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Sample records for osiris reactor

  1. Antineutrino and gamma emission from the OSIRIS research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giot, Lydie; Fallot, Muriel

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, the summation method has been coupled with a complete reactor model, in order to predict the antineutrino emission of a research reactor. This work, discussed in the first part of this paper, allows us to predict the low energy part of the antineutrino spectrum, evidencing the important contribution of actinides to the antineutrino emission. Experimental conditions at short distance from research reactors are challenging, because the reactor itself produces huge gamma background that induce accidental and correlated backgrounds in an antineutrino target. The understanding of this background is of utmost importance and triggered the second part of the work presented here.

  2. Improvement of Nuclear Heating Evaluation Inside the Core of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péron, Arthur; Malouch, Fadhel; Diop, Cheikh M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a nuclear heating from neutron and photon rays calculation scheme mainly based on the Monte-Carlo neutral particle transport code TRIPOLI-4® which takes into account the axial distributions of fuel element compositions. This calculation scheme is applied to the OSIRIS reactor in order to evaluate the effect of using realistic axially heterogeneous compositions instead of uniform ones. After a description of nuclear heating evaluation, the calculation scheme is described. Numerical simulations and related results are detailed and analysed to determine the impact of axially heterogeneous compositions on fluxes, power and nuclear heating.

  3. Osiris: A Modern, High-Performance, Coupled, Multi-Physics Code For Nuclear Reactor Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R J; Chand, K K; Clouse, C J; Ferencz, R M; Grandy, J M; Henshaw, W D; Kramer, K J; Parsons, I D

    2007-02-26

    To meet the simulation needs of the GNEP program, LLNL is leveraging a suite of high-performance codes to be used in the development of a multi-physics tool for modeling nuclear reactor cores. The Osiris code project, which began last summer, is employing modern computational science techniques in the development of the individual physics modules and the coupling framework. Initial development is focused on coupling thermal-hydraulics and neutral-particle transport, while later phases of the project will add thermal-structural mechanics and isotope depletion. Osiris will be applicable to the design of existing and future reactor systems through the use of first-principles, coupled physics models with fine-scale spatial resolution in three dimensions and fine-scale particle-energy resolution. Our intent is to replace an existing set of legacy, serial codes which require significant approximations and assumptions, with an integrated, coupled code that permits the design of a reactor core using a first-principles physics approach on a wide range of computing platforms, including the world's most powerful parallel computers. A key research activity of this effort deals with the efficient and scalable coupling of physics modules which utilize rather disparate mesh topologies. Our approach allows each code module to use a mesh topology and resolution that is optimal for the physics being solved, and employs a mesh-mapping and data-transfer module to effect the coupling. Additional research is planned in the area of scalable, parallel thermal-hydraulics, high-spatial-accuracy depletion and coupled-physics simulation using Monte Carlo transport.

  4. Online monitoring of the Osiris reactor with the Nucifer neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boireau, G.; Bouvet, L.; Collin, A. P.; Coulloux, G.; Cribier, M.; Deschamp, H.; Durand, V.; Fechner, M.; Fischer, V.; Gaffiot, J.; Gérard Castaing, N.; Granelli, R.; Kato, Y.; Lasserre, T.; Latron, L.; Legou, P.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Mention, G.; Mueller, Th. A.; Nghiem, T.-A.; Pedrol, N.; Pelzer, J.; Pequignot, M.; Piret, Y.; Prono, G.; Scola, L.; Starzinski, P.; Vivier, M.; Dumonteil, E.; Mancusi, D.; Varignon, C.; Buck, C.; Lindner, M.; Bazoma, J.; Bouvier, S.; Bui, V. M.; Communeau, V.; Cucoanes, A.; Fallot, M.; Gautier, M.; Giot, L.; Guilloux, G.; Lenoir, M.; Martino, J.; Mercier, G.; Milleto, T.; Peuvrel, N.; Porta, A.; Le Quéré, N.; Renard, C.; Rigalleau, L. M.; Roy, D.; Vilajosana, T.; Yermia, F.; Nucifer Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Originally designed as a new nuclear reactor monitoring device, the Nucifer detector has successfully detected its first neutrinos. We provide the second-shortest baseline measurement of the reactor neutrino flux. The detection of electron antineutrinos emitted in the decay chains of the fission products, combined with reactor core simulations, provides a new tool to assess both the thermal power and the fissile content of the whole nuclear core and could be used by the International Agency for Atomic Energy to enhance the safeguards of civil nuclear reactors. Deployed at only 7.2 m away from the compact Osiris research reactor core (70 MW) operating at the Saclay research center of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, the experiment also exhibits a well-suited configuration to search for a new short baseline oscillation. We report the first results of the Nucifer experiment, describing the performances of the ˜0.85 m3 detector remotely operating at a shallow depth equivalent to ˜12 m of water and under intense background radiation conditions. Based on 145 (106) days of data with the reactor on (off), leading to the detection of an estimated 40760 ν¯ e , the mean number of detected antineutrinos is 281 ±7 (stat )±18 (syst )ν¯ e/day , in agreement with the prediction of 277 ±23 ν¯ e/day . Because of the large background, no conclusive results on the existence of light sterile neutrinos could be derived, however. As a first societal application we quantify how antineutrinos could be used for the Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement.

  5. Monte-Carlo Simulations of the Nuclear Energy Deposition Inside the CARMEN-1P Differential Calorimeter Irradiated into OSIRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M.; Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. These measurements are then used for other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. Nuclear heating is a great deal of interest at the moment as the measurement of such heating is an important issue for MTRs reactors. This need is especially generated by the new Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), under construction at CEA/Cadarache 'French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission'. This new reactor, that will be operational in late 2019, is a new facility for the nuclear research on materials and fuels. Indeed the expected nuclear heating rate is about 20 W/g for nominal capacity of 100 MW. The present Monte Carlo calculation works belong to the IN-CORE (Instrumentation for Nuclear radiation and Calorimetry On line in Reactor): a joint research program between the CEA and Aix- Marseille University in 2009. One scientific aim of this program is to design and develop a multi-sensors device, called CARMEN, dedicated to the measurements of main physical parameters simultaneously encountered inside JHR's experimental channels (core and reflector) such as neutron fluxes, photon fluxes, temperature, and nuclear heating. A first prototype was already developed. This prototype includes two mock-ups dedicated respectively to neutronic measurements (CARMEN-1N) and to photonic measurements (CARMEN-1P) with in particular a specific differential calorimeter. Two irradiation campaigns were performed successfully in the periphery of OSIRIS reactor (a MTR located at Saclay, France) in 2012 for nuclear heating levels up to 2 W/g. First Monte Carlo calculations reduced to the graphite sample of the calorimeter were

  6. Calculation of neutron and gamma fluxes in support to the interpretation of measuring devices irradiated in the core periphery of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2015-07-01

    Technological irradiations carried out in material testing reactors (MTRs) are used to study the behavior of materials under irradiation conditions required by different types of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For MTRs, specific instrumentation is required for the experiment monitoring and for the characterization of irradiation conditions, in particular the flux of neutrons and photons. To measure neutron and photon flux in experimental locations, different sensors can be used, such as SPNDs (self-powered neutron detectors), SPGDs (self-powered gamma detectors) and ionization chambers. These sensors involve interactions producing ultimately a measurable electric current. Various sensors have been recently tested in the core periphery of the OSIRIS reactor (located at the CEA-Saclay center) in order to qualify their responses to the neutron and the photon flux. One of the key input data for this qualification is to have a relevant evaluation of neutron and gamma fluxes at the irradiation location. The objective of this work is to evaluate the neutron and the gamma flux in the core periphery of the OSIRIS reactor. With this intention, specific neutron-photonic three-dimensional calculations have been performed and are mainly based on the TRIPOLI-4{sup R} three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, developed by CEA (Saclay Center) and extensively validated against reactor dosimetry benchmarks. In the case of the OSIRIS reactor, TRIPOLI-4{sup R} code has been validated against experimental results based on neutron flux and nuclear heating measurements performed in ex-core and in-core experiments. In this work, simultaneous contribution of neutrons and gamma photons in the core periphery is considered using neutron-photon coupled transport calculations. Contributions of prompt and decay photons have been taken into account for the gamma flux calculation. Specific depletion codes are used upstream to provide the decay-gamma sources required by TRIPOLI-4

  7. First In-Core Simultaneous Measurements of Nuclear Heating and Thermal Neutron Flux Obtained With the Innovative Mobile Calorimeter CALMOS Inside the OSIRIS Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcreff, Hubert; Salmon, Laurent; Bubendorff, Jacques; Lepeltier, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear heating inside a MTR reactor has to be known in order to design and run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry. The innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new type of calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. Calorimeter working modes, measurement procedures, main modeling and experimental results and expected advantages of this new technique have been already presented in previous papers. However, these first in-core measurements were not performed beyond 6 W · g-1, due to an inside temperature limitation imposed by a safety authority requirement. In this paper, we present the first in-core simultaneous measurements of nuclear heating and conventional thermal neutron flux obtained by the CALMOS device at 70 MW nominal reactor power. For the first time, this experimental system was operated in nominal in-core conditions, with nominal neutron flux up to 2.7 1014 n · cm-2 · s-1 and nuclear heating up to 12 W · g-1. After a brief reminder of the calorimetric cell configuration and displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions at nominal power are presented and discussed. In order to reinforce the heating evaluation, a comparison is made between results obtained by the probe calibration coefficient and the zero methods. Thermal neutron flux evaluation from SPND signal processing required a specific TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo calculation which has been performed with the precise CALMOS cell geometry. In addition, the Finite Element model for temperatures map prediction inside the calorimetric cell has been upgraded with recent experimental data obtained up to 12 W · g-1. Finally, the experience feedback led us to improvement perspectives. A second device is

  8. New Dosimetric Interpretation of the DV50 Vessel-Steel Experiment Irradiated in the OSIRIS MTR Reactor Using the Monte-Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2016-02-01

    An irradiation program DV50 was carried out from 2002 to 2006 in the OSIRIS material testing reactor (CEA-Saclay center) to assess the pressure vessel steel toughness curve for a fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) equivalent to a French 900-MWe PWR lifetime of 50 years. This program allowed the irradiation of 120 specimens out of vessel steel, subdivided in two successive irradiations DV50 n∘1 and DV50 n∘2. To measure the fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) received by specimens after each irradiation, sample holders were equipped with activation foils that were withdrawn at the end of irradiation for activity counting and processing. The fast effective cross-sections used in the dosimeter processing were determined with a specific calculation scheme based on the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-3 (and the nuclear data ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90). In order to put vessel-steel experiments at the same standard, a new dosimetric interpretation of the DV50 experiment has been performed by using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 and more recent nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 and IRDF-2002). This paper presents a comparison of previous and recent calculations performed for the DV50 vessel-steel experiment to assess the impact on the dosimetric interpretation.

  9. First in-core simultaneous measurements of nuclear heating and thermal neutron flux obtained with the innovative mobile calorimeter CALMOS inside the OSIRIS reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lepeltier, Valerie; Bubendorff, Jacques; Carcreff, Hubert; Salmon, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear heating inside a MTR reactor has to be known in order to design and to run irradiation experiments which have to fulfill target temperature constraints. This measurement is usually carried out by calorimetry. The innovative calorimetric system, CALMOS, has been studied and built in 2011 for the 70 MWth OSIRIS reactor operated by CEA. Thanks to a new type of calorimetric probe, associated to a specific displacement system, it provides measurements along the fissile height and above the core. This development required preliminary modelling and irradiation of mock-ups of the calorimetric probe in the ex-core area, where nuclear heating rate does not exceed 2 W.g{sup -1}. The calorimeter working modes, the different measurement procedures allowed with such a new probe, the main modeling and experimental results and expected advantages of this new technique have been already presented. However, these first in-core measurements were not performed beyond 6 W.g{sup -1}, due to an inside temperature limitation imposed by a safety authority requirement. In this paper, we present the first in-core simultaneous measurements of nuclear heating and conventional thermal neutron flux obtained by the CALMOS device at the 70 MW nominal reactor power. For the first time, this experimental system was operated in nominal in-core conditions, with nominal neutron flux up to 2.7 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and nuclear heating up to 12 W.g{sup -1}. A comprehensive measurement campaign carried out from 2013 to 2015 inside all accessible irradiation locations of the core, allowed to qualify definitively this new device, not only in terms of measurement ability but also in terms of reliability. After a brief reminder of the calorimetric cell configuration and displacement system specificities, first nuclear heating distributions at nominal power are presented and discussed. In order to reinforce the heating evaluation, a systematic comparison is made between results obtained by

  10. OSIRIS-REx Liftoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  11. OSIRIS-REx Liftoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-REA United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  12. OSIRIS-REx Encapsulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is encapsulated in its payload fairing. Targeted for liftoff at 7:05 p.m. EDT Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  13. OSIRIS-REx Encapsulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, engineers and technicians encapsulate the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft in its payload fairing. Targeted for liftoff at 7:05 p.m. EDT Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  14. OSIRIS-REx Liftoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRA United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  15. OSIRIS-REx Liftoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  16. OSIRIS-REx Liftoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OA United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  17. OSIRIS-REx NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    Social media followers were briefed by NASA scientists on asteroids, how they relate to the origins of our solar system and the search for life beyond Earth, during a NASA Social presentation in the Operations Support Building II at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The presentation took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From the left, are Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator from the University of Arizona at Tucson, and Christina Richey, OSIRIS-REx deputy program scientists at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

  18. OSIRIS-REx NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    Tim Linn, chief system engineer with Lockheed Martin, discusses the unique design of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft during a NASA Social with social media followers in the Operations Support Building II at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The presentation took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  19. OSIRIS-REx NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    Daniel Glavin, OSIRIS-REx co-investigator at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, talks to social media followers during a NASA Social in the Operations Support Building II at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The presentation took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  20. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Gus J.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Milbrath, B. D.; Jordan, D. V.; Warren, G. A.; Wilmer, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  1. OSIRIS-REx: Journey to an Asteroid

    NASA Image and Video Library

    OSIRIS-REx will pluck samples from an asteroid and return them to Earth. The samples could help explain our solar system's formation and how life began. OSIRIS-REx (short for Origins-Spectral Inter...

  2. OSIRIS-REx NASA Social

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    Social media followers were briefed by NASA scientists on asteroids, how they relate to the origins of our solar system and the search for life beyond Earth, during a NASA Social presentation in the Operations Support Building II at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The presentation took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From the left, are Jarmaine Ollivierre, OSIRIS-REx lead flight designs with NASA’s Launch Services Program; and Gordon McLemore, with United Launch Alliance (ULA). OSIRIS-REx will launch aboard a ULA Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.

  3. OSIRIS-REx Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, members of the media participate in a briefing on science experiments involved in NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From left are: Nancy Neal-Jones of NASA Communications; Christina Richey, OSIRIS-REx deputy program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington; Jason Dworkin, OSIRIS-REx project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; Daniella DellaGiustina, OSIRIS-REx lead image processing scientist at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, members of the media participate in a briefing on science experiments involved in NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From left are: Christina Richey, OSIRIS-REx deputy program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington; Jason Dworkin, OSIRIS-REx project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; Daniella DellaGiustina, OSIRIS-REx lead image processing scientist at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

  5. OSIRIS-REx Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Christina Richey, OSIRIS-REx deputy program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington, speaks to members of the media during a briefing on science experiments involved in NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  6. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson, speaks to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  7. OSIRIS-REx Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Daniella DellaGiustina, OSIRIS-REx lead image processing scientist at the University of Arizona, Tucson, speaks to members of the media during a briefing on science experiments involved in NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  8. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Michael Donnelly, OSIRIS-REx project manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, speaks to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  9. OSIRIS 4.0: new version of the OSIRIS framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Tableman, Adam; Vieira, Jorge; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, LuíS.

    2016-10-01

    OSIRIS is a state of the art, fully relativistic massively parallel particle in cell code, that is widely used in kinetic plasma modeling for many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios. Over the years the code has been continuously improved, adding new features and algorithms, resulting in a large and complex code base with the inherent difficulties on maintenance and development. We report on the new version of the OSIRIS framework, focusing on the new structure of the code that leverages on the object oriented features of Fortran 2003, that are now widely supported by available compilers. Details on the new object-oriented structure, that allows for the encapsulation of specific features, and better collaboration between the development team, are given. We also focus on the new strategy for run-time selection of simulation mode, that allows for a single binary to be used with all code features, and report on the template based code generation for multiple interpolation levels. Finally, we report on our experience on implementing these features with multiple compilers, and the code changes required to ensure a wide compiler support. This work was partially supported by NSF ACI 1339893 and PTDC/FIS-PLA/2940/2014.

  10. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Scott Messer, program manager for NASA missions at United Launch Alliance in Centennial, Colorado; Michael Donnelly, OSIRIS-REx project manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Rich Kuhns, OSIRIS-REx program manager for Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver; speak to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  11. OSIRIS Large Guaranteed Time Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Ramón-Pérez, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Alfaro, E. J.; Castaneda, H. O.; Cervino, M.; Gallego, J.; González, J. J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Lara-López, M. A.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Jones, D. H.

    2017-03-01

    The status of OTELO and Lockman SpReSO surveys, the two large guaranteed time programs currently under way using OSIRIS at the 10.4m GTC is presented. The OTELO project, designed to detect the main optical emission lines from Hα to Lyα at redshifts from 0.4 through 7, is the deepest emission line survey to date, with unprecedented sensitivity in the detection of small equivalent widths. Lockman SpReSO is aimed to obtaining optical spectra, up to 24.5 AB magnitudes, in the central 24×24 square arcminutes of the Lockman Hole field, which has been observed with ROSAT and XMM–Newton at the highest depth. Lockman SpReSO mainly targets Far Infrared sources detected with the Herschel Space Observatory.

  12. NASA Now: Primitive Asteroids: OSIRIS-Rex

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Joseph A. Nuth III, project scientist for the new Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer mission, provides an in-depth look at why the OSIRIS-REx mis...

  13. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Clay Flinn, launch weather officer for the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida speaks to members of the media abouth the weather forecast at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. To Flinn’s right is Rich Kuhns, OSIRIS-REx program manager for Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver.

  14. OSIRIS tunable imager and spectrograph: Instrument status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepa, J.; Aguiar, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Castañeda, H. O.; Cobos, F.; Correa, S.; Espejo, C.; Fragoso, A. B.; Fuentes, J.; Gigante, J. V.; González, J. J.; González-Escalera, V.; González-Serrano, I.; Joven, E.; López, J. C.; Militello, C.; Peraza, L.; Pérez, A.; Pérez, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Sánchez, B.; Tejada, C.

    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) is the optical Day One instrument for the GTC and the only Spanish Day One instrument. With both instrument and telescope schedules matched, OSIRIS will be available as soon as the GTC is scientifically operational. In this contribution an overview of the instrument status from a technical point of view is given, while in another contribution of this proceedings, an overview of its scientific capabilities from a user point of view is given.

  15. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, NASA and industry leaders speak to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. From left are: Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson; Tim Dunn, NASA launch manager at Kennedy; and Scott Messer, program manager for NASA missions at United Launch Alliance in Centennial, Colorado.

  16. OSIRIS camera barrel optomechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, Alejandro; Tejada, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jesus; Cobos, Francisco J.; Sanchez, Beatriz; Fuentes, Javier; Ruiz, Elfego

    2004-09-01

    A Camera Barrel, located in the OSIRIS imager/spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), is described in this article. The barrel design has been developed by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Mexico (IA-UNAM), in collaboration with the Institute for Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain. The barrel is being manufactured by the Engineering Center for Industrial Development (CIDESI) at Queretaro, Mexico. The Camera Barrel includes a set of eight lenses (three doublets and two singlets), with their respective supports and cells, as well as two subsystems: the Focusing Unit, which is a mechanism that modifies the first doublet relative position; and the Passive Displacement Unit (PDU), which uses the third doublet as thermal compensator to maintain the camera focal length and image quality when the ambient temperature changes. This article includes a brief description of the scientific instrument; describes the design criteria related with performance justification; and summarizes the specifications related with misalignment errors and generated stresses. The Camera Barrel components are described and analytical calculations, FEA simulations and error budgets are also included.

  17. OSIRIS-REx Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, illumination testing is underway on the power-producing solar arrays for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. OSIRIS-REx Solar Array Illumination Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, illumination testing is underway on the power -producing solar arrays for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  19. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, members of the media participated with NASA and industry leaders in a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  20. OSIRIS-REx Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Nancy Neal-Jones of NASA Communications at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, moderates a media briefing on science experiments involved in NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  1. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Tim Dunn, NASA launch manager at Kennedy, speaks to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  2. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Geoffrey Yoder, acting associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, speaks to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  3. OSIRIS-REx Prelaunch News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-06

    In the Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium, Scott Messer, program manager for NASA missions at United Launch Alliance in Centennial, Colorado, speaks to members of the media at a prelaunch news conference for the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Asterod Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messinger, Keiki; Connolly, Harold C. Jr.; Messenger, Scott; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2017-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is NASA's third New Frontiers Program mission, following New Horizons that completed a flyby of Pluto in 2015 and the Juno mission to Jupiter that has just begun science operations. The OSIRIS-REx mission's primary objective is to collect pristine surface samples of a carbonaceous asteroid and return to Earth for analysis. Carbonaceous asteroids and comets are 'primitive' bodies that preserved remnants of the Solar System starting materials and through their study scientists can learn about the origin and the earliest evolution of the Solar System. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft was successfully launched on September 8, 2016, beginning its seven year journey to asteroid 101955 Bennu. The robotic arm will collect 60-2000 grams of material from the surface of Bennu and will return to Earth in 2023 for worldwide distribution by the Astromaterials Curation Facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. The name OSIRIS-REx embodies the mission objectives (1) Origins: Return and analyze a sample of a carbonaceous asteroid, (2) Spectral Interpretation: Provide ground-truth for remote observation of asteroids, (3) Resource Identification: Determine the mineral and chemical makeup of a near-Earth asteroid (4) Security: Measure the non-gravitational that changes asteroidal orbits and (5) Regolith Explorer: Determine the properties of the material covering an asteroid surface. Asteroid Bennu may preserve remnants of stardust, interstellar materials and the first solids to form in the Solar System and the molecular precursors to the origin of life and the Earth's oceans. Bennu is a potentially hazardous asteroid, with an approximately 1 in 2700 chance of impacting the Earth late in the 22nd century. OSIRIS-REx collects from Bennu will help formulate the types of operations and identify mission activities that astronauts will perform during their expeditions. Such information is crucial in preparing for humanity's next steps beyond low Earthy orbit and on to deep space

  5. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  6. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  7. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  8. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  9. OSIRIS-REx, Returning the Asteroid Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajluni, Thomas, M.; Everett, David F.; Linn, Timothy; Mink, Ronald; Willcockson, William; Wood, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the technical aspects of the sample return system for the upcoming Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission. The overall mission design and current implementation are presented as an overview to establish a context for the technical description of the reentry and landing segment of the mission.The prime objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to sample a primitive, carbonaceous asteroid and to return that sample to Earth in pristine condition for detailed laboratory analysis. Targeting the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, the mission launches in September 2016 with an Earth reentry date of September 24, 2023.OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize asteroid Bennu providing knowledge of the nature of near-Earth asteroids that is fundamental to understanding planet formation and the origin of life. The return to Earth of pristine samples with known geologic context will enable precise analyses that cannot be duplicated by spacecraft-based instruments, revolutionizing our understanding of the early Solar System. Bennu is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid and one of the most potentially Earth-hazardous asteroids known. Study of Bennu addresses multiple NASA objectives to understand the origin of the Solar System and the origin of life and will provide a greater understanding of both the hazards and resources in near-Earth space, serving as a precursor to future human missions to asteroids.This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) design and concept of operations, including trajectory design and reentry retrieval. Highlights of the mission are included below.The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft provides the essential functions for an asteroid characterization and sample return mission: attitude control propulsion power thermal control telecommunications command and data handling structural support to ensure successful

  10. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  11. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  12. The Osiris Tunable Imager and Spectrograph: a 2004 Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepa, J.; Aguiar, M.; Castañeda, H. O.; Cobos, F.; Correa, S.; Espejo, C.; Fragoso, A. B.; Fuentes, F. J.; Gigante, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; González, J. J.; González Escalera, V.; Joven, E.; López, J. C.; Militello, C.; Peraza, L.; Pérez, A.; Pérez, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Sánchez, B.; Tejada, C.; Pérez-García, A. M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2005-12-01

    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) is the optical Day one instrument for the GTC and the only Spanish Day One instrument. With both instrument and telescope schedules matched, OSIRIS will be available as soon as the GTC is scientifically operational. In this contribution an overview of the instrument at the middle of 2004 is given.

  13. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility and is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  14. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  15. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    After leaving the Vertical Integration Facility, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  16. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    In a view from above, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  17. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket has made the trek from the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    After leaving the Vertical Integration Facility, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  19. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    In a view from ground level looking up, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  1. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket has left the Vertical Integration Facility and is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  2. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket rolls out of the Vertical Integration Facility on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  3. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket is reflected in the water as it rolls out of the Vertical Integration Facility on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  5. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  6. Stratospheric Ozone Trends Inferred from the OSIRIS Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, Doug; Bourassa, Adam; Roth, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin platform has been making high quality, vertically resolved ozone measurements since the autumn of 2001. These measurements, that span an altitude range that covers the cloud tops to 60 km, have been used within multiple studies to determine stratospheric ozone trends. In particular the OSIRIS measurements are an important component of the HARMOZ data set produced within the ESA ozone_cci program and the OSIRIS measurements have been merged with similar SAGE II measurements to produce ozone trend results that cover the period from the launch of SAGE II up to the present. As OSIRIS is the longest lived instrument that currently measures vertical ozone profiles, as long as the results remain of sufficiently high quality, its data products become exponentially more important every year. This paper will detail recent advancements in the OSIRIS ozone retrieval algorithm that have made the results more robust. A recent pointing correction will also be discussed. This correction has resulted in a reduction in magnitude of the positive trends reported recently by groups using the OSIRIS data record. These new results will be verified through comparison with trends derived using MLS measurements merged with SAGE II data where the merging process for the SAGE II - OSIRIS and SAGE II - MLS data sets was done in an identical fashion.

  7. The OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) Investigation and Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M. G.; Barnouin, O. S.; Dickinson, C.; Seabrook, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Cunningham, G.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Aslam, I.; Taylor, A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W.; Nolan, M.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) has contributed to the Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA). The OSIRIS-REx mission will sample asteroid 101955 Bennu, the first B-type asteroid to be visited by a spacecraft. Bennu is thought to be primitive, carbonaceous, and spectrally most closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites. As a scanning laser altimeter, the OLA instrument will measure the range between the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and the surface of Bennu to produce digital terrain maps of unprecedented spatial scales for a planetary mission. The digital terrain maps produced will measure ˜7 cm per pixel globally, and ˜3 cm per pixel at specific sample sites. In addition, OLA data will be used to constrain and refine the spacecraft trajectories. Global maps and highly accurate spacecraft trajectory estimates are critical to infer the internal structure of the asteroid. The global and regional maps also are key to gain new insights into the surface processes acting across Bennu, which inform the selection of the OSIRIS-REx sample site. These, in turn, are essential for understanding the provenance of the regolith sample collected by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. The OLA data also are important for quantifying any hazards near the selected OSIRIS-REx sample site and for evaluating the range of tilts at the sampling site for comparison against the capabilities of the sample acquisition device.

  8. Measurement of the fast Fission Yields of 233U with OSIRIS at Studsvik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, J.; Fogelberg, B.; Storrer, F.; Rudstam, G.; Mach, H.

    1998-10-01

    The current investigations of accelerator driven energy systems (ADS) for transmutation purposes of nuclear wastes give a strong motivation to improve Fission Yield Data (FYD) for the 232Th/233U nuclear fuel cycle. The dominant part of the neutron spectrum in most of the proposed ADS correspond to fast neutrons and can be simulated by ≈500 keV. A measurement of the fast 233U FYD was recently initiated in collaboration between the Reactor Studies Department of CEA (Cadarache, France) and the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala University (Studsvik, Sweden) using the OSIRIS facility on-line mass separator coupled with the R2-0 thermal (water cooled, moderated) reactor as a neutron source. The target of 233U was shielded from thermal and epithermal neutrons by a boron carbide neutron absorber.A detailed description of this experiment and the method of analysis will be presented in the present paper.

  9. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. OTI-010 Osiris Therapeutics/JCR Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Osiris Therapeutics is developing the donor-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy OTI-010, which repopulates the bone marrow stroma and thus supports engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells from the same donor. This stem cell therapy, which has been awarded Orphan Drug status, is currently in development for the potential enhancement of bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, for the prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Japanese licensee JCR Pharmaceuticals is investigating the therapy for the potential treatment of GVHD in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation to treat leukemia. Phase II clinical trials in acute gastrointestinal GVHD and in adult and pediatric patients with treatment-refractory severe GVHD are currently underway.

  11. Overview of the OSIRIS-REx Parachute Recovery Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, S.; Rowan, J.; Witkowski, A.

    2014-06-01

    A general overview of the planned Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) parachute recovery subsystem, to include modifications to the Stardust design and design and testing of a new PRS mortar.

  12. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  13. Merging the OSIRIS and SAGE II stratospheric aerosol records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, L. A.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2015-09-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite, launched in 2001 and currently operational, measures limb-scattered sunlight from which profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction are retrieved. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II was launched in 1984 and provided measurements of stratospheric aerosol extinction until mid-2005. This provides approximately 4 years of mission overlap which has allowed us to consistently extend the SAGE II version 7.00 record to the present using OSIRIS aerosol extinction retrievals. In this work we first compare coincident aerosol extinction observations during the overlap period by interpolating the SAGE II 525nm and 1020nm channels to the OSIRIS extinction wavelength of 750nm. In the tropics to midlatitudes mean differences are typically less than 10%, although larger biases are seen at higher latitudes and at altitudes outside the main aerosol layer. OSIRIS aerosol extinction retrievals at 750nm are used to create a monthly time series zonally averaged in 5°bins and qualitatively compared to SAGE II 525nm observations averaged in the same way. The OSIRIS time series is then translated to 525nm with an Ângström exponent relation and bias corrected. For most locations, this provides agreement during the overlap time period to better than 15%. Uncertainty in the resulting OSIRIS time series is estimated through a series of simulation studies over the range of aerosol particle size distributions observed by in situ balloon instruments and is found to be approximately 20% for background and moderately volcanic aerosol loading conditions for the majority of OSIRIS measurement conditions.

  14. Merging the SAGE II and OSIRIS Stratospheric Aerosol Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Landon; Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug

    2016-04-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite, launched in 2001 and currently operational, measures limb-scattered sunlight from which profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction at 750nm are retrieved. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas (SAGE) II instrument was operational from 1985 to 2005, and provided aerosol extinction at several visible and near infrared wavelengths. This work compares the SAGE II and OSIRIS aerosol extinction measurements during the four years of instrument overlap by interpolating the SAGE II data to 750nm using the 525 and 1020nm channels. Agreement is generally favourable in the tropics and mid-latitudes with differences less than 10% for the majority of the aerosol layer. However, near the UTLS and outside of the tropics agreement is poorer and reasons for this are investigated. Comparisons between the OSIRIS and SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements at 750nm are used to develop a merged aerosol climatology as a function of time, latitude and altitude at the native SAGE II wavelength of 525nm. Error due to assumptions in the OSIRIS retrieval and wavelength conversion are explored through simulation studies over a range of particle size distributions and is found to be approximately 20% for the majority of low-to-moderate volcanic loading conditions and OSIRIS geometries. Other sources of error such as cloud contamination in the UTLS are also explored.

  15. OSIRIS: An Optical Stellar Interferometer for Russian Investigations in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, A. V.; Boyarchuk, A. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Mikisha, A. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Smirnov, M. A.

    Project OSIRIS is two-based interferometer designed for measurements of arcs between any two stars separated by angle from 30 to 100 degrees in the space. RKA and Russian Academy of Sciences included OSIRIS in the first step of the Russian Segment of the ISS. It may be launched in 2001-2003. The main idea of the OSIRIS project based on the ZODIAC ideas that was primerly designed for ISS as USA-RF project. It based on fast metrology as well as on fast light-receiver that allow to recalculate positions of every photon to the frozen interference field. Thus, all the shifts of optical elements would be avoided. As both of interferometers have the same base produced by common fiducial blocks, project OSIRIS has no external metrology system. Two versions of the OSIRIS project are the same arc-measurer but one is constructed for ISS and the other for special light-class spacecraft. The most advanced is the project for the Russian Segment of the ISS. The device would be mounted on Science&Energy Platform in the upper hemispheare of the ISS. Four-axis mounting is necessary to point interferometer to the chosen stars. Every observation will be of one bright star and the other may be a week one. As the exposure time for the week star may be long, it may consist of a set of short observations that mathematically would be composed together.

  16. Odin-OSIRIS detection of the Chelyabinsk meteor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, L. A.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2014-03-01

    On 15 February 2013 an 11 000 ton meteor entered Earth's atmosphere southeast of Chelyabinsk, creating a large fireball at 23 km altitude. The resulting stratospheric aerosol loading was detected by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) in a high-altitude polar belt. This work confirms the presence and lifetime of the stratospheric debris using the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) onboard the Odin satellite. Although OSIRIS coverage begins in mid-March, the measurements show a belt of enhanced scattering near 35 km altitude between 50° N and 70° N. Initially, enhancements show increased scattering of up to 15% over the background conditions, decaying in intensity and dropping in altitude until they are indistinguishable from background conditions by mid-May. An inversion is also attempted using the standard OSIRIS processing algorithm to determine the extinction in the meteoric debris.

  17. OSIRIS-REx ITAR Review for Media Day Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-19

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft undergoes final inspections and checkouts prior to encapsulation in its payload fairing. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. Odin-OSIRIS detection of the Chelyabinsk meteor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, L. A.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    On February 15th, 2013 the Chelyabinsk meteor exploded at 23 km altitude, scattering approximately 11,000 tons of material and causing the most energetic impact event since the 1908 Tunguska blast. Some of this material was ejected into the stratosphere in a large mushroom cloud and was subsequently detected by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). This work confirms the presence and lifetime of the stratospheric debris using the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS) onboard the Odin satellite. Although OSIRIS coverage begins in mid-March, the measurements show a high-altitude polar belt of enhanced scattering present until May of 2013.

