the OSIRIS instrument aboard the Odin satellite. The tomographic algorithm has been used to return local scattering coefficients at seven wavelengths in the ultraviolet. This spectral information is used to retrieve PMC particle sizes, number density, and ice mass density. While substantial horizontal variations are found, local vertical structures are overall consistent with the idea of a growth-sedimentation process leading to a visible cloud. Large numbers of small particles are present near the top of the observed cloud layer. Toward lower altitudes, particle sizes increase while particle number densities decrease. A close relationship is found between the distribution of local PMC scattering coefficient and ice mass density. The bottom of the cloud often features large particles with mode radii exceeding 70 nm that rain out of the cloud before sublimating. The number density of these large particles is small, and they do not contribute significantly to the overall cloud brightness. As a consequence, the presence of these large particles can be difficult to identify for remote sensing techniques that integrate over the entire cloud column. When it comes to deriving absolute values of particle mode radius and number density, there is a strong sensitivity to assumptions on the mathematical form of the particle size distribution. We see a continued strong need to resolve this issue by co-analysis of various remote sensing techniques and observation geometries.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  8. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  9. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  10. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  14. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  17. Spectrophotometry of the Khonsu region on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the context of OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Deshapriya, Jasinghege Don; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Fornasier, Sonia; Feller, Clement; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Sierks, Holger; Ramy El-Maarry, Mohammed; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since the Rosetta spacecraft rendezvoused with the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014, OSIRIS (Optical,Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System) has been instrumental in characterising and studying both the nucleus as well as the coma of the comet. OSIRIS has thus far contributed to a plethora of scientific results. OSIRIS observations have revealed a bilobate nucleus accreted from a pair of cometesimals each having an irregular shape and a size, populated with numerous geomorphological features. Among the well defined 26 regions of the comet, Khonsu region inherits a heterogeneous terrain composed of smooth areas, scarps, outcroppings, large boulders, an intriguing 'pancake' feature, both transient and long-lived bright patches plus many other geological features.Our work focuses on the spectrophotometric analysis of some selected terrain and bright patches in the Khonsu region. Despite the variety of geological features, their spectrophotometric properties appear to share a similar composition. It is noticeable also that the smooth areas in Khonsu possess similar spectrophotometric behaviour to some other regions of the comet. By comparing the spectrophotometric characteristics of observed bright patches on Khonsu with those described and attributed to the presence of H2O ice on the comet by Barucci et al. (2016) utilising infrared data, we suggest that the bright patches we present could plausibly be derived from H2O ice. One of the studied bright patches has been observed to exist on the surface for more than 4 months without a major diminution of its size, which implies the existence of potential subsurface icy layers. The location of this feature is strongly correlated with a cometary outburst during the perihelion passage of the comet in August 2015, and we interpret it to have triggered the surface modifications necessary to unearth the stratified icy layers beneath the surface.

  18. Measuring temperature and ammonia hydrate ice on Charon in 2015 from Keck/OSIRIS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, B. J.; Young, L. A.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Lyke, J. E.; Young, E. F.; Roe, H. G.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we investigated the longitudinal (zonal) variability of H2O and ammonia (NH3) hydrate ices on the surface of Charon through analysis of the 1.65 μm and 2.21 μmabsorption features, respectively. Near-infrared spectra presented here were obtained between 2015-07-14 and 2015-08-30 UT with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph on Keck I. Spectra centered on six different sub-observer longitudes were obtained through the Hbb (1.473-1.803 μm) and Kbb (1.965-2.381 μm) filters. Gaussian functions were fit to the aforementioned bands to obtain information on band center, band depth, full width at half maximum, and band area. The shift in the band center of the temperature-dependent 1.65 μm feature was used to calculate the H2O ice temperature. The mean temperature of the ice on the observable portion of Charon's surface is 45 ± 14 K and we report no statistically significant variations in temperature across the surface. We hypothesize that the crystalline and amorphous phases of water ice reached equilibrium over 3.5 Gyr ago, with thermal recrystallization balancing the effects of irradiation amorphization. We do not believe that cryovolcanism is necessary to explain the presence of crystalline water ice on the surface of Charon. Absorption from ammonia species is detected between 12° and 290°, in agreement with results from New Horizons. Ongoing diffusion of ammonia through the rocky mantle and upper layer of water ice is one possible mechanism for maintaining its presence in Charon's surface ice. Reduced Charon spectra corrected for telluric and solar absorption are available as supplementary online material.

  19. Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Oklay, N.; Kolokolova, L.; Sierks, H.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Mottola, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Feller, C.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hall, I.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the behavior of the opposition effect as an important tool in optical remote sensing on the nucleus of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), using Rosetta-OSIRIS images acquired in different filters during the approach phase, July-August 2014 and the close flyby images on 14 of February 2015, which contain the spacecraft shadow. Methods: We based our investigation on the global and local brightness from the surface of 67P with respect to the phase angle, also known as phase curve. The local phase curve corresponds to a region that is located at the Imhotep-Ash boundary of 67P. Assuming that the region at the Imhotep-Ash boundary and the entire nucleus have similar albedo, we combined the global and local phase curves to study the opposition-surge morphology and constrain the structure and properties of 67P. The model parameters were furthermore compared with other bodies in the solar system and existing laboratory study. Results: We found that the morphological parameters of the opposition surge decrease monotonically with wavelength, whereas in the case of coherent backscattering this behavior should be the reverse. The results from comparative analysis place 67P in the same category as the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos, which are notably different from all airless bodies in the solar system. The similarity between the surface phase function of 67P and a carbon soot sample at extremely small angles is identified, introducing regolith at the boundary of the Imhotep-Ash region of 67P as a very dark and fluffy layer.

  20. Photometric observations of asteroid 4 Vesta by the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Mottola, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Sierks, H.; Hviid, S.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We report on new observations of asteroid 4 Vesta obtained on 1 May 2010 with the optical system OSIRIS onboard the ESA Rosetta mission. One lightcurve was taken at a phase angle (52°) larger than achievable from ground-based observations together with a spectrophotometric sequence covering the 260 to 990 nm wavelength range. Methods: Aperture photometry was used to derive the Vesta flux at several wavelengths. A Fourier analysis and the HG system formalism were applied to derive the Vesta rotational period and characterize its phase function. Results: We find a G parameter value of 0.27 ± 0.01 and an absolute magnitude H(R) = 2.80 ± 0.01. The lightcurve has the largest amplitude ever reported for Vesta (0.19 ± 0.01 mag), and we derive a synodic rotational period of 5.355 ± 0.025 h. The Rosetta spectrophotometry, covering the Vesta western hemisphere, is in perfect agreement with visible spectra from the literature and close to the IUE observations related to the same hemisphere. The new spectrophotometric data reveal that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. The Vesta spectrophotometry is well reproduced by spectra of howardite meteorite powders (grain size < 25 μm). From the Rosetta absolute spectrophotometry and from the phase function behaviour, we estimate a geometric albedo of 0.36 ± 0.02 at 649 nm and 0.34 ± 0.02 at 535 nm. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Constraints on its origin from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, H.; Marchi, S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barbieri, C.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Lamy, P.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Koschny, D.; Rodrigo, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Michalik, H.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2015-11-01

    Context. One of the main aims of the ESA Rosetta mission is to study the origin of the solar system by exploring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at close range. Aims: In this paper we discuss the origin and evolution of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in relation to that of comets in general and in the framework of current solar system formation models. Methods: We use data from the OSIRIS scientific cameras as basic constraints. In particular, we discuss the overall bi-lobate shape and the presence of key geological features, such as layers and fractures. We also treat the problem of collisional evolution of comet nuclei by a particle-in-a-box calculation for an estimate of the probability of survival for 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early epochs of the solar system. Results: We argue that the two lobes of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus are derived from two distinct objects that have formed a contact binary via a gentle merger. The lobes are separate bodies, though sufficiently similar to have formed in the same environment. An estimate of the collisional rate in the primordial, trans-planetary disk shows that most comets of similar size to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are likely collisional fragments, although survival of primordial planetesimals cannot be excluded. Conclusions: A collisional origin of the contact binary is suggested, and the low bulk density of the aggregate and abundance of volatile species show that a very gentle merger must have occurred. We thus consider two main scenarios: the primordial accretion of planetesimals, and the re-accretion of fragments after an energetic impact onto a larger parent body. We point to the primordial signatures exhibited by 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and other comet nuclei as critical tests of the collisional evolution.

  2. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Hughes, Kyle; Mashiku, Alinda; Longuski, James

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith EXPlorer) is an asteroid sample return mission to Bennu (RQ36) that is scheduled to launch in 2016. The planned science operations precluding the small retrieval involve operations in terminator orbits (orbit plane is perpendicular to the sun). Over longer durations the solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs the orbit causing it to precess. Our work involves: modeling high fidelity SRP model to capture the perturbations during attitude changes; design a stable orbit from the high fidelity models to analyze the stability over time.

  3. The impact of the choice of radiative transfer model and inversion method on the OSIRIS ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Craig; McLinden, Chris; Sioris, Christopher; Brohede, Samuel

    Key to the retrieval of stratospheric minor species information from limb-scatter measurements are the selections of a radiative transfer model (RTM) and inversion method (solver). Here we assess the impact of choice of RTM and solver on the retrievals of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the OSIRIS instrument using the ‘Ozone Triplet' and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques that are used in the operational Level 2 processing algorithms. The RTMs assessed are LIMBTRAN, VECTOR, SCIARAYS, and SASKTRAN. The solvers studied include the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Iterative Least Squares (ILS), and Chahine methods.

  4. A Collision Avoidance Strategy for a Potential Natural Satellite Around the Asteroid Bennu for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashiku, Alinda; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The cadence of proximity operations for the OSIRIS-REx mission may have an extra induced challenge given the potential of the detection of a natural satellite orbiting the asteroid Bennu. Current ground radar observations for object detection orbiting Bennu show no found objects within bounds of specific size and rotation rates. If a natural satellite is detected during approach, a different proximity operation cadence will need to be implemented as well as a collision avoidance strategy for mission success. A collision avoidance strategy will be analyzed using the Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

  5. A Collision Avoidance Strategy for a Potential Natural Satellite around the Asteroid Bennu for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    The cadence of proximity operations for the OSIRIS-REx mission may have an extra induced challenge given the potential of the detection of a natural satellite orbiting the asteroid Bennu. Current ground radar observations for object detection orbiting Bennu show no found objects within bounds of specific size and rotation rates. If a natural satellite is detected during approach, a different proximity operation cadence will need to be implemented as well as a collision avoidance strategy for mission success. A collision avoidance strategy will be analyzed using the Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

  6. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  7. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  8. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  11. The Osiris-Rex Mission - Sample Acquisitions Strategy and Evidence for the Nature of Regolith on Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Brucato, J. R.; Campins, H.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Connolly, H. C.; Dotto, E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J.; Garvin, J. B.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Libourel, G.; Marshall, J. R.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Rizk, B.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA selected the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission as the third New Frontiers mission in May 2011 [I]. The mission name is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will characterize near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, which is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid [2,3] and one of the most potentially hazardous asteroids known [4]. The primary objective of the mission is to return a pristine sample from this bod, to advance our understanding of the generation, evolution, and maturation of regolith on small bodies.

  12. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  13. Engineering design of the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument: an OSIRIS-REx student collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew J.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-07-01

    OSIRIS-REx is a NASA New Frontiers mission scheduled for launch in 2016 that will travel to the asteroid Bennu and return a pristine sample of the asteroid to Earth. The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student collaboration instrument on-board the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. REXIS is a NASA risk Class D instrument, and its design and development is largely student led. The engineering team consists of MIT graduate and undergraduate students and staff at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. The primary goal of REXIS is the education of science and engineering students through participation in the development of light hardware. In light, REXIS will contribute to the mission by providing an elemental abundance map of the asteroid and by characterizing Bennu among the known meteorite groups. REXIS is sensitive to X-rays between 0.5 and 7 keV, and uses coded aperture imaging to map the distribution of iron with 50 m spatial resolution. This paper describes the science goals, concept of operations, and overall engineering design of the REXIS instrument. Each subsystem of the instrument is addressed with a high-level description of the design. Critical design elements such as the Thermal Isolation Layer (TIL), radiation cover, coded-aperture mask, and Detector Assembly Mount (DAM) are discussed in further detail.

  14. Regional surface morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/OSIRIS images: The southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maarry, M. R.; Thomas, N.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Pajola, M.; Lee, J.-C.; Massironi, M.; Davidsson, B.; Marchi, S.; Keller, H. U.; Hviid, S. F.; Besse, S.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Auger, A.-T.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; De Cecco, M.; Debei, S.; Güttler, C.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marschall, R.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: The OSIRIS camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft has been acquiring images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)'s nucleus since August 2014. Starting in May 2015, the southern hemisphere gradually became illuminated and was imaged for the first time. Here we present the regional morphology of the southern hemisphere, which serves as a companion to an earlier paper that presented the regional morphology of the northern hemisphere. Methods: We used OSIRIS images that were acquired at orbits ~45-125 km from the center of the comet (corresponding to spatial resolutions of ~0.8 to 2.3 m/pixel) coupled with the use of digital terrain models to define the different regions on the surface, and identify structural boundaries accurately. Results: Seven regions have been defined in the southern hemisphere bringing the total number of defined regions on the surface of the nucleus to 26. These classifications are mainly based on morphological and/or topographic boundaries. The southern hemisphere shows a remarkable dichotomy with its northern counterpart mainly because of the absence of wide-scale smooth terrains, dust coatings and large unambiguous depressions. As a result, the southern hemisphere closely resembles previously identified consolidated regions. An assessment of the overall morphology of comet 67P suggests that the comet's two lobes show surface heterogeneities manifested in different physical/mechanical characteristics, possibly extending to local (i.e., within a single region) scales.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  18. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  19. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  1. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  4. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  5. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  7. Photometric analysis of Asteroid (21) Lutetia from Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Boehnhardt, H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the photometric properties of Asteroid (21) Lutetia based on images captured by Rosetta during its flyby. We utilized the images recorded in the F17 filter (λ = 631.6 nm) of the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and in the F82 & F22 filters (λ = 649.2 nm) of the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the spacecraft. We present the results of Hapke and Minnaert modeling using disk-integrated and disk-resolved data derived from the surface of the asteroid. At 631.6 nm and 649.2 nm, the geometric albedo of Lutetia is 0.194 ± 0.002. The Bond albedo is 0.076 ± 0.002 at 649.2 nm, and 0.079 ± 0.002 at 631.6 nm. The roughness parameter is 28 ° ± 1 ° , the opposition surge parameters B0 and h are 1.79 ± 0.08 and 0.041 ± 0.003, respectively, and the asymmetry factor of the phase function is -0.28 ± 0.01. The single-scattering albedo is 0.226 ± 0.002 at 631.6 and 649.2 nm. The modeled Hapke parameters of Asteroid Lutetia are close to those of typical S-type asteroids. The Minnaert k parameter of Lutetia at opposition (0.526 ± 0.002) is comparable with other asteroids and comets. Albedo ratio images indicate no significant variation across the surface of Lutetia, apart from the so called NPCC region on Lutetia where a pronounced variation is seen at large phase angle. The small width of the albedo distribution of the surface (∼7% at half maximum) and the similarity between phase ratio maps derived from the measurements and from the modeling suggests that the light scattering property over the whole visible and illuminated surface of the asteroid is widely uniform. The comparison between the reflectance measurement of Lutetia and the available laboratory samples suggests that the regolith on Lutetia is concrete with possible grain size distribution of150 μm or larger.

