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  1. Physical Science in Oslo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Bjørn

    2011-06-01

    I provide a tour of Oslo, Norway, concentrating on the city center and the suburbs of Blindern and Tøyen. I focus on the buildings used by the University of Oslo from its foundation in 1811 and on the physical scientists who worked in them. I also point out the cemeteries where some of them are buried.

  2. [Skateboard injuries in Oslo].

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, F

    1990-04-10

    Skateboards were allowed in Norway from May 1989 after being prohibited for 11 years. The media gave the sport extensive coverage due to the presumed large number of accidents suffered by its partisipants, and critics wanted the sport banned. We registered all skateboard injuries referred to Akuttetaten in Oslo. 113 patients were examined during a four month period. 63% were in the age group between 11 and 14. There were no serious accidents. 42 (37%) had upper/lower limb fractures, 14 required reduction. Four had head trauma with temporary loss of consciousness. The rest suffered minor traumas, distortions, etc. The results of the registration are discussed with reference to international literature.

  3. [Untreated syphilis - from Oslo to Tuskegee].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Anniken; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2016-12-01

    In the period from 1891 - 1910, around 2000 patients with syphilis were admitted to the Department of Dermatology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. The head of the department, Cæsar Boeck (1845 - 1917), believed in allowing the disease to take its natural course and withheld treatment. He made detailed notes of the diagnosis and the clinical course of the disease for all his patients. Boeck's material is unique, and forms the basis for our current knowledge about the prognosis and course of syphilis infections. In 1928, the patients were scrutinised by Boeck's successor in the Department of Dermatology, Edvin Bruusgaard (1869 - 1934), and later by Trygve Gjestland (1911 - 1993). Gjestland's doctoral thesis from 1955 has remained as «The Oslo study of untreated syphilis.» This article presents a medical historical background for the study. Bruusgaard's and Gjestland's research was important for the Tuskegee Study in the USA, and the Oslo study gave implicit support to this research project, which posterity has emphatically condemned as ethically unacceptable.

  4. Seasonal variations in menarche in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K

    1982-01-01

    Data from about 11,000 girls aged 10-18 years were used to study seasonal variations in menarche in Oslo, Norway. A statistical method which takes into account the changes over time in the age-structure of the sample is used to show that throughout the period 1965-1970, the menarche incidence varied according to a stable bimodal seasonal pattern with peaks in December-January and July-August. This pattern corresponds to those observed in Sweden and Finland, but deviates from other reported patterns, i.e. from the variations found in Copenhagen. It is argued that a possible cause of general lack of well supported hypotheses for seasonal variations is that an environmental factor may cause marked cyclic variations, without having a marked effect on the process determining maturation.

  5. Caries prevalence of kindergarten children in Salzgitter and Oslo.

    PubMed

    Sönju Clasen, A B; von der Fehr, F R; Kant van Daal, J M

    1992-01-01

    In a comparable epidemiological study of kindergarten children, 455 4- and 5-year-olds in Salzgitter (FRG) and 171 4- and 5-year-olds in Oslo (Norway) were examined. Caries was scored at the cavitation level according to WHO criteria. The percentage of caries-free children was higher and the dmfs scores were lower in Oslo than in Salzgitter. It is postulated that this was the result of different levels of fluoride exposure, nutritional habits and dental treatment provision.

  6. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  7. Medical emergencies on large passenger ships without doctors: the Oslo-Kiel-Oslo ferry experience.

    PubMed

    Holt, Thor-Erik; Tveten, Agnar; Dahl, Eilif

    2017-01-01

    The Oslo-Kiel-Oslo route is currently the only direct ferry crossing between Norway and Germany, covered by 2 cruise-and-cars ferries carrying about 2,600 passengers each and sailing every day (20 h at sea, 4 h in port). Unlike most ocean going cruise vessels, they are not required to carry a physician but an on-board paramedic handles medical emergencies. The aim of the study was to provide data on medical emergencies leading to helicopter evacuations (helivacs) or other urgent transfers to facilities ashore from the two ferries during a 3-year period. Data about the ferries, passengers, crew, helivacs and other medical transfers were collected from official company statistics and the paramedics' transfer reports. A total of 169 persons, including 14 (8.3%) crewmembers, were transferred from the ferries to land-based facilities by ambulance while alongside (n = 80; 47.3%) or evacuated by helicopter (n = 85; 50.3%) and rescue boat (n = 4; 2.4%) during the 3-year period. Transfer destinations were Denmark (n = 53), Germany (n = 49), Norway (n = 48) and Sweden (n = 19). The passenger helivac rate was 2.4 per 100,000 passenger-days. One person was airlifted from a ferry every 2 weeks. Among helivacs, 40% were heart-related, and more cardiac cases were airlifted than transferred by ambulance in port. All helivac requests were made after discussion between the ferry's paramedic and telemedical doctors ashore and agreement that the medical challenge exceeded the ferry's capability. This close cooperation kept the threshold for arranging helivacs from the ferries low, enabling short transport times to land-based facilities for critically ill patients. Further studies, including feedback from the receiving hospitals, are needed to determine measures that can reduce possible helicopter overutilisation without compromising patient safety and outcome.

  8. Analysis of possible systematic errors in the Oslo method

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Buerger, A.; Goergen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Krticka, M.; Betak, E.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    In this work, we have reviewed the Oslo method, which enables the simultaneous extraction of the level density and {gamma}-ray transmission coefficient from a set of particle-{gamma} coincidence data. Possible errors and uncertainties have been investigated. Typical data sets from various mass regions as well as simulated data have been tested against the assumptions behind the data analysis.