  19. Plugin for OsiriX: mean shift segmentation.

    PubMed

    Vides, Cañas S; Azpíroz, Leehan J; Jiménez, Alaniz J R

    2007-01-01

    Open source and plugin-based software provide the possibilities for a flexible and free transportation of algorithms to final users. In medical image processing, OsiriX is an instance of the fulfillment of this potential. This work presents the plugin implementation of the mean shift segmentation algorithm. It presents the modeling of the methodology using Object-Oriented tools, as a part of software development process. The resultant models have been represented through Unified Modeling Language (UML). The model parts have been implemented and proved as an OsiriX plugin, helping bridge the divide between algorithms devised in research laboratories and the application of these tools in the clinical setting.

  20. OSIRIS-REx ITAR Review for Media Day Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-19

    Inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is prepared for encapsulation in its payload fairing. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  1. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample-Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaGiustina, D. N.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Launching in September 2016, the primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return a pristine sample of asteroid (101955) Bennu to Earth for sample analysis. Bennu is a carbonaceous primitive near-Earth object, and is expected to be rich in volatile and organic material leftover from the formation of the Solar System. OSIRIS-REx will return a minimum of 60 g of bulk surface material from this body using a novel "touch-and-go" sample acquisition mechanism. Analyses of these samples will provide unprecedented knowledge about presolar history, from the initial stages of planet formation to the origin of life. Before sample acquisition, OSIRIS-REx will perform global mapping of Bennu, detailing the asteroid's composition and texture, resolving surface features, revealing its geologic and dynamic history, and providing context for the returned samples. The mission will also document the sampling site in situ at sub-centimeter scales, as well as the asteroid sampling event. In addition, OSIRIS-REx will measure the Yarkovsky effect, a non-Keplerian force affecting the orbit of this potentially hazardous asteroid, and provide a ground truth data for the interpretation of telescopic observations of carbonaceous asteroids.

  2. Scientific assessment of the quality of OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Kovacs, G.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Fornasier, S.; Lara, L.; La Forgia, F.; Magrin, S.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Besse, S.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez-Marques, P.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hoekzema, N.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Moissl, R.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. OSIRIS, the scientific imaging system onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, has been imaging the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its dust and gas environment since March 2014. The images serve different scientific goals, from morphology and composition studies of the nucleus surface, to the motion and trajectories of dust grains, the general structure of the dust coma, the morphology and intensity of jets, gas distribution, mass loss, and dust and gas production rates. Aims: We present the calibration of the raw images taken by OSIRIS and address the accuracy that we can expect in our scientific results based on the accuracy of the calibration steps that we have performed. Methods: We describe the pipeline that has been developed to automatically calibrate the OSIRIS images. Through a series of steps, radiometrically calibrated and distortion corrected images are produced and can be used for scientific studies. Calibration campaigns were run on the ground before launch and throughout the years in flight to determine the parameters that are used to calibrate the images and to verify their evolution with time. We describe how these parameters were determined and we address their accuracy. Results: We provide a guideline to the level of trust that can be put into the various studies performed with OSIRIS images, based on the accuracy of the image calibration.

  3. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Atlas V Wet Dress Rehearsal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-25

    The booster and Centaur upper stage of a United Launch Alliance Atlas V vent gaseous propellant during a “wet dress rehearsal” test at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-REx will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  5. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  6. Improved OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm: description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Rieger, Landon A.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Roth, Chris Z.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Berthet, Gwenaël; Catoire, Valéry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; McLinden, Chris A.

    2017-03-01

    A new retrieval algorithm for OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles is described and validated. The algorithm relies on spectral fitting to obtain slant column densities of NO2, followed by inversion using an algebraic reconstruction technique and the SaskTran spherical radiative transfer model (RTM) to obtain vertical profiles of local number density. The validation covers different latitudes (tropical to polar), years (2002-2012), all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and autumn), different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (from denoxified polar vortex to polar summer), a range of solar zenith angles (68.6-90.5°), and altitudes between 10.5 and 39 km, thereby covering the full retrieval range of a typical OSIRIS NO2 profile. The use of a larger spectral fitting window than used in previous retrievals reduces retrieval uncertainties and the scatter in the retrieved profiles due to noisy radiances. Improvements are also demonstrated through the validation in terms of bias reduction at 15-17 km relative to the OSIRIS operational v3.0 algorithm. The diurnal variation of NO2 along the line of sight is included in a fully spherical multiple scattering RTM for the first time. Using this forward model with built-in photochemistry, the scatter of the differences relative to the correlative balloon NO2 profile data is reduced.

  7. Simulations of 3D LPI's relevant to IFE using the PIC code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Winjum, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We will study three dimensional effects of laser plasma instabilities, including backward raman scattering, the high frequency hybrid instability, and the two plasmon instability using OSIRIS in 3D Cartesian geometry and cylindrical 2D OSIRIS with azimuthal mode decompositions. With our new capabilities we hope to demonstrate that we are capable of studying single speckle physics relevant to IFE in an efficent manner.

  8. The OSIRIS-REx laser altimeter (OLA): Development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, M.; Barnouin, O.; Johnson, C.; Bierhaus, E.; Seabrook, J.; Dickinson, C.; Haltigin, T.; Gaudreau, D.; Brunet, C.; Cunningham, G.; Lauretta, D.; Boynton, W.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The NASA New Frontiers Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission will be the first to sample the B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu [1]. This asteroid is thought to be primitive and carbonaceous, and is probably closely related to CI and/or CM meteorites [2]. The OSIRIS-REx mission hopes to better understand both the physical and geochemical origin and evolution of carbonaceous asteroids through its investigation of Bennu. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will launch in September 2016, and arrive at Bennu two years later. The Canadian Space Agency is contributing a scanning lidar system known as the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), to the OSIRIS-REx Mission. The OLA instrument is part of suite of onboard instruments [3] including cameras (OCAMS) [4], a visible and near- infrared spectrometer (OVIRS) [5], a thermal emission spectrometer (OTES), and an X-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) [6]. OLA Objectives: The OLA instrument has a suite of scientific and mission operations purposes. At a global scale, it will update the shape and mass of Bennu to provide insights on the geological origin and evolution of Bennu, by, for example, further refining constraints on its bulk density. With a carefully undertaken geodesy campaign, OLA-based precision ranges, constraints from radio science (2-way tracking) data and stereo OCAMS images, it will yield broad-scale, quantitative constraints on any internal heterogeneity of Bennu and hence provide further clues to Bennu's origin and subsequent collisional evolution. OLA-derived global asteroid maps of slopes, elevation relative to the asteroid geoid, and vertical roughness will provide quantitative insights on how local-regional surfaces on Bennu evolved subsequent to the formation of the asteroid. In addition, OLA data and derived products support the assessment of the safety and sampleability of potential sample sites. At the sample-site scale, the OLA instrument

  9. The Martian Atmosphere as seen by the OSIRIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl, R.; Pajola, M.; Määttänen, A.; Küppers, M.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the long time that has passed since the observations, only few studies based on the data from the wide- (WAC) and narrow- (NAC) angle camera systems of OSIRIS have been published to date. In this Paper we will present the results on the observations of the Martian Limbs acquired by the OSIRIS [1] instrument on board the ESA mission Rosetta during its swing-by maneuver around February 25th, 2007 on the way to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during the onset of the very active dust storm season of Mars year 28 (at Ls ~190). Although OSIRIS did only capture the Planet during a relatively short time interval of several hours, the obtained global view and the spectral coverage, from the UV (245 nm) over the full visible range to the near IR (1000 nm), allow for a valuable global overview over the state of the Martian atmosphere. The image acquisition started a February 24 around 18:00 UTC from a distance of about 260.000 km and continued until 04:51 UTC on February 25 to a distance of 105.000 km. During the Closest Approach to the Planet at 01:54 UTC o February 25 at a distance of 250 km. All images have been manually co-registered with the help of SPICE data, and vertical profiles have been extracted over the limb in intervals of ~0.5 degrees (se Figures 1 and 2). Despite the long time that has passed since the observations, only few studies based on the data from the wide- (WAC) and narrow- (NAC) angle camera systems of OSIRIS have been published to date. In this Paper we will present the results on the observations of the Martian Limbs acquired by the OSIRIS [1] instrument on board the ESA mission Rosetta during its swing-by maneuver around February 25th, 2007 on the way to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during the onset of the very active dust storm season of Mars year 28 (at Ls ~190). Although OSIRIS did only capture the Planet during a relatively short time interval of several hours, the obtained global view and the spectral coverage, from the UV (245

  10. Opening the terahertz window on the OSIRIS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; McPhail, D.; Crawford, J.; Maxwell, D.; Pokhilchuk, K.; Garcia-Sakai, V.; Mukhopadyay, S.; Telling, M. T. F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Skipper, N. T.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

    2015-01-01

    A cooled and mechanically retractable beryllium filter has been installed and commissioned on the low-energy OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS. This instrument development extends the energy-transfer range of the spectrometer up to ca. 20 meV (˜ 5 THz), leading to an excellent resolution at THz frequencies and substantial gains in detected flux relative to existing capabilities on the neighbouring IRIS spectrometer. Herein, we provide a concise account of this new capability for high-resolution neutron spectroscopy in the THz domain, as well as outline a number of ongoing and potential scientific opportunities in condensed-matter physics, chemistry, and materials science.

  11. OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go (TAG) Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIES-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper will summarize the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and present analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and +-2 cms of the targeted contact velocity. The paper will describe some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.

  12. OSIRI-REx Touch and Go (TAG) Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper also summarizes the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and presents analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and 2 cm/s of the targeted contact velocity. The paper describes some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.

  13. Thermophysical Characteristics of OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liangliang; Ji, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermophysical properties, including thermal inertia, roughness fraction and surface grain size of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu by using a thermophysical model with the recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model (Nolan et al., 2013) and mid-infrared observations (Müller et al. 2012, Emery et al., 2014). We find that the asteroid bears an effective diameter of 510+6 -40 m, a geometric albedo of 0.047+0.0083 -0.0011, a roughness fraction of 0.04+0.26 -0.04, and thermal inertia of 240+440 -60 Jm-2s-0.5K-1 for our best-fit solution. The best-estimate thermal inertia suggests that fine-grained regolith may cover a large portion of Bennu's surface, where a grain size may vary from 1.3 to 31 mm. Our outcome suggests that Bennu is suitable for the OSIRIS-REx mission to return samples to Earth.

  14. Control software for OSIRIS: an infrared integral-field spectrograph for the Keck adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jason L.; Barczys, Matthew; Larkin, James E.; Honey, Allan; McElwain, Michael W.; Gasaway, Thomas M.; Krabbe, Alfred

    2004-09-01

    OSIRIS is an infrared integral-field spectrograph built for the Keck AO system. Integral-field spectrographs produce very complicated raw data products, and OSIRIS is no exception. OSIRIS produces frames that contain up to 4096 interleaved spectra. In addition to the IFU capabilities of OSIRIS, the instrument is equipped with a parallel-field imager to monitor current AO conditions by imaging an off-axis star and evaluating its PSF. The design of the OSIRIS software was driven by the complexity of the instrument, switching the focus from simply controlling the instrument components to targeting the acquisition of usable scientific data. OSIRIS software integrates the planning, execution, and reduction of observations. An innovation in the OSIRIS control software is the formulation of observations into 'datasets' rather than individual frames. Datasets are functional groups of frames organized by the needs and capabilities of the data reduction software (DRS). A typical OSIRIS dataset consists of dithered spectral observations, coupled with the associated imaging data from the parallel-field AO PSF imager. A Java-based planning tool enables 'sequences' of datasets to be planned and saved both prior to and during observing sessions. An execution client interprets these XML-based files, configures the hardware servers for both OSIRIS and AO, and executes the observations. The DRS, working on one dataset of raw data at a time, produces science-quality data that is ready for analysis. This methodology should lead to superior observational efficiency, decreased likelihood of observer error, minimized reduction time, and therefore, faster scientific discovery.

  15. Comet 67P as seen by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe L.; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    In September 2016, the ESA Rosetta mission will come to its ending. Having escorted comet 67P for more than two years, the scientific camera system OSIRIS onboard Rosetta witnessed all important milestones of the mission: after the first characterization and the Philae landing we saw the comet's activity increasing while it was approaching the Sun. During the peak of activity around perihel in August 2015, the spacecraft had to retreat to a safe distance but we witnessed strong but predictable jet activity and, at the same time, short lived eruptions, some of these being big outbursts. When the activity declined post perihelion and allowed the spacecraft to go back closer, comparison with the early characterization revealed numerous morphologic changes on the surface, which can be attributed to the strong activity during perihelion passage.The paper will give an overview of latest OSIRIS science and discoveries including the morphology, activity, and surface changes mentioned above. Implications on the nature of the comet and its mechanisms will be drawn from these. The current plan for the mission is to go to very close distances in August and September 2016 and finally land the spacecraft on 67P.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre

  16. The OSIRIS-REx Contamination Control and Witness Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Adelman, L.; Ajluni, T. M.; Andronikov, A. V.; Ballou, D. M.; Bartels, A. E.; Beshore, E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W. V.; Brucato, J. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security Regolith Explorer) is the third NASA New Frontiers mission. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The primary objective of the mission is to return at least 60 g of "pristine" material from the B-type near- Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, which is spectrally similar to organic-rich CI or CM meteorites [1]. The study of these samples will advance our understanding of materials available for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. The spacecraft will rendezvous with Bennu in 2018 and spend at least a year characterizing the asteroid before executing a maneuver to recover a sample of regolith in the touch-and-go sample acquisition mechanism (TAGSAM). The TAGSAM and sample is stowed in the sample return capsule (SRC) and returned to Earth in 2023.

  17. Osiris-REx Spacecraft Current Status and Forward Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA New Frontiers OSIRIS-REx spacecraft executed a flawless launch on September 8, 2016 to begin its 23-month journey to near-Earth asteroid (101955). The primary objective of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to collect and return to Earth a pristine sample of regolith from the asteroid surface. The sampling event will occur after a two-year period of remote sensing that will ensure a high probability of successful sampling of a region on the asteroid surface having high science value and within well-defined geological context. The OSIRIS-REx instrument payload includes three high-resolution cameras (OCAMS), a visible and near-infrared spectrometer (OVIRS), a thermal imaging spectrometer (OTES), an X-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS), and a laser altimeter (OLA). As the spacecraft follows its nominal outbound-cruise trajectory, the propulsion, power, communications, and science instruments have undergone basic functional tests, with no major issues. Outbound cruise science investigations include a search for Earth Trojan asteroids as the spacecraft approaches the Sun-Earth L4 Lagrangian point in February 2017. Additional instrument checkouts and calibrations will be carried out during the Earth gravity assist maneuver in September 2017. During the Earth-moon flyby, visual and spectral images will be acquired to validate instrument command sequences planned for Bennu remote sensing. The asteroid Bennu remote sensing campaign will yield high resolution maps of the temperature and thermal inertia, distributions of major minerals and concentrations of organic matter across the asteroid surface. A high resolution 3d shape model including local surface slopes and a high-resolution gravity field will also be determined. Together, these data will be used to generate four separate maps that will be used to select the sampling site(s). The Safety map will identify hazardous and safe operational regions on the asteroid surface. The Deliverability map will quantify the accuracy

  18. The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Victoria; Christensen, Philip

    2014-05-01

    The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer) mission is a planetary science mission that will study and return a sample from the carbonaceous asteroid Bennu (1999 RQ36). It is the third mission selected under NASA's New Frontiers Program, and is scheduled to be launched in September of 2016 [1]. The spacecraft will carry a suite of instruments designed to map the physical and mineralogical/chemical properties of Bennu at extremely high spatial resolution (down to cm-scales) to both characterize the asteroid in detail (providing context for the returned sample and data for comparison to astronomical observations) and select a safe and scientifically compelling sample site. The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) is an uncooled, FTIR point spectrometer that will map the thermal flux and spectral properties of the asteroid Bennu to characterize the Yarkovsky effect and map the surface mineralogy. OTES measures from ~5 - 50 µm with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of >325 between 7.4 and 33.3 μm for a 325 K target. The design of the spectrometer is heritage from the Mars Global Surveyor TES and the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES instruments. The heart of the instrument is a Michelson interferometer that collects one interferogram every two seconds (where each two-second data acquisition is called an ICK, for Incremental Counter Keeper). OTES's spectral resolution is 10 cm-1 and its field of view is 8 mrad, which is achieved with a 15.2-cm f/3.91 Ritchey-Chretien telescope. At Bennu, OTES will have an accuracy of better than 3% and a precision (noise equivalent spectral radiance, NESR) of ≤2.3x10-8 W cm-2 sr-1 /cm-1 between 300 and 1350 cm-1. These values are sufficient to quantify the thermal flux responsible for the Yarkovsky effect and detect signatures of key minerals having band depths ≥5%. OTES in-flight calibration will be achieved via a two-point calibration that uses space and an

  19. Modeling of Ionization Physics with the PIC Code OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Tsung, F.; Lee, S.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; O'Connell, C.; Dodd, E.; Decker, F.J.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Hemker, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Joshi, C.; Ren, C.; Raimondi, P.; Wang, S.; Walz, D.; /Southern California U. /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    When considering intense particle or laser beams propagating in dense plasma or gas, ionization plays an important role. Impact ionization and tunnel ionization may create new plasma electrons, altering the physics of wakefield accelerators, causing blue shifts in laser spectra, creating and modifying instabilities, etc. Here we describe the addition of an impact ionization package into the 3-D, object-oriented, fully parallel PIC code OSIRIS. We apply the simulation tool to simulate the parameters of the upcoming E164 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We find that impact ionization is dominated by the plasma electrons moving in the wake rather than the 30 GeV drive beam electrons. Impact ionization leads to a significant number of trapped electrons accelerated from rest in the wake.

  20. OSIRIS-REx "Uncovering the Secrets of Asteroids" Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    In a panel discussion in the Kennedy Space Center’s Operations Support Building II, social media followers were briefed by NASA scientists on asteroids, how they relate to the origins of our solar system and the search for life beyond Earth. The discussion took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Panelists for this conversation are, from the left, Ellen Stofan, NASA chief scientist; Michelle Thaller, deputy director of science communications for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate; Felicia Chou, NASA Communications; Alex Young, associate director for science in the Heliophysics Science Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Lindley Johnson, director of the Planetary Defense Coordination Office in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  1. OSIRIS-REx "Uncovering the Secrets of Asteroids" Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    In a panel discussion in the Kennedy Space Center’s Operations Support Building II, social media followers were briefed by NASA scientists on asteroids, how they relate to the origins of our solar system and the search for life beyond Earth. The discussion took place before launch of the agency’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Panelists in view are, from the left, Felicia Chou, NASA Communications; Alex Young, associate director for science in the Heliophysics Science Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; and Lindley Johnson, director of the Planetary Defense Coordination Office in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Also participating in the panel discussion are Ellen Stofan, NASA chief scientist and Michelle Thaller, deputy director of science communications for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Analysis of Opposition effect on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's nucleus from Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Leyrat, C.; Barucci, M. A.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Osiris Team

    2015-10-01

    We aim to assess two mechanisms involved in opposition effect phenomenon, i.e. shadow hiding effect (SHOE) and coherent backscattering effect (CBOE), using OSIRIS images taken on the 14th of February 2015.

  3. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  4. The OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission from Asteroid Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Dante; Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security‒Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return and analyze a sample of pristine regolith from asteroid 101955 Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid and also a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. Returned samples are expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. In addition, the OSIRIS-REx mission will obtain valuable information on sample context by imaging the sample site; characterize its global geology; map global chemistry and mineralogy; investigate dynamic history by measuring the Yarkovsky effect; and advance asteroid astronomy by characterizing surface properties for direct comparison with ground-based telescopic observations of the entire asteroid population. Following launch in September 2016, the spacecraft will encounter Bennu in August 2018, then embark on a systematic study of geophysical and morphological characteristics of this ~500-meter-diameter object, including a systematic search for satellites and plumes. For determination of context, composition, and sampleability of various candidate sites, advanced instruments for remote global observations include OVIRS (visible to mid-IR spectrometric mapper), OTES (mid- to far-IR mineral and thermal emission mapper), OLA (mapping laser altimeter), and a suite of scientific cameras (OCAMS) with sub-cm pixel size from low-altitude Reconnaissance passes. A unique sample acquisition mechanism (SAM) capable of collecting up to one liter of regolith under ideal conditions (abundant small particulates < 2 cm) is expected to obtain at least 60 g of bulk regolith as well as surface grains on contact pads for analysis upon return to Earth. Using touch-and-go (TAG), a few seconds of contact is adequate for the gas-driven collection technique to acquire sample. This TAGSAM system has been developed and

  5. Merging OSIRIS, SAGE II and MLS Vertical Ozone Profiles for the Determination of Long Term Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N.; Bourassa, A. E.; Roth, C.; Rieger, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The OSIRIS instrument has been in operation onboard the Odin spacecraft since the autumn of 2001. Since that time OSIRIS has routinely measured spectrally dispersed limb-scattered sunlight from which vertical ozone profiles have been derived. The length of the OSIRIS ozone data record makes it a valuable resource for the analysis of long term trends. However, on its own it is not of sufficient length to capture all of the relevant signatures required to completely understand important changes in the vertical distribution of ozone. In particular the 1997 turnaround is not captured within the OSIRIS time series. For this reason it is important that the OSIRIS measurements be combined, or merged, with other data records like the SAGE II time series before a full analysis can be performed. This paper is focused on the merged SAGE II - OSIRIS time series and the resulting trends. It has been recently noted that the post 1997 positive trends at around 40 km that have been derived from this time series are higher than those calculated using other merged data sets. In this paper we will detail our efforts to understand why this is so. We will present analyses related to instrument drift, sampling biases and sensitivity to the method used to determine long term trends. Included along with the thorough analysis of the SAGE II - OSIRIS merged time series is an analysis of a SAGE II - MLS time series combined using the exact same method. Similarities and differences in the results derived from the two merged time series will also be discussed.

  6. OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, ultimately returning a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately three months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, slowing the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu in Nov, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroid's shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.

  7. OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, and ultimately return a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately 3 months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid finally becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, which slow the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu on Nov 18, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroids shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.

  8. OsiriX plugin for integrated cardiac imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüllebrand, Markus; Hennemuth, Anja; Messroghli, Daniel; Kühne, Titus

    2014-03-01

    Strongly evolving imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays provide a multitude of new complementary techniques for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue properties, function, and hemodynamics. The purpose of the presented work is to provide a research tool, which enables a quick validation of newly developed imaging techniques and supports the co-development of clinically usable analysis tools, which allow an integration with existing complementary examination methods. The concepts combined to this end consist of an integration with the open source research PACS OsiriX, an advanced heuristic DICOM classification and preprocessing as well as an integrative data model, which accumulates patient-specific image data, results and the data relations. Specific processing and analysis plugins can easily be integrated in such a way that they use the data integration and visualization infrastructure as well as results from other existing plugins. The presented example applications, such as the evaluation of slice orientations for cardiac function quantification or the integrated analysis of different types of image data for diagnosis of myocarditis show that the provided tool can be successfully used for a multitude of research applications in cardiovascular imaging.

  9. Recent fluffy dust observations by Rosetta / GIADA and OSIRIS results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, Marco; Rotundi, Alessandra; Sierks, Holger; Guettler, Carsten; Della corte, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    During the 18 months of ongoing operations of ESA Rosetta Mission at comet 67P, the GIADA dust detector on-board the Rosetta orbiter has observed tens of showers of hundreds of mm-sized particles lasting a few seconds each. These particles had always a momentum below the detection threshold and speeds below 0.1 m/s. During campaigns investigating the source of false stars affecting the performance of Rosetta star-trackers, the OSIRIS Wide-Angle Camera has as well detected showers of mm-sized dust floating close to the spacecraft at speeds of a few cm/s. The observed low speeds, much lower than the escaping velocity from 67P nucleus, imply a strong dust deceleration at the spacecraft, possibly by its negative potential, which charges and fragments cm-sized fluffy parents of very low density (possibly close to 1 kg per cubic meter). The spacecraft electric field decelerates the approaching charged fragments, which are then accelerated away from the spacecraft in all the directions. This continuously replenished cloud of fluffy fragments, much denser than the surrounding dust coma, may be the source of Rosetta star-tracker issues, and should drive the software of star-trackers of future cometary missions. The presence of extremely fluffy particles in 67P nucleus puts strong constraints on the accretion history of the nuclei of the Jupiter Family Comets.

  10. [OsiriX, a useful tool for processing tomographic images in patients with facial fracture].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Martínez, Eduardo; Cienfuegos-Monroy, Ricardo; Fernández-Sobrino, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    OsiriX, a Mac OS X-based open source program, is presented as a useful tool to process tomographic images for diagnosis and preoperative planning in patients with facial fractures. CT scans were performed on 124 patients with facial fractures treated at the Department of Maxillofacial and Reconstructive Surgery of the Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes" in Mexico City. Information obtained was recorded in DICOM format in CDs and processed in a Macintosh laptop with OsiriX software, doing multiplanar and 3D reconstructions. Surgical findings were compared to the images obtained by the software. Of the surgical findings, 96.5% matched with the OsiriX images. Only 3.5% of the OsiriX images were not consistent because of distortion or artifacts in the CT due to firearm projectiles and Erich arch bars near the involved area. Based on the results obtained, the authors consider that the OsiriX software is a useful tool for diagnosis and preoperative planning in patients with facial fractures. Furthermore, it prevents the loss of information due to the process of image selection by the radiology staff.

  11. The OVIRS Visible/IR Spectrometer on the OSIRIS-Rex Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, D. C.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer) Mission is a planetary science mission to study, and return a sample from, the carbonaceous asteroid 1999 RQ-36. The third mission selected under NASA's New Frontiers Program, it is scheduled to be launched in 2016. It is led by PI Dante Lauretta at the University of Arizona and managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The spacecraft and the asteroid sampling mechanism, TAGSAM (Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism) will be provided by Lockheed Martin Space Systems. Instrumentation for studying the asteroid include: OCAMS (the OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite), OLA (the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter, a scanning LIDAR), OTES (The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer, a 4-50 micron point spectrometer) and OVIRS (the OSIRIS-REx Visible and IR Spectrometer, a 0.4 to 4.3 micron point spectrometer). The payload also includes REXIS (the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer) a student provided experiment. This paper presents a description of the OVIRS instrument.

  12. Osiris: accessible and reproducible phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses within the Galaxy workflow management system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic tools and ‘tree-thinking’ approaches increasingly permeate all biological research. At the same time, phylogenetic data sets are expanding at breakneck pace, facilitated by increasingly economical sequencing technologies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accessible, modular, and sharable tools for phylogenetic analysis. Results We developed a suite of wrappers for new and existing phylogenetics tools for the Galaxy workflow management system that we call Osiris. Osiris and Galaxy provide a sharable, standardized, modular user interface, and the ability to easily create complex workflows using a graphical interface. Osiris enables all aspects of phylogenetic analysis within Galaxy, including de novo assembly of high throughput sequencing reads, ortholog identification, multiple sequence alignment, concatenation, phylogenetic tree estimation, and post-tree comparative analysis. The open source files are available on in the Bitbucket public repository and many of the tools are demonstrated on a public web server (http://galaxy-dev.cnsi.ucsb.edu/osiris/). Conclusions Osiris can serve as a foundation for other phylogenomic and phylogenetic tool development within the Galaxy platform. PMID:24990571

  13. The Ozone Distribution Above the Asian Monsoon as seen by the OSIRIS Instrument from 2002-Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Degenstein, D. A.; Bourassa, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian built OSIRIS instrument measures spectrally dispersed limb scattered sunlight from low earth, sun-synchronous orbit onboard the Swedish led Odin spacecraft. OSIRIS and Odin have been in operation since the autumn of 2001 and during this time the OSIRIS measurements, from 280 nm to 810 nm over a tangent altitude range from 10 km to 65 km, have been used to routinely retrieve moderate high vertical resolution ozone profiles over the entire globe from 82 degrees north to 82 degrees south. As these measurements are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and known for their high quality including excellent precision, accuracy and stability they are ideal for the study of the time evolution of the ozone distribution in the region of the Asian Monsoon. This poster will describe the OSIRIS ozone data product, its characterization using other spacecraft and ground based instruments and its utility for process studies related to the Asian Monsoon. Along with the data description features relevant to the Asian Monsoon will be extracted from the OSIRIS ozone data record and discussed in the context of what is known about the dynamics of this interesting region.

  14. OSIRIS-REx A NASA Mission to a Near Earth Asteroid!...and Other Recent Happenings in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Mission launches in 2016 Arrives at Asteroid Bennu-2018 Returns a sample to Earth -2023 The mission, OSIRIS-REx, will visit an asteroid and return a sample from the early Solar System to help us understand how our Solar System formed.

  15. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location [e.g. 1]. In preparation for these observations, we spectrally characterized a suite of analog samples across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and used these in initial tests of phase detection and abundance determination software algorithms. Here we present the thermal infrared laboratory measurements of the analog sample suite measured under asteroidlike conditions, which are relevant to the interpretation of spectroscopic observations by the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) [2, 3]. This suite of laboratory measurements of asteroid analogs under asteroid-like conditions is the first of their kind.

  16. Communicating Science on YouTube and Beyond: OSIRIS-REx Presents 321Science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Anna H.; Dykhuis, Melissa; Platts, Symeon; Keane, James T.; Tanquary, Hannah E.; Zellem, Robert; Hawley, Tiffany; Lauretta, Dante; Beshore, Ed; Bottke, Bill; Hergenrother, Carl; Dworkin, Jason P.; Patchell, Rose; Spitz, Sarah E.; Bentley, Zoe

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched OSIRIS-REx Presents 321Science!, a series of short videos, in December 2013 at youtube.com/osirisrex. A multi-disciplinary team of communicators, film and graphic arts students, teens, scientists, and engineers produces one video per month on a science and engineering topic related to the OSIRIS-REx mission. The format is designed to engage all members of the public, but especially younger audiences with the science and engineering of the mission. The videos serve as a resource for team members and others, complementing more traditional formats such as formal video interviews, mission animations, and hands-on activities. In creating this new form of OSIRIS-REx engagement, we developed 321Science! as an umbrella program to encourage expansion of the concept and topics beyond the OSIRIS-REx mission through partnerships. Such an expansion strengthens and magnifies the reach of the OSIRIS-REx efforts.321Science! has a detailed proposed schedule of video production through launch in 2016. Production plans are categorized to coincide with the course of the mission beginning with Learning the basics - about asteroids and the mission - and proceeding to Building the spacecraft, Run up to launch, Cruising to Bennu, Run up to rendezvous, Mapping Bennu, Sampling, Analyzing data, Cruising home and Returning and analyzing the sample. The video library will host a combination of videos on broad science topics and short specialized concepts with an average length of 2-3 minutes. Video production also takes into account external events, such as other missions’ milestones, to draw attention to our videos. Production will remain flexible and responsive to audience interests and needs and to developments in the mission, science, and external events. As of August 2014, 321Science! videos have over 22,000 views. We use YouTube analytics to evaluate our success and we are investigating additional and more rigorous evaluation

  17. OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Balram-Knutson, S. S.; Beshore, E.; Boynton, W. V.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Enos, H. L.; Golish, D. R.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Howell, E. S.; Bennett, C. A.; Morton, E. T.; Nolan, M. C.; Rizk, B.; Roper, H. L.; Bartels, A. E.; Bos, B. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Highsmith, D. E.; Lorenz, D. A.; Lim, L. F.; Mink, R.; Moreau, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Simon, A. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Bryan, B. H.; Ballouz, R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Walsh, K. J.; Chesley, S. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. E.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Daly, M. G.; Emery, J. P.; McCoy, T. J.; McMahon, J. W.; Scheeres, D. J.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Sandford, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in November 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennu's resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

  18. OH Meinel band nightglow profiles from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, P. E.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Strong, K.

    2014-10-01

    The mesospheric nightglow spectrum is replete with OH Meinel band emissions, from the midvisible to the midinfrared. These emissions provide a wealth of aeronomic information, giving a physical view of the chemistry and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument, on the Odin satellite, is currently one of the few satellite instruments that simultaneously observes emissions from multiple and separate Meinel bands. This has allowed the derivation of near-global data sets of nighttime OH volume emission rate profiles for the Meinel (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) bands. The 2002-2013 climatologies consistently show that emission from bands in higher upper vibrational levels peaks at higher altitudes. The global average (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) band emission peak heights are at altitudes of 86.0 km, 86.7 km, and 87.1 km, respectively. The 1σ variation in the (5-1), (8-3), and (9-4) band, peak heights are 1.8 km, 1.9 km, and 1.9 km, respectively. The climatological (30 day, 10° latitude) peak heights can vary significantly with both time and latitude; however, the (5-1) band climatological peak height is nearly always below that of the (8-3) band, which is nearly always below that of the (9-4) band. The temporal variation in the emission peak height can have a significant impact on measurements of OH rotational temperatures from ground-based observations of the OH layer. It was found that omitting the profile climatology can bias a ground-based temperature measurement by as much as ±4 K and can also make ground-based measurements susceptible to nonrealistic temperature variations.

  19. The dust coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Davidsson, B.; Güttler, C.; Lara, L. M.; Moreno, F.; Cremonese, G.; La Forgia, F.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    The dust coma of 67P was detected and monitored by OSIRIS, the scientific camera onboard Rosetta, since the beginning of the post-hibernation operations in March 2014. A complete description of the coma during the approach phase to the comet was presented in [5], including the detection of a sudden cometary outburst at the end of April 2014. OSIRIS images acquired at the end of the approach (July 2014) and during the escort phase were used to characterize dust particles present in the comet's inner coma ([4], [3], [2], [1]).

  20. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.