  8. OB stars at the lowest Local Group metallicity. GTC-OSIRIS observations of Sextans A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, I.; Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars play an important role in the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Universe. The first metal-poor stars may have started the reionization of the Universe. To understand these early epochs it is necessary to know the behavior and the physical properties of massive stars in very metal-poor environments. We focus on the massive stellar content of the metal-poor irregular galaxy Sextans A. Aims: Our aim is to find and classify OB stars in Sextans A, so as to later determine accurate stellar parameters of these blue massive stars in this low-metallicity region (Z ~ 0.1 Z⊙). Methods: Using UBV photometry, the reddening-free index Q and GALEX imaging, we built a list of blue massive star candidates in Sextans A. We obtained low-resolution (R ~ 1000) GTC-OSIRIS spectra for a fraction of them and carried out spectral classification. For the confirmed O-stars, we derived preliminary stellar parameters. Results: The target selection criteria and observations were successful and have produced the first spectroscopic atlas of OB-type stars in Sextans A. From the whole sample of 18 observed stars, 12 were classified as early OB-types, including 5 O-stars. The radial velocities of all target stars are in agreement with their Sextans A membership, although three of them show significant deviations. We determined the stellar parameters of the O-type stars using the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND and revisited the sub-SMC temperature scale. Two of the O-stars are consistent with relatively strong winds and enhanced helium abundances, although results are not conclusive. We discuss the position of the OB stars in the HRD. Initial stellar masses run from slightly below 20 up to 40 solar masses. Conclusions: The target selection method worked well for Sextans A. The stellar temperatures are consistent with findings in other galaxies. Some of the targets deserve follow-up spectroscopy because of indications of a runaway nature, an enhanced helium abundance

  9. Multi-color, rotationally resolved photometry of asteroid 21 Lutetia from OSIRIS/Rosetta observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Jorda, L.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hviid, S. F.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Asteroid 21 Lutetia is the second target of the Rosetta space mission. Extensive pre-encounter, space-, and ground-based observations are being performed to prepare for the flyby in July 2010. Aims: The aim of this article is to accurately characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared and to search for evidence of surface inhomogeneities. Methods: The asteroid was imaged on 2 and 3 January 2007 with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft. The geometric conditions were such that the aspect angle was 44^circ (i.e., mid-northern latitudes) and the phase angle 22.4^circ. Lutetia was continuously monitored over 14.3 h, thus exceeding one rotational period and a half, with twelve filters whose spectral coverage extended from 271 to 986 nm. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: High-quality light curves in the U, B, V, R and I photometric bands were obtained. Once they were merged with previous light curves from over some 45 years, the sidereal period is accurately determined: Prot = 8.168271 ± 0.000002 h. Color variations with rotational phase are marginally detected with the ultraviolet filter centered at 368 nm but are absent in the other visible and near-infrared filters. The albedo is directly determined from the observed maximum cross-section obtained from an elaborated shape model that results from a combination of adaptive-optics imaging and light curve inversion. Using current solutions for the phase function, we find geometric albedos pV = 0.130 ± 0.014 when using the linear phase function and pV(H-G) = 0.180 ± 0.018 when using the (H-G) phase function, which incorporates the opposition effect. The spectral variation of the reflectance indicates a steady decrease with decreasing

  10. Asteroid 2867 Steins. I. Photometric properties from OSIRIS/Rosetta and ground-based visible observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Weissman, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Lowry, S.; Toth, I.; Küppers, M.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Asteroid 2867 Steins is the first target of the Rosetta space mission with a flyby scheduled in September 2008. Aims: An early characterization is needed to optimize the flyby parameters and the science operations and to maximize the scientific return. The aim of this article is to characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid. Methods: The asteroid was imaged with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft, at a phase angle of 41.7° significantly larger than achievable from Earth. It was continuously monitored over ~24 h (on 11 March 2006), thus covering four rotational periods, at a temporal cadence of 6 min. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: The light curve in the R photometric band of the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system has a mean value R(1,1,α = 41.7° = 14.13 ± 0.03 and an amplitude of 0.25 ± 0.04 mag. The periodicity was analyzed with different techniques yielding a mean value of the synodic rotational period of 6.054 ± 0.003 h. By combining with ground-based observations obtained at different phase angles, the phase function is constructed and characterized by a linear part having a phase coefficient β = 0.025 ± 0.001 mag/deg and a mean value R(1,1,0) = 13.10 ± 0.04. In terms of the H-G formalism, the best fit photometric values are G = 0.35 ± 0.05 and H = 12.84 ± 0.07, but the resulting opposition surge of 0.25 mag, although typical of E-type asteroids, is not really constrained because of the lack of data at phase angles below 7°. Altogether the photometric properties of asteroid 2867 Steins (phase function, color and albedo) indicate that it is a somewhat extreme E-type object, although it is known that this quite small population exhibits at least three different surface mineralogies. Table [see full textsee full text] is only available

  11. Comet 67P's morphological dichotomy and surface evolution from the Rosetta/OSIRIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramy El-Maarry, M.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gracia-Berná, Antonio; Pajola, Maurizio; Groussin, Olivier; ROSETTA/OSIRIS

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Aug, 2014 to Sep, 2016. During this time, it obtained the most comprehensive image dataset for a comet's nucleus in terms of resolution, as well as spatial and temporal coverage, using the OSIRIS camera. These images have shown the surface of the comet to be very diverse in its texture and geology. In particular, the 2-year duration of the mission permitted imaging of both hemispheres and the possibility to assess the morphology and surface evolution of comet's 67P's northern hemisphere before and after perihelion passage (in Aug, 2015). The northern hemisphere (NH) is morphologically diverse including regions of consolidated, often fractured materials, smooth terrains showing aeolian-like landforms and seasonal variations, dust-covered areas suggestive of an air-fall-like mechanism, and irregular large-scale depressions suggestive of massive outburst activities. On the other hand, the southern hemisphere (SH) shows a clear dichotomy with the North showing regionally rougher terrains with little or no smooth deposits. Similarly, dusty coatings that were observed in the northern hemisphere are generally lacking in addition to the absence of large depressions. Overall, the SH shows significantly less topographical variation in comparison to the NH. The difference in relief between the NH and SH may be explained by the differences in erosional extent between both hemispheres. The SH has a shorter yet more intensive summer (close to perihelion), which could result in levels of erosion in the SH that are up to a factor of 3 higher than that of the NH. Another notable difference between both hemispheres is the absence of smooth deposits and dust coatings in the SH. The absence of similar deposits in the south may suggest that activity in the SH occurs with much higher intensity leading to ejection of dust particles at velocities exceeding comet's escape velocity. During the meeting, we plan to summarize the

  12. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  13. The implementation of multi-task geophysical survey to locate Cleopatra Tomb at Tap-Osiris Magna, Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt “Phase II”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Khalil, Mohamed A.; Massoud, Usama; Santos, Fernando M.; Mesbah, Hany A.; Lethy, Ahmed; Soliman, Mamdouh; Ragab, El Said A.

    2012-06-01

    According to some new discoveries at Tap-Osiris Magna temple (West of Alexandria), there is potentiality to uncover a remarkable archeological finding at this site. Three years ago many significant archeological evidences have been discovered sustaining the idea that the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony may be found in the Osiris temple inside Tap-Osiris Magna temple at a depth from 20 to 30 m. To confirm this idea, PHASE I was conducted in by joint application of Ground Penetrating Radar “GPR”, Electrical Resistivity Tomography “ERT” and Magnetometry. The results obtained from PHASE I could not confirm the existence of major tombs at this site. However, small possible cavities were strongly indicated which encouraged us to proceed in investigation of this site by using another geophysical approach including Very Low Frequency Electro Magnetic (VLF-EM) technique. VLF-EM data were collected along parallel lines covering the investigated site with a line-to-line spacing of 1 m. The point-to-point distance of 1 m along the same line was employed. The data were qualitatively interpreted by Fraser filtering process and quantitatively by 2-D VLF inversion of tipper data and forward modeling. Results obtained from VLF-EM interpretation are correlated with 2-D resistivity imaging and drilling information. Findings showed a highly resistive zone at a depth extended from about 25-45 m buried beneath Osiris temple, which could be indicated as the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony. This result is supported by Fraser filtering and forward modeling results. The depth of archeological findings as indicated from the geophysical survey is correlated well with the depth expected by archeologists, as well as, the depth of discovered tombs outside Tap-Osiris Magna temple. This depth level has not been reached by drilling in this site. We hope that the site can be excavated in the future based on these geophysical results.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  16. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  17. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  20. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  1. NIR Imaging Spectroscopy of the Inner Few Arcseconds of NGC 4151 with OSIRIS at Keck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Krabbe, Alfred; Larkin, James E.; Barczys, Matthew; McElwain, Michael W.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Weiss, Jason; Wright, Shelley A.

    2013-01-01

    We present H- and K-band data from the inner arcsecond of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near-infrared imaging field spectrograph OSIRIS at the Keck Observatory. The angular resolution is about a few parsecs on-site and thus competes easily with optical images taken previously with the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the morphology and dynamics of most species detected but focus on the morphology and dynamics of the narrow line region (as traced by emission of [FeII]?1.644 µm), the interplay between plasma ejected from the nucleus (as traced by 21 cm continuum radio data) and hot H2 gas and characterize the detected nuclear HeI?2.058 µm absorption feature as a narrow absorption line (NAL) phenomenon. Emission from the narrow line region (NLR) as traced by [FeII] reveals a biconical morphology and we compare the measured dynamics in the [FeII] emission line with models proposing acceleration of gas in the NLR and simple ejection of gas into the NLR. In the inner 2.5 arcseconds the acceleration model reveals a better fit to our data than the ejection model.We also see evidence that the jet very locally enhances emission in [FeII] at certain positions in our field-of-view such that we were able to distinct the kinematics of these clouds from clouds generally accelerated in the NLR. Further, the radio jet is aligned with the bicone surface rather than the bicone axis such that we assume that the jet is not the dominant mechanism responsible for driving the kinematics of clouds in the NLR. The hot H2 gas is thermal with a temperature of about 1700 K. We observe a remarkable correlation between individual H2 clouds at systemic velocity with the 21 cm continuum radio jet. We propose that the radio jet is at least partially embedded in the galactic disk of NGC 4151 such that deviations from a linear radio structure are invoked by interactions of jet plasma with H2 clouds that are moving into the path of the jet because of

  2. Retrieving Neptune's aerosol properties from Keck OSIRIS observations. I. Dark regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszcz-Cook, S. H.; de Kleer, K.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.; Hammel, H. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyze three-dimensional data cubes of Neptune from the OSIRIS integral-field spectrograph on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, from 26 July 2009. These data have a spatial resolution of 0.035/pixel and spectral resolution of R ∼3800 in the H (1.47-1.80 μm) and K (1.97-2.38 μm) broad bands. We focus our analysis on regions of Neptune's atmosphere that are near-infrared dark - that is, free of discrete bright cloud features. We use a forward model coupled to a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to retrieve properties of Neptune's aerosol structure and methane profile above ∼4 bar in these near-infrared dark regions. We construct a set of high signal-to-noise spectra spanning a range of viewing geometries to constrain the vertical structure of Neptune's aerosols in a cloud-free latitude band from 2-12°N. We find that Neptune's cloud opacity at these wavelengths is dominated by a compact, optically thick cloud layer with a base near 3 bar. Using the pyDISORT algorithm for the radiative transfer and assuming a Henyey-Greenstein phase function, we observe this cloud to be composed of low albedo (single scattering albedo = 0.45-0.01+0.01), forward scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.50-0.02+0.02) particles, with an assumed characteristic size of ∼1μm. Above this cloud, we require an aerosol layer of smaller (∼0.1μm) particles forming a vertically extended haze, which reaches from the upper troposphere (0.59-0.03+0.04 bar) into the stratosphere. The particles in this haze are brighter (single scattering albedo = 0.91-0.05+0.06) and more isotropically scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.24-0.03+0.02) than those in the deep cloud. When we extend our analysis to 18 cloud-free locations from 20°N to 87°S, we observe that the optical depth in aerosols above 0.5 bar decreases by a factor of 2-3 or more at mid- and high-southern latitudes relative to low latitudes. We also consider Neptune's methane (CH4) profile, and find that our retrievals

  3. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.; Hughes, Kyle M.; Mashiku, Alinda K.; Longuski, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure is one of the largest perturbing forces on the OSIRISRex trajectory as it orbits the asteroid Bennu. In this work, we investigate how forces due to solar radiation perturb the OSIRIS-REx trajectory in a high-fidelity model. The model accounts for Bennu's non-spherical gravity field, third-body gravity forces from the Sun and Jupiter, as well as solar radiation forces acting on a simplified spacecraft model. Such high-fidelity simulations indicate significant solar radiation pressure perturbations from the nominal orbit. Modifications to the initial design of the nominal orbit are found using a variation of parameters approach that reduce the perturbation in eccentricity by a factor of one-half.