  9. OPIC: a kit for rapid merit function construction for use with all versions of OSLO, including OSLO EDU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Brian

    2005-09-01

    The history of lens design software is sadly littered with accounts of excellent programs which fell by the wayside for lack of support. Others evolved through various package formats to form the foundation of today's very successful commercial software. One example of this is the Imperial College lens design program developed throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s by Charles Wynne, Michael Kidger, Prudence Wormell, and others. This program (best known as the Kidger Optics Ltd SIGMA) produced many excellent designs over the years. One reason was that the ray patterns and weighting factors for operands in the default merit function had been carefully honed through experience, to produce rapid convergence on the global optimum from a likely starting point. This paper describes a suite of optimisation raysets and weighted operands written in the C-like OSLO compiled macro language CCL, and modeled on the Imperial College tradition. It is available for free download from http://www.lambdares.com/techsupport/kb/index.phtml. Its prime function is to provide a fast, easily understood introduction to merit function construction for the beginner. One version is for use on OSLO EDU, the free version of OSLO, which is also available from the Lambda Research Corporation website. This paper demonstrates how OPIC can be used to locate, from a remote starting point, the global minimum of the "monochromatic quartet," the lens design problem from the SPIE 1990 International Lens Design Conference.

  10. Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norway is experiencing an increase in overweight/obese adults, with immigrants from developing countries carrying a heavy burden. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Somali immigrants in Oslo. Findings A cross-sectional study involving 208 respondents aged 25 and over was conducted among Somali immigrants in Oslo, using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of overweight/obesity varied by gender, with women having a significantly higher prevalence (66%) than men (28%). The mean BMI for females and males were 27.4 and 23.6, respectively. Similarly, 53% of women and 28% of men were abdominally obese. In a logistic regression analysis, both generalized and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increasing duration of residence in Norway, and with being less physically active. Conclusion Public health policymakers should facilitate an environment that enables Somali immigrants, particularly women, to lead healthy lifestyles. In this time of epidemiological transition, health education in the areas of physical exercise and healthy eating should be a major focus for working with new immigrants. PMID:23531273

  11. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Leffler, Daniel A; Bai, Julio C; Biagi, Federico; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelly, Ciaran P; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut Erik Aslaksen; Murray, Joseph A; Sanders, David S; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. A multidisciplinary task force of 16 physicians from seven countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature for CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo and phone conferences. In addition to 'CD', the following descriptors of CD were evaluated (in alphabetical order): asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity and gliadin-specific antibodies. CD was defined as 'a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals'. Classical CD was defined as 'CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.' 'Gluten-related disorders' is the suggested umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and the term gluten intolerance should not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms.

  12. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Leffler, Daniel A; Bai, Julio; Biagi, Federico; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter HR; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelly, Ciaran; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E; Murray, Joseph A; Sanders, David S; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. Methods A multi-disciplinary task force of 16 physicians from 7 countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature with regards to CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo, and phone conferences. We evaluated the following terms (in alphabetical order): Coeliac disease and the following descriptors of CD: asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and gliadin-specific antibodies. Results CD was defined as “a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals”. Classical CD was defined as “CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.” We suggest that “gluten-related disorders” is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and that the term gluten intolerance is not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. Conclusion This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms. PMID:22345659

  13. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths

  14. Oslo model, hyperuniformity, and the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, Peter; Dhar, Deepak; Mohanty, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of the one-dimensional Oslo rice pile model in which the critical height at each site is randomly reset after each toppling. We use the fact that the stationary state of this sand-pile model is hyperuniform to reach system of sizes >107 . Most previous simulations were seriously flawed by important finite-size corrections. We find that all critical exponents have values consistent with simple rationals: ν =4/3 for the correlation length exponent, D =9/4 for the fractal dimension of avalanche clusters, and z =10/7 for the dynamical exponent. In addition, we relate the hyperuniformity exponent to the correlation length exponent ν . Finally, we discuss the relationship with the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model, where we find in particular that the local roughness exponent is αloc=1 .

  15. Football injuries in Oslo: a one-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Maehlum, S.; Daljord, O. A.

    1984-01-01

    All football injuries treated at the Emergency Department, Oslo City Hospital, 1329 patients, 1167 males and 162 females, were recorded for one year, accounting for 28.4% of all sports injuries. Most injuries seen were in the 15-19 years age group in females and 20-24 years age group in males; 68% of the females and 42% of the males (p less than 0.001) were below 20 years of age, and 87% of the injuries occurred in competitive football. During matches, 695 players were injured giving an incidence of 34.5 injuries/10,000 player matches. The injuries occurred all year with a peak in June. Sprains accounted for 41% of the injuries, 23% were contusions and 19% fractures. Most injuries (59%) affected the legs. Hospital admission was required for three females and 57 males. The football injuries required 1966 consultations and necessitated that 349 patients had to stay away from work for a total of 6137 days. PMID:6487944

  16. Height and weight of school children and adolescent girls and boys in Oslo 1970.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestöl, K; Wallöe, L

    1975-07-01

    Height and weight measurements of the school children of Oslo in 1970 (aged 7 to 19 years) are reported. Weights show considerably skewed distributions with long tails towards higher weights. Weight precentiles are calculated by interpolation in the empirical distributions. Percentiles and tables for both sexes, showing height for age, weight for height and weight for age, are presented. A comparison with existing Norwegian data from Sundal, 1956, Bergen shows that the application of statistics based on normal distribution for weight, has introduced considerable error in these percentiles. Oslo children in 1970 are taller by 5-6 cm at age eighteen, than USA (Iowa) standards and 4-5 cm taller compared to Tanner-s English percentiles. Oslo children are also taller than Swedish children, and have reached a stature higher than found in any other comparable study.

  17. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Lepland, Aave; Arp, Hans Peter H; Alve, Elisabeth; Breedveld, Gijs D; Rindby, Anders

    2010-09-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.