  1. KSC-20160908-RV-GMM01_0002-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_VIF_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  2. KSC-20160908-RV-GMM01_0003-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_Ground_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  3. OSIRIS' decimeter observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Clément; Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Jorda, Laurent; Thomas, Nicolas; Pommerol, Antoine; Jost, Bernhard; Poch, Olivier; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since July 2014, the ESA spacecraft Rosetta has been escorting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, thus allowing for a detailed analysis of both inner coma and nucleus of the comet. The on-board scientific imaging system OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007), has been key to understand the structure (Massironi et al., 2015), the morphology and the processes occurring on the comet (Vincent et al., 2015 ; Thomas et al., 2015).On the 14th of February 2015, the spacecraft performed a flyby-manoeuvre close to the frontier between Ash, Apis and Imhotep regions, and came in as close as 6km to the nucleus surface. During this flyby, the Narrow-Angle Camera imaged this region at a resolution of 11cm per pixel, while the phase angle varied between 0° and 37° thus allowing us to investigate the opposition effect.We will present here the results of our photometric and spectrophotometric analyses of the 14th February 2015 flyby dataset. Using a dedicated digital terrain model, we were able to compute the 3D geometry of each frame with a sub-meter accuracy, which were used to correct for the illumination conditions. We fitted our dataset with the Hapke radiative transfer model that included a porosity correction (Helfenstein et al., 2011).This unique observations at decimetre scale indicate that the comet surface is heterogeneous both in terms of absolute reflectance (variations up to 40%) and colours. Furthermore, according to our photometric analysis, this flown-by region is as sombre as the comet's nucleus (geometric albedo : 6.8 %), the single-scattering albedo is quite low (0.038) and we found a similar high porosity (86%) of the uppermost layer. The opposition effect is dominated by the shadow hiding phenomenon, while the coherent backscattering contribution is found to be negligible.The spectral reddening effect observed by Fornasier et al., 2015 globally on the comet surface is also observed locally on the flown-by region, but with a less steep behaviour.The comparisons of the

  4. OSIRIS-REx Will Return a Sample of Asteroid 1999 RQ36 for Astrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) is the third mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. OSIRIS-REx launches in 2016 and will return the first pristine samples of carbonaceous material from the surface of a primitive asteroid in 2023. The target, (101955) 1999 RQ36, is 1/2 km diameter roughly spherical Apollo near-Earth asteroid. It is expected to be carbonaceous, similar to CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites. This organic-rich remnant from the early Solar System is also among the most potentially hazardous asteroids known with a 1 in 2500 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. OSIRIS-REx will measure the Yarkovsky effect to better constrain future orbit and impact potential of this and other asteroids. OSIRIS-REx will image, map, and spectrally characterize RQ36 from 0.4-50 icron. The returned sample of regolith will be >60g (and up to 2kg) and thus the largest extraterrestrial sample returned from space since Apollo 17. Unlike meteorites, the sample will come from a known, well-characterized source and will be collected and transported to Earth pristine from terrestrial contamination. It will be available for study by the global astrochemistry community to address fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system and the life it harbors.

  5. The Activity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as Seen by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Rickman, H.; Koschny, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency arrived on August 6, 2014, at the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. OSIRIS consists of a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for the nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field gas and dust coma investigations. OSIRIS observed the coma and the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G during approach, arrival, and landing of PHILAE. OSIRIS continued comet monitoring and mapping of surface and activity in 2015 with close fly-bys with high resolution and remote, wide angle observations. The scientific results reveal a nucleus with two lobes and varied morphology. Active regions are located at steep cliffs and collapsed pits which form collimated gas jets. Dust is accelerated by the gas, forming bright jet filaments and the large scale, diffuse coma of the comet. We will present activity and surface changes observed in the Northern and Southern hemisphere and around perihelion passage.

  6. Upgrade of the detector in the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehle, Anna; Larkin, James E.; Adkins, Sean M.; Aliado, Theodore; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Johnson, Christopher A.; Lyke, James E.; Magnone, Kenneth G.; Sohn, Ji Man; Wang, Eric; Weiss, Jason L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of the upgrade of the spectrograph detector in the integral field spectrograph, OSIRIS. OSIRIS is a near-infrared (1 to 2.5 microns) integral field spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. This instrument produces up to 3,000 spectra simultaneously over a contiguous rectangular field of view with a spectral resolution of 3,800. OSIRIS works with the Keck Adaptive Optics system to achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution and has four plate scales ranging from 0.02 to 0.10 arcseconds. At first light in 2005, the spectrograph portion of the instrument was equipped with a Rockwell Hawaii-2 detector. We have now upgraded this to a Teledyne Hawaii-2RG (H2RG) with lower read noise, lower dark current, and higher quantum efficiency. In addition to the upgraded detector, we also mounted the detector head on a linear stage, allowing the position of the detector to be accurately adjusted along the optical path when the instrument is at cryogenic temperatures ( 80 K). This reduced the number of cool downs required to put the detector image plane at the spectrograph camera focus and adjust any residual tip/tilt of the detector image plane. We present the results of commissioning the new detector and the improved sensitivities of the OSIRIS instrument due to this upgrade.

  7. OSIRIS tunable imager and spectrograph for the GTC: from design to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Aguiar-González, Marta; Barreto, Roberto; Becerril, Santiago; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Correa, Santiago; Chapa, Oscar; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Espejo, Carlos; Farah, Alejandro; Fragoso, Ana Belén.; Fernández, Patricia; Flores, Rubén.; Fuentes, F. Javier; Gago, Fernando; Garfias, Fernando; Gigante, José Vicente; González, Jesús; González-Escalera, Victor; Hernández, Belén.; Hernandez, Elvio; Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Guillermo; Joven, Enrique; Langarica, Rosalia; Lara, Gerardo; López, José Carlos; López, Roberto; Militellon, Carmelo; Moreno, Heidy; Peraza, Lorenzo; Pérez, Angeles; Pérez, Jaime; Rasilla, José Luis; Rosich, Josefina; Tejada, Carlos; Tinoco, Silvio; Vaz, Txinto; Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) was the optical Day One instrument for the 10.4m Spanish telescope GTC. It is installed at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). This instrument has been operational since March-2009 and covers from 360 to 1000 nm. OSIRIS observing modes include direct imaging with tunable and conventional filters, long slit and low resolution spectroscopy. OSIRIS wide field of view and high efficiency provide a powerful tool for the scientific exploitation of GTC. OSIRIS was developed by a Consortium formed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM). The latter was in charge of the optical design, the manufacture of the camera and collaboration in the assembly, integration and verification process. The IAC was responsible for the remaining design of the instrument and it was the project leader. The present paper considers the development of the instrument from its design to its present situation in which is in used by the scientific community.

  8. Curation of Asteroid Bennu Samples for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Nakumara-Messenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission will collect approximately150 g of material from carbonaceous asteroid Bennu and return it to Earth in 2023. The sample will be curated along with NASA's other astromaterials sample collections at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston. As part of the mission planning, JSC will be engaged in the following four general activities.

  9. OSIRIS Detections of a Tropospheric Aerosol that Absorbs at Wavelengths Near 350 nm - Black Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenstein, D. A.; Roth, C.; Bourassa, A. E.; Lloyd, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian built OSIRIS instrument has been in operation onboard the Swedish spacecraft Odin since the autumn of 2001. During this 13 year period OSIRIS has recorded millions of spectra of the limb-scattered radiance in the wavelength range from 280 nm to 810 nm with approximately 1 nm spectral resolution. These measurements that scan tangents altitudes from 10 km to 65 km have primarily been used to retrieve stratospheric composition including vertical profiles of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphate aerosol and bromine monoxide. The ozone retrieval is done is such a way that it uses the vertical radiance profile at 350 nm as a non-ozone absorbing reference measurement and it is these measurements that have serendipitously indicated the presence of an absorbing aerosol at tropospheric altitudes. At this time there is no indication of the exact composition of this absorber but it has characteristics that are curiously like those of black carbon. This poster will outline: the technique used to detect the black carbon from OSIRIS measurements; the wavelength dependence of a pseudo absorber used in the SASKTARN radiative transfer model to accurately simulate the OSIRIS measurements; and the geographical distribution of the detections of this pseudo absorber.

  10. Use of OsiriX in developing a digital radiology teaching library.

    PubMed

    Shamshuddin, S; Matthews, H R

    2014-10-01

    Widespread adoption of digital imaging in clinical practice and for the image-based examinations of the Royal College of Radiologists has created a desire to provide a digital radiology teaching library in many hospital departments around the UK. This article describes our experience of using OsiriX software in developing digital radiology teaching libraries.

  11. OSIRIS-REx Launch Event at Goddard Visitor Center. NASA's first

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    OSIRIS-REx Launch Event at Goddard Visitor Center. NASA's first asteroid sampling mission launched into space at 7:05 p.m. EDT Thursday from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida beginning a journey that could revolutionize our understanding of the early solar system. Lucy McFadden

  12. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  13. An Architecture for Real-Time Processing of OSIRIS-REx Engineering and Science Data, from Raw Telemetry to PDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selznick, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Herein we describe an architecture developed for processing engineering and science data for the OSIRIS-REx mission. The architecture is soup-to-nuts, starting with raw telemetry and ending with submission to PDS.

  14. Correction: Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source.

    PubMed

    Telling, Mark T F; Campbell, Stuart I; Engberg, Dennis; Martín Y Marero, David; Andersen, Ken H

    2016-03-21

    Correction for 'Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source' by Mark T. F. Telling et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 1255-1261.

  15. Manual Surface Feature Classification and Error Analysis for NASA's OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return Mission Using QGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Error mitigation for manual detection and classification of hazardous surface features for NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission can be accomplished through the use of open-source GIS and standard land-cover change analysis methods.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  17. An Independent Orbit Determination Simulation for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getzandanner, Kenneth; Rowlands, David; Mazarico, Erwan; Antreasian, Peter; Jackman, Coralie; Moreau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    After arriving at the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will execute a series of observation campaigns and orbit phases to accurately characterize Bennu and ultimately collect a sample of pristine regolith from its surface. While in the vicinity of Bennu, the OSIRIS-REx navigation team will rely on a combination of ground-based radiometric tracking data and optical navigation (OpNav) images to generate and deliver precision orbit determination products. Long before arrival at Bennu, the navigation team is performing multiple orbit determination simulations and thread tests to verify navigation performance and ensure interfaces between multiple software suites function properly. In this paper, we will summarize the results of an independent orbit determination simulation of the Orbit B phase of the mission performed to test the interface between the OpNav image processing and orbit determination software packages.

  18. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: the dust coma as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Güttler, Carsten; Sierks, Holger

    2016-04-01

    OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, is imaging the nucleus and the coma of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies performed with OSIRIS. Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range are used to study the unresolved coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. Individual grains are characterized in terms of color, size, distance, light curves, orbits. Images acquired spanning the phase angle range 0-165 deg are used to determine the dust phase function in different colors and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust particles by solving the inverse scattering problem.

  19. OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go (TAG) Mission Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; May, Alex; Williams, Ken; Barbee, Brent W.; Beckman, Mark; Williams, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in late 2018. After several months in formation with and orbit about the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid s surface to obtain a regolith sample. This paper describes the mission design of the TAG sequence and the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory. This paper also shows preliminary results of orbit covariance analysis and Monte-Carlo analysis that demonstrate the ability to arrive at a targeted location on the surface of RQ36 within a 25 meter radius with 98.3% confidence.

  20. E-Type Asteroid (2867) Steins as Imaged by OSIRIS on Board Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Barbieri, C.; Koschny, D.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Sierks, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Angrilli, F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; De Cecco, M.; Debei, S.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L.-M.; Lazzarin, M.; Moreno, J. Lopez; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Ferri, F.; Kaasalainen, M.; Lowry, S.; Marchi, S.; Mottola, S.; Sabolo, W.; Schröder, S. E.; Spjuth, S.; Vernazza, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission encountered the main-belt asteroid (2867) Steins while on its way to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Images taken with the OSIRIS (optical, spectroscopic, and infrared remote imaging system) cameras on board Rosetta show that Steins is an oblate body with an effective spherical diameter of 5.3 kilometers. Its surface does not show color variations. The morphology of Steins is dominated by linear faults and a large 2.1-kilometer-diameter crater near its south pole. Crater counts reveal a distinct lack of small craters. Steins is not solid rock but a rubble pile and has a conical appearance that is probably the result of reshaping due to Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) spin-up. The OSIRIS images constitute direct evidence for the YORP effect on a main-belt asteroid.

  1. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage, standing upright on a transporter, is driven to Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be attached to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  2. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage, standing upright on a transporter, is prepared to be lifted and attached to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  3. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage, standing upright on a transporter, arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be attached to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  4. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage has been lowered into position atop the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  5. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage, standing upright on a transporter, is prepared to be lifted and attached to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. With a Centaur upper stage, the rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  6. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    Team members prepare to attach a Centaur upper stage to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  7. OSIRIS-REx, Atlas V Centaur Stage Arrival and Lift & Mate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-11

    A Centaur upper stage is lifted at Space Launch Complex 41 on Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where it will be attached to the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket first stage booster. The rocket will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Targeted for liftoff Sept. 8, 2016, OSIRIS-Rex will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  8. The Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN (KONA) Survey: AGN Fueling and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Erin K. S.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Malkan, Matthew A.; Yu, Po-Chieh

    In an effort to better constrain the relevant physical processes dictating the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and the galaxies in which they reside we turn to local Seyfert AGN. It is only with these local AGN that we can reach the spatial resolution needed to adequately characterize the inflow and outflow mechanisms thought to be the driving forces in establishing the relationship between black holes and their host galaxies at higher redshift. We present the first results from the KONA (Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN) survey, which takes advantage of the integral field unit OSIRIS plus laser and natural guide star adaptive optics to probe down to scales of 5-30 parsecs in a sample of 40 local Seyfert galaxies. With these K-band data we measure the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the nuclear stars, molecular gas, and ionized gas within the central few hundred parsecs.

  9. Effect of volcanic aerosol on stratospheric NO2: Odin-OSIRIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Cristen; Bourassa, Adam; Degenstein, Doug

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of volcanic stratospheric aerosols from large eruptions such as Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has been shown to cause substantial decreases of stratospheric NO2. Here we present measurements from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (OSIRIS), which simultaneously observed wide-spread enhancements of stratospheric aerosol following several relatively minor volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2014, along with coincident depletion of stratospheric NO2. OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 partial columns for ~3-7 km above the tropopause were found to be smaller than baseline levels during these aerosol enhancements by up to ~60%. Correlations with measurements from MIPAS are also used to show that this is consistent with heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of volcanic aerosols.

  10. The dust environment of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen through Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, Cecilia; Bertini, Ivano; Deller, Jakob; Drolshagen, Esther; Frattin, Elisa; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Koschny, Detlef; Oklay, Nilda; Ott, Theresa; Shi, Xian; Sierks, Holger; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    The ESA's Rosetta spacecraft had the unique opportunity to stay in the vicinity of the comet for two years, observing how the comet evolved while approaching the Sun, passing through perihelion and then moving outwards. OSIRIS, the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System onboard Rosetta, imaged the nucleus and the dust environment of 67/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since the beginning of post-hibernation operations in March 2014. We focus here on dust studies carried on with OSIRIS.Images obtained in different filters in the visible wavelength range have been used to study the unresolved dust coma, investigating its diurnal and seasonal variations and providing insights into the dust composition. A correlation has been found between the level of diurnal activity and the region of the nucleus surface in sunlight, suggesting that the topography and/or composition of the surface play an important role. The overall activity increases while the comet is approaching the Sun, peaking about a month after perihelion. Comparison with ground-based observations will allow to understand if the dust coma behaves in similar ways at small scales - as observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS - and at large scales - as observed from ground. Several times during the mission, we acquired images spanning the phase angle range 0-165 degrees. They are used to determine the dust phase function in different wavelengths, its evolution with heliocentric distance and to investigate the intimate nature of cometary dust aggregates by solving the inverse scattering problem. A large amount of individual aggregates is present in the vicinity of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We used OSIRIS NAC and WAC images to determine the aggregate properties: size and distance distributions, colors and rotation. Thanks to observations performed at different heliocentric distances, we address how those properties are changing with heliocentric distance.

  11. Comet 67P/C-G seen through Osiris, the eyes of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare

    2017-06-01

    The present paper will describe some of the highlights obtained by the imaging system Osiris on board the European spacecraft Rosetta during its cruise around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Some results obtained by other instruments, including ground telescopes, will be briefly mentioned. The immense archive of data obtained during such unique cometary mission will take several more years for its full examination, but hopefully some of the most important results are covered in this paper.

  12. Thermal History of Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2016-10-01

    The connection between orbital and temperature history of small Solar System bodies has only been studied through modeling. The upcoming OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission provides an opportunity to connect thermal modeling predictions with laboratory studies of meteorites to predict past heating and thus dynamical histories of bodies such as OSIRIS-REx mission target asteroid (101955) Bennu. Bennu is a desirable target for asteroid sample return due to its inferred primitive nature, likely 4.5 Gyr old, with chemistry and mineralogy established in the first 10 Myr of solar system history (Lauretta et al. 2015). Delbo & Michel (2011) studied connections between the temperature and orbital history of Bennu. Their results suggest that the surface of Bennu (assuming no regolith turnover) has a 50% probability of being heated to 500 K in the past. Further, the Delbo & Michel simulations show that the temperature within the asteroid below the top layer of regolith could remain at temperatures ~100 K below that of the surface. The Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism on OSIRIS-REx could access both the surface and near surface regolith, collecting primitive asteroid material for study in Earth-based laboratories in 2023. To quantify the effects of thermal metamorphism on the Bennu regolith, laboratory heating experiments on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites with compositions likely similar to that of Bennu were conducted from 300-1200 K. These experiments show mobilization and volatilization of a suite of labile elements (sulfur, mercury, arsenic, tellurium, selenium, antimony, and cadmium) at temperatures that could be reached by asteroids that cross Mercury's orbit. We are able to quantify element loss with temperature for several carbonaceous chondrites and use these results to constrain past orbital histories of Bennu. When OSIRIS-REx samples arrive for analysis we will be able to measure labile element loss in the material, determine maximum past

  13. The OSIRIS CubeSat Mission: A System of Satellites for Investigating the Response of the Stimulated Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilen, S. G.; Pribula, P.; Kummer, A. T.; Escobar, A. C.; Urbina, J. V.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Kosch, M.; Gonzalez, S. A.; Rosado-Roman, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed OSIRIS (Orbital System for Investigating the Response of the Ionosphere to Stimulation and space weather) CubeSat mission will provide in situ measurements of the spatial and temporal characteristics of stimulated (heated) ionosphere, which will be correlated with ground-based measurements to better understand variable space weather conditions and phenomena such as ionospheric irregularities. As its primary objectives OSIRIS will 1) provide in situ measurements of the stimulated (heated) ionosphere produced by ground-based heaters; 2) correlate in situ heated ionosphere measurements with ground-based measurements including incoherent scatter radars and ionosondes; and 3) investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of the heated ionosphere by measuring plasma properties as the satellites gradually separate. The use of ionospheric heaters such as HAARP, Arecibo, and EISCAT will allow the OSIRIS mission to mimic natural ionospheric irregularities at defined locations and times, as well as perform research on active experiments. The OSIRIS mission is a constellation of three CubeSats, each carrying a Hybrid Plasma Probe, which is compresed of a combination Langmuir probe, plasma frequency probe, fixed-biased probe, and Druyvesteyn fast temperature probe. Using three spatially separated, simultaneously measured data segments with an identical sensor on each satellite, it becomes possible to distinguish between spatial and temporal phenomena. The OSIRIS satellites will spread out into slightly different orbits, experiencing an average separation rate of 50 km between satellites over the first 6 months, slowly changing the constellation’s multi-point measurement resolution from a finer scale to a larger scale. The OSIRIS mission is designed to function in a circular or low-eccentricity orbit between 300 and 450 kilometers with inclination of higher than 65°. OSIRIS electron density measurements permit observations of the densities outside the narrow

  14. Designing to Sample the Unknown: Lessons from OSIRIS-REx Project Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, David; Mink, Ronald; Linn, Timothy; Wood, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    On September 8, 2016, the third NASA New Frontiers mission launched on an Atlas V 411. The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) will rendezvous with asteroid Bennu in 2018, collect a sample in 2020, and return that sample to Earth in September 2023. The development team has overcome a number of challenges in order to design and build a system that will make contact with an unexplored, airless, low-gravity body. This paper will provide an overview of the mission, then focus in on the system-level challenges and some of the key system-level processes. Some of the lessons here are unique to the type of mission, like discussion of operating at a largely-unknown, low-gravity object. Other lessons, particularly from the build phase, have broad implications. The OSIRIS-REx risk management process was particularly effective in achieving an on-time and under-budget development effort. The systematic requirements management and verification and the system validation also helped identify numerous potential problems. The final assessment of the OSIRIS-REx performance will need to wait until the sample is returned in 2023, but this post-launch assessment will capture some of the key systems-engineering lessons from the development team.

  15. Odin/OSIRIS detections of orographic gravity waves in PMC brightness and occurrence frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, Svetlana; Rusch, David

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument (OSIRIS) on the polar orbiting Odin satellite observes Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) via the limb scattering in both hemispheres since 2002. The orbit period of Odin is 96 minutes and the maximum latitudinal coverage in the orbit plane is between 82.2 N and 82.2 S. Longitudinal distribution of Odin/OSIRIS PMC brightness and detection frequency in each hemisphere for all northern and southern SH PMC seasons of 2002-2009 is analyzed in this work. In the southern hemisphere, the cloud brightness was consistently up to 30% lower around 250-300o E (70-120° W) -above the Antarctic peninsular. In the northern hemisphere, the above parameter was systematically 20-30% lower around 50-130o E -above Ural Mountains. OSIRIS PMC occurrence frequency, although less suitable for such study because of the high instrument sensitivity to mesospheric ice particles, displayed similar pattern. Comparable results have been obtained for the PMC 2007-08 season in Antarctica and PMC-2007 Arctic season by one of the instruments on a recently launched Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. We attribute this effect to the influence of orographic gravity waves that propagate to the upper mesospheric altitudes.

  16. Modeling of Laser wakefield acceleration in the Lorentz boosted frame using UPIC-EMMA and OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Decyk, Viktor; Tsung, Frank; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis; Mori, Warren; UCLA Team; Tsinghua University Beijing Team; IST Portugal Team

    2014-10-01

    We present the capability of investigating physics of laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in nonlinear regimes using various approaches. This includes simulating the physics using OSIRIS 3D code in the lab and boosted frame. We also implemented hybrid 3D algorithm into OSIRIS which uses an algorithm with a PIC description in r-z and a gridless description in phi [A. F. Lifschitz et al., JCP. 228, 1803 (2009)]. This algorithm greatly reduce the computation load by describing the three-dimensional (3D) physics problem of laser-plasma interaction with essentially two-dimensional if the expansion is truncated. The hybrid 3D OSIRIS code can be used to simulate the nonlinear physics in LWFA in both lab and boosted frames. Combining the hybrid 3D and boosted frame approaches potentially provides unprecedented speedups. Furthermore, we can simulate the same problems in a boosted frame using the spectral EM-PIC code UPIC-EMMA which solves the Maxwell's equation in Fourier space. By applying a recipe to systematically reduce the numerical Cerenkov instability (NCI) in the spspectral code, we are able to conduct LWFA Lorentz boosted frame simulation at arbitrary gamma with no signs of NCI.

  17. Rosetta/OSIRIS: Nucleus morphology and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, Holger

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency arrived on August 6, 2014, at the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for broad-band nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.OSIRIS images the nucleus and the coma of comet 67P/C-G from the arrival throughout early mapping phase, PHILAE landing, and escort phase with close fly-by beginning of the year 2015.The team paper presents the surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets and the larger scale coma studied by OSIRIS.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.Additional Information: The OSIRIS team is H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M. A'Hearn, I. Bertini, F. Angrilli, M. A. Barucci, J. L. Bertaux, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, P. Gutierrez, S. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H. U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J. J. Lopez, S. Lowry, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, L

  18. Calculation to experiment comparison of SPND signals in various nuclear reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbot, Loic; Radulovic, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka; Tarchalski, Mikolaj; Dewynter-Marty, Veronique; Malouch, Fadhel

    2015-07-01

    In the perspective of irradiation experiments in the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (France) is developing a numerical tool for SPND design, simulation and operation. In the frame of the SPND numerical tool qualification, dedicated experiments have been performed both in the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor (JSI) and very recently in the French CEA Saclay OSIRIS reactor, as well as a test of two detectors in the core of the Polish MARIA reactor (NCBJ). A full description of experimental set-ups and neutron-gamma calculations schemes are provided in the first part of the paper. Calculation to experiment comparison of the various SPNDs in the different reactors is thoroughly described and discussed in the second part. Presented comparisons show promising final results. (authors)

  19. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  2. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  3. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  4. Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, M.F.; Puccetti, M.G.

    1988-01-04

    The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.

  5. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - First Science Results by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Angrilli, F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Bodewits, D.; Capanna, C.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Gutiérrez, P.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W. H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Joerg, K.; Kramm, R.; Kuhrt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lara, L.; Lazzarin, M.; Leyrat, C.; Moreno, J. F.; Lowry, S.; Magrin, S.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Account, T.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract ESA's Rosetta mission arrived on August 6, 2014, at target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations. We present the first science results achieved by OSIRIS from the arrival at the comet throughout the mapping phase. The overview will cover surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets. Acknowledgements OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. The support of the national funding agencies of Germany (DLR), France (CNES), Italy (ASI), Spain (MEC), Sweden (SNSB), and the ESA Technical Directorate is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre at ESOC and the Rosetta Project at ESTEC for their outstanding work enabling the science return of the Rosetta Mission.

  6. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: First science results by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael; Angrilli, Francesco; Barucci, Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Capanna, Claire; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gaskell, Robert; Groussin, Olivier; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedroj; Hviid, Stubbe; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Keller, Horst Uwe; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; LaForgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa; Lazzarin, Monica; Leyrat, Cedric; Lopez Moreno, Jose Juan; Lowry, Stephen; Magrin, Sara; Marchi, Simone; Marzari, Francesco; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Sabau, Lola; Snodgrass, Colin; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Wenzel, Peter

    2014-11-01

    ESA’s Rosetta mission arrived on August 6, 2014, at target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of cruise. OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field coma investigations.We present the first science results achieved by OSIRIS from the arrival at the comet throughout the mapping phase. The overview will cover surface morphology and activity of the nucleus as seen in gas, dust, and local jets.AcknowledgementsOSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. The support of the national funding agencies of Germany (DLR), France (CNES), Italy (ASI), Spain (MEC), Sweden (SNSB), and the ESA Technical Directorate is gratefully acknowledged. We thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment at ESAC, the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre at ESOC and the Rosetta Project at ESTEC for their outstanding work enabling the science return of the Rosetta Mission.

  7. Revised Correlation between Odin/OSIRIS PMC Properties and Coincident TIMED/SABER Mesospheric Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Russell, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Odin satellite detects Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) through the enhancement in the limb-scattered solar radiance. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using the Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer that measures temperature and vertical profiles and energetic parameters for minor constituents in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The combination of OSIRIS and SABER data has been previously used to statistically derive thermal conditions for PMC existence [Petelina et al., 2005]. a, A.A. Kutepov, W.D. Pesnell, In this work, we employ the simultaneous common volume measurements of PMCs by OSIRIS and temperature profiles measured by SABER for the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2002-2005 and corrected in the polar region by accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes [Kutepov et al., 2006]. For each of 20 coincidences identified within plus or minus 1 degree latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees longitude and less than 1 hour time the frost point temperatures were calculated using the corresponding SABER temperature profile and water vapor densities of 1,3, and 10 ppmv. We found that the PMC presence and brightness correlated only with the temperature threshold that corresponds to the frost point. The absolute value of the temperature below the frost point, however, didn't play a significant role in the intensity of PMC signal for the majority of selected coincidences. The presence of several bright clouds at temperatures above the frost point is obviously related to the limitation of the limb geometry when some near- or far-field PMCs located at higher (and warmer) altitudes appear to be at lower altitudes.

  8. Revised Correlation between Odin/OSIRIS PMC Properties and Coincident TIMED/SABER Mesospheric Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Russell, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Odin satellite detects Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) through the enhancement in the limb scattered solar radiance. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using the Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer that measures temperature and vertical profiles and energetic parameters for minor constituents in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The combination of OSIRIS and SABER data has been previously used to statistically derive thermal conditions for PMC existence [Petelina et al., 2005]. In this work, we employ the simultaneous common volume measurements of PMCs by OSIRIS and temperature profiles measured by SABER for the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2002-2005 and corrected in the polar region by accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes [Kutepov et al., 2006]. For each of 20 coincidences identified within plus or minus 1 degree latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees longitude and less than 1 hour time the frost point temperatures were calculated using the corresponding SABER temperature profile and water vapor densities of 1,3, and 10 ppmv. We found that the PMC presence and brightness correlated only with the temperature threshold that corresponds to the frost point. The absolute value of the temperature below the frost point, however, didn't play a significant role in the intensity of PMC signal for the majority of selected coincidences. The presence of several bright clouds at temperatures above the frost point is obviously related to the limitation of the limb geometry when some near- or far-field PMCs located at higher (and warmer) altitudes appear to be at lower altitudes.

  9. Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer Planning (OSIRIS-REx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Righter, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Scientists at ARES are preparing to curate and analyze samples from the first U.S. mission to return samples from an asteroid. The Origins-Spectral Interpretation- Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx, was selected by NASA as the third mission in its New Frontiers Program. The robotic spacecraft will launch in 2016 and rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, in 2020. A robotic arm will collect at least 60 grams of material from the surface of the asteroid to be returned to Earth in 2023 for worldwide distribution by the NASA Astromaterials Curation Facility at ARES.

  10. Surface compositional variation on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by OSIRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Perna, D.; Hasselmann, H.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Fulchignoni, M.; Besse, S.; Sierks, H.; Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Pommerol, A.; Oklay, N.; Lara, L.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Leyrat, C.; Pajola, M.; Osiris-Rosetta Team

    2015-10-01

    Since the Rosetta mission arrived at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67/P C-G) on July 2014, the comet nucleus has been mapped by both OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, [1]) NAC (Narrow Angle Camera) and WAC (Wide Angle Camera) acquiring a huge quantity of surface's images at different wavelength bands, under variable illumination conditions and spatial resolution, and producing the most detailed maps at the highest spatial resolution of a comet nucleus surface.67/P C-G's nucleus shows an irregular bi-lobed shape of complex morphology with terrains showing intricate features [2, 3] and a heterogeneity surface at different scales.

  11. Benchmarking the codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC with Laser Wakefield Acceleration Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, K.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cowan, B.; Cary, J. R.; Huang, C.; Mori, W. B.; Tsung, F. S.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Fonseca, R. A.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

    2009-01-22

    Three-dimensional laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) simulations have recently been performed to benchmark the commonly used particle-in-cell (PIC) codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC. The simulations were run in parallel on over 100 processors, using parameters relevant to LWFA with ultra-short Ti-Sapphire laser pulses propagating in hydrogen gas. Both first-order and second-order particle shapes were employed. We present the results of this benchmarking exercise, and show that accelerating gradients from full PIC agree for all values of a{sub 0} and that full and reduced PIC agree well for values of a{sub 0} approaching 4.

  12. Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

  13. Benchmarking the codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC with Laser Wakefield Acceleration Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Kevin; Huang, C.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Mori, W.B.; Tsung, F.S.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cowan, B.; Cary, J.R.; Esarey, E.; Fonseca, R.A.; Martins, S.F.; Silva, L.O.

    2008-09-08

    Three-dimensional laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) simulations have recently been performed to benchmark the commonly used particle-in-cell (PIC) codes VORPAL, OSIRIS, and QuickPIC. The simulations were run in parallel on over 100 processors, using parameters relevant to LWFA with ultra-short Ti-Sapphire laser pulses propagating in hydrogen gas. Both first-order and second-order particle shapes were employed. We present the results of this benchmarking exercise, and show that accelerating gradients from full PIC agree for all values of a0 and that full and reduced PIC agree well for values of a0 approaching 4.

  14. Crowd-sourcing Near-Earth Asteroid Science with the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Hill, Dolores H.; Spitz, Anna; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Binzel, Richard P.; Beshore, Ed; Bottke, William; Brucato, John Robert; Clark, Beth E.; Cloutis, Edward; Connolly, Harold C.; Delbo, Marco; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ieva, Simone; Licandro, Javier; Nolan, Michael C.; Perna, Davide; Sandford, Scott A.; Takir, Driss; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-11-01

    OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroids! is an award-winning citizen science project conducted as part of the Communications and Public Engagement program of the NASA OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. The project furthers the study of near-Earth asteroids (NEA) and promotes interest among the amateur astronomy community. The goal of Target Asteroids! is to expand the pool of observers who can contribute to the characterization of NEAs. We also seek to coordinate the observation of specific asteroids in order to maximize the usefulness of the data and to minimize duplication of effort.Target Asteroids! was originally focused on a list of ~80 NEAs suitable for spacecraft sample return compiled by the OSIRIS-REx science team. The list was constrained to NEAs with absolute magnitude H < 21.5, perihelion distance > 0.8 AU, aphelion distance < 2.0 AU and inclination < 8°. Since many sample return targets are beyond the reach of typical amateur telescopes (limiting magnitudes of ~14 to 20), the program was expanded to include other objects, namely asteroids that shed light on the properties of OSIRIS-REx target (101955) Bennu, bright NEAs making relatively close approaches to Earth and radar target NEAs. An introductory paper on the goals and methods of Target Asteroids! was published in the Minor Planet Bulletin (Hergenrother & Hill, Minor Planet Bulletin 40, 164-166, 2013).Since 2012, over 100 participants with a wide range of instrumentation and experience from around the world have contributed photometry of 53 asteroids. While small telescope users cannot produce high S/N observations for faint objects, they do have the advantage of being able to make observations often. A large number of low S/N observations are useful if made over different observing geometries. Utilizing many photometric observations made at different times and phase angles, small telescope users can produce direct measurements of the phase function, absolute magnitude, broadband color, and rotation

  15. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  16. KSC-20160908-RV-CSH01_0001-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_Van_2_NASA_Causeway_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  17. KSC-20160908-RV-ULA01_0001-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_Rocket_Cam_Ascent_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. KSC-20160908-RV-ANG01_0001-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_UCS_3_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  19. KSC-20160908-RV-GMM01_0001-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_VAB_Roof_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  20. KSC-20160908-RV-GEB01_0001-OSIRIS_REx_Launch_Broadcast_Van_1_People_Cutaways_ISO-3126827

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-08

    Liftoff of OSIRIS-A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station carrying NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. Liftoff was at 7:05 p.m. EDT. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  2. Lessons Learned from Preparing OSIRIS-REx Spectral Analog Samples for Bennu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D. L.; McCoy, T. J.; Cody, G. D.; King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Russell, S. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Keller, L. P.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Bowles, N.; Cloutis, E. A.; Mann, J. P.; Applin, D. M.; Lauretta, D. S.; Clark, B. E.; Hamilton, V. E.; Lim, L.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission launched on September 8th, 2016 to rendezvous with B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu in 2018. Type C and B asteroids have been linked to carbonaceous chondrites because of their similar visible - to - near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral properties [e.g., 1,2]. The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) will make spectroscopic observations of Bennu during the encounter. Constraining the presence or absence of hydrous minerals (e.g., Ca-carbonate, phyllosilicates) and organic molecules will be key to characterizing Bennu [3] prior to sample site selection. The goal of this study was to develop a suite of analog and meteorite samples and obtain their spectral properties over the wavelength ranges of OVIRS (0.4- 4.3 micrometer) and OTES (5.0-50 micrometer). These spectral data were used to validate the mission science-data processing system. We discuss the reasoning behind the study and share lessons learned.