  4. Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, M. A.; Feller, C.; Besse, S.; Leyrat, C.; Lara, L.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.; Scholten, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Michalik, H.; Moreno, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Shi, X.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. Aims: We present results for the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of 67P derived from the OSIRIS imaging system, which consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The observations presented here were performed during July and the beginning of August 2014, during the approach phase, when OSIRIS was mapping the surface of the comet with several filters at different phase angles (1.3°-54°). The resolution reached up to 2.1 m/px. Methods: The OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline, then converted into I/F radiance factors and corrected for the illumination conditions at each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. Color cubes of the surface were produced by stacking registered and illumination-corrected images. Furthermore, photometric analysis was performed both on disk-averaged photometry in several filters and on disk-resolved images acquired with the NAC orange filter, centered at 649 nm, using Hapke modeling. Results: The disk-averaged phase function of the nucleus of 67P shows a strong opposition surge with a G parameter value of -0.13 ± 0.01 in the HG system formalism and an absolute magnitude Hv(1,1,0) = 15.74 ± 0.02 mag. The integrated spectrophotometry in 20 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range shows a red spectral behavior, without clear absorption bands except for a potential absorption centered at ~290 nm that is possibly due to SO2 ice. The nucleus shows strong phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11%/(100 nm) to 16%/(100 nm) in the 1.3°-54° phase angle range. The geometric albedo of the comet is 6.5 ± 0.2% at 649 nm, with

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    McGarry, R.J.

    1958-04-22

    Fluid-cooled nuclear reactors of the type that utilize finned uranium fuel elements disposed in coolant channels in a moderater are described. The coolant channels are provided with removable bushings composed of a non- fissionable material. The interior walls of the bushings have a plurality of spaced, longtudinal ribs separated by grooves which receive the fins on the fuel elements. The lands between the grooves are spaced from the fuel elements to form flow passages, and the size of the now passages progressively decreases as the dlstance from the center of the core increases for the purpose of producing a greater cooling effect at the center to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the core.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  8. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  9. Reactor and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  10. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  12. Detection of exposed H2O ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Filacchione, G.; Fornasier, S.; Raponi, A.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Tosi, F.; Feller, C.; Ciarniello, M.; Sierks, H.; Capaccioni, F.; Pommerol, A.; Massironi, M.; Oklay, N.; Merlin, F.; Vincent, J.-B.; Fulchignoni, M.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Perna, D.; Capria, M. T.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Rousseau, B.; Barbieri, C.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Lamy, P. L.; De Sanctis, C.; Rodrigo, R.; Erard, S.; Koschny, D.; Leyrat, C.; Rickman, H.; Drossart, P.; Keller, H. U.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Arnold, G.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fonti, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Kappel, D.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Mancarella, F.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Palomba, E.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Since the orbital insertion of the Rosetta spacecraft, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) has been mapped by OSIRIS camera and VIRTIS spectro-imager, producing a huge quantity of images and spectra of the comet's nucleus. Aims: The aim of this work is to search for the presence of H2O on the nucleus which, in general, appears very dark and rich in dehydrated organic material. After selecting images of the bright spots which could be good candidates to search for H2O ice, taken at high resolution by OSIRIS, we check for spectral cubes of the selected coordinates to identify these spots observed by VIRTIS. Methods: The selected OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline and corrected for the illumination conditions for each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. The spots with higher I/F were selected and then analysed spectrophotometrically and compared with the surrounding area. We selected 13 spots as good targets to be analysed by VIRTIS to search for the 2 μm absorption band of water ice in the VIRTIS spectral cubes. Results: Out of the 13 selected bright spots, eight of them present positive H2O ice detection on the VIRTIS data. A spectral analysis was performed and the approximate temperature of each spot was computed. The H2O ice content was confirmed by modeling the spectra with mixing (areal and intimate) of H2O ice and dark terrain, using Hapke's radiative transfer modeling. We also present a detailed analysis of the detected spots.

  13. Modelling observations of the inner gas and dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, R.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Thomas, N.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Rubin, M.; Skorov, Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Gicquel, A.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper describes the initial modelling of gas and dust data acquired in August and September 2014 from the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft when it was in close proximity to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: This work is an attempt to provide a self-consistent model of the innermost gas and dust coma of the comet, as constrained by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) data set for the gas and by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) data set for the dust. Methods: The model uses a previously developed shape model for the nucleus, and from this the water sublimation rate and gas temperatures at the surface are computed with a simple thermal model. The gas expansion is modelled with a 3D parallel implementation of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo algorithm. A dust drag algorithm is then used to produce dust densities in the coma, which are then converted to brightnesses using Mie theory and a line-of-sight integration. Results: We show that a purely insolation-driven model for surface outgassing does not produce a reasonable fit to ROSINA/COPS data. A stronger source in the "neck" region of the nucleus (region Hapi) is needed to match the observed modulation of the gas density in detail. This agrees with OSIRIS data, which shows that the dust emission from the "neck" was dominant in the August-September 2014 time frame. The current model matches this observation reasonably if a power index of 2-3 for the dust size distribution is used. A better match to the OSIRIS data is seen by using a single large particle size for the coma. Conclusions: We have shown possible solutions to the gas and dust distributions in the inner coma, which are consistent with ROSINA and OSIRIS data.

  14. Limb-nadir matching using non-coincident NO2 observations: proof of concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS prototype product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Cristen; Normand, Elise N.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Belmonte Rivas, Maria; Folkert Boersma, K.; Eskes, Henk

    2016-08-01

    A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical box model. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product - referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO) - was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60° S to 60° N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 × 1015 molecules cm-2 over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.

  15. Global and Spatially Resolved Photometric Properties of the Nucleus of Comet 67P/C-G from OSIRIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.

    2014-04-01

    Following the successful wake-up of the ROSETTA spacecraft on 20 January 2014, the OSIRIS imaging system was fully re-commissioned at the end of March 2014 confirming its initial excellent performances. The OSIRIS instrument includes two cameras: the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with respective fieldsofview of 2.2° and 12°, both equipped with 2K by 2K CCD detectors and dual filter wheels. The NAC filters allow a spectral coverage of 270 to 990 nm tailored to the investigation of the mineralogical composition of the nucleus of comet P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko whereas those of the WAC (245-632 nm) aim at characterizing its coma [1]. The NAC has already secured a set of four complete light curves of the nucleus of 67P/C-G between 3 March and 24 April 2014 with a primary purpose of characterizing its rotational state. A preliminary spin period of 12.4 hours has been obtained, similar to its very first determination from a light curve obtained in 2003 with the Hubble space telescope [2]. The NAC and WAC will be recalibrated in the forthcoming weeks using the same stellar calibrators VEGA and the solar analog 16 Cyg B as for past inflight calibration campaigns in support of the flybys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia. This will allow comparing the pre- and post-hibernation performances of the cameras and correct the quantum efficiency response of the two CCD and the throughput for all channels (i.e., filters) if required. The accurate photometric analysis of the images requires utmost care due to several instrumental problems, the most severe and complex to handle being the presence of optical ghosts which result from multiple reflections on the two filters inserted in the optical beam and on the thick window which protects the CCD detector from cosmic ray impacts. These ghosts prominently appear as either slightly defocused images offset from the primary images or large round or elliptical halos. We will first present results on the global

  16. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  17. Image Analysis of OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) Thermal Vacuum Test Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett Gordon, Kenneth; Bos, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission, which launched in September 2016, is to travel to the near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu, survey and map the asteroid, and return a scientifically interesting sample to Earth in 2023. As a part of its suite of integrated sensors, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft includes a Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS). The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, acquisition of the asteroid sample, and confirmation of the asteroid sample stowage in the spacecraft’s Sample Return Capsule (SRC). After first being calibrated at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) at the instrument level, the TAGCAMS were then transferred to Lockheed Martin (LM), where they were put through a progressive series of spacecraft-level environmental tests. These tests culminated in a several-week long, spacecraft-level thermal vacuum (TVAC) test during which hundreds of images were recorded. To analyze the images, custom codes were developed using MATLAB R2016a programming software. For analyses of the TAGCAMS dark images, the codes observed the dark current level for each of the images as a function of the camera-head temperature. Results confirm that the detector dark current noise has not increased and follows similar trends to the results measured at the instrument-level by MSSS. This indicates that the electrical performance of the camera system is stable, even after integration with the spacecraft, and will provide imagery with the required signal-to-noise ratio during spaceflight operations. During the TVAC testing, the TAGCAMS were positioned to view optical dot targets suspended in the chamber. Results for the TAGCAMS light images using a centroid analysis on the positions of the optical target holes indicate that the boresight pointing of the two navigation cameras depend on spacecraft temperature, but will not change by more than ten pixels (approximately 2

  18. Development and experimental qualification of a calculation scheme for the evaluation of gamma heating in experimental reactors. Application to MARIA and Jules Horowitz (JHR) MTR Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Wroblewska, M.; Marcinkowska, Z.; Boettcher, A.; Prokopowicz, R.; Sireta, P.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J.; Jagielski, J.; Luks, A.

    2015-07-01

    Precise computational determination of nuclear heating which consists predominantly of gamma heating (more than 80 %) is one of the challenges in material testing reactor exploitation. Due to sophisticated construction and conditions of experimental programs planned in JHR it became essential to use most accurate and precise gamma heating model. Before the JHR starts to operate, gamma heating evaluation methods need to be developed and qualified in other experimental reactor facilities. This is done inter alia using OSIRIS, MINERVE or EOLE research reactors in France. Furthermore, MARIA - Polish material testing reactor - has been chosen to contribute to the qualification of gamma heating calculation schemes/tools. This reactor has some characteristics close to those of JHR (beryllium usage, fuel element geometry). To evaluate gamma heating in JHR and MARIA reactors, both simulation tools and experimental program have been developed and performed. For gamma heating simulation, new calculation scheme and gamma heating model of MARIA have been carried out using TRIPOLI4 and APOLLO2 codes. Calculation outcome has been verified by comparison to experimental measurements in MARIA reactor. To have more precise calculation results, model of MARIA in TRIPOLI4 has been made using the whole geometry of the core. This has been done for the first time in the history of MARIA reactor and was complex due to cut cone shape of all its elements. Material composition of burnt fuel elements has been implemented from APOLLO2 calculations. An experiment for nuclear heating measurements and calculation verification has been done in September 2014. This involved neutron, photon and nuclear heating measurements at selected locations in MARIA reactor using in particular Rh SPND, Ag SPND, Ionization Chamber (all three from CEA), KAROLINA calorimeter (NCBJ) and Gamma Thermometer (CEA/SCK CEN). Measurements were done in forty points using four channels. Maximal nuclear heating evaluated from

  19. Tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

  20. Bright ice spots on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Pommerol, Antoine; Erard, Stéphane; Oklay, Nilda; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Sierks, Holger; Filacchione, Gianrico; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Guettler, Carsten; Fornasier, Sonia; Raponi, Andrea; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Feller, Clement; Ciarniello, Mauro; Leyrat, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    Since the Rosetta mission arrived at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67/P C-G) on August 2014, the comet nucleus has been mapped by both OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System), and VIRTIS (Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) acquiring a huge quantity of surface's images and spectra, producing the most detailed maps at the highest spatial resolution of a cometary nucleus. The OSIRIS imaging system (NAC & WAC) has a set of filters at different wavelengths from the ultraviolet (269 nm) to the near-infrared (989 nm). The OSIRIS imaging system has been the first instrument with the capability to map a comet surface at a high resolution reaching a maximum resolution of 11cm/px during the closest fly-by on February 14, 2015 at a distance of about 6 km from the nucleus surface while the VIRTIS spectro-imager (with two channels M and H) operates from 0.25 to 5m with medium and high spectral resolution. The spectral analysis on global scale from the VIRTIS data indicates that the nucleus presents different terrains covered by a very dark and dehydrated organic-rich material [1]. OSIRIS images indicate a morphologically complex and dark surface with a variety of terrain types and several intricate features [2]. The surface shows albedo variation and from the spectrophotometric analysis a large heterogeneity on the surface properties [3, 4, 5]. Limited evidences of exposed H2O ice have been found on the surface of 67/P C-G up to now [6, 7, 8], even though ices are considered to be a major constituent of cometary nuclei. The aim of this work is, taking advantage of the high resolution of the OSIRIS images, i) to detect the bright spots at all dimensions by albedo and spectral slope analyses, ii) to select those spots which could be resolved by VIRTIS and iii ) to deeply analyse the corresponding spectra. The OSIRIS analysis has been carried out on the colours and spectrophotometry of the whole 67/P C-G nucleus from images acquired

  1. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    nuclides - 2008 / T. Golashvili -- Oral session 6: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems. Neutronic analyses in support of the HFIR beamline modifications and lifetime extension / I. Remec and E. D. Blakeman. Characterization of neutron test facilities at Sandia National Laboratories / D. W. Vehar ... [et al.]. LYRA irradiation experiments: neutron metrology and dosimetry / B. Acosta and L. Debarberis. Calculated neutron and gamma-ray spectra across the prismatic very high temperature reactor core / J. W. Sterbentz. Enhancement of irradiation capability of the experimental fast reactor joyo / S. Maeda ... [et al.]. Neutron spectrum analyses by foil activation method for high-energy proton beams / C. H. Pyeon ... [et al.] -- Oral session 7: Cross sections, nuclear data, damage correlations. Investigation of new reaction cross-section evaluations in order to update and extend the IRDF-2002 reactor dosimetry library / É. M. Zsolnay, H. J. Nolthenius and A. L. Nichols. A novel approach towards DPA calculations / A. Hogenbirk and D. F. Da Cruz. A new ENDFIB-VII.O based multigroup cross-section library for reactor dosimetry / F. A. Alpan and S. L. Anderson. Activities at the NEA for dosimetry applications / H. Henriksson and I. Kodeli. Validation and verification of covariance data from dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluations / S. Badikov. Status of the neutron cross section standards / A. D. Carlson -- Oral session 8: transport calculations. A dosimetry assessment for the core restraint of an advanced gas cooled reactor / D. A. Thornton ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry study in the region of the support structure of a VVER-1000 type reactor / G. Borodkin ... [et al.]. SNS moderator poison design and experiment validation of the moderator performance / W. Lu ... [et al.]. Analysis of OSIRIS in-core surveillance dosimetry for GONDOLE steel irradiation program by using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code / Y. K. Lee and F. Malouch.Reactor dosimetry applications using RAPTOR

  2. Wolf-Rayet stars in M81: detection and characterization using GTC/OSIRIS spectra and HST/ACS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, V. M. A.; Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa-González, D.