  18. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Kari; Søgaard, Anne J; Falch, Jan A; Meyer, Haakon E

    2007-01-01

    Background Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Methods Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions – East and West, were used. Results Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score ≤ -1) was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.22–2.87) in women in Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. Conclusion We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. PMID:18036226

  19. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.

  20. Integrating Assessment for Learning in the Teacher Education Programme at the University of Oslo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevik, Lisbeth M.; Blikstad-Balas, Marte; Engelien, Kirsti Lyngvaer

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the integration of assessment for learning principles in the newly revised five-year Master of Education programme at the University of Oslo, Norway, across didactic subjects, pedagogy and school practice. The analysis draws on lecture notes, student videos and student exam papers among 143 student teachers,…

  1. Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette; Hjelde, Karin Harsløf; Sundby, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC) has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further. PMID:22312195

  2. The Forsoksgymnaset, Oslo, Norway, in the Perspective of Lifelong Education. UIE Case Studies 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oygarden, Sverre; Svartdal, Olav

    This case study focuses on the Forsokgymnaset, Oslo, (FGO), Norway, which came into being as a new type of school without any influence from lifelong education but whose features, especially the emphasis on students' responsibility for their own growth, are applicable to lifelong learning. Chapter 1, an introduction to lifelong education,…

  3. Twenty years of revised Dobson total ozone measurements in Oslo, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendby, T. M.; Dahlback, A.

    2002-10-01

    Total ozone measurements using the Dobson spectrophotometer 56 (D56) have been performed on a regular basis in Oslo (59.9°N, 10.7°E), Norway, from 1978 to 1998. The data set for the entire period of observations has been critically examined. In this paper we present the results of the homogenization process and discuss the data quality of the record. Much effort has been made to optimize the zenith sky charts used for CC' zenith observations. The charts have been constructed using a semiempirical method, where a large number of quasi-simultaneous observations of direct Sun and zenith observations have been used in combination with a radiative transfer model. The same radiative transfer model has been used for constructing AD and CD zenith sky charts for various optical thicknesses of cloud cover. When the D56 ozone observations started up in 1978 the SO2 level in Oslo was significant. High concentrations of SO2 will generally influence the measurements of Dobson total ozone and might give fictitious ozone trends. Without the SO2 corrections the revised Oslo Dobson data shows a year-round ozone decrease of -5.22 ± 0.63% per decade from 1978 to 1998, while after SO2 corrections the decrease is reduced to -4.68 ± 0.63% per decade. The Dobson data from Oslo are compared to ozone data from Brewer spectrometer 42 and to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) daily overpass data from satellites Nimbus 7, Meteor 3, and Earth Probe. The mean and standard deviation of the monthly percentage difference between Dobson and TOMS amount to -0.91 ± 1.41%.

  4. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    During the Late Ordovician, explosive volcanic eruptions led to the deposition of worldwide bentonites. Some of the largest of these eruptions took place in the Sandbian and produced the Milbrig and Deicke K-bentonites of North America and the Kinnekulle K-bentonite of Scandinavia. We have studied the classic locality of Hagemann and Spjeldnæs (1955) - one of the most complete sections of Ordovician bentonites in Europe. The bentonites are present in the Arnestad Formation comprising dark shale with carbonate nodule beds grading into an increasingly more carbonate rich environment. Through a 50-meter interval we have identified 33 bentonites of which 10 have not previously been reported from this locality. The bentonites have an average thickness of 4.9 cm with a few exceptions such as the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (35 cm) and the Grimstorp B (13 cm). We have measured magnetic susceptibility of two 2-3 meter intervals with a sampling distance of 5 cm, using a handheld magnetic susceptibility meter in the field. These data show significant periodicity peaks that correlate well with Milankovitch cycles and are suggested to represent astronomically forced changes in sediment supply. This study further presents high-precision U-Pb zircon ages of five bentonites from the section, including the Kinnekulle K-bentonite and Grimstorp B. These two beds were previously dated by Svensen et al. (2015) from a locality south of Oslo. Our new data improves the precision of the ages of these two key beds, and constrain the duration of the entire interval and thus the onset and termination of the late Ordovician volcanic system that deposited these tephras. We conclude that the Oslo section provides a high-resolution age model to understand one of the most intense volcanic periods of the Paleozoic by combining radiometric and cyclostratigraphic data. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemann, F. and Spjeldnæs, N. (1955). "The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway. 6. Notes on bentonites (K

  5. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p < 0.001). Age- and gender adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 93 (86, 99) pmol/l in Pakistanis and 123 (120, 126) pmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. The difference persisted after controlling for body mass index. There was a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and s-1,25(OH)2D in both groups. S-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis; age-adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 1.28 (1.27, 1.28) mmol/l in Pakistanis and 1.26 (1.26, 1.26) mmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. In both groups, s-Ca2+ was inversely correlated to serum intact parathyroid hormone levels (s-iPTH). For any s-iPTH, s-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis, also when controlling for age. Conclusion Community-dwelling Pakistanis in Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  6. When female circumcision comes to the West: Attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female circumcision (FC) has lifelong adverse social and health consequences for women, and its abolition will not only enhance the health of children and women, but also promote gender equality. Like many other Western countries, Norway hosts a large proportion of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, though primarily from Somalia, which is the country with the highest prevalence of FC in the world. A behavioral change by the practicing communities has the best chance to successfully and sustainably eliminate this practice. However, FC prevention programs require a behavioral surveillance that monitors the process of change, with this being the first quantitative study since the major migration of the Somali community to Norway began in 1991 to investigate whether or not Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice has improved in favor of its abandonment. Methods A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was conducted in Oslo from April to June of 2011. A sample of 214 persons was interviewed, using structured questionnaires. Results The results show that 70% of Somalis in Oslo support the discontinuation of all forms of FC compared to 30% who support its continuation, with the latter group more likely to be people who lived in Norway ≤ 4 years. Of the 10 girls who came to Norway at the age of ≤ 7 years, only one was circumcised, though whether the circumcision occurred before or after the girl’s arrival in Norway remains unclear. The perception that FC is required by religion was the sole factor to be significantly associated with an ongoing support of FC. Conclusion The study reveals that Somalis in Oslo demonstrate a trend to abandon this practice over time. Nevertheless, the 30% of the people who still support its continuation, and who are primarily newly arrived immigrants, require a targeted intervention that is implemented in the early phase of the immigrants’ arrival. PMID:22925310