  3. Transmission Spectroscopy of HAT-P-32Ab with GTC/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nortmann, Lisa; Pallé, Enric; Murgas, Felipe; Dreizler, Stefan; Iro, Nicolas; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    I will present one of the latest results of our GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. Over the last years our group has obtained ground-based optical (538 nm - 918 nm) spectrophotometric transit observations for several hot Jupiters including HAT-P-32Ab using the OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument at the Spanish 10-meter telescope GTC.I will discuss the source, nature and proper correction of instrument specific systematic noise we found to affect our data. After its correction, we were able to yield high quality results with a precision between 482 and 1703 ppm depending on the wavelength channel. We measure a flat optical transmission spectrum for HAT-P-32Ab, consistent with the results of Gibson et al. (2013, MNRAS, 436, 2974) obtained with GMOS at Gemini-North. This independent reproduction of consistent results re-establishes faith in the reliability of ground-based transmission spectroscopy and emphasizes the high potential of OSIRIS at the GTC as a tool to complement current and future space-based observations.

  4. Distance determination method of dust particles using Rosetta OSIRIS NAC and WAC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, E.; Ott, T.; Koschny, D.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Agarwal, J.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. I.; Rodrigo, R.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; de Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    The ESA Rosetta spacecraft has been tracking its target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in close vicinity for over two years. It hosts the OSIRIS instruments: the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System composed of two cameras, see e.g. Keller et al. (2007). In some imaging sequences dedicated to observe dust particles in the comet's coma, the two cameras took images at the same time. The aim of this work is to use these simultaneous double camera observations to calculate the dust particles' distance to the spacecraft. As the two cameras are mounted on the spacecraft with an offset of 70 cm, the distance of particles observed by both cameras can be determined by a shift of the particles' apparent trails on the images. This paper presents first results of the ongoing work, introducing the distance determination method for the OSIRIS instrument and the analysis of an example particle. We note that this method works for particles in the range of about 500-6000 m from the spacecraft.

  5. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  6. Quantifying emissions of CO and NOx using observations from MOPITT, OMI, TES, and OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Jones, D. B. A.; Keller, M.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.; Rochon, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem four-dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation with satellite observations of multiple chemical species to estimate emissions of CO and NOx, as well as the tropospheric concentrations of O3. In doing so, we utilize CO retrievals from The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), O3 retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), O3 retrievals from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS), and NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). By integrating these data in the 4D-Var scheme, we obtain a chemical state in the model that is consistent with all of the data over the assimilation period. In this context, for example, we find that combining TES and OSIRIS improves O3, particularly in the tropical upper troposphere (by 10-20%), which leads to a reduction in the uncertainty of the NOx emission estimates. However, although assimilating multiple chemical species provides a stronger constraint on the chemical, state, there are still large uncertainties on the CO and NOx emission estimates, due to the dependence of the results on the selection of the assimilation window and how the datasets are weighted in the cost function.

  7. Surface Thermophysical Characteristics of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianghui; YU, Liangliang

    2015-08-01

    The NASA OSIRIS-REx mission will launch a spacecraft to explore asteroid (101955) Bennu (hereafter, Bennu) in 2016 and return sample to Earth in 2023. Herein we have investigated thermophysical properties of Bennu, where the thermal inertia plays a key role of understanding the nature of the asteroid's surface, and will provide a substantial information on the sampling return mission. Using the thermophysical model in incorporation with the most-recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model \\citep{Nolan2013}, and mid-infrared observations of Spitzer-PUI, Spitzer-IRAC, Herschel/PACS and ESO VLT/VISIR \\citep{Muller2012,Emery2014}, we obtain the surface physical properties of Bennu. For the best-fitting solution, we find that Bennu has an effective diameter of 510±6 m, a geometry albedo of 0.047^{+0.0031}_{-0.0011} and the thermal inertia of 240^{+80}_{-40} Jm^{-2}s^{-0.5}K^{-1}. Such thermal inertia indicates that fine-grained regolith is likely to spread over the surface of Bennu. It seems that Bennu would be a suitable target for the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission.

  8. Surface thermophysical properties determination of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, LiangLiang; Ji, Jianghui

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermophysical properties of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu (hereafter Bennu), where thermal inertia plays an important role in understanding the nature of the asteroid's surface, and will definitely provide substantial information for the sampling return mission. Using a thermophysical model incorporating, the recently updated 3D radar-derived shape model and mid-infrared observations of Spitzer-PUI, Spitzer-IRAC, Herschel/PACS and ESO VLT/VISIR, we derive the surface thermophysical properties of Bennu. The asteroid has an effective diameter of 510^{+6}_{-40} m, a geometry albedo of 0.047^{+0.0083}_{-0.0011}, a roughness fraction of 0.04^{+0.26}_{-0.04} and thermal inertia of 240^{+440}_{-60} Jm^{-2} s^{-0.5} K^{-1} for a best-fitting solution at 1σ level. The best-estimate thermal inertia indicates that fine-grained regolith may cover a large area of Bennu's surface, with a grain size that may range from 1.3 to 31 mm, and our outcome further supports that Bennu would be a suitable target for the OSIRIS-REx mission to return samples from the asteroid to Earth.

  9. Scaling for high-end HPC systems: New features in OSIRIS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Marti, Michael; Gargate, Luis; Silva, Luis; Tongue, John; Tsung, Frank; Mori, Warren

    2006-10-01

    The OSIRIS 2.0 framework [1] is an integrated framework for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This framework is based on a three-dimensional, fully relativistic, massively parallel, object oriented particle-in-cell code, that has successfully been applied to a number of problems, ranging from laser-plasma interaction and inertial fusion to plasma shell collisions in astrophysical scenarios. One-to-One modeling of ongoing and future experiments require state of the art computer systems, with a number of computing nodes going up to tens of thousand. To make efficient of such systems it is crucial to maintain an evenly balanced load on all computing nodes. We describe the dynamic load balancing algorithm that we implemented in OSIRIS to allow for near perfect scaling up to tens of thousand of computing nodes. Details on the partition selection scheme and simulation space repartition routines are given. We present the results on the performance impact for simulation using large number of nodes. Some details on other issues pertaining efficient use of large computer systems, such as parallel I/O and hardware tuning, are also shown. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342-351, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002)

  10. Gravity waves in polar mesospheric clouds measured by Odin/OSIRIS since 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System instrument (OSIRIS) on the limb-viewing Odin satellite observes Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) in both hemispheres since November, 2001. The orbit period of Odin is 96 minutes and the maximum latitudinal coverage in the orbit plane is between 82.2 N and 82.2 S. In this work, the longitudinal distribution of Odin/OSIRIS PMC brightness in each hemisphere during a 4-week period around the summer solstice from 2002 until 2009 is analyzed. It is found that in the southern hemisphere, the cloud brightness was consistently up to 30% lower around 250-300°E (70-120°W) - above the Antarctic peninsular. In the northern hemisphere, the PMC brightness was systematically 20-30% lower around 50-130°E - above Ural Mountains. Similar results have been obtained for the PMC 2007-08 season in Antarctica and PMC-2007 Arctic season by one of the instruments on a recently launched Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. We attribute this effect to the influence of gravity waves generated by the Earth's terrain.

  11. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop-A ozone profiles with GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tukiainen, S.; Sofieva, V.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of vertical ozone profiles retrieved by the Ozone ProfilE Retrieval Algorithm (OPERA) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) measurements on board Metop-A with high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The comparison, with global coverage, focuses on the stratosphere and the lower mesosphere and covers the period from March 2008 until the end of 2011. The comparison shows an agreement of the GOME-2 ozone profiles with those of GOMOS, OSIRIS and MLS within ±15 % in the altitude range from 15 km up to ~ 35-40 km depending on latitude. The GOME-2 ozone profiles from non-degradation corrected radiances have a tendency to a systematic negative bias with respect to the reference data above ~ 30 km. The GOME-2 bias with respect to the high-vertical resolution instruments depends on season, with the strongest dependence observed at high latitudes.

  12. Characterization of the Abydos region through OSIRIS high-resolution images in support of CIVA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Jorda, L.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Massironi, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-01-01

    Context. On 12 November 2014, the European mission Rosetta delivered the Philae lander on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). After the first touchdown, the lander bounced three times before finally landing at a site named Abydos. Aims: We provide a morphologically detailed analysis of the Abydos landing site to support Philae's measurements and to give context for the interpretation of the images coming from the Comet Infrared and Visible Analyser (CIVA) camera system onboard the lander. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 6 December 2014 to perform the analysis of the Abydos landing site, which provided the geomorphological map, the gravitational slope map, the size-frequency distribution of the boulders. We also computed the albedo and spectral reddening maps. Results: The morphological analysis of the region could suggest that Philae is located on a primordial terrain. The Abydos site is surrounded by two layered and fractured outcrops and presents a 0.02 km2 talus deposit rich in boulders. The boulder size frequency distribution gives a cumulative power-law index of -4.0 + 0.3/-0.4, which is correlated with gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. The average value of the albedo is 5.8% at λ1 = 480.7 nm and 7.4% at λ2 = 649.2 nm, which is similar to the global albedos derived by OSIRIS and CIVA, respectively.

  13. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  14. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, D.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  15. Evolution of Australian Bushfire 2009 Plume in the UTLS region investigated using the OSIRIS limb profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddaway, J. M.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Major Bushfires in south-eastern Victoria, Australia, produced a smoke plume on 7 February 2009 that was injected into the troposphere, vertically advecting to the lower stratosphere. In order to investigate both horizontal and vertical evolution of this smoke plume, global maps of limb-scattered radiances were produced. These maps were plotted using observations at various altitudes from the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System) instrument onboard the Odin satellite. The OSIRIS Level 1 radiances, taken at a 2 km vertical step, were averaged for OSIRIS CCD pixels 1205-1220 (at around 800 nm), and were used to monitor the position and intensity of the aerosol smoke plume as it was transported vertically and horizontally. The results of this analysis suggest that the plume moved eastward from its initial source to New Zealand and reached an altitude of 14 km by 11 February. The plume remained fairly stationary until 13 February, during which time other large radiance perturbations over Indonesia, northern Australia and the Tasman Sea were observed, often extending from 12 to 18 km. On 14 February the bushfire plume was observed at about 19 km and remained over the Tasman Sea until 19 February, gradually moving upwards to 21 km. Subsequently the plume was observed to be moving westward within the 19-21 altitude range over the Indian Ocean, reaching Madagascar at the end of February. It remained stationary over Madagascar until late February and then moved across southern Africa. At that time another convection event was observed by OSIRIS over southern Africa from the beginning of March which had a vertical distribution from ~14-18 km, which the bushfire plume was seen to pass through. This resulted in radiance perturbations over southern Africa for over a week. The plume arrived at South America on 9 March and was observed at 20-22 km altitude. Over the next few weeks it remained over the South American region. Throughout this period the aerosol

  16. Kinetic Simulations - Oshun (Vlasov-Fokker-Planck) and PIC (Osiris) - Physics and Open Source Software In The UCLA PICKSE Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tableman, Adam; Tzoufras, Michail; Fonseca, Ricardo; Mori, W. B.

    2016-10-01

    We present physics results and general updates for two plasma kinetic simulation codes developed under the UCLA PICKSE initiative. We also discuss the issues around making these codes open source such that they can be used (and contributed too) by a large audience. The first code discussed is Oshun - a Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code. Recent simulations with the VFP code OSHUN will be presented for all of the aforementioned problems. The algorithmic improvements that have facilitated these studies will be also be discussed. The second code discussed is the PIC code Osiris. Osiris is a widely respected code used in hundreds of papers. Osiris was first developed for laser-plasma interactions but has grown into a robust framework covering most areas of plasma research. One defining feature of Osiris is that it is highly optimized for a variety of hardware configurations and scales linearly over 1 million + CPU nodes. We will discuss the recently released version 4.0 written in modern, fully-object oriented FORTRAN. Funding provided by Grants NSF ACI 1339893 and DOE DE NA 0001833.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  18. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  20. Compact Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-01

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  1. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  3. Early results on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.; Küppers, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Hviid, S.; Mottola, S.; Osiris Team

    2014-07-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is the target comet of the ESA Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014. After 36 months of deep space hibernation, Rosetta is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 au from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with wavelength range 250--1000 nm and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240--720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20×2.22 deg) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of the surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has much lower spatial resolution but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35×12.11 deg). This allows observations of the 3-dimensional flow field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide long-term monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other hand, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning in March 2014, OSIRIS took first images of comet 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when 67P was in the same orbital arc as it will be in March/April 2014, show that the comet was already active at 4.3 au inbound and that its behavior was repetitive during the last three apparitions (Snodgrass et al. 2013). We therefore expect to detect early comet activity by OSIRIS in

  4. GTC/OSIRIS Transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-09-01

    Of the several extrasolar planets discovered to date, only a few of them have orbital periods of less than a day. Such planets are interesting candidates to study tidal effects and, in the case of short period Hot Jupiters, they offer an excellent oportunity to detect and study their atmosphere due to their generally large atmospheric scale heights. We used Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range (520-1040 nm) of the planetary host star WASP-43 (and a reference star) during a transit event. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fitted transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio RP/RS across wavelength.

  5. (21) Lutetia spectrophotometry from Rosetta-OSIRIS images and comparison to ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Massironi, M.; Ferri, F.; da Deppo, V.; Barbieri, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    Here we present some preliminary results on surface variegation found on (21) Lutetia from ROSETTA-OSIRIS images acquired on 2010-07-10. The spectrophotometry obtained by means of the two cameras NAC and WAC (Narrow and Wide Angle Cameras) is consistent with ground based observations, and does not show surface diversity above the data error bars. The blue and UV images (shortward 500 nm) may, however, indicate a variegation of the optical properties of the asteroid surface on the Baetica region (Sierks et al., 2011). We also speculate on the contribution due to different illumination and to different ground properties (composition or, more probably, grain size diversity). In particular a correlation with geologic units independently defined by Massironi et al. (2012) is evident, suggesting that the variegation of the ground optical properties is likely to be real.

  6. Performance evaluation of OSIRIS EM-PIC on a Xeon Phi cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The quest towards exascale computing has lead to the development of hybrid systems with add-on accelerator cards such as the Xeon Phi accelerators powering for example the Tianhe-2 system in China (currently the #1 system in the world) and the SuperMIC at LZR in Germany. In this work we report on our efforts on deploying the OSIRIS electromagnetic particle-in-cell code on the latter system, focusing not only on algorithm details and single card performance but also on multiple card use. Our benchmarks show code performance of ~ 600(2D) / 300(3D) million particle pushes per second on a single board, and above 74% (strong)/ 94% (weak) scaling efficiency up to 32 boards.

  7. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  8. The resolution of the tof-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS: Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, F.; Pokhilchuk, K.

    2014-12-01

    The energy resolution of an indirect time of flight (tof) spectrometer is determined mainly by the pulse shape of the incoming pulse and the contribution of the crystal analyser. We performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations for the indirect near-backscattering spectrometer OSIRIS utilising the McStas neutron ray-traycing package. The simulations are accompanied by analytical calculations for the energy resolution. From simulation and calculation an excellent description for the width of the line is achieved for the PG002 and PG004 energy setting. The simulations and calculations reveal that the secondary spectrometer and hence the analyser geometry is the dominating term for the energy resolution at zero energy transfer. The remaining differences in the lineshape can be traced to a not perfectly modeled hydrogen moderator. The simulations and calculations predict a superb energy resolution of less than 100 μeV at an energy transfer of 15 meV.

  9. Spatially Resolved Emission of a z~3 Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxy with Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Holly; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    The damped Lyman alpha (DLA) class of galaxies contains most of the neutral hydrogen gas over cosmic time. Few DLAs have been detected directly, which limits our knowledge of fundamental properties like size and mass. We present Keck/OSIRIS infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of a DLA that was first detected in absorption toward a background quasar. Our observations use the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system to reduce the point-spread function of the quasar, making it possible to spatially resolve the DLA emission. We map this emission in O[III] 5007 Å. At redshift z~3, this DLA represents one of the highest redshift DLAs mapped with IFU spectroscopy. We present measurements of the star formation rate, metallicity, and gas mass of the galaxy.This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  10. Long-term monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's jets with OSIRIS onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M. I.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Sierks, H.; Vincent, J.-B.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Bodewits, D.; Mottola, S.; Fornasier, S.; Hofmann, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Agarwal, J.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Prasanna, D.; Shi, X.; Scholten, F.; Toth, I.; Thomas, N.

    2017-07-01

    We used the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft to monitor jet activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. With a monthly cadence, we covered an epoch from 2014 December to 2015 October, thereby including the first equinox and the perihelion passage. Jet features were measured in individual images, which were used to perform a statistical inversion. The study provides maps for the locations of likeliest sources of jet activity on the comet's surface as a function of time. The sources follow the subsolar latitude, show clustering and a broadening of the activity band with time in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, they are not clustered but show a broader spread over all longitudes which is either related to the north-south dichotomy of the comet's topography or due to a higher insolation during southern summer.

  11. OSIRIS observations of metre-size bright exposures of H2O ice at the surface of comet 67P/C-G.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Fornasier, S.; Thomas, N.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Pajola, M.; Groussin, O.; Auger, A.-T.; Oklay, N.; Feller, C.; Davidsson, B.; Gracia, A.; Jost, B.; Marschall, R.; Poch, O.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; La Forgia, F.; Keller, H. U.; Kührt, E.; Lowry, S. C.

    2015-10-01

    Since the beginning of Rosetta's orbital observations, over a hundred small bright spots [1] have been identified in images returned by its OSIRIS NAC camera, in all types of morphological regions on the nucleus.

  12. The Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN Survey: Tracing Inflow within the Central 200 pc of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Erin K. S.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Malkan, Matthew A.; Yu, Po-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to identify the fundamental processes driving feeding and feedback in AGN we turn to local Seyfert galaxies and rely on a multi-wavelength approach. With the integral field unit OSIRIS and adaptive optics we characterize the nuclear stars and gas down to scales of 5-30 parsecs in a sample of 40 Seyfert galaxies with the Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN (KONA) survey. The complex gas kinematics in these near-IR data are interpreted using an integrative approach through comparison with data available at a range of wavelengths. We present first results from the survey with a focus on work aimed at constraining the mechanism(s) driving inflow of material within the central 200 pc. Particularly useful in the identification of inflow mechanisms (e.g. nuclear spiral, external accretion) is spatial correlation of the molecular gas distribution and kinematics with dust features revealed in HST imaging (optical and near-IR). Also informative is comparison with X-ray emission to identify locations likely influenced by interactions with outflows. The stellar kinematics in the sample galaxies (traced by CO bandheads at 2.3 microns) indicate a stellar population within the central few 100 parsecs in circular rotation, and in the majority of the galaxies the molecular gas (traced by H2 emission at 2.1218 microns) is found to have a rotating component co-spatial with the stellar disk. A significant fraction of the galaxies also exhibit kinematic signatures of inflow superimposed on this disk rotation, with inflow driven by secular and non-secular processes identified. We explore statistical trends of the nuclear stellar and molecular gas properties, including primary fueling mechanism, with Seyfert type, AGN luminosity, and host environment with the goal of disentangling which properties are fundamental to the nature of the AGN.

  13. Pre-hibernation performances of the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Da Deppo, V.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Ferri, F.; Pajola, M.; Barbieri, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, C.; Tubiana, C.; Küppers, M.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Sierks, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The ESA cometary mission Rosetta was launched in 2004. In the past years and until the spacecraft hibernation in June 2011, the two cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system (Narrow Angle and Wide Angle Camera, NAC and WAC) observed many different sources. On 20 January 2014 the spacecraft successfully exited hibernation to start observing the primary scientific target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: A study of the past performances of the cameras is now mandatory to be able to determine whether the system has been stable through the time and to derive, if necessary, additional analysis methods for the future precise calibration of the cometary data. Methods: The instrumental responses and filter passbands were used to estimate the efficiency of the system. A comparison with acquired images of specific calibration stars was made, and a refined photometric calibration was computed, both for the absolute flux and for the reflectivity of small bodies of the solar system. Results: We found a stability of the instrumental performances within ±1.5% from 2007 to 2010, with no evidence of an aging effect on the optics or detectors. The efficiency of the instrumentation is found to be as expected in the visible range, but lower than expected in the UV and IR range. A photometric calibration implementation was discussed for the two cameras. Conclusions: The calibration derived from pre-hibernation phases of the mission will be checked as soon as possible after the awakening of OSIRIS and will be continuously monitored until the end of the mission in December 2015. A list of additional calibration sources has been determined that are to be observed during the forthcoming phases of the mission to ensure a better coverage across the wavelength range of the cameras and to study the possible dust contamination of the optics.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Fulchignoni, M.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; Deller, J.; De Cecco, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The ESA Rosetta mission explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014-2016, following its target before and after the perihelion passage on 13 August 2015. The NAC camera of the OSIRIS imaging system allowed to map the nucleus surface acquiring images with different filters in the visible wavelength range. Aims: Here we study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus by a multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to distinguish homogeneous groups and to constrain the bulk composition. Methods: We applied the G-mode clustering algorithm to 16 OSIRIS data cubes acquired on 5-6 August 2014 (mostly covering the northern hemisphere) and 2 May 2015 (mostly covering the southern hemisphere), selected to have complete coverage of the comet's surface with similar observing conditions. Results: We found four similar homogeneous groups for each of the analysed cubes. The first group corresponds to the average spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus. The second (spectrally redder) and the third (spectrally bluer) groups are found in regions that were already found to deviate from the average terrain of the comet by previous studies. A fourth group (characterised by enhancements of the flux at 700-750 nm and 989 nm, possibly due to H2O+ and/or NH2 emissions) seems connected with the cometary activity rather than with the bulk composition. Conclusions: While our aim in this work was to study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as a whole, we found that a follow-up application of the G-mode to smaller regions of the surface could be useful in particular to identify and study the temporal evolution of ice patches, as well as to constrain the composition and physical processes behind the emission of dust jets.

  15. Asteroid (2867) Steins: Shape, topography and global physical properties from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Kaasalainen, M.; Groussin, O.; Besse, S.; Faury, G.

    2012-11-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Asteroid (2867) Steins on 5 September 2008, allowing the onboard OSIRIS cameras to collect the first images of an E-type asteroid. We implemented several three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to retrieve its shape. Limb profiles, combined with stereo control points, were used to reconstruct an approximate shape model. This model was refined using a stereophotoclinometry technique to accurately retrieve the topography of the hemisphere observed by OSIRIS. The unseen part of the surface was constrained by the technique of light curves inversion. The global shape resembles a top with dimensions along the principal axes of inertia of 6.83 × 5.70 × 4.42 km. It is conspicuously more regular than other small asteroids like (233) Eros and (25143) Itokawa. Its mean radius is Rm = 2.70 km and its equivalent radius (radius of a sphere of equivalent volume) is Rv = 2.63 km. The north pole is oriented at RA = 99 ± 5° and Dec = -59 ± 5°, which implies a very large obliquity of 172° and a retrograde rotation. Maps of the gravitational field and slopes were calculated for the well-imaged part of the asteroid. Together with the shape, they helped characterizing the most prominent topographic features identified at the surface of (2867) Steins: an equatorial ridge restricted to the extremities of the long axis, a large crater having dimensions of 2100 × 1800 m in the southern hemisphere, and an elongated hill in the northern hemisphere. We conjecture that the equatorial ridge was formed by centrifugal acceleration as the asteroid was spun up by the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect.

  16. OsiriX: an open-source software for navigating in multidimensional DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Rosset, Antoine; Spadola, Luca; Ratib, Osman

    2004-09-01

    A multidimensional image navigation and display software was designed for display and interpretation of large sets of multidimensional and multimodality images such as combined PET-CT studies. The software is developed in Objective-C on a Macintosh platform under the MacOS X operating system using the GNUstep development environment. It also benefits from the extremely fast and optimized 3D graphic capabilities of the OpenGL graphic standard widely used for computer games optimized for taking advantage of any hardware graphic accelerator boards available. In the design of the software special attention was given to adapt the user interface to the specific and complex tasks of navigating through large sets of image data. An interactive jog-wheel device widely used in the video and movie industry was implemented to allow users to navigate in the different dimensions of an image set much faster than with a traditional mouse or on-screen cursors and sliders. The program can easily be adapted for very specific tasks that require a limited number of functions, by adding and removing tools from the program's toolbar and avoiding an overwhelming number of unnecessary tools and functions. The processing and image rendering tools of the software are based on the open-source libraries ITK and VTK. This ensures that all new developments in image processing that could emerge from other academic institutions using these libraries can be directly ported to the OsiriX program. OsiriX is provided free of charge under the GNU open-source licensing agreement at http://homepage.mac.com/rossetantoine/osirix.

  17. Circular depressions on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S. B.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Pajola, M.

    2015-10-01

    Since it close encounter with comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, the OSIRIS instrument [1] on-board the Rosetta Spacecraft has imaged the surface of the nucleus with unprecedented resolution. From its global morphology description, numerous circular depressions of different sizes and shapes have been observed [2, 3]. Few of these circular depressions, also called pits, have shown sign of activity with the detection of faint jet-like features originated most likely from their walls [4]. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these morphological features is not yet well understood, although different hypotheses have been raised such as the collapse of a ceiling above internal voids [4]. These voids could either be due to primordial structure of the comet's interior, or they could have been created with subsequentevolution of the nucleus. In both case, these features provide important constrains on the formation and evolution of cometary nucleus. Follow-up observations of the OSIRIS instrument should both confirm the nature of the activity (i.e., sporadic vs. regular) and the number of active depressions. In this analysis, we provide a thorough identificationand description of the circular depressions on the surface of the comet nucleus. These circular depressions exhibit different shapes, from pits to alcoves, with sizes varying from tens to hundred of meters, and ultimately with different texture on their walls (i.e., with fractures and polygons, or not). The accumulation of boulders at the bottom of some of these depressions indicates that whatever is creating these features, they are changing and evolving significantly trough time. These variations may reflect different formation mechanisms, or/and time of formation and evolution, and also probably internal heterogeneities below the comet's surface.

  18. Error Analysis of Stereophotoclinometry in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W.; Weirich, John R.

    2015-11-01

    Stereophotoclinometry has been used on numerous planetary bodies to derive the shape model, most recently 67P-Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Jorda, et al., 2014), the Earth (Palmer, et al., 2014) and Vesta (Gaskell, 2012). SPC is planned to create the ultra-high resolution topography for the upcoming mission OSIRIS-REx that will sample the asteroid Bennu, arriving in 2018. This shape model will be used both for scientific analysis as well as operational navigation, to include providing the topography that will ensure a safe collection of the surface.We present the initial results of error analysis of SPC, with specific focus on how both systematic and non-systematic error propagate through SPC into the shape model. For this testing, we have created a notional global truth model at 5cm and a single region at 2.5mm ground sample distance. These truth models were used to create images using GSFC's software Freespace. Then these images were used by SPC to form a derived shape model with a ground sample distance of 5cm.We will report on both the absolute and relative error that the derived shape model has compared to the original truth model as well as other empirical and theoretical measurement of errors within SPC.Jorda, L. et al (2014) "The Shape of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/Osiris Images", AGU Fall Meeting, #P41C-3943. Gaskell, R (2012) "SPC Shape and Topography of Vesta from DAWN Imaging Data", DSP Meeting #44, #209.03. Palmer, L. Sykes, M. V. Gaskll, R.W. (2014) "Mercator — Autonomous Navigation Using Panoramas", LPCS 45, #1777.

  19. The Shape of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/Osiris Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Hviid, S. F.; Capanna, C.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P.; Philippe, L.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Keller, H. U.; Joerg, K.; Kuhrt, E.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J. B.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The ROSETTA mission has reached the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in early August, allowing a detailed mapping of its surface with the onboard OSIRIS imaging system, up to resolutions of 50 cm or even better in some areas. Shape reconstruction techniques have been used since July 2014 to build a very detailed 3D model of the comet surface and to retrieve highly accurate rotational parameters. The attached Figure shows an early 3D shape of the comet. The most striking property of the global shape is the presence of two clearly separated components. We use a combination of images and 3D models to quantitatively characterize their bulk and surface properties: relative position, volume, topography and roughness. The position of the center of mass and the direction of the principal axis of rotation are used to constrain the internal mass distribution. Digital terrain models, slope, gravity, and geo-referenced images of the most interesting features observed at the surface of the comet are presented and consequences for their formation are discussed. If they are detected, topographic changes which could have occured between August and December 2014 are also presented. Acknowledgements. OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala

  20. Resolving Gas Flows in the Ultraluminous Starburst IRAS 23365+3604 with Keck LGSAO/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Soto, Kurt T.

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The data were obtained with the OH Supressing Infrared Spectrograph (OSIRIS) behind the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  4. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  5. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  7. Reactor Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  10. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  15. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  16. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Activity between March and July 2014 as observed from Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Fornasier, S.; Guettler, C.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Magrin, S.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    We present results about the early activity of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) and its evolution with heliocentric distance between approximately 4.3 AU to 3.7 AU inbound, based on OSIRIS images. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is the target comet of the ESA's Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014 after 30 months of deep space hibernation, it is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 AU from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System, OSIRIS [1], is the camera system onboard Rosetta. It comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with a wavelength range 250 - 1000 nm and aWide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240 - 720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20o × 2.22o) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of its surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has spatial resolution ˜ 5 times lower than the NAC but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35o × 12.11o). This allows observations of the 3- dimensional flow-field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide longterm monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on the one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning at the end of March 2014, OSIRIS began imaging 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when the comet was in the same orbital arc as it was in March-April 2014, show that 67P was already active at 4.3 AU

  18. Characterization of OSIRIS NAC filters for the interpretation of multispectral data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Besse, S.; Pajola, M.; Bertini, I.; Rickman, H.; La Forgia, F.; Barucci, A. M.; Fornasier, S.; Barbieri, C.; Koschny, D.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We interpret multicolor data from OSIRISNAC for the remote-sensing exploration of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: We determine the most meaningful definition of color maps for the characterization of surface variegation with filters available on OSIRIS NAC. Methods: We analyzed laboratory spectra of selected minerals and olivine-pyroxene mixtures seen through OSIRIS NAC filters, with spectral methods existing in the literature: reflectance ratios, minimum band wavelength, spectral slopes, band tilt, band curvature, and visible tilt. Results: We emphasize the importance of reflectance ratios and particularly the relation of visible tilt vs. band tilt. This technique provides a reliable diagnostic of the presence of silicates. Color maps constructed by red-green-blue colors defined with the green, orange, red, IR, and Fe2O3 filters let us define regions that may significantly differ in composition. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  20. Diamond fly cutting of aluminum thermal infrared flat mirrors for the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher E.; Underhill, Matthew; Farkas, Zoltan; Pelham, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We present the fabrication and measurement of monolithic aluminum flat mirrors designed to operate in the thermal infrared for the OSIRIS-Rex Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) space instrument. The mirrors were cut using a conventional fly cutter with a large radius diamond cutting tool on a high precision Kern Evo 3-axis CNC milling machine. The mirrors were measured to have less than 150 angstroms RMS surface error.

  1. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  2. General formulation for the calibration and characterization of narrow-gap etalons: the OSIRIS/GTC tunable filters case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. J.; Cepa, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2014-10-01

    Tunable filters (TFs) are a powerful way of implementing narrow-band imaging mode over wide wavelength ranges, without the need of purchasing a large number of narrow-band filters covering all strong emission or absorption lines at any redshift. However, one of its main features is a wavelength variation across the field of view, sometimes termed the phase effect. In this work, an anomalous phase effect is reported and characterized for the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) instrument at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The transmitted wavelength across the field of view of the instrument depends, not only on the distance to the optical centre, but on wavelength. This effect is calibrated for the red TF of OSIRIS by measuring both normal-incidence light at laboratory and spectral lamps at the telescope at non-normal incidence. This effect can be explained by taking into account the inner coatings of the etalon. In a high spectral resolution etalon, the gap between plates is much larger than the thickness of the inner reflective coatings. In the case of a TF, like that in OSIRIS, the coatings thickness could be of the order of the cavity, which changes drastically the effective gap of the etalon. We show that by including thick and dispersive coatings into the interference equations, the observed anomalous phase effect can be perfectly reproduced. In fact, we find that, for the OSIRIS red TF, a two-coatings model fits the data with an rms of 0.5 Å at all wavelengths and incidence angles. This is a general physical model that can be applied to other TF instruments.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  5. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  7. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  8. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  9. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  10. A historical hypothesis of the first recorded neurosurgical operation: Isis, Osiris, Thoth, and the origin of the djed cross.

    PubMed

    Filler, Aaron G

    2007-01-01

    A new textual analysis of the central religious aspect of the ancient Egyptian creation myth reveals what appears to be a description of the oldest recorded neurosurgical operation, occurring circa 3000 BC. The analysis results in a hypothesis suggesting that traction reduction was used successfully to reverse a paralyzing cervical spine injury of an early Egyptian leader (Osiris), which inspired the story of his resurrection. The Egyptian mother god Isis, working with the god Thoth (the inventor of medicine), resurrects Osiris by treating his damaged cervical spine. Numerous references in the Papyrus of Ani (Book of the Dead) to Osiris regaining the strength and control of his legs are linked textually to the treatment of his spine. The connection between the intact spine and the ability to rise and stand is used as a distinct metaphor for life and death by the spinal representation of the "djed column" painted on the back of the numerous Egyptian sarcophagi for thousands of years. Controversy over the translation of the vertebral references in Egyptian texts is clarified by considering the specific neurosurgical meanings of hieroglyphs appearing in both the Edwin Smith medical papyrus and in the Papyrus of Ani, and in light of recent scholarly reassessments of those hieroglyphs in the Egyptological literature.

  11. Stellar Occultations in the Coma of Comet 67/P Chuyumov-Gerasimenko Observed by the OSIRIS Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl, Richard; Kueppers, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of an analysis on a large part of the existing Image data from the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta Spacecraft, in which stars of sufficient brightness (down to a limiting magnitude of 6) have been observed through the coma of Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko ("C-G"). Over the course of the Rosetta main mission the Coma of the comet underwent large changes in density and structure, owed to the changing insolation along the orbit of C-G. We report on the changes of the stellar signals in the wavelength ranges, covered by the filters of the OSIRIS Narrow-Angle (NAC) and Wide-Angle (WAC) cameras.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politéchnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany.