    2016-08-01

    We here report the properties of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in 14 locations in the nearby spiral galaxy M81. These locations were found serendipitously while analysing the slit spectra of a sample of ˜150 star-forming complexes, taken using the long-slit and multiobject spectroscopic modes of the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Colours and magnitudes of the identified point sources in the Hubble Space Telescope images compare well with those of individual W-R stars in the Milky Way. Using templates of individual W-R stars, we infer that the objects responsible for the observed W-R features are single stars in 12 locations, comprising of three WNLs, three WNEs, two WCEs and four transitional WN/C types. In diagrams involving bump luminosities and the width of the bumps, the W-R stars of the same sub-class group together, with the transitional stars occupying locations intermediate between the WNE and WCE groups, as expected from the evolutionary models. However, the observed number of 4 transitional stars out of our sample of 14 is statistically high as compared to the 4 per cent expected in stellar evolutionary models.

  3. OSIRIS, a quest for proof of principle for integrated testing strategies of chemicals for four human health endpoints.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; Aldenberg, Tom; Buist, Harrie; Escher, Sylvia; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Pauné, Eduard; Rorije, Emiel; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Chemical substances policies in Europe are aiming towards chemical safety and at the same time a reduction in animal testing. These goals are alleged to be reachable by mining as many relevant data as possible, evaluate these data with regard to validity, reliability and relevance, and use of these data in so-called Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS). This paper offers an overview of four human health endpoints that were part of the EU-funded OSIRIS project, aiming to develop ITS fit for the EU chemicals legislation REACH. The endpoints considered cover their categorical as well as continuous characteristics: skin sensitisation, repeated dose toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Detailed papers are published elsewhere in this volume. The stepwise ITS approach developed takes advantage of existing information, groups information about similar substances and integrates exposure considerations. The different and possibly contradictory information is weighted and the respective uncertainties taken into account in a weight of evidence (WoE) approach. In case of data gaps, the ITS proposes the most appropriate method to acquire the missing information. Each building block for the ITS, i.e. each in vivo test, in vitro test, (Q)SAR model or human evidence, is evaluated with regard to quality.

  4. Implementation of a 3D version of ponderomotive guiding center solver in particle-in-cell code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Anton; Vieira, Jorge; Silva, Luis; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven accelerators gained an increased attention over the past decades. Typical modeling techniques for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) are based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC simulations, however, are very computationally expensive due to the disparity of the relevant scales ranging from the laser wavelength, in the micrometer range, to the acceleration length, currently beyond the ten centimeter range. To minimize the gap between these despair scales the ponderomotive guiding center (PGC) algorithm is a promising approach. By describing the evolution of the laser pulse envelope separately, only the scales larger than the plasma wavelength are required to be resolved in the PGC algorithm, leading to speedups in several orders of magnitude. Previous work was limited to two dimensions. Here we present the implementation of the 3D version of a PGC solver into the massively parallel, fully relativistic PIC code OSIRIS. We extended the solver to include periodic boundary conditions and parallelization in all spatial dimensions. We present benchmarks for distributed and shared memory parallelization. We also discuss the stability of the PGC solver.

  5. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) for OSIRIS-REx: identifying regional elemental enrichment on asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hong, Jaesub; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Kissel, Steven E.; Villasenor, Joel; Oprescu, Miruna; Induni, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Mission was selected under the NASA New Frontiers program and is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of asteroid Bennu in 2019. 101955 Bennu (previously 1999 RQ36) is an Apollo (near-Earth) asteroid originally discovered by the LINEAR project in 1999 which has since been classified as a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) was proposed jointly by MIT and Harvard and was subsequently accepted as a student led instrument for the determination of the elemental composition of the asteroid's surface as well as the surface distribution of select elements through solar induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of a detector plane that contains 4 X-ray CCDs integrated into a wide field coded aperture telescope with a focal length of 20 em for the detection of regions with enhanced abundance in key elements at 50 m scales. Elemental surface distributions of approximately 50-200 m scales can be detected using the instrument as a simple collimator. An overview of the observation strategy of the REXIS instrument and expected performance are presented here.

  6. Dust activities near the dawn terminator on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xian; Hu, Xuanyu; Sierks, Holger; Kührt, Ekkehard; Güttler, Carsten; Knollenberg, Jörg; Oklay, Nilda

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution images obtained by the OSIRIS camera on board Rosetta spacecraft have revealed dust activities happening close to terminators on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While activities observed beyond dusk terminator in the night side are considered being sustained by subsurface thermal lag [1], those observed by the dawn terminator might be connected to the sublimation of water ice accumulated on the surface through re-condensation process during night [2,3]. In this study we present pre-perihelion observations of dust emission observed shortly after local sunrise. We investigate the location of these activities as well as their relation with local topography. A generic thermal-physical model will be applied to examine the feasibility of re-condensed ice on the surface being the source of such activities. [1] Shi, X., Hu, X., Sierks, H. et al., 2015, Sunset jets observed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sustained by subsurface thermal lag, A&A, accepted. [2] Prialnik, D., A'Hearn, M. F., & Meech, K. J., 2008, A mechanism for short-lived cometary outbursts at sunrise as observed by Deep Impact on 9P/Tempel 1, MNRAS, 388, L20. [3] De Sanctis, M. C., Capaccioni, F., Ciarniello, M. et al., 2015, The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Nature, 525, 500-503.

  7. “Two-step” technique with OsiriX™ to evaluate feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical fixation

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Luis Miguel Sousa; d’Almeida, Gonçalo Neto; Cabral, José

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of craniovertebral junction pathology has evolved considerably in recent decades with the implementation of short atlanto-axial fixation techniques, notwhithstanding increasing neurovascular risks. Also, there is strong evidence that fixation of C2 anatomical pedicle has the best biomechanical profile of the entire cervical spine. However, it is often difficult and misleading, to evaluate anatomical bony and vascular anomalies using the three orthogonal planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) of CT. Objectives: The authors describe an innovative and simple technique to evaluate the feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical screw fixation using preoperative planning with the free DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) software OsiriX™. Materials and Methods: The authors report the applicatin of this novel technique in 5 cases (3 traumatic, 1 Os Odontoideum, and 1 complex congenital malformation) collected from our general case series of the Department in the last 5 years. Results: In this proof of concept study, the pre-operative analysis with the two-step tecnique was detrimental for choosing the surgical tecnique. Detailed post-operative analysis confirmed correct position of C2 screws without cortical breach. There were no complications or mortality reported. Conclusion: This two-step technique is an easy and reliable way to determine the feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical fixation. The detailed tridimensional radiological preoperative evaluation of craniovertebral junction anatomy is critical to the sucess and safety of this surgeries, and can avoid, to certain degree, expensive intra-operative tridimensional imaging facilities. PMID:27217652

  8. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS).

    PubMed

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Batke, Monika; Kroese, Dinant; Buist, Harrie; Aldenberg, Tom; Pauné, Eduard; Grimm, Helvi; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Escher, Sylvia E

    2013-11-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evaluates the conditions under which in vivo non-guideline studies are reliable. In a tiered approach three aspects of these "non-guideline" studies are assessed: the documentation of the study (reliability), the quality of the study design (adequacy) and the scope of examination (validity). The reliability is addressed by the method "Knock-out criteria", which consists of four essential criteria for repeated-dose toxicity studies. A second tool, termed QUANTOS (Quality Assessment of Non-guideline Toxicity Studies), evaluates and weights the adequacy of the study by using intra-criterion and inter-criteria weighting. Finally, the Coverage approach calculates a probability that the detected Lowest-Observed-Effect-Level (LOEL) is similar to the LOEL of a guideline study dependent on the examined targets and organs of the non-guideline study. If the validity and adequacy of the non-guideline study are insufficient for risk assessment, the ITS proposes to apply category approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept, and only as a last resort new animal-testing.

  9. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  10. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  11. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  13. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  15. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  17. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  18. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  19. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  3. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  4. Activation analysis of concrete and graphite in the experimental reactor RUS.

    PubMed

    Cometto, M; Ridikas, D; Aubert, M C; Damoy, F; Ancius, D

    2005-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations after their service life involves the necessary disassembling, handling and disposing of a large amount of radioactive equipment and structures. In particular, the concrete that has been used as a biological reactor shield and graphite that has been used as a moderator-reflector represent the majority of waste, requiring geological disposal. To reduce this undesirable volume to the minimum and to successfully plan the dismantling and disposal of radioactive materials to storage facilities, the activations of the structures should be accurately evaluated. In the framework of the decommissioning and the dismantling of the experimental reactor of the University of Strasbourg, detailed activation estimates have been conducted to characterise the graphite and the structural materials present in the reactor environment. For this purpose, the chemical compositions of fresh graphite samples and different types of concrete have been determined by activation analysis in the research reactors OSIRIS and ORPHEE of CEA Saclay (France). Then, the activations of graphite, concrete and other materials have been calculated in the whole reactor, as a function of the three main nuclear data libraries, i.e. ENDF, JEF and JENDL. In parallel, the activations of representative graphite and concrete samples have been measured experimentally. The comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental values validates the approach and the methodology used in the present study and tests the consistency and the reliability of the nuclear data used for activation analysis. We believe that a similar approach could also be used for the decommissioning of industrial nuclear reactors.

  5. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  7. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  8. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  9. OSIRIS-REx and mission sample science: The return of at least 60 g of pristine regolith from asteroid Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission was selected by NASA in May 2011 as the third New Frontiers mission. The target, (101955) Bennu, is a B-type near-Earth asteroid (NEA), hypothesized to be similar to CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites. The key science objectives of the mission are summarized in [1]. To meet these science objectives, the science team is coordinated and governed by the Science Executive Council (SEC): A group of six persons that run various elements of mission science. Mission Sample Science (MSS) is charged with analysis of the returned sample. Mission Sample Science: MSS is run by a Mission Scientist and composed of the following working groups: Carbonaceous Meteorite Working Group (CMWG), Dynamical Evolution Working Group (DEWG), Regolith Development Working Group (RDWG), Sample Analysis Working Group (SampleWG), Sample Site Science Working Group (SSSWG), and TAGSAM Working Group (TAGSAMWG). CMWG works to define and create well-characterized test samples, both natural and synthetic, for the development of spectral test data. These data are used to verify the depth and accuracy of spectral analysis techniques for processing data collected by the OSIRIS-REx spectrometers (OVIRS and OTES). The DEWG is charged with constraining the history of asteroid Bennu from main-belt asteroid to NEA. They also work closely with the SampleWG to define the hypotheses for the dynamical evolution of Bennu through the analysis of the returned sample. The RDWG is focused on developing constraints on the origin and evolution of regolith on Bennu through investigations of the surface geology and, working with the SampleWG, test these hypotheses through sample analysis. RDWG is also focused on the analysis of the sampling event and reconstructing what occurred during the event. SampleWG is focused on documenting Contamination Knowledge, which is distinct but

  10. A mini outburst from the nightside of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS camera on Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knollenberg, J.; Lin, Z. Y.; Hviid, S. F.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Mottola, S.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Davidsson, B.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Kührt, E.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Thomas, N.; Güttler, C.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-12-01

    Context. On 12 March 2015 the OSIRIS WAC camera onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed a small outburst originating from the Imhotep region at the foot of the big lobe of the comet. These measurements are unique since it was the first time that the initial phase of a transient outburst event could be directly observed. Aims: We investigate the evolution of the dust jet in order to derive clues about the outburst source mechanism and the ejected dust particles, in particular the dust mass, dust-to-gas ratio and the particle size distribution. Methods: Analysis of the images and of the observation geometry using comet shape models in combination with gasdynamic modeling of the transient dust jet were the main tools used in this study. Synthetic images were computed for comparison with the observations. Results: Analysis of the geometry revealed that the source region was not illuminated until 1.5 h after the event implying true nightside activity was observed. The outburst lasted for less than one hour and the average dust production rate during the initial four minutes was of the order of 1 kg/s. During this time the outburst dust production rate was approximately constant, no sign for an initial explosion could be detected. For dust grains between 0.01-1 mm a power law size distribution characterized by an index of about 2.6 provides the best fit to the observed radiance profiles. The dust-to-gas ratio of the outburst jet is in the range 0.6-1.8.

  11. Decimetre-scaled spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jorda, L.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; ElMaary, M. R.; Thomas, N.; Belskaya, I.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Fulle, M.; Giquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Keller, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, M. L.; Lazzarin, M.; Leyrat, C.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Masoumzadeh, N.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Perna, D.; Oklay, N.; Shi, X.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus derived with the OSIRIS instrument during the closest fly-by over the comet, which took place on 14 th February 2015 at a distance of {\\~} 6 km from the surface. Several images covering the 0{\\deg}-33{\\deg} phase angle range were acquired, and the spatial resolution achieved was 11 cm/pxl. The flown-by region is located on the big lobe of the comet, near the borders of the Ash, Apis and Imhotep regions. Our analysis shows that this region features local heterogeneities at the decimetre scale. We observed difference of reflectance up to 40{\\%} between bright spots and sombre regions, and spectral slope variations up to 50{\\%}. The spectral reddening effect observed globally on the comet surface by Fornasier et al. (2015) is also observed locally on this region, but with a less steep behaviour. We note that numerous metre-sized boulders, which exhibit a smaller opposition effect, also appear spectrally redder than their surroundings. In this region, we found no evidence linking observed bright spots to exposed water-ice-rich material. We fitted our dataset using the Hapke 2008 photometric model. The region overflown is globally as dark as the whole nucleus (geometric albedo of 6.8{\\%}) and it has a high porosity value in the uppermost-layers (86{\\%}). These results of the photometric analysis at a decimetre scale indicate that the photometric properties of the flown-by region are similar to those previously found for the whole nucleus.

  12. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  13. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Goett, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A system is described which includes a neutronic reactor containing a dispersion of fissionable material in a liquid moderator as fuel and a conveyor to which a portion of the dispersion may be passed and wherein the self heat of the slurry evaporates the moderator. Means are provided for condensing the liquid moderator and returning it to the reactor and for conveying the dried fissionable material away from the reactor.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Dreffin, R.S.