  7. Reduction in hospitalized women with pelvic inflammatory disease in Oslo over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Sørbye, Ingvil Krarup; Jerve, Fridtjof; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2005-03-01

    A tuboovarian abscess (TOA) is a common complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), occurring world-wide in 15-30% of women with PID. The aim of the study was to identify changes during the last 10 years in the number of women hospitalized with PID in Oslo, as well as a change regarding the frequencies of the subdiagnoses salpingitis and tuboovarian abscess. We performed a review of computerized diagnosis lists and manual check of the medical records of women hospitalized with PID in Oslo. The years 1990-92 and 2000-02 were included, resulting in information from two time periods 10 years apart. Cases were registered as salpingitis, oophoritis or tuboovarian abscess. Medical and demographic variables from the medical records of women diagnosed during 4 out of the 6 years were described in detail. We identified 523 women with the diagnosis of PID hospitalized during 1990-92 and 2000-02. There was a 35% reduction in hospitalized cases of salpingitis over the period of 10 years, but the number of cases of tuboovarian abscesses among women admitted for PID remained unchanged from 1990-92 to 2000-02. We found low frequencies of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections, although documented bacteriological sampling was insufficient. Fewer patients were hospitalized in Oslo for PID during the time period of 2000-02 compared with 10 years earlier, but a higher percentage of patients had developed TOA compared with the first time period (43% compared with 26%, p = 0.013), indicating a changing clinical panorama of PID.

  8. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  9. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry of the Oslo rift igneous province, southeast Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, E.; Tuen, E. ); Tilton, G.R. )

    1988-08-01

    Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions are presented for a series of 290 to 250 Ma old basaltic to granitic rocks from the Oslo rift, southeast Norway. A large group of basalts, larvikites and rhomb porphyry lavas cluster within a restricted range of initial isotope ratios {epsilon}{sub Sr}{sup t}: {minus}3 to {minus}16, {epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup t}: +3.3 to +4.2, ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb){sub I}: 18.9 to 19.3, ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb){sub I}: 15.59 to 15.66, ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb){sub I}: 38.6 to 39.1. The remainder of the rocks trend towards higher initial Sr and lower initial Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. Data are tested against mantle-crust mixing models. The Oslo rift magmatic rocks originated from a somewhat heterogeneous, mildly depleted source located in the subcrustal lithosphere. The isotopic character of this source has been inherited by the rocks showing uniform isotopic ratios, which have thus not suffered significant crustal contamination. The rest of the mafic to intermediate rocks and the syenites were contaminated in the intermediate to lower crust, which increased slightly their Sr-, but decreased their Nd- and Pb-isotopic ratios. As much as 40-50% contamination is suggested for some of the samples. Strong increases in radiogenic Sr, seen primarily in the granites, are attributed to contamination in the upper crust. The mildly depleted mantle proposed as the source for the Oslo rift mafic rocks has an isotopic character which can only be explained in terms of a multistage history which included periods of relatively high U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios, resulting from a relatively short depletion history in the subcontinental lithosphere and metasomatic enrichment of the mantle in selected elements.

  10. The Association between Residence Floor Level and Cardiovascular Disease: The Health and Environment in Oslo Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasingly more people live in tall buildings and on higher floor levels. Factors relating to floor level may protect against or cause cardiovascular disease (CVD). Only one previous study has investigated the association between floor level and CVD. Methods. We studied associations between floor of bedroom and self-reported history of stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and intermittent claudication (IC) among 12.525 inhabitants in Oslo, Norway. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models and adjusted for sociodemographic variables, socioeconomic status (SES), and health behaviors. Additionally, we investigated block apartment residents (N = 5.374) separately. Results. Trend analyses showed that disease prevalence increased by floor level, for all three outcomes. When we investigated block apartment residents alone, the trends disappeared, but one association remained: higher odds of VTE history on 6th floor or higher, compared to basement and 1st floor (OR: 1.504; 95% CI: 1.007–2.247). Conclusion. Floor level is positively associated with CVD, in Oslo. The best-supported explanation may be residual confounding by building height and SES. Another explanation, about the impact of atmospheric electricity, is also presented. The results underline a need to better understand the associations between residence floor level and CVD and multistory housing and CVD. PMID:28053608

  11. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  12. Simple-shear deformation of the Skagerrak lithosphere during the formation of the Oslo Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, J. E.; Husebye, E. S.

    1994-04-01

    Simple-shear deformation of the entire lithosphere has been postulated by Wernicke (1985) and others, but up to now unequivocal seismic evidence in support of this hypotheses has been lacking. Here we describe well-defined seismic reflectors below the Skagerrak Sea, one of which is interpreted as a low-angle fault underlying the Skagerrak Graben segment of the Permian Oslo Rift. This reflective lineament can be traced from the mid-crust through the lower crust, offsetting Moho and continuing downwards to ca. 50 km depth (16 s). A separate mantle reflection beneath the graben may be associated with an earlier period of thrusting. The 1730 km of deep seismic reflection data in Skagerrak indicate that the crust and mantle inherited a pronounced structural fabric from the Proterozoic Grenvillian-Sveconorwegian orogeny. During formation of the Oslo Rift, reactivation of these implied weak zones as localized detachment planes would explain the extensional deformation style of the non-magmatic Skagerrak Graben.