  12. Transport and evolution of the 2009 Australian Black Saturday bushfire smoke in the lower stratosphere observed by OSIRIS on Odin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddaway, J. M.; Petelina, S. V.

    2011-03-01

    We report the transport and evolution of the Victorian Black Saturday bushfire smoke plume in the lower stratosphere during the February-June 2009 period. Vertical profiles of limb-scattered spectral solar radiation measured by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite are used for this purpose. According to OSIRIS measurements, the main smoke material penetrated above the tropopause on 11 February 2009. It traveled westward and circled the globe in about 6 weeks from its first detection in the lower stratosphere, remaining in the tropical channel between 5°S and 25°S. The main plume gradually advected from ˜19 km in mid-February to ˜22 km in April, with a vertical extent varying from 2 to 6 km. The background radiances at corresponding altitudes and latitudes were subtracted from the plume-containing radiances to obtain net plume peak radiances. The latter parameter, governed by the number, size, and chemical composition of smoke particles, decreased by half every 19 days from 11 February until the end of April 2009. Pollution of the lower stratosphere at 18-22 km altitudes and 5°S-25°S latitudes, caused by the smoke plume dispersion, was up to 35% above the background. By mid-June 2009, OSIRIS radiances at these altitudes and latitudes had almost returned to their background levels.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  15. The 67P nucleus composition and temporal variations observed by the OSIRIS cameras onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Feller, Clement; Deshapriya, Prasanna J. D.; Pommerol, Antoine; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; A'Hearn, Mike; Davidsson, Bjorn; Perna, Davide; Sierks, Holger

    2015-11-01

    Since August 2014, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been mapped by the NAC and WAC cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system in the 250-1000 nm wavelength range. OSIRIS got the most detailed maps at the highest spatial resolution of a comet nucleus surface. Here we report on the colors and spectrophotometry of the whole 67P nucleus from images acquired since the first Rosetta bound orbits in August 2014 up to the comet perihelion passage. Globally, the nucleus shows a red spectral behavior and it has spectrophotometric properties similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians. No clear absorption bands have been identified yet in the UV-VIS-NIR range, except for a potential absorption centered at 290 nm, possibly due to SO2 ice. The nucleus shows an important phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11%/(100 nm) to 16%/(100 nm) in the 1.3-54° phase angle range. On the basis of the spectral slope, we identified three different groups of regions, characterized by a low, medium, and high spectral slope, respectively. The three groups are distributed everywhere on the nucleus, with no evident distinction between the two lobes of the comet. The comet southern hemisphere, that has been observed by Rosetta since April 2015, shows a lack of spectrally red regions associated to the absence of wide spread smooth or dust covered terrains. Several local bright and spectrally blue patches have been identified on the nucleus and attributed to exposed water ice on the surface. In particular we observed big (> 1500 m2) bright ice rich areas in the southern hemisphere which completely sublimated in a few weeks. We see evidence of very bright patches in the NUV-blue region close to the morning shadows that are compatible with the presence of frosts/ices. These patches disappear when fully illuminated by the Sun indicating that important processes of sublimation

  16. Search for satellites near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta/OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, I.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Lara, L. M.; Marzari, F.; Moreno, F.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Magrin, S.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. TheEuropean Space Agency Rosetta mission reached and started escorting its main target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at the beginning of August 2014. Within the context of solar system small bodies, satellite searches from approaching spacecraft were extensively used in the past to study the nature of the visited bodies and their collisional environment. Aims: During the approaching phase to the comet in July 2014, the OSIRIS instrument onboard Rosetta performed a campaign aimed at detecting objects in the vicinity of the comet nucleus and at measuring these objects' possible bound orbits. In addition to the scientific purpose, the search also focused on spacecraft security to avoid hazardous material in the comet's environment. Methods: Images in the red spectral domain were acquired with the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, when the spacecraft was at a distance between 5785 km and 5463 km to the comet, following an observational strategy tailored to maximize the scientific outcome. From the acquired images, sources were extracted and displayed to search for plausible displacements of all sources from image to image. After stars were identified, the remaining sources were thoroughly analyzed. To place constraints on the expected displacements of a potential satellite, we performed Monte Carlo simulations on the apparent motion of potential satellites within the Hill sphere. Results: We found no unambiguous detections of objects larger than ~6 m within ~20 km and larger than ~1 m between ~20 km and ~110 km from the nucleus, using images with an exposure time of 0.14 s and 1.36 s, respectively. Our conclusions are consistent with independent works on dust grains in the comet coma and on boulders counting on the nucleus surface. Moreover, our analysis shows that the comet outburst detected at the end of April 2014 was not strong enough to eject large objects and to place them into a stable orbit around the nucleus. Our findings underline

  17. Activity and jets of comet 67P, as observed by OSIRIS since August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Höfner, Sebastian; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Rickman, Hans; Koschny, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface to purely dynamical processes involving the focusing of gas flows by the local topography. While the latter seems to be responsible forthe larger features, high resolution imagery has shown that broad streams are composed of many smaller features (a few meters wide) that connect directly to the nucleus surface.The OSIRIS cameras on board Rosetta are monitoring these jets in high resolution images since August 2014. We followed this type of activity from 3.6 AU to perihelion (1.23 AU). We have traced the jets back to their sources on the surface and noticed a good correlation with sub-solar latitude, surface morphologies, and color variations. As the comet receives more insolation, we observed different type of jets, some of them sustained beyond the local sunset, and an increasing number of transient events with sudden release of gas and dust.We will present here how activity changes with local seasons and how it contributes to the erosion of the surface.Acknowledgements: OSIRIS was built by a consortium led by the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany, in collaboration with CISAS, University of Padova, Italy, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, the Instituto de Astrofi­sica de Andalucia, CSIC, Granada, Spain, the Scientific Support Office of the European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain, the Universidad Politechnica de Madrid, Spain, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Uppsala University, Sweden, and the Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, Germany. We

  18. Lessons Learned from OSIRIS-Rex Autonomous Navigation Using Natural Feature Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, David A.; Olds, Ryan; May, Alexander; Mario, Courtney; Perry, Mark E.; Palmer, Eric E.; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (Osiris-REx) spacecraft is scheduled to launch in September, 2016 to embark on an asteroid sample return mission. It is expected to rendezvous with the asteroid, Bennu, navigate to the surface, collect a sample (July 20), and return the sample to Earth (September 23). The original mission design called for using one of two Flash Lidar units to provide autonomous navigation to the surface. Following Preliminary design and initial development of the Lidars, reliability issues with the hardware and test program prompted the project to begin development of an alternative navigation technique to be used as a backup to the Lidar. At the critical design review, Natural Feature Tracking (NFT) was added to the mission. NFT is an onboard optical navigation system that compares observed images to a set of asteroid terrain models which are rendered in real-time from a catalog stored in memory on the flight computer. Onboard knowledge of the spacecraft state is then updated by a Kalman filter using the measured residuals between the rendered reference images and the actual observed images. The asteroid terrain models used by NFT are built from a shape model generated from observations collected during earlier phases of the mission and include both terrain shape and albedo information about the asteroid surface. As a result, the success of NFT is highly dependent on selecting a set of topographic features that can be both identified during descent as well as reliably rendered using the shape model data available. During development, the OSIRIS-REx team faced significant challenges in developing a process conducive to robust operation. This was especially true for terrain models to be used as the spacecraft gets close to the asteroid and higher fidelity models are required for reliable image correlation. This paper will present some of the challenges and lessons learned from the development

  19. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  20. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  3. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  4. Cleared for Launch - Lessons Learned from the OSIRIS-REx System Requirements Verification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Craig; Adams, Angela; Williams, Bradley; Goodloe, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Requirements verification of a large flight system is a challenge. It is especially challenging for engineers taking on their first role in space systems engineering. This paper describes our approach to verification of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) system requirements. It also captures lessons learned along the way from developing systems engineers embroiled in this process. We begin with an overview of the mission and science objectives as well as the project requirements verification program strategy. A description of the requirements flow down is presented including our implementation for managing the thousands of program and element level requirements and associated verification data. We discuss both successes and methods to improve the managing of this data across multiple organizational interfaces. Our approach to verifying system requirements at multiple levels of assembly is presented using examples from our work at instrument, spacecraft, and ground segment levels. We include a discussion of system end-to-end testing limitations and their impacts to the verification program. Finally, we describe lessons learned that are applicable to all emerging space systems engineers using our unique perspectives across multiple organizations of a large NASA program.

  5. Searching for Outflows from the central kpc of nearby ULIRGs with OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Alexander R.; Max, Claire E.; Srinath, Srikar

    2016-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec of 4 nearby ultra-luminous infrared-galaxies which are known to have high velocity (v≤100 km/s) molecular outflows. These observations were performed with the OH-Suppressing Infra-red Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) assisted by the Keck I and II Adaptive Optics systems, which enables spatial resolutions of a few 10s of parsecs. We present the preliminary results of a survey designed to explore the relationship between AGN luminosity fraction (αAGN) and outflow properties among lower-redshift (z≤0.15) systems that we know host high velocity outflows. Our data allow us to examine the opening angle and launching point of the outflow, excitation and temperature of outflowing components (through H2 lines and high-excitation lines such as [SiIV] and [AlIX]), and molecular outflow mass in these systems. This work provides a nearby, spatially resolved analogue to higher-redshift outflows, allowing us to study the physical processes which launch outflows on their smallest scales, and relate that to the outflows which must govern the evolution of the most massive galaxies.

  6. Regularized OSIRIS 3D spectroscopy at the circumnuclear disk ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumard, Thibaut; Morris, Mark R.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The Galactic central black hole and the central cluster of young stars are surrounded by a clumpy gas disk (the circumnuclear disk, CND) that rotates about them at a distance of ≃ 1 pc. The gas in this warm, turbulent, magnetized disk is ultimately likely to migrate into the central cavity and fuel future star formation and black hole accretion. We have observed two fields of approximately 20″ × 20″ in the CND at NIR wavelengths with the OSIRIS integral-field spectrometer at Keck Observatory. These two fields are located at the interface between the neutral and the ionized regions. Our data cover two H2 lines as well as the Brγ line of the Hi spectrum. The signal-to-noise ratio per spatial pixel of each line varies considerably across the field and becomes quite low in some regions. In order to avoid degrading the spatial resolution, we have developed a novel three-dimensional method to analyze the data in terms of regularized parameter maps. The method proves very efficient in retrieving all the information contained in the spectral line emission while not degrading the spatial resolution. We present this new method to analyze 3D spectroscopic data and describe our preliminary results on the structure of the ionized-neutral interface.

  7. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  8. Tomographic and spectral views on the lifecycle of polar mesospheric clouds from Odin/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, Kristoffer; Gumbel, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Vertical and horizontal structures of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) have been recovered by tomographic retrieval from the OSIRIS instrument aboard the Odin satellite. The tomographic algorithm has been used to return local scattering coefficients at seven wavelengths in the ultraviolet. This spectral information is used to retrieve PMC particle sizes, number density, and ice mass density. While substantial horizontal variations are found, local vertical structures are overall consistent with the idea of a growth-sedimentation process leading to a visible cloud. Large numbers of small particles are present near the top of the observed cloud layer. Toward lower altitudes, particle sizes increase while particle number densities decrease. A close relationship is found between the distribution of local PMC scattering coefficient and ice mass density. The bottom of the cloud often features large particles with mode radii exceeding 70 nm that rain out of the cloud before sublimating. The number density of these large particles is small, and they do not contribute significantly to the overall cloud brightness. As a consequence, the presence of these large particles can be difficult to identify for remote sensing techniques that integrate over the entire cloud column. When it comes to deriving absolute values of particle mode radius and number density, there is a strong sensitivity to assumptions on the mathematical form of the particle size distribution. We see a continued strong need to resolve this issue by co-analysis of various remote sensing techniques and observation geometries.

  9. Global observations of the mesospheric sodium layer from the OSIRIS instrument on ODIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Z.; Plane, J.; Gumbel, J.; Llywellyn, E.; She, C.

    Limb-scanning observations of the Na D -line radiance at 589 nm in the earth s dayglow made from the OSIRIS instrument on the ODIN satellite have been used to retrieve absolute Na density profiles These have been ground-truthed using a Na lidar at Ft Collins Colorado Two years of data 2003 2004 have been analyzed to characterize the seasonal and latitudinal dependence of the global Na layer This paper will first describe the retrieval algorithm and error analysis and then discuss some of the important findings First is a pronounced diurnal variation in the equatorial region with the morning Na density being much lower than in early evening This is almost certainly caused by the effect of the strong diurnal tide on the local atomic oxygen density Second there is substantial depletion of Na in the presence of polar mesospheric clouds at high latitudes during summer which leads to a very marked seasonal variation in the layer Finally the vertical resolution in the retrieved profiles is good enough to resolve sporadic or sudden Na layers SSLs The global probability distribution of SSLs is rather unexpected with a much higher probability at mid- to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere

  10. OSIRIS Modeling of High Energy Electron Transport in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Yabuuchi, T.; McGuffey, C.; Wei, Ms; Beg, F.; Mori, Wb

    2016-10-01

    In experiments on the Omega EP laser, a high intensity laser beam (eA /me c > 1) is focused onto a gold foil, generating relativistic electrons. Behind the Au foil is a layer of plastic foam through which the electrons are allowed to transport, and on the far side of the CH from the gold is a copper foil; electron fluence is measured by recording the k- α from that foil. The foam layer is either pre-ionized via a shock launched from an ablator irradiated earlier with a beam perpendicular to the high intensity beam; or the foam is in the solid state when the high intensity beam is switched on. In the latter case the foam - which has an initial density of 200mg /cm3 - heats to a temperature of 40eV and rarifies to a density of 30mg /cm3 . Results show an order of magnitude decrease in k- α when the CH layer is pre-ionized compared to cold CH. OSIRIS simulations indicate that the primary explanation for the difference in transport seen in the experiment is the partial resistive collimation of the beam in the higher density material, caused by collisional resistivity. The effect seems to be mostly caused by the higher density itself, with temperature having minimal effect. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-02-17

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics.

  12. Statistical analysis on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities using Odin/OSIRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo T.; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Takahashi, Toru; Gumbel, Jörg; Hedin, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational dataset obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  13. Trends in stratospheric ozone derived from merged SAGE II and Odin-OSIRIS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.; Randel, W. J.; Zawodny, J. M.; Kyrölä, E.; McLinden, C. A.; Sioris, C. E.; Roth, C. Z.

    2014-07-01

    Stratospheric ozone profile measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment~(SAGE) II satellite instrument (1984-2005) are combined with those from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite (2001-Present) to quantify interannual variability and decadal trends in stratospheric ozone between 60° S and 60° N. These data are merged into a multi-instrument, long-term stratospheric ozone record (1984-present) by analyzing the measurements during the overlap period of 2002-2005 when both satellite instruments were operational. The variability in the deseasonalized time series is fit using multiple linear regression with predictor basis functions including the quasi-biennial oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation index, solar activity proxy, and the pressure at the tropical tropopause, in addition to two linear trends (one before and one after 1997), from which the decadal trends in ozone are derived. From 1984 to 1997, there are statistically significant negative trends of 5-10% per decade throughout the stratosphere between approximately 30 and 50 km. From 1997 to present, a statistically significant recovery of 3-8% per decade has taken place throughout most of the stratosphere with the notable exception between 40° S and 40° N below approximately 22 km where the negative trend continues. The recovery is not significant between 25 and 35 km altitudes when accounting for a conservative estimate of instrument drift.

  14. Trends in Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Merged Odin-OSIRIS and SAGE II Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, C.; Degenstein, D. A.; Bourassa, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone profile measurements from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite (2001-Present) are merged with those from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II satellite instrument (1984-2005) to calculate decadal trends in stratospheric ozone between 60°S and 60°N. A multi-instrument, multi-decade, deseasonalized and merged stratospheric ozone record (1984-present) is produced by analyzing the measurements during the operational overlap of both satellites (2001-2005). The deseasonalized monthly time series is fit using linear regression with six non-linear predictor basis functions: three quasi-biennial oscillation proxies, the El Niño- Southern Oscillation index, a solar activity proxy, and the NCEP pressure at the tropical tropopause; and two linear trends: before and after 1997, which give the decadal trends in ozone. From 1984-1997, statistically significant negative trends of 5-10% per decade exist throughout the stratosphere (30-50 km). From 1997-present, statistically significant recovery rates of 3-8% per decade exist throughout most of the stratosphere. Below 22 km and between 40°S-40°N a negative trend is measured before and after 1997. The recovery is not significant in the tropical stratosphere between 25-35 km.

  15. Study on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities based on Odin/OSIRIS Na density data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jorg; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational data sets obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  16. Observations of the global haze redistribution on Titan from 2006 to 2015 with OSIRIS at Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; de Pater, Imke

    2017-07-01

    We observed Titan with the OH Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) at the W. M. Keck observatory from 2006 through 2015 using adaptive optics. The sunlight scattered by atmospheric haze was spatially resolved in the 2.0 μm (K) band window, and the spectra were analyzed with a radiative transfer model to determine the vertical (altitude) and meridional (latitudinal) variation in the haze distribution over this time period. This study complements recent work by Karkoschka (2016) in the season of observations, in the time span and sampling interval, in wavelength coverage and spectral resolution, as well as in the radiative transfer methodology and analysis. We observe the largest meridional gradient in haze opacity above 20 km toward the northern hemisphere in January 2010. Individual observations can show significant deviations from a relatively smooth linear gradient in haze across the entire disk. The variation in haze below 20 km is rarely well-described by a simple model and there is a systematically smaller amount of haze opacity retrieved from the equator to 10° S when observing the disk with a sub-observer longitude near 150° W. This correlation with longitude suggests one of the following; a localized decrease in haze scattering, a localized increase in gas opacity, or a systematic over-estimate of the surface albedo in this region.

  17. Lightcurve, Color and Phase Function Photometry of the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Nolan, Michael C.; Binzel, Richard P.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.; d'Aubigny, Christian Drouet; Lazzaro, Daniela; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Clark, Beth E.; Rizk, Bashar; Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA OSIRIS-REx mission will retrieve a sample of the carbonaceous near-Earth Asteroid (101955) Bennu and return it to Earth in 2023. Photometry in the Eight Color Asteroid Survey (ECAS) filter system and Johnson-Cousins V and R filters were conducted during the two most recent apparitions in 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. Lightcurve observations over the nights of September 14-17, 2005 yielded a synodic rotation period of 4.2905 ± 0.0065 h, which is consistent with the results of Nolan et al. (2013). ECAS color measurements made during the same nights confirm the B-type classification of Clark et al. (Clark, B.E., Binzel, R.P., Howell, E.S., Cloutis, E.A., Ockert-Bell, M., Christensen, P., Barucci, M.A., DeMeo, F., Lauretta, D.S., Connolly, H., Soderberg, A., Hergenrother, C., Lim, L., Emery, J., Mueller, M. [2011]. Icarus 216, 462-475). A search for the 0.7 μm hydration feature using the method of Vilas (Vilas, F. [1994]. Icarus 111, 456-467) did not reveal its presence. Photometry was obtained over a range of phase angles from 15° to 96° between 2005 and 2012. The resulting phase function slope of 0.040 magnitudes per degree is consistent with the phase slopes of other low albedo near-Earth asteroids (Belskaya, I.N., Shevchenko, V.G. [2000]. Icarus 147, 94-105).

  18. Exploration of LWFA Parameter Regimes Using Truncated Azimuthal Modal Geometry in the OSIRIS Simulation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Asher

    2014-10-01

    In plasma based accelerators (LWFA and PWFA), the methods of injecting high quality electron bunches into the accelerating wakefield is of utmost importance for various applications. Numerous particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are conducted in order to study various methods of injection and the ideal parameters thereof. 2D slab-geometry simulations are computationally inexpensive, but they are quantitatively, and sometimes even qualitatively inaccurate. One method for reducing the computational load of a 3D simulation is by utilizing a truncated azimuthal mode expansion into the OSIRIS simulation framework. Comparison with 3D LWFA simulations shows a great degree of consistency in the characteristics of the self-trapped beam. In addition, higher order cylindrical modes may capture effects such as beam hosing and asymmetric spot size modulation. With this highly efficient 2D-hybrid algorithm it is possible to simulate parameter regimes and scaling laws that are difficult to do in a full 3D Cartesian simulation. Relativistic spot-size self-focusing, which cannot be accurately described in a 2D slab geometry, is also studied.

  19. RESOLVING GAS FLOWS IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS STARBURST IRAS 23365+3604 WITH KECK LGSAO/OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Crystal L.; Soto, Kurt T.

    2016-03-01

    Keck OSIRIS/LGSAO observations of the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS 23365+3604 resolve a circumnuclear bar (or irregular disk) of semimajor axis 0.″42 (520 pc) in Paα emission. The line-of-sight velocity of the ionized gas increases from the northeast toward the southwest; this gradient is perpendicular to the photometric major axis of the infrared emission. Two pairs of bends in the zero-velocity line are detected. The inner bend provides evidence for gas inflow onto the circumnuclear disk/bar structure. We interpret the gas kinematics on kiloparsec scales in relation to the molecular gas disk and multiphase outflow discovered previously. In particular, the fast component of the ouflow (detected previously in line wings) is not detected, adding support to the conjecture that the fast wind originates well beyond the nucleus. These data directly show the dynamics of gas inflow and outflow in the central kiloparsec of a late-stage, gas-rich merger and demonstrate the potential of integral field spectroscopy to improve our understanding of the role of gas flows during the growth phase of bulges and supermassive black holes.

  20. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  2. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  4. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  7. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  11. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  12. Space reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranken, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in design studies and technology for the SP-100 Project - successor to the Space Power Advanced Reactor (SPAR) Project - is reported for the period October 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982. The basis for selecting a high-temperature, UO2-fueled, heat-pipe-cooled reactor with a thermoelectric conversion system as the 100/kW-sub e/ reference design has been reviewed. Although no change has been made in the general concept, design studies have been done to investigate various reactor/conversion system coupling methods and core design modifications. Thermal and mechanical finite element modeling and three dimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a core with individual finned fuel elements are reported. Studies of unrestrained fuel irradiation data are discussed that are relevant both to the core modeling work and to the design and fabrication of the first in-pile irradiation test, which is also reported. Work on lithium-filled core heat pipe development is described, including the attainment of 15.6 kW/sub t/ operation at 1525 K for a 2-m-long heat pipe with a 15.7-mm outside diameter. The successful operation of a 5.5-m-long, lightweight potassium/titanium heat pipe at 760 K is described, and test results of a thermoelectric module with GaP-modified SiGe thermoelectric elements are presented.

  13. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  14. Spectrophotometry of the Khonsu region on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the context of OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Deshapriya, Jasinghege Don; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Fornasier, Sonia; Feller, Clement; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Sierks, Holger; Ramy El-Maarry, Mohammed; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Since the Rosetta spacecraft rendezvoused with the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014, OSIRIS (Optical,Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System) has been instrumental in characterising and studying both the nucleus as well as the coma of the comet. OSIRIS has thus far contributed to a plethora of scientific results. OSIRIS observations have revealed a bilobate nucleus accreted from a pair of cometesimals each having an irregular shape and a size, populated with numerous geomorphological features. Among the well defined 26 regions of the comet, Khonsu region inherits a heterogeneous terrain composed of smooth areas, scarps, outcroppings, large boulders, an intriguing 'pancake' feature, both transient and long-lived bright patches plus many other geological features.Our work focuses on the spectrophotometric analysis of some selected terrain and bright patches in the Khonsu region. Despite the variety of geological features, their spectrophotometric properties appear to share a similar composition. It is noticeable also that the smooth areas in Khonsu possess similar spectrophotometric behaviour to some other regions of the comet. By comparing the spectrophotometric characteristics of observed bright patches on Khonsu with those described and attributed to the presence of H2O ice on the comet by Barucci et al. (2016) utilising infrared data, we suggest that the bright patches we present could plausibly be derived from H2O ice. One of the studied bright patches has been observed to exist on the surface for more than 4 months without a major diminution of its size, which implies the existence of potential subsurface icy layers. The location of this feature is strongly correlated with a cometary outburst during the perihelion passage of the comet in August 2015, and we interpret it to have triggered the surface modifications necessary to unearth the stratified icy layers beneath the surface.

  15. The Agilkia boulders/pebbles size-frequency distributions: OSIRIS and ROLIS joint observations of 67P surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Mottola, S.; Hamm, M.; Fulle, M.; Davidsson, B.; Güttler, C.; Sierks, H.; Naletto, G.; Arnold, G.; Grothues, H.-G.; Jaumann, R.; Michaelis, H.; Bibring, J. P.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; El Maarry, M. R.; Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W. H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lara, L. M.; Lin, Z. Y.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Lucchetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Michalik, H.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J. B.

    2016-11-01

    By using the images acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System) and ROLIS (ROsetta Lander Imaging System) cameras, we derive the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of cometary pebbles and boulders covering the size range 0.05-30.0 m on the Agilkia landing site. The global SFD measured on OSIRIS images, reflects the different properties of the multiple morphological units present on Agilkia, combined with selection effects related to lifting, transport and redeposition. Contrarily, the different ROLIS SFD derived on the smooth and rough units may be related to their different regolith thickness present on Agilkia. In the thicker, smoother layer, ROLIS mainly measures the SFD of the airfall population which almost completely obliterates the signature of underlying boulders up to a size of the order of 1 m. This is well matched by the power-law index derived analysing coma particles identified by the grain analyser Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator. This result confirms the important blanketing dynamism of Agilkia. The steeper SFD observed in rough terrains from 0.4 to 2 m could point out intrinsic differences between northern and southern dust size distributions, or it may suggest that the underlying boulders 'peek through' the thinner airfall layer in the rough terrain, thereby producing the observed excess in the decimetre size range. Eventually, the OSIRIS SFD performed on the Philae landing unit may be due to water sublimation from a static population of boulders, affecting smaller boulders before the bigger ones, thus shallowing the original SFD.

  16. The Role of OsiriX Based Virtual Endoscopy in Planning Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rotariu, Daniel Ilie; Ziyad, Faiyad; Budu, Alexandru; Poeata, Ion

    2017-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy (VE) is the navigation of a 3D model reconstructed from radiological image data. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role and accuracy of the virtual endoscopy realized using commercially available software, OsiriX, as a method of planning of surgical interventions. The computed tomographies of 22 patients with pituitary adenomas proposed for endoscopic approach were reconstructed using OsiriX. VE was performed prior to surgery to assess the surgical corridor and particular anatomy. We evaluated the following landmarks: inferior and middle turbinate, sphenoid ostia (SO), choanal arch (Ch), sphenoethmoidal recess (SER), sphenoid septa, sella turcica, carotid prominences and opticocarotid recesses (OCR). The intraoperative endoscopic images were reviewed and compared with the virtual images. The virtual images had a good resemblance with the actual surgical images. All the structures from the nasal cavity were identified and had a perfect matching except the SO which was identified in 8 cases in VE vs. 12 intraoperative. All the structures from the sphenoid sinus were identified with perfect matching except the ipsilateral carotid prominence (14 in VE vs. 10 intraoperative) and the contralateral carotid prominence (16 in VE vs. 18 intraoperative). The VE could not show the state of the sellar floor and did not offer any information about the sellar content. VE realized in OsiriX represents an affordable alternative to the specially designed systems, offering reliable data and good quality images that are useful for the preoperative planning, but some limitations are present such as inability to obtain additional information in cases where the sphenoid sinus is fully occupied by tumor or not aerated, inability to clearly differentiate between structures at the level of the sella, and impossibility to simulate working instruments.

  17. Effect of volcanic aerosol on stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 from 2002-2014 as measured by Odin-OSIRIS and Envisat-MIPAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Cristen; Bourassa, Adam E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Sioris, Chris E.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Funke, Bernd; Rieger, Landon A.; Degenstein, Douglas A.

    2017-07-01

    Following the large volcanic eruptions of Pinatubo in 1991 and El Chichón in 1982, decreases in stratospheric NO2 associated with enhanced aerosol were observed. The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (OSIRIS) measured the widespread enhancements of stratospheric aerosol following seven volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2014, although the magnitudes of these eruptions were all much smaller than the Pinatubo and El Chichón eruptions. In order to isolate and quantify the relationship between volcanic aerosol and NO2, NO2 anomalies were calculated using measurements from OSIRIS and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). In the tropics, variability due to the quasi-biennial oscillation was subtracted from the time series. OSIRIS profile measurements indicate that the strongest anticorrelations between NO2 and volcanic aerosol extinction were for the 5 km layer starting ˜ 3 km above the climatological mean tropopause at the given latitude. OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 partial columns in this layer were found to be smaller than background NO2 levels during these aerosol enhancements by up to ˜ 60 % with typical Pearson correlation coefficients of R ˜ -0. 7. MIPAS also observed decreases in NO2 partial columns during periods affected by volcanic aerosol, with percent differences of up to ˜ 25 % relative to background levels. An even stronger anticorrelation was observed between OSIRIS aerosol optical depth and MIPAS N2O5 partial columns, with R ˜ -0. 9, although no link with MIPAS HNO3 was observed. The variation in OSIRIS NO2 with increasing aerosol was found to be consistent with simulations from a photochemical box model within the estimated model uncertainty.

  18. Utility of an open-source DICOM viewer software (OsiriX) to assess pulmonary fibrosis in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Alarico; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Grassi, Walter; Giuseppetti, Gian Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the utility of an open-source Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine viewer software-OsiriX-to assess pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examinations obtained from 10 patients with diagnosis of SSc were analysed by two radiologists adopting a standard semiquantitative scoring for PF. Pulmonary involvement was evaluated in three sections (superior, middle and inferior). For the assessment of the extension of PF, the adopted semiquantitative HRCT score ranged from 0 to 3 (0 = absence of PF; 1 = 1-20 % of lung section involvement; 2 = 21-40 % of lung section involvement; 3 = 41-100 % of lung section involvement). Further, a quantitative assessment (i.e. parameters of distribution of lung attenuation such as kurtosis and mean lung attenuation) of PF was independently performed on the same sections by a rheumatologist, independently and blinded to radiologists' scoring, using OsiriX. The results obtained were compared with those of HRCT semiquantitative analysis. Intra-reader reliability of HRCT findings and feasibility of OsiriX quantitative segmentation was recorded. A significant association between the median values of kurtosis by both the quantitative OsiriX assessment and the HRCT semiquantitative analysis was found (p < 0.0001). Moreover, kurtosis correlated significantly with the mean lung attenuation (Spearman's rho = 0.885; p = 0.0001). An excellent intra-reader reliability of HRCT findings among both readers was obtained. A significant difference between the mean time spent on the OsiriX quantitative analysis (mean 1.85 ± SD 1.3 min) and the mean time spent by the radiologist for the HRCT semiquantitative assessment (mean 8.5 ± SD 4.5 min, p < 0.00001) was noted. The study provides the new working hypothesis that OsiriX may be a useful and feasible tool to achieve a quantitative evaluation of PF in SSc patients.

  19. Photometric observations of asteroid 4 Vesta by the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Mottola, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Sierks, H.; Hviid, S.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We report on new observations of asteroid 4 Vesta obtained on 1 May 2010 with the optical system OSIRIS onboard the ESA Rosetta mission. One lightcurve was taken at a phase angle (52°) larger than achievable from ground-based observations together with a spectrophotometric sequence covering the 260 to 990 nm wavelength range. Methods: Aperture photometry was used to derive the Vesta flux at several wavelengths. A Fourier analysis and the HG system formalism were applied to derive the Vesta rotational period and characterize its phase function. Results: We find a G parameter value of 0.27 ± 0.01 and an absolute magnitude H(R) = 2.80 ± 0.01. The lightcurve has the largest amplitude ever reported for Vesta (0.19 ± 0.01 mag), and we derive a synodic rotational period of 5.355 ± 0.025 h. The Rosetta spectrophotometry, covering the Vesta western hemisphere, is in perfect agreement with visible spectra from the literature and close to the IUE observations related to the same hemisphere. The new spectrophotometric data reveal that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. The Vesta spectrophotometry is well reproduced by spectra of howardite meteorite powders (grain size < 25 μm). From the Rosetta absolute spectrophotometry and from the phase function behaviour, we estimate a geometric albedo of 0.36 ± 0.02 at 649 nm and 0.34 ± 0.02 at 535 nm. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Oklay, N.; Kolokolova, L.; Sierks, H.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Mottola, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Feller, C.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hall, I.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the behavior of the opposition effect as an important tool in optical remote sensing on the nucleus of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), using Rosetta-OSIRIS images acquired in different filters during the approach phase, July-August 2014 and the close flyby images on 14 of February 2015, which contain the spacecraft shadow. Methods: We based our investigation on the global and local brightness from the surface of 67P with respect to the phase angle, also known as phase curve. The local phase curve corresponds to a region that is located at the Imhotep-Ash boundary of 67P. Assuming that the region at the Imhotep-Ash boundary and the entire nucleus have similar albedo, we combined the global and local phase curves to study the opposition-surge morphology and constrain the structure and properties of 67P. The model parameters were furthermore compared with other bodies in the solar system and existing laboratory study. Results: We found that the morphological parameters of the opposition surge decrease monotonically with wavelength, whereas in the case of coherent backscattering this behavior should be the reverse. The results from comparative analysis place 67P in the same category as the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos, which are notably different from all airless bodies in the solar system. The similarity between the surface phase function of 67P and a carbon soot sample at extremely small angles is identified, introducing regolith at the boundary of the Imhotep-Ash region of 67P as a very dark and fluffy layer.

  1. Measuring temperature and ammonia hydrate ice on Charon in 2015 from Keck/OSIRIS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, B. J.; Young, L. A.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Lyke, J. E.; Young, E. F.; Roe, H. G.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we investigated the longitudinal (zonal) variability of H2O and ammonia (NH3) hydrate ices on the surface of Charon through analysis of the 1.65 μm and 2.21 μmabsorption features, respectively. Near-infrared spectra presented here were obtained between 2015-07-14 and 2015-08-30 UT with the OSIRIS integral field spectrograph on Keck I. Spectra centered on six different sub-observer longitudes were obtained through the Hbb (1.473-1.803 μm) and Kbb (1.965-2.381 μm) filters. Gaussian functions were fit to the aforementioned bands to obtain information on band center, band depth, full width at half maximum, and band area. The shift in the band center of the temperature-dependent 1.65 μm feature was used to calculate the H2O ice temperature. The mean temperature of the ice on the observable portion of Charon's surface is 45 ± 14 K and we report no statistically significant variations in temperature across the surface. We hypothesize that the crystalline and amorphous phases of water ice reached equilibrium over 3.5 Gyr ago, with thermal recrystallization balancing the effects of irradiation amorphization. We do not believe that cryovolcanism is necessary to explain the presence of crystalline water ice on the surface of Charon. Absorption from ammonia species is detected between 12° and 290°, in agreement with results from New Horizons. Ongoing diffusion of ammonia through the rocky mantle and upper layer of water ice is one possible mechanism for maintaining its presence in Charon's surface ice. Reduced Charon spectra corrected for telluric and solar absorption are available as supplementary online material.