    1959-12-15

    A control means for a nuclear reactor is described. Particularly a device extending into the active portion of the reactor consisting of two hollow elements coaxially disposed and forming a channel therebetween, the cross sectional area of the channel increasing from each extremity of the device towards the center thereof. An element of neutron absorbing material is slidably positionable within the inner hollow element and a fluid reactor poison is introduced into the channel defined by the two hollow elements.

  16. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  18. FLOW SYSTEM FOR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1963-06-11

    A reactor is designed with means for terminating the reaction when returning coolant is below a predetermined temperature. Coolant flowing from the reactor passes through a heat exchanger to a lower reservoir, and then circulates between the lower reservoir and an upper reservoir before being returned to the reactor. Means responsive to the temperature of the coolant in the return conduit terminate the chain reaction when the temperature reaches a predetermined minimum value. (AEC)

  19. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  20. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  1. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    PubMed

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  2. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  4. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Adam; Dazeley, Steve; Dobie, Doug; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, Jim; Gerling, Mark; Sumner, Matthew; Sweany, Melinda

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  5. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2011-07-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  6. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  7. Observations of Uranus and Neptune in Spanish Telescopes: Calar Alto/PlanetCam, WHT/Ingrid y GTC/Osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Mendikoa, I.

    2017-03-01

    The astronomical observation of the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune poses unique challenges. Both planets are relatively dimm objects (visual magnitude of +5.3 and +7.7) and have small angular sizes (3.7” and 2.4” at opposition). Both worlds have atmospheres that are very dynamic, specially Neptune. These atmospheres are dominated by intense zonal winds that reach 450 m/s and where seasonal evolution changes the band patterns present in these planets. Thanks to the atmospheric methane gas, when observing Uranus and Neptune in near infrared wavelengths their upper clouds become well contrasted and bright and observations at different methane absorption bands allow to sample the atmosphere at different vertical layers. Both worlds are subject to the development of bright cloud patterns, some times of convective origin and whose activity can extend over weeks to several months or years. In the last few years we have surveyed the atmospheric activity of Uranus and Neptune with instruments able to improve the spatial resolution of the images beyond the limits impose by the atmospheric seeing. We use the Lucky Imaging technique (fast observation of several short-exposure frames combined with automatic selection of best frames and coregistration for stacking). We present image observations of Uranus and Neptune obtained with the instruments: OSIRIS at Grantecan as well as the AstraLux and PlanetCam UPV/EHU cameras on the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto observatory. These observations are compared with other observations acquired by amateur astronomers able to obtain resolve cloud features in Uranus and Neptune. We compare these observations with images acquired with Adaptive Optics instruments at the William Herschel with the NAOMI+Ingrid instruments and Keck II and with Hubble Space Telescope images. We show the importance of surveying the atmospheric activity of these planets with a variety of telescopes. Two science cases are presented: The study of convective

  8. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey . I. OSIRIS transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In this work, we use long-slit spectroscopy observations of a transit event of the close-in orbiting planet WASP-43b (Mp = 2.034 MJup, Rp = 1.036 RJup) in an effort to detect its atmosphere. Methods: We used the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range 520-1040 nm of the planetary host star WASP-43 and of a reference star during a full primary transit event and four partial transit observations. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves. We fitted transit models to these curves to measure the star-to-planet radius ratio, Rp/Rs, across wavelength among other physical parameters. Results: We measure a mean planet-to-star radius ratio in the white light curve of 0.15988-0.00145+0.00133. Using broadband filters, we detect the color signature of WASP-43. We present a tentative detection in the planet-to-star radius ratio around the Na i doublet (λ 588.9, 589.5 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum at the 2.9σ level. We find no significant excess of the measured planet-to-star radius ratio around the K i doublet (λ 766.5 nm, 769.9 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum. Combining our observations with previously published epochs, we refine the estimation of the orbital period. Using a linear ephemeris, we obtained a period of P = 0.81347385 ± 1.5 × 10-7 days. Using a quadratic ephemeris, we obtained an orbital period of 0.81347688 ± 8.6 × 10-7 days, and a change in this parameter of Ṗ = -0.15 ± 0.06 s/year. As previous results, this hints to the orbital decay of this planet although a timing analysis over several years needs to be made to confirm this. Photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A41Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  10. N Reactor hydrogen control

    SciTech Connect

    Shuford, D.H.; Kripps, L.J.

    1988-08-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union, a number of reviews were conducted of the N Reactor. Hydrogen generation during postulates severe accidents and the possibility of resulting hydrogen deflagrations/detonations that could affect confinement integrity were issues raised in several reviews, along with recommendations for adding hydrogen mitigation features. To respond to these reviews, an N Reactor Safety Enhancement Program and a subsequent Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program were initiated to address all post-Chernobyl N Reactor review findings. The Safety Enhancement Program and Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program efforts involving hydrogen control included the following: Calculate the potential hydrogen source for a range of severe accidents at the N Reactor to establish an acceptable design basis for the hydrogen mitigation system; Analyze the N Reactor confinement hydrogen mixing capability to identify areas of concern and to the verify effectiveness of the hydrogen mitigation system; Select, design, and construct a hydrogen mitigation system to enhance the N Reactor capability to accommodate possible hydrogen generation from postulated severe accidents; Provide post-accident hydrogen monitoring as an operator aid in assessing confinement conditions. In additions, it was necessary to verify that incorporation of the hydrogen mitigation system had no adverse impact N Reactor safety (e.g., radiological consequence analyses). 77 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1959-02-10

    A reactor system incorporating a reactor of the heterogeneous boiling water type is described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a core submerged adwater in the lower half of a pressure vessel and two distribution rings connected to a source of water are disposed within the pressure vessel above the reactor core, the lower distribution ring being submerged adjacent to the uppcr end of the reactor core and the other distribution ring being located adjacent to the top of the pressure vessel. A feed-water control valve, responsive to the steam demand of the load, is provided in the feedwater line to the distribution rings and regulates the amount of feed water flowing to each distribution ring, the proportion of water flowing to the submerged distribution ring being proportional to the steam demand of the load. This invention provides an automatic means exterior to the reactor to control the reactivity of the reactor over relatively long periods of time without relying upon movement of control rods or of other moving parts within the reactor structure.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  13. REFLECTOR FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.

    1963-08-01

    A reflector for nuclear reactors that comprises an assembly of closely packed graphite rods disposed with their major axes substantially perpendicular to the interface between the reactor core and the reflector is described. Each graphite rod is round in transverse cross section at (at least) its interface end and is provided, at that end, with a coaxial, inwardly tapering hole. (AEC)

  14. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  16. REACTOR FUEL SCAVENGING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1962-04-10

    A process for removing fission products from reactor liquid fuel without interfering with the reactor's normal operation or causing a significant change in its fuel composition is described. The process consists of mixing a liquid scavenger alloy composed of about 44 at.% plutoniunm, 33 at.% lanthanum, and 23 at.% nickel or cobalt with a plutonium alloy reactor fuel containing about 3 at.% lanthanum; removing a portion of the fuel and scavenger alloy from the reactor core and replacing it with an equal amount of the fresh scavenger alloy; transferring the portion to a quiescent zone where the scavenger and the plutonium fuel form two distinct liquid layers with the fission products being dissolved in the lanthanum-rich scavenger layer; and the clean plutonium-rich fuel layer being returned to the reactor core. (AEC)

  17. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  19. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  20. REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING WATER PIPES, COOLING AIR DUCTS, AND SHIELDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 776. Unknown Photographer, 10/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Delayed Gamma Measurements in Different Nuclear Research Reactors Bringing Out the Importance of the Delayed Contribution in Gamma Flux Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Radulovic, V.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J-F.; Zerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Malouch, F.

    2015-07-01

    Neutron and gamma flux levels are key parameters in nuclear research reactors. In Material Testing Reactors, such as the future Jules Horowitz Reactor, under construction at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache, France), the expected gamma flux levels are very high (nuclear heating is of the order of 20 W/g at 100 MWth). As gamma rays deposit their energy in the reactor structures and structural materials it is important to take them into account when designing irradiation devices. There are only a few sensors which allow measurements of the nuclear heating ; a recent development at the CEA Cadarache allows measurements of the gamma flux using a miniature ionization chamber (MIC). The measured MIC response is often compared with calculation using modern Monte Carlo (MC) neutron and photon transport codes, such as TRIPOLI-4 and MCNP6. In these calculations only the production of prompt gamma rays in the reactor is usually modelled thus neglecting the delayed gamma rays. Hence calculations and measurements are usually in better accordance for the neutron flux than for the gamma flux. In this paper we study the contribution of delayed gamma rays to the total MIC signal in order to estimate the systematic error in gamma flux MC calculations. In order to experimentally determine the delayed gamma flux contributions to the MIC response, we performed gamma flux measurements with CEA developed MIC at three different research reactors: the OSIRIS reactor (MTR - 70 MWth at CEA Saclay, France), the TRIGA MARK II reactor (TRIGA - 250 kWth at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) and the MARIA reactor (MTR - 30 MWth at the National Center for Nuclear Research, Poland). In order to experimentally assess the delayed gamma flux contribution to the total gamma flux, several reactor shut down (scram) experiments were performed specifically for the purpose of the measurements. Results show that on average about 30 % of the MIC signal is due to

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  3. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  5. COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Binner, C.R.; Wilkie, C.B.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to a design for a reactor of the type in which a fluid coolant is flowed through the active portion of the reactor. This design provides for the cooling of the shielding material as well as the reactor core by the same fluid coolant. The core structure is a solid moderator having coolant channels in which are disposed the fuel elements in rod or slug form. The coolant fluid enters the chamber in the shield, in which the core is located, passes over the inner surface of said chamber, enters the core structure at the center, passes through the coolant channels over the fuel elements and out through exhaust ducts.

  6. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  7. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.; Misvel, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  8. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1958-10-14

    Methods of controlling reactors are presented. Specifically, a plurality of neutron absorber members are adjustably disposed in the reactor core at different distances from the center thereof. The absorber members extend into the core from opposite faces thereof and are operated by motive means coupled in a manner to simultaneously withdraw at least one of the absorber members while inserting one of the other absorber members. This feature effects fine control of the neutron reproduction ratio by varying the total volume of the reactor effective in developing the neutronic reaction.

  10. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  11. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-10

    Uranium-aluminum alloys in which boron is homogeneously dispersed by adding it as a nickel boride are described. These compositions have particular utility as fuels for neutronic reactors, boron being present as a burnable poison.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor core, comprised of vertical stacks of hexagonal blocks of beryllium oxide having axial cylindrical apertures extending therethrough and cylindrical rods of a sintered mixture of uranium dioxide and beryllium oxide, is described. (AEC)

  15. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  16. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  17. The global shape, density and rotation of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from preperihelion Rosetta/OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R.; Capanna, C.; Hviid, S.; Lamy, P.; Ďurech, J.; Faury, G.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P.; Jackman, C.; Keihm, S. J.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Marchi, S.; Mottola, S.; Palmer, E.; Schloerb, F. P.; Sierks, H.; Vincent, J.-B.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barbieri, C.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W.-H.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft reached Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) in August 2014 at an heliocentric distance of 3.6 a.u. and was then put in orbit around its nucleus to perform detailed observations. Among the collected data are the images acquired by the OSIRIS instrument up to the perihelion passage of the comet in August 2015, which allowed us to map the entire nucleus surface at high-resolution in the visible. Stereophotoclinometry methods have been used to reconstruct a global high-resolution shape model and to monitor its rotational parameters using data collected up to perihelion. The nucleus has a conspicuous bilobate shape with overall dimensions along its principal axes of (4.34 ± 0.02) × (2.60 ± 0.02) × (2.12 ± 0.06) km. The best-fit ellipsoid dimensions of the individual lobes along their principal axes of inertia are found to be 4.10 × 3.52 × 1.63 km and 2.50 × 2.14 × 1.64 km. Their volume amounts to 66% and 27% of the total volume of the nucleus. The two lobes are connected by a "neck" whose volume has been estimated to represent ∼7% of the total volume of the comet. Combining the derived volume of 18.8 ± 0.3 km3 with the mass of 9.982 ± 0.003 × 1012 kg determined by the Rosetta/RSI experiment, we obtained a bulk density of the nucleus of 532 ± 7 kg m-3 . Together with the companion value of 535 ± 35 kg m-3 deduced from the stereophotogrammetry shape model of the nucleus (Preusker et al. [2015] Astron. Astrophys. 583, A33), these constitute the first reliable and most accurate determination of the density of a cometary nucleus to date. The calculated porosity is quite large, ranging approximately from 70% to 75% depending upon the assumed density of the dust grains and the dust-to-ice mass ratio. The nature of the porosity, either micro or macro or both, remains unconstrained. The coordinates of the center of gravity are not compatible with a uniform nucleus density. The direction of the offset between the center of

  18. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  19. Molten metal reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. Compact power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  1. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  2. K-Reactor readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-04

    This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan.

  3. Spectrophotometry, colors, and photometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro; Feller, Clement; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; Tubiana, Cecilia; Besse, Sebastien; Scholten, Frank; Sierks, Holger; Leyrat, Cedric; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Pajola, Maurizio; Thomas, Nick; Pommerol, Antoine; Massironi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta is the cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency devoted to the study of Solar System minor bodies. Launched on 2 March 2004, Rosetta arrived on August 6, 2014, at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of interplanetary journey. Rosetta is now in the main science escort phase of the comet after the successful delivery of the lander Philae on its surface on November 12, 2014. In this work we present the results on the 67P nucleus physical properties derived from the OSIRIS imaging system observations obtained in July- mid August 2014, during the comet approach phase and the first bound orbits. In this timeframe, OSIRIS has mapped the comet surface with a resolution up to 2 m/px with several filters covering the 250-1000 nm range, and at different phase angles (1.3-54 degrees). The images have been reduced using the OSIRIS standard pipeline, and then transformed into I/F reflectance. A 3D shape model of the nucleus, determined from the images obtained during the mapping phase, has been used to retrieve the illumination and geometric conditions of each image. Color cubes of the surface have been hence produced by stacking registered and photometrically corrected images. Globally, the nucleus has spectrophotometric properties in the NUV-VIS-NIR range similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians and Centaurs. No clear absorption bands have been detected so far at the resolution of the used filters. The global spectral slope, evaluated in the 535-880 nm range, varies between 11 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 1.3 degrees and 16 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 52 degrees, implying a significant phase reddening. Despite the different types of terrains and morphological features seen on the comet (Thomas et al. 2015), the nucleus shows small color variations, with the notable exception of the Hapi region (Sierks et al., 2015). This region is located

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    West, J.M.; Weills, J.T.