  13. Outbreak of Salmonella Oslo Infections Linked to Persian Cucumbers - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bottichio, Lyndsay; Medus, Carlota; Sorenson, Alida; Donovan, Danielle; Sharma, Reeti; Dowell, Natasha; Williams, Ian; Wellman, Allison; Jackson, Alikeh; Tolar, Beth; Griswold, Taylor; Basler, Colin

    2016-12-30

    In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak. A total of 14 patients in eight states were identified, with illness onsets occurring during March 21-April 9, 2016. Whole genome sequencing, a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090 isolates. Epidemiologic evidence indicates Persian cucumbers as the source of Salmonella Oslo infections in this outbreak. This is the fourth identified multistate outbreak of salmonellosis associated with cucumbers since 2013. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism and factors that contribute to contamination of cucumbers during growth, harvesting, and processing to prevent future outbreaks.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to civic engagement among elderly African immigrants in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Gele, Abdi A; Harsløf, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    The numbers of elderly immigrants are increasing in Norway and their participation in civic activities is recognized to be crucial to their health and wellbeing. A qualitative study of 24 African immigrants aged 50 years and over was carried out in Oslo. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore barriers and facilitators to civic engagement among elderly African immigrants. The study discovered a number of barriers to participation of elderly immigrants in civic organizations. These barriers include poor health conditions, lack of information about relevant organizations, language difficulties and mistrust towards organizations. The elderly immigrants also pointed to the effectiveness of organizations in addressing community issues as a factor motivating their civic engagement. We argue that the barriers identified by this study pose challenges to achieving Norwegian policy goals of integration and Norwegian policy for active ageing. Hence, there is a need for service providers and policy makers to ensure voluntary organizations address those barriers effectively.

  15. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    PubMed Central

    Nordanger, Dag Ø.; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Background Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care. PMID:24872862

  16. Long-Term Traffic-Related Exposures and Asthma Onset in Schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Brunekreef, Bert; Nafstad, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Whether there is a causal relation between long-term exposure to traffic and asthma development is so far not clear. This may be explained by inaccurate exposure assessment. Objective We investigated the associations of long-term traffic-related exposures with asthma onset assessed retrospectively and respiratory symptoms in 9- to 10-year-old children. Methods We collected information on respiratory outcomes and potential confounding variables by parental questionnaire in 2,871 children in Oslo. Nitrogen dioxide exposure was assessed by the EPISODE dispersion model and assigned at updated individual addresses during lifetime. Distance to major road was assigned at birth address and address by date of questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard regression and logistic regression were used. Results We did not find positive associations between any long-term traffic-related exposure and onset of doctor-diagnosed asthma. An interquartile range (IQR) increase of NO2 exposure before asthma onset was associated with an adjusted risk ratio of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67–1.02]. Handling early asthma cases (children < 4 years of age) with recovery during follow-up as noncases gave a less negative association. The associations for late asthma onset (≥ 4 years of age) were positive but not statistically significant. For current symptoms, an IQR increase of previous year’s NO2 exposure was associated with adjusted odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.83–1.23) for wheeze, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.79–1.51) for severe wheeze, and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84–1.21) for dry cough. Conclusions We were not able to find positive associations of long-term traffic-related exposures with asthma onset or with current respiratory symptoms in 9- to 10-year-old children in Oslo. PMID:19478970

  17. Inequalities in health: a comparative study between ethnic Norwegians and Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Hussain, Akhtar; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjorgulf; Ahlberg, Nora L

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to observe the inequality in health from the perspective of socio-economic factors in relation to ethnic Pakistanis and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, Norway. Method Data was collected by using an open and structured questionnaire, as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. Accordingly 13581 ethnic Norwegians (45% of the eligible) participated as against 339 ethnic Pakistanis (38% of the eligible). Results The ethnic Pakistanis reported a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health 54.7% as opposed to 22.1% (p < 0.001) in ethnic Norwegians, 14% vs. 2.6% (p < 0.001) in diabetes, and 22.0% vs. 9.9% (p < 0.001) in psychological distress. The socio-economic conditions were inversely related to self- rated health, diabetes and distress for the ethnic Norwegians. However, this was surprisingly not the case for the ethnic Pakistanis. Odd ratios did not interfere with the occurrence of diabetes, even after adjusting all the markers of socio-economic status in the multivariate model, while self-reported health and distress showed moderate reduction in the risk estimation. Conclusion There is a large diversity of self-rated health, prevalence of diabetes and distress among the ethnic Pakistanis and Norwegians. Socio-economic status may partly explain the observed inequalities in health. Uncontrolled variables like genetics, lifestyle factors and psychosocial factors related to migration such as social support, community participation, discrimination, and integration may have contributed to the observed phenomenon. This may underline the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in future studies. PMID:16808838

  18. Social class, gender and psychosocial predictors for early sexual debut among 16 year olds in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Valle, Ann-K; Torgersen, Leila; Røysamb, Espen; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Thelle, Dag S

    2005-04-01

    Variations in early sexual debut among 16 year olds were investigated by social level variables, parental occupation, gender, ethnicity, family structure, family functioning, and individual level variables, future aspirations, academic and social self-perception, and depressed moods. The variations in sexual debut were investigated by examining proportions of 16 year olds reporting their first intercourse before age 16. The data were collected by self-reporting questionnaires administered to in-school-youth, in Oslo. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. Gender interactions with all variables were tested. Overall, 25% reported early debut. Independent effect of social class on differences in proportions in early sexual debut were found. Gender interaction with social class, ethnicity and academic self-perception as they associate to proportions having had early sexual debut, were found. For girls the pattern of social class differences was linear and the highest proportions were found among working classes. For boys the pattern was U-shaped and upper managerial and manual working class youth had similar, higher proportions of early debutants. High scores of parental monitoring, future aspirations and academic self-concept and low scores of depressed moods, are protective factors. While high social self-perception is positively associated with early debut for both genders. Early sexual debut varies according to social class, following gender-specific patterns, among 16 year olds in Oslo. The negative association between early debut and academic self-perception are for boys less influenced by other social and individual level factors, than for girls.