  2. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Constraints on its origin from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, H.; Marchi, S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barbieri, C.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Lamy, P.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Koschny, D.; Rodrigo, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Michalik, H.; Sabau, L.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2015-11-01

    Context. One of the main aims of the ESA Rosetta mission is to study the origin of the solar system by exploring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at close range. Aims: In this paper we discuss the origin and evolution of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in relation to that of comets in general and in the framework of current solar system formation models. Methods: We use data from the OSIRIS scientific cameras as basic constraints. In particular, we discuss the overall bi-lobate shape and the presence of key geological features, such as layers and fractures. We also treat the problem of collisional evolution of comet nuclei by a particle-in-a-box calculation for an estimate of the probability of survival for 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early epochs of the solar system. Results: We argue that the two lobes of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus are derived from two distinct objects that have formed a contact binary via a gentle merger. The lobes are separate bodies, though sufficiently similar to have formed in the same environment. An estimate of the collisional rate in the primordial, trans-planetary disk shows that most comets of similar size to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are likely collisional fragments, although survival of primordial planetesimals cannot be excluded. Conclusions: A collisional origin of the contact binary is suggested, and the low bulk density of the aggregate and abundance of volatile species show that a very gentle merger must have occurred. We thus consider two main scenarios: the primordial accretion of planetesimals, and the re-accretion of fragments after an energetic impact onto a larger parent body. We point to the primordial signatures exhibited by 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and other comet nuclei as critical tests of the collisional evolution.

  3. The impact of the choice of radiative transfer model and inversion method on the OSIRIS ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Craig; McLinden, Chris; Sioris, Christopher; Brohede, Samuel

    Key to the retrieval of stratospheric minor species information from limb-scatter measurements are the selections of a radiative transfer model (RTM) and inversion method (solver). Here we assess the impact of choice of RTM and solver on the retrievals of stratospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the OSIRIS instrument using the ‘Ozone Triplet' and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) techniques that are used in the operational Level 2 processing algorithms. The RTMs assessed are LIMBTRAN, VECTOR, SCIARAYS, and SASKTRAN. The solvers studied include the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Iterative Least Squares (ILS), and Chahine methods.

  4. A Collision Avoidance Strategy for a Potential Natural Satellite Around the Asteroid Bennu for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashiku, Alinda; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The cadence of proximity operations for the OSIRIS-REx mission may have an extra induced challenge given the potential of the detection of a natural satellite orbiting the asteroid Bennu. Current ground radar observations for object detection orbiting Bennu show no found objects within bounds of specific size and rotation rates. If a natural satellite is detected during approach, a different proximity operation cadence will need to be implemented as well as a collision avoidance strategy for mission success. A collision avoidance strategy will be analyzed using the Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

  5. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Hughes, Kyle; Mashiku, Alinda; Longuski, James

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith EXPlorer) is an asteroid sample return mission to Bennu (RQ36) that is scheduled to launch in 2016. The planned science operations precluding the small retrieval involve operations in terminator orbits (orbit plane is perpendicular to the sun). Over longer durations the solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs the orbit causing it to precess. Our work involves: modeling high fidelity SRP model to capture the perturbations during attitude changes; design a stable orbit from the high fidelity models to analyze the stability over time.

  6. A Collision Avoidance Strategy for a Potential Natural Satellite around the Asteroid Bennu for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    The cadence of proximity operations for the OSIRIS-REx mission may have an extra induced challenge given the potential of the detection of a natural satellite orbiting the asteroid Bennu. Current ground radar observations for object detection orbiting Bennu show no found objects within bounds of specific size and rotation rates. If a natural satellite is detected during approach, a different proximity operation cadence will need to be implemented as well as a collision avoidance strategy for mission success. A collision avoidance strategy will be analyzed using the Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

  7. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  8. The Osiris-Rex Mission - Sample Acquisitions Strategy and Evidence for the Nature of Regolith on Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Brucato, J. R.; Campins, H.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Connolly, H. C.; Dotto, E.; Dworkin, J. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    NASA selected the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission as the third New Frontiers mission in May 2011 [I]. The mission name is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will characterize near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, which is both the most accessible carbonaceous asteroid [2,3] and one of the most potentially hazardous asteroids known [4]. The primary objective of the mission is to return a pristine sample from this bod, to advance our understanding of the generation, evolution, and maturation of regolith on small bodies.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  10. ELECTRONUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.; McMillan, E.M.; Alvarez, L.W.

    1960-04-19

    An electronuclear reactor is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce an artificially produced material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations. The principal novelty resides in the combination of an accelerator with a target for converting the accelerator beam to copious quantities of low-energy neutrons for absorption in a lattice of fertile material and moderator. The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g., plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.

  11. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  12. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  16. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  17. Engineering design of the Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument: an OSIRIS-REx student collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew J.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-07-01

    OSIRIS-REx is a NASA New Frontiers mission scheduled for launch in 2016 that will travel to the asteroid Bennu and return a pristine sample of the asteroid to Earth. The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student collaboration instrument on-board the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. REXIS is a NASA risk Class D instrument, and its design and development is largely student led. The engineering team consists of MIT graduate and undergraduate students and staff at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. The primary goal of REXIS is the education of science and engineering students through participation in the development of light hardware. In light, REXIS will contribute to the mission by providing an elemental abundance map of the asteroid and by characterizing Bennu among the known meteorite groups. REXIS is sensitive to X-rays between 0.5 and 7 keV, and uses coded aperture imaging to map the distribution of iron with 50 m spatial resolution. This paper describes the science goals, concept of operations, and overall engineering design of the REXIS instrument. Each subsystem of the instrument is addressed with a high-level description of the design. Critical design elements such as the Thermal Isolation Layer (TIL), radiation cover, coded-aperture mask, and Detector Assembly Mount (DAM) are discussed in further detail.

  18. A structured approach to Exposure Based Waiving of human health endpoints under REACH developed in the OSIRIS project.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim; Van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Ter Burg, Wouter; Spaan, Suzanne; Van Engelen, Jacqueline

    2012-03-01

    Exposure Based Waiving (EBW) is one of the options in REACH when there is insufficient hazard data on a specific endpoint. Rules for adaptation of test requirements are specified and a general option for EBW is given via Appendix XI of REACH, allowing waiving of repeated dose toxicity studies, reproductive toxicity studies and carcinogenicity studies under a number of conditions if exposure is very low. A decision tree is described that was developed in the European project OSIRIS (Optimised Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through Integration of Non-Test and Test Information) to help decide in what cases EBW can be justified. The decision tree uses specific criteria as well as more general questions. For the latter, guidance on interpretation and resulting conclusions is provided. Criteria and guidance are partly based on an expert elicitation process. Among the specific criteria a number of proposed Thresholds of Toxicological Concern are used. The decision tree, expanded with specific parts on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion that are not described in this paper, is implemented in the OSIRIS webtool on integrated testing strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional surface morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/OSIRIS images: The southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maarry, M. R.; Thomas, N.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Pajola, M.; Lee, J.-C.; Massironi, M.; Davidsson, B.; Marchi, S.; Keller, H. U.; Hviid, S. F.; Besse, S.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Auger, A.-T.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; De Cecco, M.; Debei, S.; Güttler, C.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marschall, R.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: The OSIRIS camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft has been acquiring images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)'s nucleus since August 2014. Starting in May 2015, the southern hemisphere gradually became illuminated and was imaged for the first time. Here we present the regional morphology of the southern hemisphere, which serves as a companion to an earlier paper that presented the regional morphology of the northern hemisphere. Methods: We used OSIRIS images that were acquired at orbits ~45-125 km from the center of the comet (corresponding to spatial resolutions of ~0.8 to 2.3 m/pixel) coupled with the use of digital terrain models to define the different regions on the surface, and identify structural boundaries accurately. Results: Seven regions have been defined in the southern hemisphere bringing the total number of defined regions on the surface of the nucleus to 26. These classifications are mainly based on morphological and/or topographic boundaries. The southern hemisphere shows a remarkable dichotomy with its northern counterpart mainly because of the absence of wide-scale smooth terrains, dust coatings and large unambiguous depressions. As a result, the southern hemisphere closely resembles previously identified consolidated regions. An assessment of the overall morphology of comet 67P suggests that the comet's two lobes show surface heterogeneities manifested in different physical/mechanical characteristics, possibly extending to local (i.e., within a single region) scales.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    McGarry, R.J.

    1958-04-22

    Fluid-cooled nuclear reactors of the type that utilize finned uranium fuel elements disposed in coolant channels in a moderater are described. The coolant channels are provided with removable bushings composed of a non- fissionable material. The interior walls of the bushings have a plurality of spaced, longtudinal ribs separated by grooves which receive the fins on the fuel elements. The lands between the grooves are spaced from the fuel elements to form flow passages, and the size of the now passages progressively decreases as the dlstance from the center of the core increases for the purpose of producing a greater cooling effect at the center to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the core.

  3. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    DOEpatents

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  4. Reactor and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  6. Comet 67P's morphological dichotomy and surface evolution from the Rosetta/OSIRIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramy El-Maarry, M.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gracia-Berná, Antonio; Pajola, Maurizio; Groussin, Olivier; ROSETTA/OSIRIS

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Aug, 2014 to Sep, 2016. During this time, it obtained the most comprehensive image dataset for a comet's nucleus in terms of resolution, as well as spatial and temporal coverage, using the OSIRIS camera. These images have shown the surface of the comet to be very diverse in its texture and geology. In particular, the 2-year duration of the mission permitted imaging of both hemispheres and the possibility to assess the morphology and surface evolution of comet's 67P's northern hemisphere before and after perihelion passage (in Aug, 2015). The northern hemisphere (NH) is morphologically diverse including regions of consolidated, often fractured materials, smooth terrains showing aeolian-like landforms and seasonal variations, dust-covered areas suggestive of an air-fall-like mechanism, and irregular large-scale depressions suggestive of massive outburst activities. On the other hand, the southern hemisphere (SH) shows a clear dichotomy with the North showing regionally rougher terrains with little or no smooth deposits. Similarly, dusty coatings that were observed in the northern hemisphere are generally lacking in addition to the absence of large depressions. Overall, the SH shows significantly less topographical variation in comparison to the NH. The difference in relief between the NH and SH may be explained by the differences in erosional extent between both hemispheres. The SH has a shorter yet more intensive summer (close to perihelion), which could result in levels of erosion in the SH that are up to a factor of 3 higher than that of the NH. Another notable difference between both hemispheres is the absence of smooth deposits and dust coatings in the SH. The absence of similar deposits in the south may suggest that activity in the SH occurs with much higher intensity leading to ejection of dust particles at velocities exceeding comet's escape velocity. During the meeting, we plan to summarize the

  7. Spatially Resolved Emission of a High-redshift DLA Galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ~ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222-0946 at a redshift of z ~ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M ⊙ yr-1 and a dynamical mass of M dyn = 6.1 × 109 M ⊙. The average star formation rate surface density is langΣSFRrang = 0.55 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, with a central peak of 1.7 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σgas = 243 M ⊙ pc-2. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M gas = 4.2 × 109 M ⊙. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222-0946 to be f gas ~ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ~6 kpc away, ~30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Spatially resolved emission of a high-redshift DLA galaxy with the Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2014-04-10

    We present the first Keck/OSIRIS infrared IFU observations of a high-redshift damped Lyα (DLA) galaxy detected in the line of sight to a background quasar. By utilizing the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics to reduce the quasar point-spread function to FWHM ∼ 0.''15, we were able to search for and map the foreground DLA emission free from the quasar contamination. We present maps of the Hα and [O III] λλ5007, 4959 emission of DLA 2222–0946 at a redshift of z ∼ 2.35. From the composite spectrum over the Hα emission region, we measure a star formation rate of 9.5 ± 1.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a dynamical mass of M {sub dyn} = 6.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The average star formation rate surface density is (Σ{sub SFR}) = 0.55 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, with a central peak of 1.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. Using the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, this corresponds to a gas mass surface density of Σ{sub gas} = 243 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. Integrating over the size of the galaxy, we find a total gas mass of M {sub gas} = 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We estimate the gas fraction of DLA 2222–0946 to be f {sub gas} ∼ 40%. We detect [N II] λ6583 emission at 3σ significance with a flux corresponding to a metallicity of 75% solar. Comparing this metallicity with that derived from the low-ion absorption gas ∼6 kpc away, ∼30% solar, indicates possible evidence for a metallicity gradient or enriched in/outflow of gas. Kinematically, both Hα and [O III] emission show relatively constant velocity fields over the central galactic region. While we detect some red and blueshifted clumps of emission, they do not correspond with rotational signatures that support an edge-on disk interpretation.

  9. OB stars at the lowest Local Group metallicity. GTC-OSIRIS observations of Sextans A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, I.; Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars play an important role in the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Universe. The first metal-poor stars may have started the reionization of the Universe. To understand these early epochs it is necessary to know the behavior and the physical properties of massive stars in very metal-poor environments. We focus on the massive stellar content of the metal-poor irregular galaxy Sextans A. Aims: Our aim is to find and classify OB stars in Sextans A, so as to later determine accurate stellar parameters of these blue massive stars in this low-metallicity region (Z ~ 0.1 Z⊙). Methods: Using UBV photometry, the reddening-free index Q and GALEX imaging, we built a list of blue massive star candidates in Sextans A. We obtained low-resolution (R ~ 1000) GTC-OSIRIS spectra for a fraction of them and carried out spectral classification. For the confirmed O-stars, we derived preliminary stellar parameters. Results: The target selection criteria and observations were successful and have produced the first spectroscopic atlas of OB-type stars in Sextans A. From the whole sample of 18 observed stars, 12 were classified as early OB-types, including 5 O-stars. The radial velocities of all target stars are in agreement with their Sextans A membership, although three of them show significant deviations. We determined the stellar parameters of the O-type stars using the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND and revisited the sub-SMC temperature scale. Two of the O-stars are consistent with relatively strong winds and enhanced helium abundances, although results are not conclusive. We discuss the position of the OB stars in the HRD. Initial stellar masses run from slightly below 20 up to 40 solar masses. Conclusions: The target selection method worked well for Sextans A. The stellar temperatures are consistent with findings in other galaxies. Some of the targets deserve follow-up spectroscopy because of indications of a runaway nature, an enhanced helium abundance

  10. Photometric analysis of Asteroid (21) Lutetia from Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Boehnhardt, H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the photometric properties of Asteroid (21) Lutetia based on images captured by Rosetta during its flyby. We utilized the images recorded in the F17 filter (λ = 631.6 nm) of the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and in the F82 & F22 filters (λ = 649.2 nm) of the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the spacecraft. We present the results of Hapke and Minnaert modeling using disk-integrated and disk-resolved data derived from the surface of the asteroid. At 631.6 nm and 649.2 nm, the geometric albedo of Lutetia is 0.194 ± 0.002. The Bond albedo is 0.076 ± 0.002 at 649.2 nm, and 0.079 ± 0.002 at 631.6 nm. The roughness parameter is 28 ° ± 1 ° , the opposition surge parameters B0 and h are 1.79 ± 0.08 and 0.041 ± 0.003, respectively, and the asymmetry factor of the phase function is -0.28 ± 0.01. The single-scattering albedo is 0.226 ± 0.002 at 631.6 and 649.2 nm. The modeled Hapke parameters of Asteroid Lutetia are close to those of typical S-type asteroids. The Minnaert k parameter of Lutetia at opposition (0.526 ± 0.002) is comparable with other asteroids and comets. Albedo ratio images indicate no significant variation across the surface of Lutetia, apart from the so called NPCC region on Lutetia where a pronounced variation is seen at large phase angle. The small width of the albedo distribution of the surface (∼7% at half maximum) and the similarity between phase ratio maps derived from the measurements and from the modeling suggests that the light scattering property over the whole visible and illuminated surface of the asteroid is widely uniform. The comparison between the reflectance measurement of Lutetia and the available laboratory samples suggests that the regolith on Lutetia is concrete with possible grain size distribution of150 μm or larger.

  11. Multi-color, rotationally resolved photometry of asteroid 21 Lutetia from OSIRIS/Rosetta observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Jorda, L.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hviid, S. F.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Asteroid 21 Lutetia is the second target of the Rosetta space mission. Extensive pre-encounter, space-, and ground-based observations are being performed to prepare for the flyby in July 2010. Aims: The aim of this article is to accurately characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared and to search for evidence of surface inhomogeneities. Methods: The asteroid was imaged on 2 and 3 January 2007 with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft. The geometric conditions were such that the aspect angle was 44^circ (i.e., mid-northern latitudes) and the phase angle 22.4^circ. Lutetia was continuously monitored over 14.3 h, thus exceeding one rotational period and a half, with twelve filters whose spectral coverage extended from 271 to 986 nm. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: High-quality light curves in the U, B, V, R and I photometric bands were obtained. Once they were merged with previous light curves from over some 45 years, the sidereal period is accurately determined: Prot = 8.168271 ± 0.000002 h. Color variations with rotational phase are marginally detected with the ultraviolet filter centered at 368 nm but are absent in the other visible and near-infrared filters. The albedo is directly determined from the observed maximum cross-section obtained from an elaborated shape model that results from a combination of adaptive-optics imaging and light curve inversion. Using current solutions for the phase function, we find geometric albedos pV = 0.130 ± 0.014 when using the linear phase function and pV(H-G) = 0.180 ± 0.018 when using the (H-G) phase function, which incorporates the opposition effect. The spectral variation of the reflectance indicates a steady decrease with decreasing

  12. Asteroid 2867 Steins. I. Photometric properties from OSIRIS/Rosetta and ground-based visible observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Weissman, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Lowry, S.; Toth, I.; Küppers, M.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Asteroid 2867 Steins is the first target of the Rosetta space mission with a flyby scheduled in September 2008. Aims: An early characterization is needed to optimize the flyby parameters and the science operations and to maximize the scientific return. The aim of this article is to characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid. Methods: The asteroid was imaged with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft, at a phase angle of 41.7° significantly larger than achievable from Earth. It was continuously monitored over ~24 h (on 11 March 2006), thus covering four rotational periods, at a temporal cadence of 6 min. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: The light curve in the R photometric band of the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system has a mean value R(1,1,α = 41.7° = 14.13 ± 0.03 and an amplitude of 0.25 ± 0.04 mag. The periodicity was analyzed with different techniques yielding a mean value of the synodic rotational period of 6.054 ± 0.003 h. By combining with ground-based observations obtained at different phase angles, the phase function is constructed and characterized by a linear part having a phase coefficient β = 0.025 ± 0.001 mag/deg and a mean value R(1,1,0) = 13.10 ± 0.04. In terms of the H-G formalism, the best fit photometric values are G = 0.35 ± 0.05 and H = 12.84 ± 0.07, but the resulting opposition surge of 0.25 mag, although typical of E-type asteroids, is not really constrained because of the lack of data at phase angles below 7°. Altogether the photometric properties of asteroid 2867 Steins (phase function, color and albedo) indicate that it is a somewhat extreme E-type object, although it is known that this quite small population exhibits at least three different surface mineralogies. Table [see full textsee full text] is only available

  13. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  14. The implementation of multi-task geophysical survey to locate Cleopatra Tomb at Tap-Osiris Magna, Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt “Phase II”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Khalil, Mohamed A.; Massoud, Usama; Santos, Fernando M.; Mesbah, Hany A.; Lethy, Ahmed; Soliman, Mamdouh; Ragab, El Said A.

    2012-06-01

    According to some new discoveries at Tap-Osiris Magna temple (West of Alexandria), there is potentiality to uncover a remarkable archeological finding at this site. Three years ago many significant archeological evidences have been discovered sustaining the idea that the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony may be found in the Osiris temple inside Tap-Osiris Magna temple at a depth from 20 to 30 m. To confirm this idea, PHASE I was conducted in by joint application of Ground Penetrating Radar “GPR”, Electrical Resistivity Tomography “ERT” and Magnetometry. The results obtained from PHASE I could not confirm the existence of major tombs at this site. However, small possible cavities were strongly indicated which encouraged us to proceed in investigation of this site by using another geophysical approach including Very Low Frequency Electro Magnetic (VLF-EM) technique. VLF-EM data were collected along parallel lines covering the investigated site with a line-to-line spacing of 1 m. The point-to-point distance of 1 m along the same line was employed. The data were qualitatively interpreted by Fraser filtering process and quantitatively by 2-D VLF inversion of tipper data and forward modeling. Results obtained from VLF-EM interpretation are correlated with 2-D resistivity imaging and drilling information. Findings showed a highly resistive zone at a depth extended from about 25-45 m buried beneath Osiris temple, which could be indicated as the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony. This result is supported by Fraser filtering and forward modeling results. The depth of archeological findings as indicated from the geophysical survey is correlated well with the depth expected by archeologists, as well as, the depth of discovered tombs outside Tap-Osiris Magna temple. This depth level has not been reached by drilling in this site. We hope that the site can be excavated in the future based on these geophysical results.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  16. Retrieving Neptune's aerosol properties from Keck OSIRIS observations. I. Dark regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszcz-Cook, S. H.; de Kleer, K.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.; Hammel, H. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyze three-dimensional data cubes of Neptune from the OSIRIS integral-field spectrograph on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, from 26 July 2009. These data have a spatial resolution of 0.035/pixel and spectral resolution of R ∼3800 in the H (1.47-1.80 μm) and K (1.97-2.38 μm) broad bands. We focus our analysis on regions of Neptune's atmosphere that are near-infrared dark - that is, free of discrete bright cloud features. We use a forward model coupled to a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to retrieve properties of Neptune's aerosol structure and methane profile above ∼4 bar in these near-infrared dark regions. We construct a set of high signal-to-noise spectra spanning a range of viewing geometries to constrain the vertical structure of Neptune's aerosols in a cloud-free latitude band from 2-12°N. We find that Neptune's cloud opacity at these wavelengths is dominated by a compact, optically thick cloud layer with a base near 3 bar. Using the pyDISORT algorithm for the radiative transfer and assuming a Henyey-Greenstein phase function, we observe this cloud to be composed of low albedo (single scattering albedo = 0.45-0.01+0.01), forward scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.50-0.02+0.02) particles, with an assumed characteristic size of ∼1μm. Above this cloud, we require an aerosol layer of smaller (∼0.1μm) particles forming a vertically extended haze, which reaches from the upper troposphere (0.59-0.03+0.04 bar) into the stratosphere. The particles in this haze are brighter (single scattering albedo = 0.91-0.05+0.06) and more isotropically scattering (asymmetry parameter g = 0.24-0.03+0.02) than those in the deep cloud. When we extend our analysis to 18 cloud-free locations from 20°N to 87°S, we observe that the optical depth in aerosols above 0.5 bar decreases by a factor of 2-3 or more at mid- and high-southern latitudes relative to low latitudes. We also consider Neptune's methane (CH4) profile, and find that our retrievals

  17. NIR Imaging Spectroscopy of the Inner Few Arcseconds of NGC 4151 with OSIRIS at Keck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Krabbe, Alfred; Larkin, James E.; Barczys, Matthew; McElwain, Michael W.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Weiss, Jason; Wright, Shelley A.

    2013-01-01

    We present H- and K-band data from the inner arcsecond of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near-infrared imaging field spectrograph OSIRIS at the Keck Observatory. The angular resolution is about a few parsecs on-site and thus competes easily with optical images taken previously with the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the morphology and dynamics of most species detected but focus on the morphology and dynamics of the narrow line region (as traced by emission of [FeII]?1.644 µm), the interplay between plasma ejected from the nucleus (as traced by 21 cm continuum radio data) and hot H2 gas and characterize the detected nuclear HeI?2.058 µm absorption feature as a narrow absorption line (NAL) phenomenon. Emission from the narrow line region (NLR) as traced by [FeII] reveals a biconical morphology and we compare the measured dynamics in the [FeII] emission line with models proposing acceleration of gas in the NLR and simple ejection of gas into the NLR. In the inner 2.5 arcseconds the acceleration model reveals a better fit to our data than the ejection model.We also see evidence that the jet very locally enhances emission in [FeII] at certain positions in our field-of-view such that we were able to distinct the kinematics of these clouds from clouds generally accelerated in the NLR. Further, the radio jet is aligned with the bicone surface rather than the bicone axis such that we assume that the jet is not the dominant mechanism responsible for driving the kinematics of clouds in the NLR. The hot H2 gas is thermal with a temperature of about 1700 K. We observe a remarkable correlation between individual H2 clouds at systemic velocity with the 21 cm continuum radio jet. We propose that the radio jet is at least partially embedded in the galactic disk of NGC 4151 such that deviations from a linear radio structure are invoked by interactions of jet plasma with H2 clouds that are moving into the path of the jet because of

  18. Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, M. A.; Feller, C.; Besse, S.; Leyrat, C.; Lara, L.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.; Scholten, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Michalik, H.; Moreno, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Shi, X.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. Aims: We present results for the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of 67P derived from the OSIRIS imaging system, which consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The observations presented here were performed during July and the beginning of August 2014, during the approach phase, when OSIRIS was mapping the surface of the comet with several filters at different phase angles (1.3°-54°). The resolution reached up to 2.1 m/px. Methods: The OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline, then converted into I/F radiance factors and corrected for the illumination conditions at each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. Color cubes of the surface were produced by stacking registered and illumination-corrected images. Furthermore, photometric analysis was performed both on disk-averaged photometry in several filters and on disk-resolved images acquired with the NAC orange filter, centered at 649 nm, using Hapke modeling. Results: The disk-averaged phase function of the nucleus of 67P shows a strong opposition surge with a G parameter value of -0.13 ± 0.01 in the HG system formalism and an absolute magnitude Hv(1,1,0) = 15.74 ± 0.02 mag. The integrated spectrophotometry in 20 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range shows a red spectral behavior, without clear absorption bands except for a potential absorption centered at ~290 nm that is possibly due to SO2 ice. The nucleus shows strong phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11%/(100 nm) to 16%/(100 nm) in the 1.3°-54° phase angle range. The geometric albedo of the comet is 6.5 ± 0.2% at 649 nm, with

  19. Orbit Stability of OSIRIS-REx in the Vicinity of Bennu Using a High-Fidelity Solar Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.; Hughes, Kyle M.; Mashiku, Alinda K.; Longuski, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure is one of the largest perturbing forces on the OSIRISRex trajectory as it orbits the asteroid Bennu. In this work, we investigate how forces due to solar radiation perturb the OSIRIS-REx trajectory in a high-fidelity model. The model accounts for Bennu's non-spherical gravity field, third-body gravity forces from the Sun and Jupiter, as well as solar radiation forces acting on a simplified spacecraft model. Such high-fidelity simulations indicate significant solar radiation pressure perturbations from the nominal orbit. Modifications to the initial design of the nominal orbit are found using a variation of parameters approach that reduce the perturbation in eccentricity by a factor of one-half.

  20. Statistical investigation of Na layer response to geomagnetic activity using resonance scattering measurements by Odin/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, T. T.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M. K.; Nishiyama, T.; Hosokawa, K.; Takahashi, T.; Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.

    2017-06-01

    We have performed a statistical investigation of the global response of the Na layer to geomagnetic activity using Na density data from 2004 to 2010 obtained using the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on board the Odin satellite. In the analysis, we categorized the Na density data according to the auroral electrojet (AE) index and then compared the resulting data sets. Regarding the results, we found a significant decrease in the Na density above a height of ˜95 km in both the southern and northern polar regions with an increase in the AE index. The cause of the decrease in the Na density is discussed, and we conclude that the decrease in the Na density was mainly due to the effect of energetic particle precipitation.

  1. Dust mass distribution around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko determined via parallax measurements using Rosetta's OSIRIS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Drolshagen, E.; Koschny, D.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Frattin, E.; Agarwal, J.; Sierks, H.; Bertini, I.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. I.; Rodrigo, R.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Geiger, B.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Poppe, B.

    2017-07-01

    The OSIRIS (optical, spectroscopic and infrared remote imaging system) instrument on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft collected data of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for over 2 yr. OSIRIS consists of two cameras, a Narrow Angle Camera and a Wide Angle Camera. For specific imaging sequences related to the observation of dust aggregates in 67P's coma, the two cameras were operating simultaneously. The two cameras are mounted 0.7 m apart from each other, as a result this baseline yields a parallax shift of the apparent particle trails on the analysed images directly proportional to their distance. Thanks to such shifts, the distance between observed dust aggregates and the spacecraft was determined. This method works for particles closer than 6000 m to the spacecraft and requires very few assumptions. We found over 250 particles in a suitable distance range with sizes of some centimetres, masses in the range of 10-6-102 kg and a mean velocity of about 2.4 m s-1 relative to the nucleus. Furthermore, the spectral slope was analysed showing a decrease in the median spectral slope of the particles with time. The further a particle is from the spacecraft the fainter is its signal. For this reason, this was counterbalanced by a debiasing. Moreover, the dust mass-loss rate of the nucleus could be computed as well as the Afρ of the comet around perihelion. The summed-up dust mass-loss rate for the mass bins 10-4-102 kg is almost 8300 kg s-1.

  2. Recovery of Bennu's orientation for the OSIRIS-REx mission: implications for the spin state accuracy and geolocation errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Rubincam, David P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to return a sample of asteroid material from near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu. The role of the navigation and flight dynamics team is critical for the spacecraft to execute a precisely planned sampling maneuver over a specifically selected landing site. In particular, the orientation of Bennu needs to be recovered with good accuracy during orbital operations to contribute as small an error as possible to the landing error budget. Although Bennu is well characterized from Earth-based radar observations, its orientation dynamics are not sufficiently known to exclude the presence of a small wobble. To better understand this contingency and evaluate how well the orientation can be recovered in the presence of a large 1° wobble, we conduct a comprehensive simulation with the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation software. We describe the dynamic orientation modeling implemented in GEODYN in support of OSIRIS-REx operations and show how both altimetry and imagery data can be used as either undifferenced (landmark, direct altimetry) or differenced (image crossover, altimetry crossover) measurements. We find that these two different types of data contribute differently to the recovery of instrument pointing or planetary orientation. When upweighted, the absolute measurements help reduce the geolocation errors, despite poorer astrometric (inertial) performance. We find that with no wobble present, all the geolocation requirements are met. While the presence of a large wobble is detrimental, the recovery is still reliable thanks to the combined use of altimetry and imagery data.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the topographical cerebral surface anatomy for presurgical planning with free OsiriX Software.

    PubMed

    Harput, Mehmet V; Gonzalez-Lopez, Pablo; Türe, Uğur

    2014-09-01

    During surgery for intrinsic brain lesions, it is important to distinguish the pathological gyrus from the surrounding normal sulci and gyri. This task is usually tedious because of the pia-arachnoid membranes with their arterial and venous complexes that obscure the underlying anatomy. Moreover, most tumors grow in the white matter without initially distorting the cortical anatomy, making their direct visualization more difficult. To create and evaluate a simple and free surgical planning tool to simulate the anatomy of the surgical field with and without vessels. We used free computer software (OsiriX Medical Imaging Software) that allowed us to create 3-dimensional reconstructions of the cerebral surface with and without cortical vessels. These reconstructions made use of magnetic resonance images from 51 patients with neocortical supratentorial lesions operated on over a period of 21 months (June 2011 to February 2013). The 3-dimensional (3-D) anatomic images were compared with the true surgical view to evaluate their accuracy. In all patients, the landmarks determined by 3-D reconstruction were cross-checked during surgery with high-resolution ultrasonography; in select cases, they were also checked with indocyanine green videoangiography. The reconstructed neurovascular structures were confirmed intraoperatively in all patients. We found this technique to be extremely useful in achieving pure lesionectomy, as it defines tumor's borders precisely. A 3-D reconstruction of the cortical surface can be easily created with free OsiriX software. This technique helps the surgeon perfect the mentally created 3-D picture of the tumor location to carry out cleaner, safer surgeries.

  4. The scattering phase function of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko coma as seen from the Rosetta/OSIRIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, I.; La Forgia, F.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Fulle, M.; Moreno, F.; Frattin, E.; Kovacs, G.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Drolshagen, E.; Ferrari, S.; Ferri, F.; Fornasier, S.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Moreno, J. J. Lopez; Lucchetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Massironi, M.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Ott, T.; Penasa, L.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2017-07-01

    The study of dust, the most abundant material in cometary nuclei, is pivotal in understanding the original materials forming the Solar system. Measuring the coma phase function provides a tool to investigate the nature of cometary dust. Rosetta/OSIRIS sampled the coma phase function of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, covering a large phase angle range in a small amount of time. Twelve series were acquired in the period from 2015 March to 2016 February for this scientific purpose. These data allowed, after stray light removal, measuring the phase function shape, its reddening, and phase reddening while varying heliocentric and nucleocentric distances. Despite small dissimilarities within different series, we found a constant overall shape. The reflectance has a u-shape with minimum at intermediate phase angles, reaching similar values at the smallest and largest phase angle sampled. The comparison with cometary phase functions in literature indicates OSIRIS curves being consistent with the ones found in many other single comets. The dust has a negligible phase reddening at α < 90°, indicating a coma dominated by single scattering. We measured a reddening of [11-14] %/100 nm between 376 and 744 nm. No trend with heliocentric or nucleocentric distance was found, indicating the coma doesn't change its spectrum with time. These results are consistent with single coma grains and close-nucleus coma photometric results. Comparison with nucleus photometry indicates a different backscattering phase function shape and similar reddening values only at α < 30°. At larger phase angles, the nucleus becomes significantly redder than the coma.

  5. The relationship between polar mesospheric clouds and their background atmosphere as observed by Odin-SMR and Odin-OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ole Martin; Benze, Susanne; Eriksson, Patrick; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Murtagh, Donal P.