    1960-03-15

    A method is given for operating a nuclear reactor having a negative coefficient of reactivity to compensate for the change in reactor reactivity due to the burn-up of the xenon peak following start-up of the reactor. When it is desired to start up the reactor within less than 72 hours after shutdown, the temperature of the reactor is lowered prior to start-up, and then gradually raised after start-up.

  5. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  6. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2016-07-12

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  7. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  8. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  9. Parallax of the L4.5 dwarf 2M1821+14 from high-precision astrometry with OSIRIS at GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Bouy, H.; Martín, E. L.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    We used the OSIRIS camera at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) to monitor the astrometric motion of the L4.5 dwarf 2M1821+14 over 17 months. The astrometric residuals of 11 epochs have an rms dispersion of 0.4 mas, which is larger than the average precision of 0.23 mas per epoch and hints towards an additional signal or excess noise. Comparison of the point-spread functions in OSIRIS and FORS2/VLT images reveals no differences critical for high-precision astrometry, despite the GTC's segmented primary mirror. We attribute the excess noise to an unknown effect that may be uncovered with additional data. For 2M1821+14, we measured a relative parallax of 106.15 ± 0.18 mas and determined a correction of 0.50 ± 0.05 mas to absolute parallax, leading to a distance of 9.38 ± 0.03 pc. We excluded at 3σ confidence the presence of a companion to 2M1821+14 down to a mass ratio of 0.1 (≈5 MJupiter) with a period of 50-1000 d and a separation of 0.1-0.7 au. The accurate parallax allowed us to estimate the age and mass of 2M1821+14 of 120-700 Myr and 0.049^{+0.014}_{-0.024} M⊙, thus confirming its intermediate age and substellar mass. We complement our study with a parallax and proper motion catalogue of 587 stars (i' ≃ 15.5-22) close to 2M1821+14, used as astrometric references. This study demonstrates submas astrometry with the GTC, a capability applicable for a variety of science cases including the search for extrasolar planets and relevant for future astrometric observations with E-ELT and TMT.

  10. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  11. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  12. REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-06-24

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

  13. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  14. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  15. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  16. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  18. A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, E.A.; Vandenberg, L.B.

    1959-09-01

    A nuclear reactor for producing thermoelectric power is described. The reactor core comprises a series of thermoelectric assemblies, each assembly including fissionable fuel as an active element to form a hot junction and a thermocouple. The assemblies are disposed parallel to each other to form spaces and means are included for Introducing an electrically conductive coolant between the assemblies to form cold junctions of the thermocouples. An electromotive force is developed across the entire series of the thermoelectric assemblies due to fission heat generated in the fuel causing a current to flow perpendicular to the flow of coolant and is distributed to a load outside of the reactor by means of bus bars electrically connected to the outermost thermoelectric assembly.

  19. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  20. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  1. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  2. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  3. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  4. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  5. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  6. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  7. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Graham, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A wholly mechanical compact control device is designed for automatically rendering the core of a fission reactor subcritical in response to core temperatures in excess of the design operating temperature limit. The control device comprises an expansible bellows interposed between the base of a channel in a reactor core and the inner end of a fuel cylinder therein which is normally resiliently urged inwardly. The bellows contains a working fluid which undergoes a liquid to vapor phase change at a temperature substantially equal to the design temperature limit. Hence, the bellows abruptiy expands at this limiting temperature to force the fuel cylinder outward and render the core subcritical. The control device is particularly applicable to aircraft propulsion reactor service. (AEC)

  8. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  9. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-10-15

    Gas-cooled solid-moderator type reactors wherein the fissionable fuel and moderator materials are each in the form of solid pebbles, or discrete particles, and are substantially homogeneously mixed in the proper proportion and placed within the core of the reactor are described. The shape of these discrete particles must be such that voids are present between them when mixed together. Helium enters the bottom of the core and passes through the voids between the fuel and moderator particles to absorb the heat generated by the chain reaction. The hot helium gas is drawn off the top of the core and may be passed through a heat exchanger to produce steam.

  11. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  12. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  13. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  14. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  15. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  16. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  17. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  18. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  20. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  1. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.; Koutz, S.L.; Stone, R.S.; Stewart, H.B.

    1963-12-24

    An emergency shutdown or scram apparatus for use in a nuclear reactor that includes a neutron absorber suspended from a temperature responsive substance that is selected to fail at a preselected temperature in excess of the normal reactor operating temperature, whereby the neutron absorber is released and allowed to fall under gravity to a preselected position within the reactor core is presented. (AEC)

  2. The 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet: colors, albedo variations and inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the ROSETTA/OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Leyrat, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Thomas, N.; Kueppers, M.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J. B.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Hviik, S.; Magrin, S.; Massironi, M.; Besse, S.; Pajola, M.

    2014-04-01

    Rosetta is the cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency devoted to the study of the minor bodies. Launched on 2 March 2004, Rosetta has as primary target the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a short period comet of the Jupiter's family. On its journey to the comet, after three Earth and one Mars gravity assist manoeuvres, Rosetta flew by two selected asteroids, 2867 Steins, in September 2008, and 21 Lutetia in July 2010. In June 2011, Rosetta was placed in hibernation for 31 months to save its power resources, and it was successfully reactivated on January 2014, before the rendez-vous maneuver to the comet at 4 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will orbit and perform long-term exploration of the cometary nucleus and coma, including its innermost part, for more than 1 year and a half, following the comet up to its perihelion at 1.37 AU and shortly after it. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are on board Rosetta, including imaging cameras, spectrometers, dust analysers, radio science experiment, and the Philae lander that will land on the nucleus in November 2014. In this work we will present the results on the 67P nucleus physical-chemical properties derived from the OSIRIS images acquired during the comet approach phase and the first bound orbits in July-August 2014. OSIRIS is constituted of aWide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) [1]. The NAC camera will obtain high resolution images with different filters in the near UV-near IR range. Those filters are optimised for the mineralogical studies of the nucleus. The WAC camera has a wide field of view (12×12 degrees) and narrow band filters devoted to the study of the gaseous species of the coma. In the July-August 2014 timeframe, OSIRIS will map the entire surface of the comet with several filters in the 250-1000 nm range, at different phase angles (5- 50 degrees), and with a resolution up to 1 m/px with the NAC

  3. The First Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Horning, W.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Donahue, D.J.

    1959-10-01

    A fuel slug for a reactor which acts as a safety device is described. The fuel slug is an aluminum tube with a foil lining the inside surface of the tube, the foil being fabricated of uranium in a lead matrix.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, A.M.; Vernon, H.C.

    1961-05-30

    A neutronic reactor is described. It has a core consisting of natural uranium and heavy water and having a K-factor greater than unity which is surrounded by a reflector consisting of natural uranium and ordinary water having a Kfactor less than unity.

  7. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  8. Nuclear reactor installation

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, H.

    1987-09-29

    A nuclear reactor installation is described comprising a pressure vessel having a pair of concentric walls defining a peripheral chamber therebetween; a reactor core disposed within the pressure vessel for heating a primary coolant; a cooling circuit for conveying a secondary coolant in heat exchange relation with the primary coolant. The circuit includes at least one primary heat exchanger within the pressure vessel, at least one secondary heat exchanger outside the pressure vessel, coolant lines extending through the pressure vessel and connecting the heat exchanges together, and circulating means for circulating a secondary coolant through the heat exchangers; a heat sink extending around the pressure vessel; a source of at least one flowable heat-insulating agent outside the pressure vessel; a source of at least one flowable heat-conductive agent outside the pressure vessel; first means communicating the source of heat-insulating agent with the peripheral chamber during normal operation of the reactor core; and second means communicating the source of heat-conductive agent with the peripheral chamber to fill the chamber with heat-conductive agent in response to a disturbance in reactor core cooling.

  9. Plasma core reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, T. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall. Results of calculations for outward-directed radiant energy fluxes corresponding to radiating temperatures of 2000 to 5000 K indicate total operating pressures from 80 to 650 atm, centerline temperatures from 6900 to 30,000 K, and total radiated powers from 25 to 2500 MW, respectively. Applications are described for this type of reactor such as (1) high-thrust, high specific impulse space propulsion, (2) highly efficient systems for generation of electricity, and (3) hydrogen or synthetic fuel production systems using the intense radiant energy fluxes.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1963-06-11

    A fuel plate is designed for incorporation into control rods of the type utilized in high-flux test reactors. The fuel plate is designed so that the portion nearest the poison section of the control rod contains about one-half as much fissionable material as in the rest of the plate, thereby eliminating dangerous flux peaking in that portion. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  12. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  13. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  14. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  15. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  16. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-06-15

    1. The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40-60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  19. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  20. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  1. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1962-04-17

    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  3. REACTOR UNLOADING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, C.M.

    1957-08-20

    A means for remotely unloading irradiated fuel slugs from a neutronic reactor core and conveying them to a remote storage tank is reported. The means shown is specifically adapted for use with a reactor core wherein the fuel slugs are slidably held in end to end abutting relationship in the horizontal coolant flow tubes, the slugs being spaced from tae internal walls of the tubes to permit continuous circulation of coolant water therethrough. A remotely operated plunger at the charging ends of the tubes is used to push the slugs through the tubes and out the discharge ends into a special slug valve which transfers the slug to a conveying tube leading into a storage tank. Water under pressure is forced through the conveying tube to circulate around the slug to cool it and also to force the slug through the conveving tube into the storage tank. The slug valve and conveying tube are shielded to prevent amy harmful effects caused by the radioactive slug in its travel from the reactor to the storage tank. With the disclosed apparatus, all the slugs in the reactor core can be conveyed to the storage tank shortly after shutdown by remotely located operating personnel.

  4. Neutronic Reactor Structure

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H. C.; Weinberg, A. M.

    1961-05-30

    The neutronic reactor is comprised of a core consisting of natural uranium and heavy water with a K-factor greater than unity. The core is surrounded by a reflector consisting of natural uranium and ordinary water with a Kfactor less than unity. (AEC)

  5. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  7. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  8. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  9. Space reactor shielding fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication of space reactor neutron shielding by a melting and casting process utilizing lithium hydride is described. The first neutron shield fabricated is a large pancake shape 86 inches in diameter, containing about 1700 pounds of lithium hydride. This shield, fabricated by the unique melting and casting process, is the largest lithium hydride shield ever built.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.

    1957-09-24

    The reactor radiation shield material is comprised of alternate layers of iron-containing material and compressed cellulosic material, such as masonite. The shielding material may be prefabricated in the form of blocks, which can be stacked together in ary desired fashion to form an effective shield.

  11. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.; Hutter, E.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to "shadow" control of a nuclear reactor. The control means comprises a plurality ot elongated rods disposed adjacent and parallel to each other, The morphology and effects of gases generated within sections of neutron absorbing materials and equal length sections of neutron permeable materials together with means for longitudinally pcsitioning the rcds relative to each other.

  13. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  14. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  15. Cermet fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Metre-size bright spots at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Interpretation of OSIRIS data using laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Antonella Barucci, M.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Davidsson, Björn; Ramy El-Maarry, Mohamed; La Forgia, Fiorengela; Fornasier, Sonia; Gracia, Antonio; Groussin, Olivier; Jost, Bernhard; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Marschall, Raphael; Massironi, Matteo; Motolla, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Poch, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of Rosetta's orbital observations, over a hundred small bright spots have been identified in images returned by its OSIRIS NAC camera, in all types of morphological regions on the nucleus. Bright spots are found as clusters of several tens of individuals in the vicinity of cliffs, or isolated without clear structural relation to the surrounding terrain. They are however mostly observed in the areas of the nucleus currently receiving the lowest amount of insolation and some of the best examples appear completely surrounded by shadows. Their typical sizes are of the order of a few metres and they are often observed at the surfaces of boulders of larger dimension. The brightness of these spots is up to ten times the average brightness of the surrounding terrain and multi-spectral analyses show a significantly bluer spectrum over the 0.3-1µm range. Comparisons of images taken in September and November 2014 under similar illumination conditions do not show any significant change of these features. Analysis of the results of past and present laboratory experiments with H2O-ice/dust mixtures provide interesting insights about the nature and origin of the bright spots. In particular, recent sublimation experiments conducted at the University of Bern reproduce the spectro-photometric variability observed at the surface of the nucleus by sequences of formation and ejection of a mantle of refractory organic-rich dust at the surface of the icy material. The formation of hardened layers of ice by sintering/re-condensation below the uppermost dust layer can also have strong implications for both the photometric and mechanical properties of the subsurface layer. Based on the comparison between OSIRIS observations and laboratory results, our favoured interpretation of the observed features is that the bright spots are exposures of water ice, resulting from the removal of the uppermost layer of refractory dust that covers the rest of the nucleus. Some of the

  17. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  18. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  19. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  20. Extending the performances of stratospheric aerosol characterization in the 2002-2011 period through data merging of GOMOS and OSIRIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Christine; Robert, Charles; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Fussen, Didier; Bourassa, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric extinction and size information are two important aerosol parameters used to model the role of stratospheric aerosols in the atmospheric system, and to assess the respective importance of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols. Since the historical aerosol minimum in 1998-2000, several remote sensing experiments have provided radiative aerosol measurements, using various and often challenging measurement principles, and, for each of them, a specific set of spectral channels. This results in a rich patchwork of spectral information presenting gaps and discontinuities in space, time, and wavelength. Acquiring aerosol size information on a global scale is a very challenging task. Such information can be retrieved by radial inversion of the extinction spectrum, but this task is often a struggle due to the reduced number of spectral channels and mainly to a limitation of the spectral range. Combining aerosol radiative measurements from multiple remote experiments seems to be a promising way to provide modellers with an improved characterization of the aerosol extinction and size information they need. This work presents the current status of the development of merged aerosol datasets from the GOMOS and OSIRIS experiments. After presenting the methodology used for the data merging, we will present the latest results obtained in this study and show how the performances of the merged dataset can improve with respect to the ones of each of the individual retrievals.