  19. New palaeomagnetic results from the Oslo Graben, a Permian Superchron lava province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldan, M. M.; Meijers, M. J. M.; Langereis, C. G.; Larsen, B. T.; Heyer, H.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed an extended palaeomagnetic study of the Oslo Graben volcanics, compared to the study of half a century ago by van Everdingen, using modern techniques and a four times larger amount of sites, plus additional rock magnetic experiments. We conclude that the average direction (D = 204.0, I = -37.9, k = 46.9, α95 = 2.0) and associated palaeomagnetic pole (λ = 48.3, φ = 155.5, K = 52.2, A95 = 1.9) of the Krokskogen and Vestfold volcanics together are statistically identical to those of the earlier study. This gives confidence in the fact that older palaeomagnetic studies can be reliable and robust, even though methods have improved. Our larger number of samples, and better age constraints, enable us to separate the data into two major intervals: the younger, on average, Krokskogen area and the older Vestfold area. The results show firstly that palaeolatitudes are slightly higher than predicted by the latest apparent polar wander path (APWP) for Eurasia by Torsvik et al. These data support an early Permian Pangaea A configuration and do not necessitate a Pangaea B configuration. The larger data set also allows us to assess the distribution of the characteristic remanent magnetization directions of the Oslo Graben in terms of geomagnetic field behaviour, which were acquired during a long period of dominantly single polarity the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS). The distributions show a significantly lower virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) scatter at the observed (low) latitudes than expected from a compilation from lavas of the last 5 Myr. The data do however show excellent agreement with the scatter observed both during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and the PCRS. A comparison of the directional distributions in terms of elongation is less discriminating, since the large errors in all cases allow a fit to the predicted elongation/inclination behaviour of the TK03.GAD model.

  20. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    PubMed

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  1. Living as a drug addict in Oslo, Norway--a study focusing on nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Saeland, M; Haugen, M; Eriksen, F-L; Smehaugen, A; Wandel, M; Böhmer, T; Oshaug, A

    2009-05-01

    To investigate nutritional status and related living conditions among drug addicts in Oslo. A cross-sectional study of nutritional status evaluated by anthropometric and biochemical measurements; a structured interview concerning education, living conditions, income source, drug history and sex practice; and biochemical testing of sexually transmitted infections. The present study was conducted between November 2001 and April 2003 in locations where the drug addicts reside in Oslo. A total of 123 male and seventy-two female addicts using drugs by injections regularly. We found that 20 % of the women were moderately underweight (BMI in kg/m2) (16.5 < BMI < 18.5), 7 % were severely underweight (BMI < or = 16.5) and 3 % of the men were moderately underweight (16.5 < BMI < 18.5). BMI was positively correlated with days institutionalised and number of eating events per day. Respondents sleeping rough had significantly reduced BMI compared to those in hostels and shelters. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin and albumin supported a higher prevalence of malnutrition among the women. Hepatitis C was found in 85 %, active hepatitis B in 6 % and less than 2 % were HIV positive. Also, 84 % received public financial support, 38 % of the women had prostitution as a significant income source, while burglary was most prevalent among the men; 20 % were pushing drugs. Malnutrition among the drug addicts varied from 5 % to 30 %, independent of drug history, education and income. Moderate and severe underweight was most prevalent among the women. Being previously institutionalised and having increased number of eating events increased BMI. Sleeping rough correlated with reduced body weight. Hepatitis C infection was common; hepatitis B and HIV were rare.

  2. Wide-Angle Seismic Experiment Across the Oeste Fault Zone, Central Andes, Northern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Yáñez, G. A.; Vera, E. E.; Sepúlveda, J.

    2008-12-01

    From December 6-21, 2007, we conducted a 3-component, radio-telemetric, seismic survey along a ~ 15-km wide E-W transect in the Central Andes, at a latitude of ~ 22.41° S, centered north of the city of Calama (68.9° W), Chile. The study area is sandwiched between the Central Depression in the west and the Andean Western Cordillera of Chile. Recording stations, nominally spaced at intervals of either 125 or 250 m collected up to 3.5 s of refracted seismic arrivals at maximum source-receiver offsets exceeding 15 km. Ten shothole sources, spaced 2-6 km apart focused energy on the shallow (0-3 km), crustal, Paleogene-age structures. Preliminary, tomographic inversions of refracted first arrivals show the top of a shallow (< 1km), high- velocity (VP, ~5 km/s) crust, deepening sharply eastward to at least 2 km. At the surface, this central basement step correlates to a regionally extensive (> 600 km), strike-slip fault zone known as the Oeste fault. Turning ray densities suggest the base of the overlying velocity gradient unit (VP, 2-4 km/s) dips inwardly from both east and west directions toward the Oeste fault to depths of almost 1 km. Plate reorganization commencing at least by the latter half of the Oligocene led from oblique to more orthogonal convergence between the South American and the Nazca (Farallon) Plates. We interpret previously mapped, older, minor faults as being generated within the right-lateral, orogen-parallel, Oeste strike-slip fault zone, and postdated by Neogene, N-S striking thrust faults. In this context we also interpret that the spatial distribution of velocity units requires an period of extensional activity that may (1) postdate the transpressional strike slip fault activity of the Neogene, (2) be related to a later releasing bend through the translation and interaction of rigid blocks hidden at depth or even (3) be the consequence of inelastic failure from the result of flexural loading.