    2016-10-01

    In this study the properties of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) and the background atmosphere in which they exist are studied using measurements from two instruments, OSIRIS and SMR, on board the Odin satellite. The data comes from a set of tomographic measurements conducted by the satellite during 2010 and 2011. The expected ice mass density and cloud frequency for conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, calculated using the temperature and water vapour as measured by SMR, are compared to the ice mass density and cloud frequency as measured by OSIRIS. We find that assuming thermodynamic equilibrium reproduces the seasonal, latitudinal and vertical variations in ice mass density and cloud frequency, but with a high bias of a factor of 2 in ice mass density. To investigate this bias, we use a simple ice particle growth model to estimate the time it would take for the observed clouds to sublimate completely and the time it takes for these clouds to reform. We find a difference in the median sublimation time (1.8 h) and the reformation time (3.2 h) at peak cloud altitudes (82-84 km). This difference implies that temperature variations on these timescales have a tendency to reduce the ice content of the clouds, possibly explaining the high bias of the equilibrium model. Finally, we detect and are, for the first time, able to positively identify cloud features with horizontal scales of 100 to 300 km extending far below the region of supersaturation ( > 2 km). Using the growth model, we conclude these features cannot be explained by sedimentation alone and suggest that these events may be an indication of strong vertical transport.

  6. Recovery of Bennu's orientation for the OSIRIS-REx mission: implications for the spin state accuracy and geolocation errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Getzandanner, Kenneth M.; Rubincam, David P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission is to return a sample of asteroid material from near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu. The role of the navigation and flight dynamics team is critical for the spacecraft to execute a precisely planned sampling maneuver over a specifically selected landing site. In particular, the orientation of Bennu needs to be recovered with good accuracy during orbital operations to contribute as small an error as possible to the landing error budget. Although Bennu is well characterized from Earth-based radar observations, its orientation dynamics are not sufficiently known to exclude the presence of a small wobble. To better understand this contingency and evaluate how well the orientation can be recovered in the presence of a large 1° wobble, we conduct a comprehensive simulation with the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation software. We describe the dynamic orientation modeling implemented in GEODYN in support of OSIRIS-REx operations and show how both altimetry and imagery data can be used as either undifferenced (landmark, direct altimetry) or differenced (image crossover, altimetry crossover) measurements. We find that these two different types of data contribute differently to the recovery of instrument pointing or planetary orientation. When upweighted, the absolute measurements help reduce the geolocation errors, despite poorer astrometric (inertial) performance. We find that with no wobble present, all the geolocation requirements are met. While the presence of a large wobble is detrimental, the recovery is still reliable thanks to the combined use of altimetry and imagery data.

  7. Tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

  8. Development and experimental qualification of a calculation scheme for the evaluation of gamma heating in experimental reactors. Application to MARIA and Jules Horowitz (JHR) MTR Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Wroblewska, M.; Marcinkowska, Z.; Boettcher, A.; Prokopowicz, R.; Sireta, P.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J.; Jagielski, J.; Luks, A.

    2015-07-01

    Precise computational determination of nuclear heating which consists predominantly of gamma heating (more than 80 %) is one of the challenges in material testing reactor exploitation. Due to sophisticated construction and conditions of experimental programs planned in JHR it became essential to use most accurate and precise gamma heating model. Before the JHR starts to operate, gamma heating evaluation methods need to be developed and qualified in other experimental reactor facilities. This is done inter alia using OSIRIS, MINERVE or EOLE research reactors in France. Furthermore, MARIA - Polish material testing reactor - has been chosen to contribute to the qualification of gamma heating calculation schemes/tools. This reactor has some characteristics close to those of JHR (beryllium usage, fuel element geometry). To evaluate gamma heating in JHR and MARIA reactors, both simulation tools and experimental program have been developed and performed. For gamma heating simulation, new calculation scheme and gamma heating model of MARIA have been carried out using TRIPOLI4 and APOLLO2 codes. Calculation outcome has been verified by comparison to experimental measurements in MARIA reactor. To have more precise calculation results, model of MARIA in TRIPOLI4 has been made using the whole geometry of the core. This has been done for the first time in the history of MARIA reactor and was complex due to cut cone shape of all its elements. Material composition of burnt fuel elements has been implemented from APOLLO2 calculations. An experiment for nuclear heating measurements and calculation verification has been done in September 2014. This involved neutron, photon and nuclear heating measurements at selected locations in MARIA reactor using in particular Rh SPND, Ag SPND, Ionization Chamber (all three from CEA), KAROLINA calorimeter (NCBJ) and Gamma Thermometer (CEA/SCK CEN). Measurements were done in forty points using four channels. Maximal nuclear heating evaluated from

  9. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  10. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  11. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  12. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    nuclides - 2008 / T. Golashvili -- Oral session 6: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems. Neutronic analyses in support of the HFIR beamline modifications and lifetime extension / I. Remec and E. D. Blakeman. Characterization of neutron test facilities at Sandia National Laboratories / D. W. Vehar ... [et al.]. LYRA irradiation experiments: neutron metrology and dosimetry / B. Acosta and L. Debarberis. Calculated neutron and gamma-ray spectra across the prismatic very high temperature reactor core / J. W. Sterbentz. Enhancement of irradiation capability of the experimental fast reactor joyo / S. Maeda ... [et al.]. Neutron spectrum analyses by foil activation method for high-energy proton beams / C. H. Pyeon ... [et al.] -- Oral session 7: Cross sections, nuclear data, damage correlations. Investigation of new reaction cross-section evaluations in order to update and extend the IRDF-2002 reactor dosimetry library / É. M. Zsolnay, H. J. Nolthenius and A. L. Nichols. A novel approach towards DPA calculations / A. Hogenbirk and D. F. Da Cruz. A new ENDFIB-VII.O based multigroup cross-section library for reactor dosimetry / F. A. Alpan and S. L. Anderson. Activities at the NEA for dosimetry applications / H. Henriksson and I. Kodeli. Validation and verification of covariance data from dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluations / S. Badikov. Status of the neutron cross section standards / A. D. Carlson -- Oral session 8: transport calculations. A dosimetry assessment for the core restraint of an advanced gas cooled reactor / D. A. Thornton ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry study in the region of the support structure of a VVER-1000 type reactor / G. Borodkin ... [et al.]. SNS moderator poison design and experiment validation of the moderator performance / W. Lu ... [et al.]. Analysis of OSIRIS in-core surveillance dosimetry for GONDOLE steel irradiation program by using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code / Y. K. Lee and F. Malouch.Reactor dosimetry applications using RAPTOR

  13. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  16. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  17. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  3. Sample Curation in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched to asteroid Bennu Sept. 8, 2016. The spacecraft will arrive at Bennu in late 2019, orbit and map the asteroid, and perform a touch and go (TAG) sampling maneuver in July 2020. After sample is stowed and confirmed the spacecraft will return to Earth, and the sample return capsule (SRC) will land in Utah in September 2023. Samples will be recovered from Utah [2] and then transported and stored in a new sample cleanroom at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston [3]. The materials curated for the mission are described here. a) Materials Archive and Witness Plate Collection: The SRC and TAGSAM were built between March 2014 and Summer of 2015, and instruments (OTES,OVIRS, OLA, OCAMS, REXIS) were integrated from Summer 2015 until May 2016. A total of 395 items were received for the materials archive at NASA-JSC, with archiving finishing 30 days after launch (with the final archived items being related to launch operations)[4]. The materials fall into several general categories including metals (stainless steel, aluminum, titanium alloys, brass and BeCu alloy), epoxies, paints, polymers, lubricants, non-volatile-residue samples (NVR), sapphire, and various miscellaneous materials. All through the ATLO process (from March 2015 until late August 2016) contamination knowledge witness plates (Si wafer and Al foil) were deployed in the various cleanrooms in Denver and KSC to provide an additional record of particle counts and volatiles that is archived for current and future scientific studies. These plates were deployed in roughly monthly increments with each unit containing 4 Si wafers and 4 Al foils. We archived 128 individual witness plates (64 Si wafers and 64 Al foils); one of each witness plate (Si and Al) was analyzed immediately by the science team after archiving, while the remaining 3 of each are archived indefinitely. Information about each material archived is stored in an extensive database at NASA-JSC, and key

  4. Limb-nadir matching using non-coincident NO2 observations: proof of concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS prototype product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Cristen; Normand, Elise N.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Belmonte Rivas, Maria; Folkert Boersma, K.; Eskes, Henk

    2016-08-01

    A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical box model. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product - referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO) - was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60° S to 60° N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 × 1015 molecules cm-2 over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.

  5. OSIRIS observations of OH A(2)Sigma+-X-2 Pi 308 nm solar resonance fluorescence at sunrise in the upper mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattinger, R. L.; Boone, C. D.; Walker, K. A.; Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Bernath, P. F.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    2007-02-01

    Since the OH molecule plays a critical role as a catalyst in atmospheric photochemistry, an accurate measurement of the OH density profile covering a broad range of latitudes and solar local times is required to quantify the major reactions involved. The optical spectrograph and infra-red imager system (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite observes scattered solar radiation at the terrestrial limb from the upper troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere. The wavelength range, 275 nm to 810 nm includes the OH A(2)Sigma(+)-X-2 Pi 0-0 band at 308 nm, which is seen in solar resonance emission superimposed upon the underlying atmospheric Rayleigh-scattering background. OSIRIS routinely detects the OH 308 nm emission in the mesosphere from sunrise through to sunset. One feature of the OH diurnal variation is a nocturnal layer in the 80-85 km region that is frequently, but not always, detectable in solar resonance for a short period following sunrise - the feature we label here as the "sunrise flash". This paper describes the observational analysis procedures involved in the quantitative measurement of the OSIRIS OH profiles together with a broad overview of the variability of the feature at sunrise. Also included is a photochemical model simulation of the OH sunrise layer using background atmospheric parameters, especially the water vapour mixing ratio, provided by the ACE/FTS instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite. For a number of nearly coincident measurements between OSIRIS OH and ACE/FTS water vapour, the model simulations show general agreement between the two. Agreement is improved by modifying the eddy mixing rates in the 80-85 km region, commensurate with the expected range of mixing rates.

  6. Modelling observations of the inner gas and dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, R.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Thomas, N.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Rubin, M.; Skorov, Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Gicquel, A.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper describes the initial modelling of gas and dust data acquired in August and September 2014 from the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft when it was in close proximity to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: This work is an attempt to provide a self-consistent model of the innermost gas and dust coma of the comet, as constrained by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) data set for the gas and by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) data set for the dust. Methods: The model uses a previously developed shape model for the nucleus, and from this the water sublimation rate and gas temperatures at the surface are computed with a simple thermal model. The gas expansion is modelled with a 3D parallel implementation of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo algorithm. A dust drag algorithm is then used to produce dust densities in the coma, which are then converted to brightnesses using Mie theory and a line-of-sight integration. Results: We show that a purely insolation-driven model for surface outgassing does not produce a reasonable fit to ROSINA/COPS data. A stronger source in the "neck" region of the nucleus (region Hapi) is needed to match the observed modulation of the gas density in detail. This agrees with OSIRIS data, which shows that the dust emission from the "neck" was dominant in the August-September 2014 time frame. The current model matches this observation reasonably if a power index of 2-3 for the dust size distribution is used. A better match to the OSIRIS data is seen by using a single large particle size for the coma. Conclusions: We have shown possible solutions to the gas and dust distributions in the inner coma, which are consistent with ROSINA and OSIRIS data.

  7. Detection of exposed H2O ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Filacchione, G.; Fornasier, S.; Raponi, A.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Tosi, F.; Feller, C.; Ciarniello, M.; Sierks, H.; Capaccioni, F.; Pommerol, A.; Massironi, M.; Oklay, N.; Merlin, F.; Vincent, J.-B.; Fulchignoni, M.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Perna, D.; Capria, M. T.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Rousseau, B.; Barbieri, C.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Lamy, P. L.; De Sanctis, C.; Rodrigo, R.; Erard, S.; Koschny, D.; Leyrat, C.; Rickman, H.; Drossart, P.; Keller, H. U.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Arnold, G.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fonti, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Kappel, D.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Mancarella, F.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Palomba, E.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Since the orbital insertion of the Rosetta spacecraft, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) has been mapped by OSIRIS camera and VIRTIS spectro-imager, producing a huge quantity of images and spectra of the comet's nucleus. Aims: The aim of this work is to search for the presence of H2O on the nucleus which, in general, appears very dark and rich in dehydrated organic material. After selecting images of the bright spots which could be good candidates to search for H2O ice, taken at high resolution by OSIRIS, we check for spectral cubes of the selected coordinates to identify these spots observed by VIRTIS. Methods: The selected OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline and corrected for the illumination conditions for each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. The spots with higher I/F were selected and then analysed spectrophotometrically and compared with the surrounding area. We selected 13 spots as good targets to be analysed by VIRTIS to search for the 2 μm absorption band of water ice in the VIRTIS spectral cubes. Results: Out of the 13 selected bright spots, eight of them present positive H2O ice detection on the VIRTIS data. A spectral analysis was performed and the approximate temperature of each spot was computed. The H2O ice content was confirmed by modeling the spectra with mixing (areal and intimate) of H2O ice and dark terrain, using Hapke's radiative transfer modeling. We also present a detailed analysis of the detected spots.

  8. Limb-Nadir Matching Using Non-Coincident NO2 Observations: Proof of Concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS Prototype Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Cristen; Normand, Elise N.; Mclinden, Chris A.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Lloyd, Nicholas D.; Degenstein, Douglas A.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Rivas, Maria Belmonte; Boersma, K. Folkert; Eskes, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical boxmodel. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product - referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO) - was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60 deg S to 60 deg N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 x 10(exp 15) molecules per sq cm over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.

  9. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  10. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  11. Thorium fueled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipaun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Current development in thorium fueled reactors shows that they can be designed to operate in the fast or thermal spectrum. The thorium/uranium fuel cycle converts fertile thorium-232 into fissile uranium-233, which fissions and releases energy. This paper analyses the characteristics of thorium fueled reactors and discusses the thermal reactor option. It is found that thorium fuel can be utilized in molten salt reactors through many configurations and designs. A balanced assessment on the feasibility of adopting one reactor technology versus another could lead to optimized benefits of having thorium resource.

  12. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  13. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  14. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  15. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  16. Global and Spatially Resolved Photometric Properties of the Nucleus of Comet 67P/C-G from OSIRIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, P.

    2014-04-01

    Following the successful wake-up of the ROSETTA spacecraft on 20 January 2014, the OSIRIS imaging system was fully re-commissioned at the end of March 2014 confirming its initial excellent performances. The OSIRIS instrument includes two cameras: the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with respective fieldsofview of 2.2° and 12°, both equipped with 2K by 2K CCD detectors and dual filter wheels. The NAC filters allow a spectral coverage of 270 to 990 nm tailored to the investigation of the mineralogical composition of the nucleus of comet P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko whereas those of the WAC (245-632 nm) aim at characterizing its coma [1]. The NAC has already secured a set of four complete light curves of the nucleus of 67P/C-G between 3 March and 24 April 2014 with a primary purpose of characterizing its rotational state. A preliminary spin period of 12.4 hours has been obtained, similar to its very first determination from a light curve obtained in 2003 with the Hubble space telescope [2]. The NAC and WAC will be recalibrated in the forthcoming weeks using the same stellar calibrators VEGA and the solar analog 16 Cyg B as for past inflight calibration campaigns in support of the flybys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia. This will allow comparing the pre- and post-hibernation performances of the cameras and correct the quantum efficiency response of the two CCD and the throughput for all channels (i.e., filters) if required. The accurate photometric analysis of the images requires utmost care due to several instrumental problems, the most severe and complex to handle being the presence of optical ghosts which result from multiple reflections on the two filters inserted in the optical beam and on the thick window which protects the CCD detector from cosmic ray impacts. These ghosts prominently appear as either slightly defocused images offset from the primary images or large round or elliptical halos. We will first present results on the global

  17. Activation analysis of concrete and graphite in the experimental reactor RUS.

    PubMed

    Cometto, M; Ridikas, D; Aubert, M C; Damoy, F; Ancius, D

    2005-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations after their service life involves the necessary disassembling, handling and disposing of a large amount of radioactive equipment and structures. In particular, the concrete that has been used as a biological reactor shield and graphite that has been used as a moderator-reflector represent the majority of waste, requiring geological disposal. To reduce this undesirable volume to the minimum and to successfully plan the dismantling and disposal of radioactive materials to storage facilities, the activations of the structures should be accurately evaluated. In the framework of the decommissioning and the dismantling of the experimental reactor of the University of Strasbourg, detailed activation estimates have been conducted to characterise the graphite and the structural materials present in the reactor environment. For this purpose, the chemical compositions of fresh graphite samples and different types of concrete have been determined by activation analysis in the research reactors OSIRIS and ORPHEE of CEA Saclay (France). Then, the activations of graphite, concrete and other materials have been calculated in the whole reactor, as a function of the three main nuclear data libraries, i.e. ENDF, JEF and JENDL. In parallel, the activations of representative graphite and concrete samples have been measured experimentally. The comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental values validates the approach and the methodology used in the present study and tests the consistency and the reliability of the nuclear data used for activation analysis. We believe that a similar approach could also be used for the decommissioning of industrial nuclear reactors.

  18. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  19. Image Analysis of OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) Thermal Vacuum Test Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett Gordon, Kenneth; Bos, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission, which launched in September 2016, is to travel to the near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu, survey and map the asteroid, and return a scientifically interesting sample to Earth in 2023. As a part of its suite of integrated sensors, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft includes a Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS). The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, acquisition of the asteroid sample, and confirmation of the asteroid sample stowage in the spacecraft’s Sample Return Capsule (SRC). After first being calibrated at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) at the instrument level, the TAGCAMS were then transferred to Lockheed Martin (LM), where they were put through a progressive series of spacecraft-level environmental tests. These tests culminated in a several-week long, spacecraft-level thermal vacuum (TVAC) test during which hundreds of images were recorded. To analyze the images, custom codes were developed using MATLAB R2016a programming software. For analyses of the TAGCAMS dark images, the codes observed the dark current level for each of the images as a function of the camera-head temperature. Results confirm that the detector dark current noise has not increased and follows similar trends to the results measured at the instrument-level by MSSS. This indicates that the electrical performance of the camera system is stable, even after integration with the spacecraft, and will provide imagery with the required signal-to-noise ratio during spaceflight operations. During the TVAC testing, the TAGCAMS were positioned to view optical dot targets suspended in the chamber. Results for the TAGCAMS light images using a centroid analysis on the positions of the optical target holes indicate that the boresight pointing of the two navigation cameras depend on spacecraft temperature, but will not change by more than ten pixels (approximately 2

  20. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  1. Bright ice spots on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Pommerol, Antoine; Erard, Stéphane; Oklay, Nilda; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Sierks, Holger; Filacchione, Gianrico; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Guettler, Carsten; Fornasier, Sonia; Raponi, Andrea; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Feller, Clement; Ciarniello, Mauro; Leyrat, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    Since the Rosetta mission arrived at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67/P C-G) on August 2014, the comet nucleus has been mapped by both OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System), and VIRTIS (Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) acquiring a huge quantity of surface's images and spectra, producing the most detailed maps at the highest spatial resolution of a cometary nucleus. The OSIRIS imaging system (NAC & WAC) has a set of filters at different wavelengths from the ultraviolet (269 nm) to the near-infrared (989 nm). The OSIRIS imaging system has been the first instrument with the capability to map a comet surface at a high resolution reaching a maximum resolution of 11cm/px during the closest fly-by on February 14, 2015 at a distance of about 6 km from the nucleus surface while the VIRTIS spectro-imager (with two channels M and H) operates from 0.25 to 5m with medium and high spectral resolution. The spectral analysis on global scale from the VIRTIS data indicates that the nucleus presents different terrains covered by a very dark and dehydrated organic-rich material [1]. OSIRIS images indicate a morphologically complex and dark surface with a variety of terrain types and several intricate features [2]. The surface shows albedo variation and from the spectrophotometric analysis a large heterogeneity on the surface properties [3, 4, 5]. Limited evidences of exposed H2O ice have been found on the surface of 67/P C-G up to now [6, 7, 8], even though ices are considered to be a major constituent of cometary nuclei. The aim of this work is, taking advantage of the high resolution of the OSIRIS images, i) to detect the bright spots at all dimensions by albedo and spectral slope analyses, ii) to select those spots which could be resolved by VIRTIS and iii ) to deeply analyse the corresponding spectra. The OSIRIS analysis has been carried out on the colours and spectrophotometry of the whole 67/P C-G nucleus from images acquired

  2. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) for OSIRIS-REx: identifying regional elemental enrichment on asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Hong, Jaesub; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Kissel, Steven E.; Villasenor, Joel; Oprescu, Miruna; Induni, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Mission was selected under the NASA New Frontiers program and is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of asteroid Bennu in 2019. 101955 Bennu (previously 1999 RQ36) is an Apollo (near-Earth) asteroid originally discovered by the LINEAR project in 1999 which has since been classified as a potentially hazardous near-Earth object. The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) was proposed jointly by MIT and Harvard and was subsequently accepted as a student led instrument for the determination of the elemental composition of the asteroid's surface as well as the surface distribution of select elements through solar induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of a detector plane that contains 4 X-ray CCDs integrated into a wide field coded aperture telescope with a focal length of 20 em for the detection of regions with enhanced abundance in key elements at 50 m scales. Elemental surface distributions of approximately 50-200 m scales can be detected using the instrument as a simple collimator. An overview of the observation strategy of the REXIS instrument and expected performance are presented here.

  3. Dust activities near the dawn terminator on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xian; Hu, Xuanyu; Sierks, Holger; Kührt, Ekkehard; Güttler, Carsten; Knollenberg, Jörg; Oklay, Nilda

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution images obtained by the OSIRIS camera on board Rosetta spacecraft have revealed dust activities happening close to terminators on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While activities observed beyond dusk terminator in the night side are considered being sustained by subsurface thermal lag [1], those observed by the dawn terminator might be connected to the sublimation of water ice accumulated on the surface through re-condensation process during night [2,3]. In this study we present pre-perihelion observations of dust emission observed shortly after local sunrise. We investigate the location of these activities as well as their relation with local topography. A generic thermal-physical model will be applied to examine the feasibility of re-condensed ice on the surface being the source of such activities. [1] Shi, X., Hu, X., Sierks, H. et al., 2015, Sunset jets observed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sustained by subsurface thermal lag, A&A, accepted. [2] Prialnik, D., A'Hearn, M. F., & Meech, K. J., 2008, A mechanism for short-lived cometary outbursts at sunrise as observed by Deep Impact on 9P/Tempel 1, MNRAS, 388, L20. [3] De Sanctis, M. C., Capaccioni, F., Ciarniello, M. et al., 2015, The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Nature, 525, 500-503.

  4. Wolf-Rayet stars in M81: detection and characterization using GTC/OSIRIS spectra and HST/ACS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, V. M. A.; Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa-González, D.

    2016-08-01

    We here report the properties of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in 14 locations in the nearby spiral galaxy M81. These locations were found serendipitously while analysing the slit spectra of a sample of ˜150 star-forming complexes, taken using the long-slit and multiobject spectroscopic modes of the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Colours and magnitudes of the identified point sources in the Hubble Space Telescope images compare well with those of individual W-R stars in the Milky Way. Using templates of individual W-R stars, we infer that the objects responsible for the observed W-R features are single stars in 12 locations, comprising of three WNLs, three WNEs, two WCEs and four transitional WN/C types. In diagrams involving bump luminosities and the width of the bumps, the W-R stars of the same sub-class group together, with the transitional stars occupying locations intermediate between the WNE and WCE groups, as expected from the evolutionary models. However, the observed number of 4 transitional stars out of our sample of 14 is statistically high as compared to the 4 per cent expected in stellar evolutionary models.

  5. Evidence for a precession of the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G from ROSETTA/OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, Laurent; Gutierrez, Pedro; Davidsson, Bjoern; Gaskell, Robert; Hviid, Stubbe; Keller, Horst Uwe; Maquet, Lucie; Mottola, Stefano; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank

    2015-11-01

    The retrieval of the rotational parameters of comet 67P/C-G is part of the shape reconstruction process conducted from data collected by the OSIRIS imaging system aboard ROSETTA. Among other parameters, this includes the reconstruction of the (RA,Dec) direction of the Z axis of the body-fixed frame and that of the angular momentum vector. The stereophotogrammetric solution (Preusker et al., A&A 2015, in press) obtained in Aug-Sep 2014 already showed evidence for a complex rotation of comet 67P/C-G. A subsequent analysis of the rotational data obtained using the stereophotoclinometry method (Gaskell et al., MP&S 43, 1049, 2008) up to April 2015 also revealed a precession with a likelihood greater than 99.99 %. The amplitude and period of the (RA,Dec) variations measured with both methods are fully compatible.We propose an interpretation of the measured period as a combination of torque free motions: a rotation combined with a precession of small amplitude. The modeling of this motion has implications on the value of the moments of inertia, from which it is possible to constrain the internal density distribution of comet 67P/C-G.

  6. Implementation of a 3D version of ponderomotive guiding center solver in particle-in-cell code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Anton; Vieira, Jorge; Silva, Luis; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Laser-driven accelerators gained an increased attention over the past decades. Typical modeling techniques for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) are based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC simulations, however, are very computationally expensive due to the disparity of the relevant scales ranging from the laser wavelength, in the micrometer range, to the acceleration length, currently beyond the ten centimeter range. To minimize the gap between these despair scales the ponderomotive guiding center (PGC) algorithm is a promising approach. By describing the evolution of the laser pulse envelope separately, only the scales larger than the plasma wavelength are required to be resolved in the PGC algorithm, leading to speedups in several orders of magnitude. Previous work was limited to two dimensions. Here we present the implementation of the 3D version of a PGC solver into the massively parallel, fully relativistic PIC code OSIRIS. We extended the solver to include periodic boundary conditions and parallelization in all spatial dimensions. We present benchmarks for distributed and shared memory parallelization. We also discuss the stability of the PGC solver.

  7. “Two-step” technique with OsiriX™ to evaluate feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical fixation

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Luis Miguel Sousa; d’Almeida, Gonçalo Neto; Cabral, José

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of craniovertebral junction pathology has evolved considerably in recent decades with the implementation of short atlanto-axial fixation techniques, notwhithstanding increasing neurovascular risks. Also, there is strong evidence that fixation of C2 anatomical pedicle has the best biomechanical profile of the entire cervical spine. However, it is often difficult and misleading, to evaluate anatomical bony and vascular anomalies using the three orthogonal planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) of CT. Objectives: The authors describe an innovative and simple technique to evaluate the feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical screw fixation using preoperative planning with the free DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) software OsiriX™. Materials and Methods: The authors report the applicatin of this novel technique in 5 cases (3 traumatic, 1 Os Odontoideum, and 1 complex congenital malformation) collected from our general case series of the Department in the last 5 years. Results: In this proof of concept study, the pre-operative analysis with the two-step tecnique was detrimental for choosing the surgical tecnique. Detailed post-operative analysis confirmed correct position of C2 screws without cortical breach. There were no complications or mortality reported. Conclusion: This two-step technique is an easy and reliable way to determine the feasibility of C2 pedicle for surgical fixation. The detailed tridimensional radiological preoperative evaluation of craniovertebral junction anatomy is critical to the sucess and safety of this surgeries, and can avoid, to certain degree, expensive intra-operative tridimensional imaging facilities. PMID:27217652

  8. Geomorphological and spectrophotometric analysis of Seth's circular niches on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using OSIRIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Pajola, M.; Fornasier, S.; Mottola, S.; Penasa, L.; Jorda, L.; Cremonese, G.; Feller, C.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hoffman, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W. H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J. R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lin, L. Z.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J. B.

    2017-07-01

    We provide a detailed geomorphological and spectrophotometric analysis of the circular niches located on the Seth region of 67P using OSIRIS images. The features can be related to landslide events that occurred on 67P and shaped its surface, as the recent Aswan cliff collapse detected in the same region. We therefore provide an analysis of the area pre- and post-perihelion suggesting that no specific changes have been observed. To assess this, after performing a geomorphological map of the area that allows us to identify different terrain units, we computed the boulders cumulative size frequency distribution (SFD) of the niches, before and after the perihelion passage. The niches SFDs are characterized by a similar trend with two different power-law indices within the same deposit: lower power-law value (between -2.3 and -2.7) for boulders smaller than 5 m and steeper power-law value (between -4.7 and -5.0) for boulders larger than 5 m. These trends suggest that smaller boulders have evolved and progressively have been depleted (lower power-law index), while bigger boulders are more representative of the event that generated the deposit and are less degraded. Then, we perform the spectrophotometric analysis of this region comparing pre- and post-perihelion results. We found colour changes within the area, in particular brighter patches related to the presence of exposed water ice mixed to the refractory materials have been detected in the post-perihelion images.

  9. Ground-based and orbital off-axis aspherized grating imager-spectrographs: ISARD-OMP and OSIRIS-ODIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Richardson, Eric H.

    1998-07-01

    Progress in Active Optics Methods has led to the invention and production of blazed aspherical gratings. These developments use jointly 'vase form' submasters and a two-stage replication technique. It has been shown that the use of aspherized gratings greatly minimizes the number of optical surfaces. This improves the optical throughput of astronomical spectrographs and has a capability of correcting camera mirror aberrations up to f/1.2. With respect to refractive designs, the full achromaticity in correcting mirror aberrations by constant line spacing reflective gratings allows much broader spectral coverages -- hereafter [(lambda) (lambda) ] approximately equals 2 octaves. In addition, and also due to a full reflective design, such instruments provide quasi- constant spectral dispersions and are distortion free. These latter features increase the accuracy in the data reduction process (sky substraction, etc. ...), and are particularly convenient in the multi-aperture mode. Recent developments in this field are presented with imager-spectrograph ISARD, dedicated to the Cassegrain focus of the 2m Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory for faint object studies in the optical domain [320 - 1200 nm], and with spectrograph OSIRIS, to be launched in a ODIN orbital mission in 1998 and built by the Canadian Space Agency for studies in the spectral range [295 - 800 nm].

  10. OSIRIS, a quest for proof of principle for integrated testing strategies of chemicals for four human health endpoints.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Theo; Aldenberg, Tom; Buist, Harrie; Escher, Sylvia; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Pauné, Eduard; Rorije, Emiel; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Chemical substances policies in Europe are aiming towards chemical safety and at the same time a reduction in animal testing. These goals are alleged to be reachable by mining as many relevant data as possible, evaluate these data with regard to validity, reliability and relevance, and use of these data in so-called Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS). This paper offers an overview of four human health endpoints that were part of the EU-funded OSIRIS project, aiming to develop ITS fit for the EU chemicals legislation REACH. The endpoints considered cover their categorical as well as continuous characteristics: skin sensitisation, repeated dose toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Detailed papers are published elsewhere in this volume. The stepwise ITS approach developed takes advantage of existing information, groups information about similar substances and integrates exposure considerations. The different and possibly contradictory information is weighted and the respective uncertainties taken into account in a weight of evidence (WoE) approach. In case of data gaps, the ITS proposes the most appropriate method to acquire the missing information. Each building block for the ITS, i.e. each in vivo test, in vitro test, (Q)SAR model or human evidence, is evaluated with regard to quality.

  11. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS).

    PubMed

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Batke, Monika; Kroese, Dinant; Buist, Harrie; Aldenberg, Tom; Pauné, Eduard; Grimm, Helvi; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Escher, Sylvia E

    2013-11-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evaluates the conditions under which in vivo non-guideline studies are reliable. In a tiered approach three aspects of these "non-guideline" studies are assessed: the documentation of the study (reliability), the quality of the study design (adequacy) and the scope of examination (validity). The reliability is addressed by the method "Knock-out criteria", which consists of four essential criteria for repeated-dose toxicity studies. A second tool, termed QUANTOS (Quality Assessment of Non-guideline Toxicity Studies), evaluates and weights the adequacy of the study by using intra-criterion and inter-criteria weighting. Finally, the Coverage approach calculates a probability that the detected Lowest-Observed-Effect-Level (LOEL) is similar to the LOEL of a guideline study dependent on the examined targets and organs of the non-guideline study. If the validity and adequacy of the non-guideline study are insufficient for risk assessment, the ITS proposes to apply category approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept, and only as a last resort new animal-testing.

  12. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  13. High energy reactor neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raper, Neill

    We present the first measurement of a nonzero reactor neutrino flux with energies above 8 MeV. Measurements are taken with the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiments detectors, using the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station as a source. Disagreement between data and theory regarding rate and shape of reactor neutrino spectra have made the need for direct measurement clear. Data are especially useful at high energies, where far fewer isotopes contribute. Neutrino candidates are correlated to reactor power and reactor power is extrapolated to zero in order to separate neutrino events from background. We find evidence of reactor neutrinos up to ˜12.5 MeV at 1.92 sigma above 0 and include a survey of isotopes likely to be contributing neutrinos in this energy range.

  14. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  15. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  16. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Dreffin, R.S.

    1959-12-15

    A control means for a nuclear reactor is described. Particularly a device extending into the active portion of the reactor consisting of two hollow elements coaxially disposed and forming a channel therebetween, the cross sectional area of the channel increasing from each extremity of the device towards the center thereof. An element of neutron absorbing material is slidably positionable within the inner hollow element and a fluid reactor poison is introduced into the channel defined by the two hollow elements.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Goett, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A system is described which includes a neutronic reactor containing a dispersion of fissionable material in a liquid moderator as fuel and a conveyor to which a portion of the dispersion may be passed and wherein the self heat of the slurry evaporates the moderator. Means are provided for condensing the liquid moderator and returning it to the reactor and for conveying the dried fissionable material away from the reactor.