  1. THE BLACK HOLE MASSES AND STAR FORMATION RATES OF z>1 DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM KECK OSIRIS INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K. E-mail: bts@ipac.caltech.edu

    2011-04-15

    We have obtained high spatial resolution Keck OSIRIS integral field spectroscopy of four z {approx} 1.5 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies that exhibit broad H{alpha} emission lines indicative of strong active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The observations were made with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics system giving a spatial resolution of 0.''1 or <1 kpc at these redshifts. These high spatial resolution observations help to spatially separate the extended narrow-line regions-possibly powered by star formation-from the nuclear regions, which may be powered by both star formation and AGN activity. There is no evidence for extended, rotating gas disks in these four galaxies. Assuming dust correction factors as high as A(H{alpha}) = 4.8 mag, the observations suggest lower limits on the black hole masses of (1-9) x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and star formation rates <100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The black hole masses and star formation rates of the sample galaxies appear low in comparison to other high-z galaxies with similar host luminosities. We explore possible explanations for these observations, including host galaxy fading, black hole growth, and the shut down of star formation.

  2. Using Quasi-3D OSIRIS simulations of LWFA to study generating high brightness electron beams using ionization and density downramp injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalichaouch, Thamine; Davidson, Asher; Xu, Xinlu; Yu, Peicheng; Tsung, Frank; Mori, Warren; Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Lu, Wei; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, there has been much progress in theory, simulation, and experiment towards using Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) as the basis for designing and building compact x-ray free-electron-lasers (XFEL) as well as a next generation linear collider. Recently, ionization injection and density downramp injection have been proposed and demonstrated as a controllable injection scheme for creating higher quality and ultra-bright relativistic electron beams using LWFA. However, full-3D simulations of plasma-based accelerators are computationally intensive, sometimes taking 100 millions of core-hours on today's computers. A more efficient quasi-3D algorithm was developed and implemented into OSIRIS using a particle-in-cell description with a charge conserving current deposition scheme in r - z and a gridless Fourier expansion in ϕ. Due to the azimuthal symmetry in LWFA, quasi-3D simulations are computationally more efficient than 3D cartesian simulations since only the first few harmonics in are needed ϕ to capture the 3D physics of LWFA. Using the quasi-3D approach, we present preliminary results of ionization and down ramp triggered injection and compare the results against 3D LWFA simulations. This work was supported by DOE and NSF.

  3. Implementation of a hybrid particle code with a PIC description in r–z and a gridless description in ϕ into OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, A.; Tableman, A.; An, W.; Tsung, F.S.; Lu, W.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L.O.

    2015-01-15

    For many plasma physics problems, three-dimensional and kinetic effects are very important. However, such simulations are very computationally intensive. Fortunately, there is a class of problems for which there is nearly azimuthal symmetry and the dominant three-dimensional physics is captured by the inclusion of only a few azimuthal harmonics. Recently, it was proposed [1] to model one such problem, laser wakefield acceleration, by expanding the fields and currents in azimuthal harmonics and truncating the expansion. The complex amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic for the fields were solved on an r–z grid and a procedure for calculating the complex current amplitudes for each particle based on its motion in Cartesian geometry was presented using a Marder's correction to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. In this paper, we describe an implementation of this algorithm into OSIRIS using a rigorous charge conserving current deposition method to maintain the validity of Gauss's law. We show that this algorithm is a hybrid method which uses a particles-in-cell description in r–z and a gridless description in ϕ. We include the ability to keep an arbitrary number of harmonics and higher order particle shapes. Examples for laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, and beam loading are also presented and directions for future work are discussed.

  4. Modelling of the outburst on July 29th , 2015 observed with OSIRIS in the southern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Sierks, Holger; Rose, Martin; Agarwal, Jessica; Deller, Jakob; Guettler, Carsten; Hoefner, Sebastian; Hofmann, Marc; Hu, Xuanyu; Kovacs, Gabor; Oklay Vincent, Nilda; Shi, Xian; Tubiana, Cecilia; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Phylippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Images of the nucleus and the coma (gas and dust) of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko have been acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras system since March 2014 using both the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). We are using the NAC camera to study the bright outburst observed on July 29th, 2015 in the southern hemisphere. The NAC camera's wavelength ranges between 250-1000 nm with a combination of 12 filters. The high spatial resolution is needed to localize the source point of the outburst on the surface of the nucleus. At the time of the observations, the heliocentric distance was 1.25AU and the distance between the spacecraft and the comet was 126 km. We aim to understand the physics leading to such outgassing: Is the jet associated to the outbursts controlled by the micro-topography? Or by ice suddenly exposed? We are using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to study the gas flow close to the nucleus. The goal of the DSMC code is to reproduce the opening angle of the jet, and constrain the outgassing ratio between outburst source and local region. The results of this model will be compared to the images obtained with the NAC camera.

  5. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Reactors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-12-01

    Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  8. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  9. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  10. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  11. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Riffe, Delmar R.; Kinney, Calvin L.

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  12. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  13. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  14. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    De Boisblanc, D.R.; Thomas, M.E.; Jones, R.M.; Hanson, G.H.

    1958-10-21

    Heterogeneous reactors of the type which is both cooled and moderated by the same fluid, preferably water, and employs highly enriched fuel are reported. In this design, an inner pressure vessel is located within a main outer pressure vessel. The reactor core and its surrounding reflector are disposed in the inner pressure vessel which in turn is surrounded by a thermal shield, Coolant fluid enters the main pressure vessel, fiows downward into the inner vessel where it passes through the core containing tbe fissionable fuel assemblies and control rods, through the reflector, thence out through the bottom of the inner vessel and up past the thermal shield to the discharge port in the main vessel. The fuel assemblles are arranged in the core in the form of a cross having an opening extending therethrough to serve as a high fast flux test facility.

  15. Neutronic reactor construction

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Norman E.

    1976-07-06

    1. A neutronic reactor comprising a moderator including horizontal layers formed of horizontal rows of graphite blocks, alternate layers of blocks having the rows extending in one direction, the remaining alternate layers having the rows extending transversely to the said one direction, alternate rows of blocks in one set of alternate layers having longitudinal ducts, the moderator further including slotted graphite tubes positioned in the ducts, the reactor further comprising an aluminum coolant tube positioned within the slotted tube in spaced relation thereto, bodies of thermal-neutron-fissionable material, and jackets enclosing the bodies and being formed of a corrosion-resistant material having a low neutron-capture cross section, the bodies and jackets being positioned within the coolant tube so that the jackets are spaced from the coolant tube.

  16. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  17. COMPOSITE NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Menke, J.R.

    1963-06-11

    This patent relates to a reactor having a core which comprises an inner active region and an outer active region, each region separately having a k effective less than one and a k infinity greater than one. The inner and outer regions in combination have a k effective at least equal to one and each region contributes substantially to the k effective of the reactor core. The inner region has a low moderator to fuel ratio such that the majority of fissions occurring therein are induced by neutrons having energies greater than thermal. The outer region has a high moderator to fuel ratio such that the majority of fissions occurring therein are induced by thermal neutrons. (AEC)

  18. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  19. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  20. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  1. In situ reactor

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  3. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  4. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  5. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  6. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  8. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  9. Turning points in reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  10. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  11. Remote Reactor Monitoring Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, Jim; Gerling, Mark; Roecker, Caleb; Sumner, Matthew; Sweany, Melinda

    2014-09-01

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors.

  12. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  13. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CHARGING AND DISCHARGING

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method and arrangement is presented for removing a fuel element from a neutronic reactor tube through which a liquid coolant is being circulaled. The fuel element is moved into a section of the tube beyond the reactor proper, and then the coolant in the tube between the fuel element and the reactor proper is frozen, so that the fuel element may be removed from the tube without loss of the coolant therein. The method is particularly useful in the case of a liquid metal- cooled reactor.

  15. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  16. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  20. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  1. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  3. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  4. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  5. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  6. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  7. FUEL ASSAY REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, B.I.; Sandmeier, H.A.; Martens, F.H.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor having maximum sensitivity to perturbations is described comprising a core consisting of a horizontally disposed, rectangular, annular fuel zone containing enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in graphite, the concentration of uranium dioxide increasing from the outside to the inside of the fuel zone, an internal reflector of graphite containing an axial test opening disposed within the fuel zone, an external graphite reflector, means for changing the neutron spectrum in the test opening, and means for measuring perturbations in the neutron flux caused by the introduction of different fuel elements into the test opening. (AEC)

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  9. Fast neutron nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrillat, M. Th.; Lions, N.

    1985-01-08

    The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor of the integrated type comprising a cylindrical inner vessel. The inner vessel comprises two concentric ferrules and the connection between the hot collector defined within this vessel and the inlet port of the exchangers is brought about by a hot structure forming a heat baffle and supported by the inner ferrule and by a cold structure surrounding the hot structure, supported by the outer ferrule and sealingly connected to the exchanger. Application to the generation of electric power in nuclear power stations.

  10. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  12. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  13. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  14. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  15. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  16. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  17. POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1960-11-22

    An arrangement is offered for preventing or minimizing the contraction due to temperature rise, of a reactor core comprising vertical fuel rods in sodium. Temperature rise of the fuel rods would normally make them move closer together by inward bowing, with a resultant undesired increase in reactivity. According to the present invention, assemblies of the fuel rods are laterally restrained at the lower ends of their lower blanket sections and just above the middle of the fuel sections proper of the rods, and thus the fuel sections move apart, rather than together, with increase in temperature.

  18. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  19. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  20. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2 - I. Survey description, data analysis, and star formation and AGN activity in the highest density regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Bamford, Steven P.; Gray, Meghan E.; Wolf, Christian; Böhm, Asmus; Maltby, David T.; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Sanchéz-Portal, Miguel; Weinzirl, Tim

    2015-07-01

    We present an overview of and first results from the OMEGA (OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in the multicluster system A901/2) survey. The ultimate goal of this project is to study star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity across a broad range of environments at a single redshift. Using the tuneable-filter mode of the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) instrument on Gran Telescopio Canarias, we target H α and [N II] emission lines over an ˜0.5 × 0.5 deg2 region containing the z ˜ 0.167 multicluster system A901/2. In this paper, we describe the design of the survey, the observations and the data analysis techniques developed. We then present early results from two OSIRIS pointings centred on the cores of the A901a and A902 clusters. AGN and star-forming (SF) objects are identified using the [N II] / H α versus WH α diagnostic diagram. The AGN hosts are brighter, more massive, and possess earlier type morphologies than SF galaxies. Both populations tend to be located towards the outskirts of the high-density regions we study. The typical H α luminosity of these sources is significantly lower than that of field galaxies at similar redshifts, but greater than that found for A1689, a rich cluster at z ˜ 0.2. The H α luminosities of our objects translate into star formation rates (SFRs) between ˜0.02 and 6 M⊙ yr-1. Comparing the relationship between stellar mass and H α-derived SFR with that found in the field indicates a suppression of star formation in the cores of the clusters. These findings agree with previous investigations of this multicluster structure, based on other star formation indicators, and demonstrate the power of tuneable filters for this kind of study.

  1. Direct measurement of grain acceleration in the near-surface coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Guettler, Carsten; Hoefner, Sebastian; Sierks, Holger; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; OSIRIS-Team

    2016-10-01

    We for the first time directly measure the acceleration of individual fragments in the inner coma (<2 km) of a comet, and discover the ejection of the material that is thought to subsequently cover large parts of the northern hemisphere as airfall (Thomas et al., 2015).In early 2016, the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft observed fountains of decimeter-sized fragments emerging from confined regions on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We trace the motion of individual fragments through images obtained at high cadence over an interval of 2 hours, and measure their projected velocities as a function of time. The fragments are accelerated at a constant rate either away from the nucleus or towards it, and to both directions in the horizontal dimension. The magnitude of the acceleration is compatible with both gas drag and rocket force induced by the sublimation of ice contained in the material, but approximately one order of magnitude larger than the local gravity. Some of these fragments are likely to escape from the gravitational field of the nucleus and feed the comet's debris trail, while others will fall back to the surface or senter orbit. A significant fraction of the comet's northern hemisphere is thought to be covered by such airfall material (Thomas et al., 2015). This paper describes our images and trajectory analysis, discusses the implications for fragment ejection and acceleration mechanisms, and the expected fate of the fragments.References: N. Thomas et al. (2015), A&A 583, A17.

  2. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2: II. - Environmental influence on integrated star formation properties and AGN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Weinzirl, Tim; Bamford, Steven P.; Gray, Meghan E.; Böhm, Asmus; Wolf, Christian; Maltby, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and AGN activity for galaxies in the Abell 901/2 multi-cluster system at z ˜ 0.167 as part of the OMEGA survey. Using Tuneable Filter data obtained with the OSIRIS instrument at the GTC we produce spectra covering the Hα and [N II] spectral lines for more than 400 galaxies. Using optical emission-line diagnostics, we identify a significant number of galaxies hosting AGN, which tend to have high masses and a broad range of morphologies. Moreover, within the environmental densities probed by our study, we find no environmental dependence on the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN. The analysis of the integrated Hα emission shows that the specific star formation rates (SSFRs) of a majority of the cluster galaxies are below the field values for a given stellar mass. We interpret this result as evidence for a slow decrease in the star formation activity of star-forming galaxies as they fall into higher-density regions, contrary to some previous studies which suggested a rapid truncation of star formation. We find that most of the intermediate- and high-mass spiral galaxies go through a phase in which their star formation is suppressed but still retain significant star-formation activity. During this phase, these galaxies tend to retain their spiral morphology while their colours become redder. The presence of this type of galaxies in high density regions indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for suppressing star-formation affects mainly the gas component of the galaxies, suggesting that ram-pressure stripping or starvation are potentially responsible.

  3. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  4. Sublimation of icy aggregates in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko detected with the OSIRIS cameras on board Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Sierks, H.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Besse, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; Deller, J.; De Cecco, M.; Frattin, E.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Gutiérrez-Marquez, P.; Güttler, C.; Höfner, S.; Hofmann, M.; Hu, X.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Moreno, J. J. Lopez; Lowry, S.; Marzari, F.; Masoumzadeh, N.; Massironi, M.; Moreno, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Toth, I.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-11-01

    Beginning in 2014 March, the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras began capturing images of the nucleus and coma (gas and dust) of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using both the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). The many observations taken since July of 2014 have been used to study the morphology, location, and temporal variation of the comet's dust jets. We analysed the dust monitoring observations shortly after the southern vernal equinox on 2015 May 30 and 31 with the WAC at the heliocentric distance Rh = 1.53 AU, where it is possible to observe that the jet rotates with the nucleus. We found that the decline of brightness as a function of the distance of the jet is much steeper than the background coma, which is a first indication of sublimation. We adapted a model of sublimation of icy aggregates and studied the effect as a function of the physical properties of the aggregates (composition and size). The major finding of this paper was that through the sublimation of the aggregates of dirty grains (radius a between 5 and 50 μm) we were able to completely reproduce the radial brightness profile of a jet beyond 4 km from the nucleus. To reproduce the data, we needed to inject a number of aggregates between 8.5 × 1013 and 8.5 × 1010 for a = 5 and 50 μm, respectively, or an initial mass of H2O ice around 22 kg.