  3. Land-use practices in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pedlowski, M.A.; Dale, V.H.

    1992-09-01

    Road development and colonization projects have brought about wide-scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The state of Rondonia, located in the western Amazon Basin, best exemplifies the problems related to land-use changes because it has the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In order to identify the main land-use practices in Rondonia, interviews with local farmers were carried out in the central part of Rondonia, in the PIC (Integrated Colonization Project) Ouro Preto do Oeste. This is the oldest colonization project in the state. The governmental colonization programs attracted migrants to the area through the construction of roads and infrastructure necessary for the colonists to occupy the land for agricultural practices. The interviews were done on lots of the PIC Ouro Preto and in PAD Urupa to define the background of the colonists, their land-use practices, their economic situation, and their relationships with governmental institutions.

  4. Land-use practices in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pedlowski, M.A.; Dale, V.H.

    1992-09-01

    Road development and colonization projects have brought about wide-scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The state of Rondonia, located in the western Amazon Basin, best exemplifies the problems related to land-use changes because it has the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. In order to identify the main land-use practices in Rondonia, interviews with local farmers were carried out in the central part of Rondonia, in the PIC (Integrated Colonization Project) Ouro Preto do Oeste. This is the oldest colonization project in the state. The governmental colonization programs attracted migrants to the area through the construction of roads and infrastructure necessary for the colonists to occupy the land for agricultural practices. The interviews were done on lots of the PIC Ouro Preto and in PAD Urupa to define the background of the colonists, their land-use practices, their economic situation, and their relationships with governmental institutions.

  5. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  6. Contributions of diesel vehicle emissions to Arctic black carbon in the OsloCTM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M. T.; Berntsen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols influence the climate system through their absorption of solar radiation, influence on cloud processes and impact on the cryosphere. Current best estimates of radiative forcing show that there is a very high probability that BC gives a positive forcing and warms the climate, with the magnitude of radiative forcing from pre-industrial to present second only to that of CO2. Because of the impact of BC on the cryosphere and following strong climate feedbacks, there has been increasing focus on the role of BC in the warming of the Arctic. The transportation sector is a significant source of BC, with diesel vehicle emissions dominating. The contribution of diesel engines to total BC emissions was 20% in 2000. North of 30°N the share of diesel engine emissions is even higher and emissions in this region are more likely to be transported into the Arctic. Furthermore, future emissions from diesel engines are expected to increase in some regions. Diesel engines are a so-called BC-rich source, i.e. the emissions of co-emitted aerosol and aerosol precursors are low and reductions of diesel emissions are thus likely to provide a mitigation of the short-term climate warming. We explore the regional and seasonal contributions of diesel BC emissions to the Arctic BC concentrations in air and snow using the global chemistry transport model OsloCTM2 with a microphysical aerosol parameterization. Additionally, we investigate the impact of stricter regulations, such as implementation of the EURO and Tier emission standards for new vehicles. Estimates show that new engine requirements have resulted in a 32% reduction in BC emissions from mobile sources between 1990 and 2005 in the United States and such measures can thus give important emission reductions in regions where regulations are not yet implemented. It has been shown that many models have difficulties reproducing the observed magnitude and seasonal cycle of BC concentration at high latitudes, the

  7. Fish from Head to Tail: The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Müller, Ferenc; Ledin, Johan; Patton, E Elizabeth; Gjøen, Tor; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Winther-Larsen, Hanne Cecilie; Mullins, Mary; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Press, Charles McLean; Aleström, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting took place recently in Oslo (June 28-July 2, 2015). A total of 650 participants came to hear the latest research news focused on the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and to its distant evolutionary relative medaka, Oryzias latipes. The packed program included keynote and plenary talks, short oral presentations and poster sessions, workshops, and strategic discussions. The meeting was a great success and revealed dramatically how important the zebrafish in particular has become as a model system for topics, such as developmental biology, functional genomics, biomedicine, toxicology, and drug development. A new emphasis was given to its potential as a model for aquaculture, a topic of great economic interest to the host country Norway and for the future global food supply in general. Zebrafish husbandry as well as its use in teaching were also covered in separate workshops. As has become a tradition in these meetings, there was a well-attended Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and ZFIN workshop focused on Zebrafish Genome Resources on the first day. The full EZM 2015 program with abstracts can be read and downloaded from the EZM 2015 Web site zebrafish2015.org .

  8. Using geographic information systems for radon exposure assessment in dwellings in the Oslo region, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2014-04-01

    Radon exposures were assigned to each residential address in the Oslo region using a geographic information system (GIS) that included indoor radon measurements. The results will be used in an epidemiologic study regarding leukemia and brain cancer. The model is based on 6% of measured residential buildings. High density of indoor radon measurements allowed us to develop a buffer model where indoor radon measurements found around each dwelling were used to assign a radon value for homes lacking radon measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to study the agreement between radon values from the buffer method, from indoor radon values of measured houses, and from a regression model constructed with radiometric data (eTh, eU) and bedrock geology. We obtained good agreement for both comparisons with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.68. GIS offers a useful variety of tools to study the indoor-radon exposure assessment. By using the buffer method it is more likely that geological conditions are similar within the buffer and this may take more into account the variation of radon over short distances. It is also probable that short-distance-scale correlation patterns express similarities in building styles and living habits. Although the method has certain limitations, we regard it as acceptable for use in epidemiological studies.