  19. FLOW SYSTEM FOR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1963-06-11

    A reactor is designed with means for terminating the reaction when returning coolant is below a predetermined temperature. Coolant flowing from the reactor passes through a heat exchanger to a lower reservoir, and then circulates between the lower reservoir and an upper reservoir before being returned to the reactor. Means responsive to the temperature of the coolant in the return conduit terminate the chain reaction when the temperature reaches a predetermined minimum value. (AEC)

  20. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  1. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  2. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Adam; Dazeley, Steve; Dobie, Doug; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, Jim; Gerling, Mark; Sumner, Matthew; Sweany, Melinda

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  4. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  5. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    PubMed

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  6. Combined analysis of neutron and photon flux measurements for the Jules Horowitz reactor core mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J. P.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J. Y.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Merroun, O.; Brun, J.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2011-07-01

    We study the combined analysis of nuclear measurements to improve the knowledge of the irradiation conditions in the experimental locations of the future Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The goal of the present work is to measure more accurately neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating in the reactor. In a Material Testing Reactor (MTR), nuclear heating is a crucial parameter to design the experimental devices to be irradiated in harsh nuclear conditions. This parameter drives the temperature of the devices and of the samples. The numerical codes can predict this parameter but in-situ measurements are necessary to reach the expected accuracy. For this reason, one objective of the IN-CORE program [1] is to study the combined measurements of neutron and photon flux and their cross advanced interpretation. It should be reminded that both neutron and photon sensors are not totally selective as their signals are due to neutron and photon interactions. We intend to measure the neutron flux by three different kinds of sensors (Uranium Fission chamber, Plutonium Fission chamber and Self Powered Neutron Detector), the photon flux by two different sensors (Ionization chamber and Self Powered Gamma Detector) and the nuclear heating by two different ones (Differential calorimeter and Gamma Thermometer). For the same parameter, we expect that the use of different kinds of sensors will allow a better estimation of the aimed parameter by mixing different spectrum responses and different neutron and gamma contributions. An experimental test called CARMEN-1 is scheduled in OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay - France) at the end of 2011, with the goal to map irradiation locations in the reactor reflector to get a first validation of the analysis model. This article focuses on the sensor selection for CARMEN-1 experiment and to the way to link neutron and photon flux measurements in view to reduce their uncertainties but also to better assess the neutron and photon contributions to nuclear

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1959-02-10

    A reactor system incorporating a reactor of the heterogeneous boiling water type is described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a core submerged adwater in the lower half of a pressure vessel and two distribution rings connected to a source of water are disposed within the pressure vessel above the reactor core, the lower distribution ring being submerged adjacent to the uppcr end of the reactor core and the other distribution ring being located adjacent to the top of the pressure vessel. A feed-water control valve, responsive to the steam demand of the load, is provided in the feedwater line to the distribution rings and regulates the amount of feed water flowing to each distribution ring, the proportion of water flowing to the submerged distribution ring being proportional to the steam demand of the load. This invention provides an automatic means exterior to the reactor to control the reactivity of the reactor over relatively long periods of time without relying upon movement of control rods or of other moving parts within the reactor structure.

  8. REFLECTOR FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.

    1963-08-01

    A reflector for nuclear reactors that comprises an assembly of closely packed graphite rods disposed with their major axes substantially perpendicular to the interface between the reactor core and the reflector is described. Each graphite rod is round in transverse cross section at (at least) its interface end and is provided, at that end, with a coaxial, inwardly tapering hole. (AEC)

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  10. N Reactor hydrogen control

    SciTech Connect

    Shuford, D.H.; Kripps, L.J.

    1988-08-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union, a number of reviews were conducted of the N Reactor. Hydrogen generation during postulates severe accidents and the possibility of resulting hydrogen deflagrations/detonations that could affect confinement integrity were issues raised in several reviews, along with recommendations for adding hydrogen mitigation features. To respond to these reviews, an N Reactor Safety Enhancement Program and a subsequent Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program were initiated to address all post-Chernobyl N Reactor review findings. The Safety Enhancement Program and Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program efforts involving hydrogen control included the following: Calculate the potential hydrogen source for a range of severe accidents at the N Reactor to establish an acceptable design basis for the hydrogen mitigation system; Analyze the N Reactor confinement hydrogen mixing capability to identify areas of concern and to the verify effectiveness of the hydrogen mitigation system; Select, design, and construct a hydrogen mitigation system to enhance the N Reactor capability to accommodate possible hydrogen generation from postulated severe accidents; Provide post-accident hydrogen monitoring as an operator aid in assessing confinement conditions. In additions, it was necessary to verify that incorporation of the hydrogen mitigation system had no adverse impact N Reactor safety (e.g., radiological consequence analyses). 77 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  12. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  14. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  15. Thermal Assessment of Sunlight Impinging on OSIRIS-REx OCAMS PolyCam, OTES, and IMU-Sunshade MLI Blankets in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft was successfully launched into orbit on September 8, 2016. It is traveling to a near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, study it in detail, and bring back a pristine sample to Earth for scientific analyses. At the Outbound Cruise nominal spacecraft attitude, with Sun on +X, sunlight impinges on the OSIRIS-REx camera suite (OCAMS) PolyCam sunshade multilayer insulation (MLI) with microporous black polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a portion of the PolyCam optics support tube (MLI with germanium black Kapton (GBK)), a portion of the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) sunshade (MLI with GBK), the Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) sunshade (MLI with GBK), and the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) sunshade (MLI with GBK). Sunlight is reflected or scattered by the above MLIs to the other components on the forward (+Z) deck. It illuminates the forward deck. A detailed thermal assessment on the solar impingement has been performed for the Proximity Ops at the asteroid, Touch-and-Go (TAG) sample acquisition, and Return Cruise mission phases.The OSIRIS-REx Outbound Cruise flight temperature telemetry and USM_3_DPC_0_CURRENT flight currenttelemetry data have been analyzed. It is evident that at the nominal Outbound Cruise spacecraft Sun-pointing attitude(i.e., Sun on +X), sunlight impinging on the PolyCam, OTES, IMU-sunshade and OLA-sunshade MLIs is reflected orscattered to the forward deck and components on the forward deck. It illuminates the forward deck. The StowCam imageof Day 265 2016 also provided an evidence. The reflected or scattered sunlight cause warming to the forward deck andcomponents on its +Z side. It may also contribute to degradation of thermal coatings over the mission life. It is a factorthat the OVIRS detector operating temperature exceeds the 105K maximum AFT limit. The OVIRS PrincipalInvestigator indicated that it is not optimum

  16. REACTOR FUEL SCAVENGING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1962-04-10

    A process for removing fission products from reactor liquid fuel without interfering with the reactor's normal operation or causing a significant change in its fuel composition is described. The process consists of mixing a liquid scavenger alloy composed of about 44 at.% plutoniunm, 33 at.% lanthanum, and 23 at.% nickel or cobalt with a plutonium alloy reactor fuel containing about 3 at.% lanthanum; removing a portion of the fuel and scavenger alloy from the reactor core and replacing it with an equal amount of the fresh scavenger alloy; transferring the portion to a quiescent zone where the scavenger and the plutonium fuel form two distinct liquid layers with the fission products being dissolved in the lanthanum-rich scavenger layer; and the clean plutonium-rich fuel layer being returned to the reactor core. (AEC)

  17. Reactor Operations Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-05

    The K-Reactor last operated in April 1988. At that time, K-Reactor was one of three operating reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Following an incident in P-Reactor in August 1988, it was decided to discontinue SRS reactor operation and conduct an extensive program to upgrade operating practices and plant hardware prior to restart of any of the reactors. The K-reactor was the first of three reactors scheduled to resume production. At the present time, it is the only reactor with planned restart. WSRC assumed management of SRS on April 1, 1989. WSRC established the Safety Basis for Restart and a listing of the actions planned to satisfy the Safety Basis. In consultation with DOE, it was determined that proper management of the restart activities would require a single plan that integrated the numerous activities. The plan was entitled the Reactor Operations Management Plan and is referred to simply as the ROMP. The initial version of ROMP was produced in July of 1989. Subsequent modifications led to Revision 3 which was approved by DOE in May, 1990. Other changes were made in a formal change process, resulting in the latest version, Revision 5, being issued in October, 1990. The ROMP contains three key parts: first, the Restart Safety Basis; second, a description of the process for addressing new technical issues and a listing of the established workscope and the associated acceptance criteria; and three, a schedule for executing the work. I will discuss the first two areas, along with the closure process used to assure the intent of ROMP was met. The ROMP activities are all complete and I will not discuss schedule further.

  18. OSIRIS-REx and mission sample science: The return of at least 60 g of pristine regolith from asteroid Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission was selected by NASA in May 2011 as the third New Frontiers mission. The target, (101955) Bennu, is a B-type near-Earth asteroid (NEA), hypothesized to be similar to CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites. The key science objectives of the mission are summarized in [1]. To meet these science objectives, the science team is coordinated and governed by the Science Executive Council (SEC): A group of six persons that run various elements of mission science. Mission Sample Science (MSS) is charged with analysis of the returned sample. Mission Sample Science: MSS is run by a Mission Scientist and composed of the following working groups: Carbonaceous Meteorite Working Group (CMWG), Dynamical Evolution Working Group (DEWG), Regolith Development Working Group (RDWG), Sample Analysis Working Group (SampleWG), Sample Site Science Working Group (SSSWG), and TAGSAM Working Group (TAGSAMWG). CMWG works to define and create well-characterized test samples, both natural and synthetic, for the development of spectral test data. These data are used to verify the depth and accuracy of spectral analysis techniques for processing data collected by the OSIRIS-REx spectrometers (OVIRS and OTES). The DEWG is charged with constraining the history of asteroid Bennu from main-belt asteroid to NEA. They also work closely with the SampleWG to define the hypotheses for the dynamical evolution of Bennu through the analysis of the returned sample. The RDWG is focused on developing constraints on the origin and evolution of regolith on Bennu through investigations of the surface geology and, working with the SampleWG, test these hypotheses through sample analysis. RDWG is also focused on the analysis of the sampling event and reconstructing what occurred during the event. SampleWG is focused on documenting Contamination Knowledge, which is distinct but

  19. A mini outburst from the nightside of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS camera on Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knollenberg, J.; Lin, Z. Y.; Hviid, S. F.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Mottola, S.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Davidsson, B.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Kührt, E.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Thomas, N.; Güttler, C.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-12-01

    Context. On 12 March 2015 the OSIRIS WAC camera onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed a small outburst originating from the Imhotep region at the foot of the big lobe of the comet. These measurements are unique since it was the first time that the initial phase of a transient outburst event could be directly observed. Aims: We investigate the evolution of the dust jet in order to derive clues about the outburst source mechanism and the ejected dust particles, in particular the dust mass, dust-to-gas ratio and the particle size distribution. Methods: Analysis of the images and of the observation geometry using comet shape models in combination with gasdynamic modeling of the transient dust jet were the main tools used in this study. Synthetic images were computed for comparison with the observations. Results: Analysis of the geometry revealed that the source region was not illuminated until 1.5 h after the event implying true nightside activity was observed. The outburst lasted for less than one hour and the average dust production rate during the initial four minutes was of the order of 1 kg/s. During this time the outburst dust production rate was approximately constant, no sign for an initial explosion could be detected. For dust grains between 0.01-1 mm a power law size distribution characterized by an index of about 2.6 provides the best fit to the observed radiance profiles. The dust-to-gas ratio of the outburst jet is in the range 0.6-1.8.

  20. Decimetre-scaled spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, C.; Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jorda, L.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; ElMaary, M. R.; Thomas, N.; Belskaya, I.; Pajola, M.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Fulle, M.; Giquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Keller, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, M. L.; Lazzarin, M.; Leyrat, C.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Masoumzadeh, N.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Perna, D.; Oklay, N.; Shi, X.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus derived with the OSIRIS instrument during the closest fly-by over the comet, which took place on 14 th February 2015 at a distance of {\\~} 6 km from the surface. Several images covering the 0{\\deg}-33{\\deg} phase angle range were acquired, and the spatial resolution achieved was 11 cm/pxl. The flown-by region is located on the big lobe of the comet, near the borders of the Ash, Apis and Imhotep regions. Our analysis shows that this region features local heterogeneities at the decimetre scale. We observed difference of reflectance up to 40{\\%} between bright spots and sombre regions, and spectral slope variations up to 50{\\%}. The spectral reddening effect observed globally on the comet surface by Fornasier et al. (2015) is also observed locally on this region, but with a less steep behaviour. We note that numerous metre-sized boulders, which exhibit a smaller opposition effect, also appear spectrally redder than their surroundings. In this region, we found no evidence linking observed bright spots to exposed water-ice-rich material. We fitted our dataset using the Hapke 2008 photometric model. The region overflown is globally as dark as the whole nucleus (geometric albedo of 6.8{\\%}) and it has a high porosity value in the uppermost-layers (86{\\%}). These results of the photometric analysis at a decimetre scale indicate that the photometric properties of the flown-by region are similar to those previously found for the whole nucleus.

  1. Cliffs versus plains: Can ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in autumn 2014 constrain inhomogeneous outgassing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, R.; Mottola, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Rubin, M.; Wu, J. S.; Thomas, N.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Skorov, Y.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Vincent, J.-B.; Osiris Team; Rosina Team

    2017-09-01

    Context. This paper describes the modelling of gas and dust data acquired in the period August to October 2014 from the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft when it was in close proximity to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: With our 3D gas and dust comae models this work attempts to test the hypothesis that cliff activity on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can solely account for the local gas density data observed by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) and the dust brightnesses seen by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) in the considered time span. Methods: The model uses a previously developed shape model of the nucleus. From this, the water sublimation rates and gas temperatures at the surface are computed. The gas expansion is modelled with a 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo algorithm. A dust drag algorithm is then used to compute dust volume number densities in the coma, which are then converted to brightnesses using Mie theory and a line-of-sight integration. Furthermore we have studied the impact of topographic re-radiation on the models. Results: We show that gas activity from only cliff areas produces a fit to the ROSINA/COPS data that is as statistically good as a purely insolation-driven model. In contrast, pure cliff activity does not reproduce the dust brightness observed by OSIRIS and can thus be ruled out. On the other hand, gas activity from the Hapi region in addition to cliff activity produces a statistically better fit to the ROSINA/COPS data than purely insolation-driven outgassing and also fits the OSIRIS observations rather well. We found that topographic re-radiation does not contribute significantly to the sublimation behaviour of H2O but plays an important role in how the gas flux interacts with the irregular shape of the nucleus. Conclusions: We demonstrate that fits to the observations are non-unique. We can conclude however that gas and dust

  2. REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING WATER PIPES, COOLING AIR DUCTS, AND SHIELDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 776. Unknown Photographer, 10/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  4. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  5. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1958-10-14

    Methods of controlling reactors are presented. Specifically, a plurality of neutron absorber members are adjustably disposed in the reactor core at different distances from the center thereof. The absorber members extend into the core from opposite faces thereof and are operated by motive means coupled in a manner to simultaneously withdraw at least one of the absorber members while inserting one of the other absorber members. This feature effects fine control of the neutron reproduction ratio by varying the total volume of the reactor effective in developing the neutronic reaction.

  8. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Mitrovski, Svetlana M

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  9. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  10. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.; Misvel, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  11. COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Binner, C.R.; Wilkie, C.B.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to a design for a reactor of the type in which a fluid coolant is flowed through the active portion of the reactor. This design provides for the cooling of the shielding material as well as the reactor core by the same fluid coolant. The core structure is a solid moderator having coolant channels in which are disposed the fuel elements in rod or slug form. The coolant fluid enters the chamber in the shield, in which the core is located, passes over the inner surface of said chamber, enters the core structure at the center, passes through the coolant channels over the fuel elements and out through exhaust ducts.

  12. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  13. Retrofit Russian research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mabe, W.

    1993-04-01

    A likely source for enriched uranium for production of a gun-type bomb might be a research reactor. A state or terrorist organization would find the technical process for separating uranium from the reactor fuel plates is simple and well-published. An unguarded research reactor could be found in the former Soviet Union. Russia and the former republics have seen an increasing number of terrorist incidents, including hijackings and bombings. Recognizing the danger, Russia and the U.S. have explored means of safeguarding former Soviet weapons materials. This article describes some of the plans to reduce the risk of nuclear materials being obtained for illicit weapons production.

  14. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  15. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  16. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  17. Delayed Gamma Measurements in Different Nuclear Research Reactors Bringing Out the Importance of the Delayed Contribution in Gamma Flux Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Radulovic, V.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J-F.; Zerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Malouch, F.

    2015-07-01

    Neutron and gamma flux levels are key parameters in nuclear research reactors. In Material Testing Reactors, such as the future Jules Horowitz Reactor, under construction at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache, France), the expected gamma flux levels are very high (nuclear heating is of the order of 20 W/g at 100 MWth). As gamma rays deposit their energy in the reactor structures and structural materials it is important to take them into account when designing irradiation devices. There are only a few sensors which allow measurements of the nuclear heating ; a recent development at the CEA Cadarache allows measurements of the gamma flux using a miniature ionization chamber (MIC). The measured MIC response is often compared with calculation using modern Monte Carlo (MC) neutron and photon transport codes, such as TRIPOLI-4 and MCNP6. In these calculations only the production of prompt gamma rays in the reactor is usually modelled thus neglecting the delayed gamma rays. Hence calculations and measurements are usually in better accordance for the neutron flux than for the gamma flux. In this paper we study the contribution of delayed gamma rays to the total MIC signal in order to estimate the systematic error in gamma flux MC calculations. In order to experimentally determine the delayed gamma flux contributions to the MIC response, we performed gamma flux measurements with CEA developed MIC at three different research reactors: the OSIRIS reactor (MTR - 70 MWth at CEA Saclay, France), the TRIGA MARK II reactor (TRIGA - 250 kWth at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) and the MARIA reactor (MTR - 30 MWth at the National Center for Nuclear Research, Poland). In order to experimentally assess the delayed gamma flux contribution to the total gamma flux, several reactor shut down (scram) experiments were performed specifically for the purpose of the measurements. Results show that on average about 30 % of the MIC signal is due to

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor core, comprised of vertical stacks of hexagonal blocks of beryllium oxide having axial cylindrical apertures extending therethrough and cylindrical rods of a sintered mixture of uranium dioxide and beryllium oxide, is described. (AEC)

  19. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  20. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-10

    Uranium-aluminum alloys in which boron is homogeneously dispersed by adding it as a nickel boride are described. These compositions have particular utility as fuels for neutronic reactors, boron being present as a burnable poison.

  2. Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    New Fixed-Bed Catalyst System Provides Significant Reduction in Energy and Hazard Exposure. Hydrogenation is an essential industrial reaction that is often performed using a slurry catalyst system in large stirred-tank reactors.

  3. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  4. Modelling of the inner gas and dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data - First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, R.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Thomas, N.; Wu, J. S.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Rubin, M.; Skorov, Y.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Gicquel, A.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Naletto, G.

    2015-10-01

    The physics of the outflow above the surface of comets is somewhat complex. Ice sublimating into vacuum forms a non-equilibrium boundary layer, the "Knudsen layer" (Kn-layer), with a scale height of #20 mean free paths. If the production rate is low, the Kn-layer becomes infinitely thick and the velocity distribution function (VDF) remains strongly non-Maxwellian. Thus our preferred method for gas dynamics simulations of the coma is Direct Simulation Monte Carlo DSMC. Here we report on the first results of models of the outflow from the Rosetta target, comet67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (C-G). Our aims are to (1) determine the gas flow-field of H2O and CO2 in the innermost coma and compare the results to the in-situ measurements of the ROSINA/COPS instrument (2) produce artificial images of the dust brightnesses that can be compared to the OSIRIS cameras. The comparison with ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data help to constrain the initial conditions of the simulations and thus yield information on the surface processes.

  5. Molten metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  6. Compact power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  7. K-Reactor readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-04

    This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan.

  8. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  9. K-Reactor readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-04

    This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    West, J.M.; Weills, J.T.

    1960-03-15

    A method is given for operating a nuclear reactor having a negative coefficient of reactivity to compensate for the change in reactor reactivity due to the burn-up of the xenon peak following start-up of the reactor. When it is desired to start up the reactor within less than 72 hours after shutdown, the temperature of the reactor is lowered prior to start-up, and then gradually raised after start-up.

  11. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  12. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2016-07-12

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  13. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  14. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  15. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  16. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  17. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey . I. OSIRIS transmission spectroscopy of the short period planet WASP-43b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgas, F.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Nortmann, L.; Hoyer, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In this work, we use long-slit spectroscopy observations of a transit event of the close-in orbiting planet WASP-43b (Mp = 2.034 MJup, Rp = 1.036 RJup) in an effort to detect its atmosphere. Methods: We used the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) instrument OSIRIS to obtain long-slit spectra in the optical range 520-1040 nm of the planetary host star WASP-43 and of a reference star during a full primary transit event and four partial transit observations. We integrated the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves. We fitted transit models to these curves to measure the star-to-planet radius ratio, Rp/Rs, across wavelength among other physical parameters. Results: We measure a mean planet-to-star radius ratio in the white light curve of 0.15988-0.00145+0.00133. Using broadband filters, we detect the color signature of WASP-43. We present a tentative detection in the planet-to-star radius ratio around the Na i doublet (λ 588.9, 589.5 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum at the 2.9σ level. We find no significant excess of the measured planet-to-star radius ratio around the K i doublet (λ 766.5 nm, 769.9 nm) when compared to the nearby continuum. Combining our observations with previously published epochs, we refine the estimation of the orbital period. Using a linear ephemeris, we obtained a period of P = 0.81347385 ± 1.5 × 10-7 days. Using a quadratic ephemeris, we obtained an orbital period of 0.81347688 ± 8.6 × 10-7 days, and a change in this parameter of Ṗ = -0.15 ± 0.06 s/year. As previous results, this hints to the orbital decay of this planet although a timing analysis over several years needs to be made to confirm this. Photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A41Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Observations of Uranus and Neptune in Spanish Telescopes: Calar Alto/PlanetCam, WHT/Ingrid y GTC/Osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Mendikoa, I.

    2017-03-01

    The astronomical observation of the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune poses unique challenges. Both planets are relatively dimm objects (visual magnitude of +5.3 and +7.7) and have small angular sizes (3.7” and 2.4” at opposition). Both worlds have atmospheres that are very dynamic, specially Neptune. These atmospheres are dominated by intense zonal winds that reach 450 m/s and where seasonal evolution changes the band patterns present in these planets. Thanks to the atmospheric methane gas, when observing Uranus and Neptune in near infrared wavelengths their upper clouds become well contrasted and bright and observations at different methane absorption bands allow to sample the atmosphere at different vertical layers. Both worlds are subject to the development of bright cloud patterns, some times of convective origin and whose activity can extend over weeks to several months or years. In the last few years we have surveyed the atmospheric activity of Uranus and Neptune with instruments able to improve the spatial resolution of the images beyond the limits impose by the atmospheric seeing. We use the Lucky Imaging technique (fast observation of several short-exposure frames combined with automatic selection of best frames and coregistration for stacking). We present image observations of Uranus and Neptune obtained with the instruments: OSIRIS at Grantecan as well as the AstraLux and PlanetCam UPV/EHU cameras on the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto observatory. These observations are compared with other observations acquired by amateur astronomers able to obtain resolve cloud features in Uranus and Neptune. We compare these observations with images acquired with Adaptive Optics instruments at the William Herschel with the NAOMI+Ingrid instruments and Keck II and with Hubble Space Telescope images. We show the importance of surveying the atmospheric activity of these planets with a variety of telescopes. Two science cases are presented: The study of convective

  19. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  20. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  1. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  2. REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-06-24

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

  3. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  4. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  5. Shape model, reference system definition, and cartographic mapping standards for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - Stereo-photogrammetric analysis of Rosetta/OSIRIS image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, T.; Willner, K.; Hviid, S. F.; Knollenberg, J.; Jorda, L.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Kührt, E.; Mottola, S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Thomas, N.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W.-H.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed more than 200 OSIRIS NAC images with a pixel scale of 0.9-2.4 m/pixel of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) that have been acquired from onboard the Rosetta spacecraft in August and September 2014 using stereo-photogrammetric methods (SPG). We derived improved spacecraft position and pointing data for the OSIRIS images and a high-resolution shape model that consists of about 16 million facets (2 m horizontal sampling) and a typical vertical accuracy at the decimeter scale. From this model, we derive a volume for the northern hemisphere of 9.35 km3 ± 0.1 km3. With the assumption of a homogeneous density distribution and taking into account the current uncertainty of the position of the comet's center-of-mass, we extrapolated this value to an overall volume of18.7 km3± 1.2 km3, and, with a current best estimate of 1.0 × 1013 kg for the mass, we derive a bulk density of 535 kg/m3± 35 kg/m3. Furthermore, we used SPG methods to analyze the rotational elements of 67P. The rotational period for August and September 2014 was determined to be 12.4041 ± 0.0004 h. For the orientation of the rotational axis (z-axis of the body-fixed reference frame) we derived a precession model with a half-cone angle of 0.14°, a cone center position at 69.54°/64.11° (RA/Dec J2000 equatorial coordinates), and a precession period of 10.7 days. For the definition of zero longitude (x-axis orientation), we finally selected the boulder-like Cheops feature on the big lobe of 67P and fixed its spherical coordinates to 142.35° right-hand-rule eastern longitude and -0.28° latitude. This completes the definition of the new Cheops reference frame for 67P. Finally, we defined cartographic mapping standards for common use and combined analyses of scientific results that have been obtained not only within the OSIRIS team, but also within other groups of the Rosetta mission. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Canine atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors - description and validation of a novel 3D presurgical planning method using OsiriX™.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Guillaume; Gaitero, Luis; Moens, Noel M; Zur Linden, Alex; James, Fiona M K; Monteith, Gabrielle; Runciman, John

    2016-09-06

    Canine ventral atlantoaxial (AA) stabilization is most commonly performed in very small dogs and is technically challenging due to extremely narrow bone corridors. Multiple implantation sites have been suggested but detailed anatomical studies investigating these sites are lacking and therefore current surgical guidelines are based upon approximate anatomical landmarks. In order to study AA optimal safe implantation corridors (OSICs), we developed a method based on computed tomography (CT) and semi-automated three-dimensional (3D) mathematical modelling using OsiriX™ and Microsoft®Excel software. The objectives of this study were 1- to provide a detailed description of the bone corridor analysis method and 2- to assess the reproducibility of the method. CT images of the craniocervical junction were prospectively obtained in 27 dogs and our method of OSIC analysis was applied in all dogs. For each dog, 13 optimal implant sites were simulated via geometrical simplification of the bone corridors. Each implant 3D position was then defined with respect to anatomical axes using 2 projected angles (ProjA). The safety margins around each implant were also estimated with angles (SafA) measured in 4 orthogonal directions. A sample of 12 simulated implants was randomly selected and each mathematically calculated angle was compared to direct measurements obtained within OsiriX™ from 2 observers repeated twice. The landmarks simulating anatomical axes were also positioned 4 times to determine their effect on ProjA reproducibility. OsiriX could be used successfully to simulate optimal implant positions in all cases. There was excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values for both ProjA (ρc = 0.9986) and SafA (ρc = 0.9996). Absolute differences between calculated and measured values were respectively [ProjA = 0.44 ± 0.53°; SafA = 0.27 ± 0.25°] and [ProjA = 0.26 ± 0.21°; SafA = 0.18 ± 0.18°] for each observer

  7. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  8. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  9. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  10. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  11. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  12. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  13. A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, E.A.; Vandenberg, L.B.

    1959-09-01

    A nuclear reactor for producing thermoelectric power is described. The reactor core comprises a series of thermoelectric assemblies, each assembly including fissionable fuel as an active element to form a hot junction and a thermocouple. The assemblies are disposed parallel to each other to form spaces and means are included for Introducing an electrically conductive coolant between the assemblies to form cold junctions of the thermocouples. An electromotive force is developed across the entire series of the thermoelectric assemblies due to fission heat generated in the fuel causing a current to flow perpendicular to the flow of coolant and is distributed to a load outside of the reactor by means of bus bars electrically connected to the outermost thermoelectric assembly.

  14. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  15. Chemistry in microstructured reactors.

    PubMed

    Jähnisch, Klaus; Hessel, Volker; Löwe, Holger; Baerns, Manfred

    2004-01-16

    The application of microstructured reactors in the chemical process industry has gained significant importance in recent years. Companies that offer not only microstructured reactors, but also entire chemical process plants and services relating to them, are already in existence. In addition, many institutes and universities are active within this field, and process-engineering-oriented reviews and a specialized book are available. Microstructured systems can be applied with particular success in the investigation of highly exothermic and fast reactions. Often the presence of temperature-induced side reactions can be significantly reduced through isothermal operations. Although microstructured reaction techniques have been shown to optimize many synthetic procedures, they have not yet received the attention they deserve in organic chemistry. For this reason, this Review aims to address this by providing an overview of the chemistry in microstructured reactors, grouped into liquid-phase, gas-phase, and gas-liquid reactions.

  16. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  18. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Graham, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A wholly mechanical compact control device is designed for automatically rendering the core of a fission reactor subcritical in response to core temperatures in excess of the design operating temperature limit. The control device comprises an expansible bellows interposed between the base of a channel in a reactor core and the inner end of a fuel cylinder therein which is normally resiliently urged inwardly. The bellows contains a working fluid which undergoes a liquid to vapor phase change at a temperature substantially equal to the design temperature limit. Hence, the bellows abruptiy expands at this limiting temperature to force the fuel cylinder outward and render the core subcritical. The control device is particularly applicable to aircraft propulsion reactor service. (AEC)

  19. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  20. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-10-15

    Gas-cooled solid-moderator type reactors wherein the fissionable fuel and moderator materials are each in the form of solid pebbles, or discrete particles, and are substantially homogeneously mixed in the proper proportion and placed within the core of the reactor are described. The shape of these discrete particles must be such that voids are present between them when mixed together. Helium enters the bottom of the core and passes through the voids between the fuel and moderator particles to absorb the heat generated by the chain reaction. The hot helium gas is drawn off the top of the core and may be passed through a heat exchanger to produce steam.

  2. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  3. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  4. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  5. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  6. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  7. ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a status report on technical progress relative to the tasks identified for the fifth year of Grant No. FG02-85-ER52118. The ARIES tokamak reactor study is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of the tokamak as an attractive fusion reactor with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The ARIES study is being coordinated by UCLA and involves a number of institutions, including RPI. The RPI group has been pursuing the following areas of research in the context of the ARIES-I design effort: MHD equilibrium and stability analyses; plasma-edge modeling and blanket materials issues. Progress in these areas is summarized herein.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  9. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  10. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  11. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  12. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  13. MEANS FOR SHIELDING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, W.M.; McClinton, L.T.; Burton, M.

    1959-03-10

    A reactor of the heterageneous, heavy water moderated type is described. The reactor is comprised of a plurality of vertically disposed fuel element tubes extending through a tank of heavy water moderator and adapted to accommodate a flow of coolant water in contact with the fuel elements. A tank containing outgoing coolant water is disposed above the core to function is a radiation shield. Unsaturated liquid hydrocarbon is floated on top of the water in the shield tank to reduce to a minimum the possibility of the occurrence of explosive gaseous mixtures resulting from the neutron bombardment of the water in the shield tank.

  14. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  15. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. The global shape, density and rotation of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from preperihelion Rosetta/OSIRIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Gaskell, R.; Capanna, C.; Hviid, S.; Lamy, P.; Ďurech, J.; Faury, G.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P.; Jackman, C.; Keihm, S. J.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Marchi, S.; Mottola, S.; Palmer, E.; Schloerb, F. P.; Sierks, H.; Vincent, J.-B.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barbieri, C.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Güttler, C.; Ip, W.-H.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft reached Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) in August 2014 at an heliocentric distance of 3.6 a.u. and was then put in orbit around its nucleus to perform detailed observations. Among the collected data are the images acquired by the OSIRIS instrument up to the perihelion passage of the comet in August 2015, which allowed us to map the entire nucleus surface at high-resolution in the visible. Stereophotoclinometry methods have been used to reconstruct a global high-resolution shape model and to monitor its rotational parameters using data collected up to perihelion. The nucleus has a conspicuous bilobate shape with overall dimensions along its principal axes of (4.34 ± 0.02) × (2.60 ± 0.02) × (2.12 ± 0.06) km. The best-fit ellipsoid dimensions of the individual lobes along their principal axes of inertia are found to be 4.10 × 3.52 × 1.63 km and 2.50 × 2.14 × 1.64 km. Their volume amounts to 66% and 27% of the total volume of the nucleus. The two lobes are connected by a "neck" whose volume has been estimated to represent ∼7% of the total volume of the comet. Combining the derived volume of 18.8 ± 0.3 km3 with the mass of 9.982 ± 0.003 × 1012 kg determined by the Rosetta/RSI experiment, we obtained a bulk density of the nucleus of 532 ± 7 kg m-3 . Together with the companion value of 535 ± 35 kg m-3 deduced from the stereophotogrammetry shape model of the nucleus (Preusker et al. [2015] Astron. Astrophys. 583, A33), these constitute the first reliable and most accurate determination of the density of a cometary nucleus to date. The calculated porosity is quite large, ranging approximately from 70% to 75% depending upon the assumed density of the dust grains and the dust-to-ice mass ratio. The nature of the porosity, either micro or macro or both, remains unconstrained. The coordinates of the center of gravity are not compatible with a uniform nucleus density. The direction of the offset between the center of

  17. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  18. Spectrophotometry, colors, and photometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro; Feller, Clement; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; Tubiana, Cecilia; Besse, Sebastien; Scholten, Frank; Sierks, Holger; Leyrat, Cedric; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Pajola, Maurizio; Thomas, Nick; Pommerol, Antoine; Massironi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta is the cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency devoted to the study of Solar System minor bodies. Launched on 2 March 2004, Rosetta arrived on August 6, 2014, at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of interplanetary journey. Rosetta is now in the main science escort phase of the comet after the successful delivery of the lander Philae on its surface on November 12, 2014. In this work we present the results on the 67P nucleus physical properties derived from the OSIRIS imaging system observations obtained in July- mid August 2014, during the comet approach phase and the first bound orbits. In this timeframe, OSIRIS has mapped the comet surface with a resolution up to 2 m/px with several filters covering the 250-1000 nm range, and at different phase angles (1.3-54 degrees). The images have been reduced using the OSIRIS standard pipeline, and then transformed into I/F reflectance. A 3D shape model of the nucleus, determined from the images obtained during the mapping phase, has been used to retrieve the illumination and geometric conditions of each image. Color cubes of the surface have been hence produced by stacking registered and photometrically corrected images. Globally, the nucleus has spectrophotometric properties in the NUV-VIS-NIR range similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians and Centaurs. No clear absorption bands have been detected so far at the resolution of the used filters. The global spectral slope, evaluated in the 535-880 nm range, varies between 11 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 1.3 degrees and 16 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 52 degrees, implying a significant phase reddening. Despite the different types of terrains and morphological features seen on the comet (Thomas et al. 2015), the nucleus shows small color variations, with the notable exception of the Hapi region (Sierks et al., 2015). This region is located

  19. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.; Koutz, S.L.; Stone, R.S.; Stewart, H.B.

    1963-12-24

    An emergency shutdown or scram apparatus for use in a nuclear reactor that includes a neutron absorber suspended from a temperature responsive substance that is selected to fail at a preselected temperature in excess of the normal reactor operating temperature, whereby the neutron absorber is released and allowed to fall under gravity to a preselected position within the reactor core is presented. (AEC)

  20. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)