  5. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  6. Zero Power Reactor Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Ever wanted to see a nuclear reactor core in action? Here's a detailed simulation of the Zero Power Reactor experiment, run by Argonne's unique "UNIC" code. Here, we use VisIt to visualize a numerical model of the ZPR-6 Assembly 6a experiment simulated using the Argonne UNIC code. 0:00-0:06: The fuel and other plates are dropped into an example drawer, and the drawer is inserted into the matrix tube. 0:06-0:21: The two matrix halves are brought together to make a critical (self-sustaining) assembly. 0:21-0:35: The fission power is revealed to be centralized in the thin, enriched Uranium plates. 0:35-0:53: Returning to our example drawer, we show the detailed local plate powers and their relation to the drawer composition. 0:53-1:11: Our model shows that each plate can have widely-varying local changes in the space and energy neutron densities. Read more at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2010/news100121.html

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, W.B.; Corbin, A. Jr.

    1961-07-18

    An improved core for a gas-cooled power reactor which admits gas coolant at high temperatures while affording strong integral supporting structure and efficient moderation of neutrons is described. The multiplicities of fuel elements constituting the critical amassment of fissionable material are supported and confined by a matrix of metallic structure which is interspersed therebetween. Thermal insulation is interposed between substantially all of the metallic matrix and the fuel elements; the insulation then defines the principal conduit system for conducting the coolant gas in heat-transfer relationship with the fuel elements. The metallic matrix itseif comprises a system of ducts through which an externally-cooled hydrogeneous liquid, such as water, is circulated to serve as the principal neutron moderant for the core and conjointly as the principal coolant for the insulated metallic structure. In this way, use of substantially neutron transparent metals, such as aluminum, becomes possible for the supporting structure, despite the high temperatures of the proximate gas. The Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program's "R-1" reactor design is a preferred embodiment.

  8. The dust environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta OSIRIS and VLT observations in the 4.5 to 2.9 AU heliocentric distance range inbound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Snodgrass, C.; Hainaut, O.; Tubiana, C.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Gutiérrez-Marques, P.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J. B.; Della Corte, V.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Faggi, S.; Jehin, E.; Opitom, C.; Tozzi, G.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The ESA Rosetta spacecraft, currently orbiting around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, has already provided in situ measurements of the dust grain properties from several instruments,particularly OSIRIS and GIADA. We propose adding value to those measurements by combining them with ground-based observations of the dust tail to monitor the overall, time-dependent dust-production rate and size distribution. Aims: To constrain the dust grain properties, we take Rosetta OSIRIS and GIADA results into account, and combine OSIRIS data during the approach phase (from late April to early June 2014) with a large data set of ground-based images that were acquired with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) from February to November 2014. Methods: A Monte Carlo dust tail code, which has already been used to characterise the dust environments of several comets and active asteroids, has been applied to retrieve the dust parameters. Key properties of the grains (density, velocity, and size distribution) were obtained from Rosetta observations: these parameters were used as input of the code to considerably reduce the number of free parameters. In this way, the overall dust mass-loss rate and its dependence on the heliocentric distance could be obtained accurately. Results: The dust parameters derived from the inner coma measurements by OSIRIS and GIADA and from distant imaging using VLT data are consistent, except for the power index of the size-distribution function, which is α = -3, instead of α = -2, for grains smaller than 1 mm. This is possibly linked to the presence of fluffy aggregates in the coma. The onset of cometary activity occurs at approximately 4.3 AU, with a dust production rate of 0.5 kg/s, increasing up to 15 kg/s at 2.9 AU. This implies a dust-to-gas mass ratio varying between 3.8 and 6.5 for the best-fit model when combined with water-production rates from the MIRO experiment.

  9. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  10. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  11. Reactor production of Thorium-229

    DOE PAGES

    Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen E.; Denton, David L.; ...

    2016-05-03

    Limited availability of 229Th for clinical applications of 213Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, 229Th is produced from neutron transmutation of 226Ra, 228Ra, 227Ac and 228Th. Here, we evaluate irradiations of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 227Ac targets at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  12. Neutrino Oscillations with Reactor Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2007-06-01

    Prospect measurements of neutrino oscillations with reactor neutrinos are reviewed in this document. The following items are described: neutrinos oscillations status, reactor neutrino experimental strategy, impact of uncertainties on the neutrino oscillation sensitivity and, finally, the experiments in the field. This is the synthesis of the talk delivered during the NOW2006 conference at Otranto (Italy) during September 2006.

  13. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  14. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  15. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  16. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  17. Broad-Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.

    1992-05-01

    This report is about a new, safe, and operationally efficient DOE reactor of nuclear research and testing proposed for the early to mid- 21st Century. Dubbed the Broad-Application Test Reactor (BATR), the proposed facility incorporates a multiple-application, multiple-mission design to support DOE programs such as naval reactors and space power and propulsion, as well as research in medical, science, isotope, and electronics arenas. DOE research reactors are aging, and implementing major replacement projects requires long lead times. Primary design drivers include safety, low risk, minimum operation cost, mission flexibility, waste minimization, and long life. Scientists and engineers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are evaluating possible fuel forms, structural materials, reactor geometries, coolants, and moderators.

  18. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  19. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  20. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  1. Advanced Reactors Around the World

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Debu

    2003-09-01

    At the end of 2002, 441 nuclear power plants were operating around the globe and providing 17% of the world's electricity. Although the rate of population growth has slowed, recent United Nations data suggest that two billion more people will be added to the world by 2050. A special report commissioned by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that electricity demand would grow almost eight-fold from 2000 to 2050 in a high economic grown scenario and more than double in a low-growth scenario. There is also a global aspiration to keep the environment pristine. Because of these reasons, it is expected that a large number of new nuclear reactors may be operating by 2050. Realization of this has created an impetus for the development of a new generation of reactors in several countries. The goal is to make nuclear power cost-competitive with other resources and to enhance safety to a level that no evacuation outside a plant site would be necessary. It should also generate less waste, prevent materials diversion for weapons production, and be sustainable. This article discusses the status of next-generation reactors under development around the world. Specifically highlighted are efforts related to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and its six reactor concepts for research and development: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR); Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR); Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR); Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR); Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR); and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Also highlighted are nuclear activities specific to Russia and India.

  2. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  3. Graphite for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Virgiliev, Yu.S.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    Relative dimensional changes and physical properties of structural graphites - {Gamma}p-280 (nuclear graphite) and {Gamma}p{Pi}-2 (modificated variety of nuclear graphite for the rings of elastic contact) irradiated at temperatures ranging from 320 to 1900K with a fluence of about 2.5.10{sup 22}nvt (E {ge} 0.18 MeV) are represented. In order to ensure a long-time serviceability of the VGM - reactor blocks the high-strength graphite of {Gamma}p-1 grade are developed. The properties and its irradiation changes of {Gamma}p-1 graphite are represented. A secondary swelling of the graphite develops similar to the swelling of metals, alloys and high-melting compounds.

  4. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Tudor, J.J.

    1963-08-01

    An improved moderator structure for nuclear reactors consists of moderator blocks arranged in horizontal layers to form a multiplicity of vertically stacked columns of blocks. The blocks in each vertical column are keyed together, and a ceramic grid is disposed between each horizontal layer of blocks. Pressure plates cover- the lateral surface of the moderator structure in abutting relationship with the peripheral terminal lengths of the ceramic grids. Tubular springs are disposed between the pressure plates and a rigid external support. The tubular springs have their axes vertically disposed to facilitate passage of coolant gas through the springs and are spaced apart a selected distance such that at sonae preselected point of spring deflection, the sides of the springs will contact adjacent springs thereby causing a large increase in resistance to further spring deflection. (AEC)

  5. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  7. REACTOR VIEWING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Monk, G.S.

    1959-01-13

    An optical system is presented that is suitable for viewing objects in a region of relatively high radioactivity, or high neutron activity, such as a neutronic reactor. This optical system will absorb neutrons and gamma rays thereby protecting personnel fronm the harmful biological effects of such penetrating radiations. The optical system is comprised of a viewing tube having a lens at one end, a transparent solid member at the other end and a transparent aqueous liquid completely filling the tube between the ends. The lens is made of a polymerized organic material and the transparent solid member is made of a radiation absorbent material. A shield surrounds the tube betwcen the flanges and is made of a gamma ray absorbing material.

  8. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  10. Nuclear reactor control

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Warnick, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

  11. FLUID MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-10-22

    A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

  12. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  13. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  14. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  15. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F. ); Painter, S.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  16. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  17. Advances in reactor physics education: Visualization of reactor parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Kromar, M.; Zerovnik, G.

    2012-07-01

    Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for reactor operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and a typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software. (authors)

  18. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  20. DENSITY CONTROL IN A REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor is described in which natural-uranium bodies are located in parallel channels which extend through the graphite mass in a regular lattice. The graphite mass has additional channels that are out of the lattice and contain no uranium. These additional channels decrease in number per unit volume of graphite from the center of the reactor to the exterior and have the effect of reducing the density of the graphite more at the center than at the exterior, thereby spreading neutron activity throughout the reactor. (AEC)

  1. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Altman, David A.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  2. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used...Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...addressee, please notify AFWL/NTYN, Kirtland AFB, NN 87117 to help us maintain a current mailing list. This report has been reviewed and is approved

  3. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Brunett, A. J.; Heidet, F.; Hill, R.; Hoffman, E.; Jin, E.; Mohamed, W.; Moisseytsev, A.; Passerini, S.; Sienicki, J.; Sumner, T.; Vilim, R.; Hayes, S.

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  4. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Brunett, A.; Heidet, F.; Hill, R.; Hoffman, E.; Jin, E.; Mohamed, W.; Moisseytsev, A.; Passerini, S.; Sienicki, J.; Sumner, T.; Vilim, R.; Hayes, Steven

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  5. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  6. Conceptual design study of JSFR reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ohya, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Hara, H.; Akiyama, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planning to adopt the new concepts of reactor building. One is that the steel plate reinforced concrete is adopted for containment vessel and reactor building. The other is the advanced seismic isolation system. This paper describes the detail of new concepts for JSFR reactor building and engineering evaluation of the new concepts. (authors)

  7. Geologic analysis of the Rosetta NavCam, Osiris and ROLIS images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Mall, U.; Keller, H. U.; Skorov, Yu. V.; Hviid, S. F.; Mottola, S.; Krasilnikov, S. S.; Dabrowski, B.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is based on geologic analysis of the surface morphology of nucleus of the Jupiter family comet 67P. This comet was visited by the ESA mission Rosetta, which escorted the comet since May 2014 till the end of September 2016 and studied it by 11 instruments of the mission orbiter and 10 instruments of the lander. The nucleus is 4 km in diameter, has a bilobate shape with the smaller (Head) and larger (Body) lobes, and the narrow neck between them. For the analysis, primarily images taken by the Rosetta Navigation camera (NavCam) were used and then complemented by selected images from the ROLIS and OSIRIS cameras. Two major types of the nucleus material are distinguished by us and other researchers: 1) the consolidated nucleus material and 2) the loose material, a kind of cometary regolith, covering the nucleus consolidated material. On the surface of the consolidated material rather long (up to hundreds meters) straight lineaments are distinguishable. They probably correspond to fractures and in some cases to strata. Their presence suggests that the consolidated material is rather compact and lacks voids larger than tens of meters across. Surfaces of consolidated nucleus material typically show knobby appearance at the scales from tens of meters and meters to centimeters and millimeters. This suggests that this material is grainy, consisting of more and less resistant (to surface weathering) ;particles; on the scale of the visible knobs. The geometric analysis of steep slopes based on the nucleus shape model allowed us to estimate a tensile, shear and compressive strength of the consolidated material. It was shown that the 67P consolidated nucleus material is very fragile, and taking into account the scale effect one can conclude that it is as fragile as fresh fallen snow and maybe even more fragile. In addition, estimates of the compressive strength of the surface material were considered at the sites of the first and the last contacts of the Philae lander

  8. Nuclear reactor I

    DOEpatents

    Ference, Edward W.; Houtman, John L.; Waldby, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor whose upper internals include provision for channeling the liquid metal flowing from the core-component assemblies to the outlet plenum in vertical paths in direction generally along the direction of the respective assemblies. The metal is channeled by chimneys, each secured to, and extending from, a grid through whose openings the metal emitted by a plurality of core-component assemblies encompassed by the grid flows. To reduce the stresses resulting from structural interaction, or the transmissive of thermal strains due to large temperature differences in the liquid metal emitted from neighboring core-component assemblies, throughout the chimneys and the other components of the upper internals, the grids and the chimneys are supported from the heat plate and the core barrel by support columns (double portal support) which are secured to the head plate at the top and to a member, which supports the grids and is keyed to the core barrel, at the bottom. In addition to being restrained from lateral flow by the chimneys, the liquid metal is also restrained from flowing laterally by a peripheral seal around the top of the core. This seal limits the flow rate of liquid metal, which may be sharply cooled during a scram, to the outlet nozzles. The chimneys and the grids are formed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant nickel-chromium-iron alloy which can withstand the stresses produced by temperature differences in the liquid metal. The chimneys are supported by pairs of plates, each pair held together by hollow stubs coaxial with, and encircling, the chimneys. The plates and stubs are a welded structure but, in the interest of economy, are composed of stainless steel which is not weld compatible with the refractory metal. The chimneys and stubs are secured together by shells of another nickel-chromium-iron alloy which is weld compatible with, and is welded to, the stubs and has about the same

  9. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  10. Unique features of space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  12. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  13. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  14. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  15. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Kurosky, Randal P.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  16. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  17. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  18. Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling.

  19. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  20. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.