  9. The aftermath of terrorism: posttraumatic stress and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Øivind; Blix, Ines; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the present study we wanted to investigate the link between exposure, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and functional impairment in the aftermath of terrorism. Method: Posttraumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment related to the Oslo bombing 22nd of July, 2011, in directly and indirectly exposed individuals (N = 1927) were assessed together with demographics, exposure, peri-traumatic reactions, and event centrality approximately 1 year after the attack. Results: Directly and indirectly exposed individuals qualifying for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported similar peri-traumatic reactions, event centrality, and functional impairment. However, clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were differentially associated with impairment as a function of their exposure. In the directly exposed group, all clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were associated with impairment in function, while only emotional numbing was associated with impairment within the indirectly exposed group. Conclusion: Considering that terror attacks frequently involve directly exposed individuals and a larger population of indirectly exposed individuals, this finding is of importance, especially in the design of intervention programs and the development of treatment policies. PMID:26300833

  10. Consumption of Soft Drinks and Hyperactivity, Mental Distress, and Conduct Problems Among Adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578

  11. Diabetes Risk by Length of Residence among Somali Women in Oslo Area

    PubMed Central

    Gele, Abdi A.; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes represents a major health problem worldwide, with immigrants strongly contributing to the increase in diabetes in many countries. Norway is not immune to the process, and immigrants in the country are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of diabetes after arrival. However, the dynamics of these transitions in relation to the duration of residence in the new environment in Norway are not clearly understood. From this background, a cross-sectional quantitative study using a respondent-driven sampling method was conducted among 302 Somali women living in Oslo area. The results show that 41% of the study participants will be at risk for developing diabetes in the coming 10 years, which coincides with 85% of the study participants being abdominally obese. Significant associations were found between years of stay in Norway and the risk for diabetes with those who lived in Norway >10 years, having twofold higher odds of being at risk for developing diabetes compared to those who lived in Norway ≤5 years (OR: 2.16, CI: 1.08–4.32). Understanding the mechanisms through which exposure to the Norwegian environment leads to higher obesity and diabetes risk may aid in prevention efforts for the rapidly growing African immigrant population. PMID:27314048

  12. Impact of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position on cause specific mortality: the Oslo Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, B; Davey, S; Thelle, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the impact of childhood and adulthood social circumstances on cause specific adult mortality. Design: Census data on housing conditions from 1960 and Personal Register income data for 1990 were linked to 1990–94 death registrations, and relative indices of inequality were computed for housing conditions in 1960 and for household income in 1990. Participants: The 128 723 inhabitants in Oslo aged 31–50 years in 1990. Main results: Adulthood mortality was strongly associated with both childhood and adulthood social circumstances among both men and women. Cardiovascular disease mortality was more strongly associated with childhood than with adulthood social circumstances, while the opposite was found for psychiatric and accidental/violent mortality. Smoking related cancer mortality was related to both adulthood and childhood social circumstances in men, but considerably more strongly to adult social circumstances. Conclusions: Childhood social circumstances have an important influence on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Current increases in child poverty that have been seen in Norway over the past two decades could herald unfavourable future trends in adult health. PMID:12490647

  13. Life-course influences on mortality at older ages: evidence from the Oslo Mortality Study.

    PubMed

    Naess, Oyvind; Hernes, Frank H; Blane, David

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the cumulative influence of disadvantage acting from early to adult life. And they suggest that risk of death increases in a cumulative fashion. Few studies have investigated the life-course influences on social inequality in mortality in early old age. In this study we wanted to follow a cohort through their adult working age into retirement and investigate pathways that may give increased risk of mortality. A cohort of all inhabitants in the age range 68-72 who lived in the municipality of Oslo on 1st January 1990 was selected. Data were obtained by linking censuses from 1960, 1970 and 1980 with tax registry in 1990 and death registry 1990-1998. Independent variables were occupational class in 1960, 1970 and 1980 and household income in 1990. Occupational class was coded as manual and non-manual and household income as above or below median household income. A cumulative model was developed by adding times of disadvantage. Then a pathway model was developed which investigated the specific trajectories individuals followed. Most of the increased risk of death was explained by individuals' social conditions in 1990. In the cumulative model, there was no clear gradient in the groups between the bottom and top categories. This suggests that the cumulative model is not important in the high mortality age and that the relative importance of a cumulative effect varies by stages of the life course.

  14. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Results: 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants’ iodine status. Conclusion: This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups. PMID:28505075

  15. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    PubMed

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population.

  16. Attitudes towards suicidal behaviour in outpatient clinics among mental health professionals in Oslo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate attitudes of professionals working in mental health care outpatient clinics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) (for children and adolescents aged 0–18 years) and District Psychiatric Centres (DPC) (for adults aged 18–67 years). Methods Professionals in four outpatient units in Oslo were enrolled (n = 229: 77%). The Understanding of Suicidal Patient scale (USP) (11 = positive to 55 = negative) and Attitudes Towards Suicide questionnaire (ATTS) (1 = totally disagree to 5 = totally agree) were used to assess professionals’ attitudes. Questions explored competence, religion, experiences of and views on suicidal behaviour and its treatment. Results All the professionals indicated positive attitudes (USP 18.7) and endorsed the view that suicide was preventable (ATTS 4.3). Professionals who had received supervision or were specialists had attitudes that were more positive. Professionals in CAP were less satisfied with available treatment. Psychiatric disorders were considered the most common cause of suicidal behaviour, and psychotherapy the most appropriate form of treatment. The professionals confirmed that patients with other disorders of comparable severity are followed up more systematically. Conclusions The professionals showed positive attitudes with minor differences between CAP and DPC. PMID:23510325

  17. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  18. Statistical analysis and definition of blockages-prediction formulae for the wastewater network of Oslo by evolutionary computing.

    PubMed

    Ugarelli, Rita; Kristensen, Stig Morten; Røstum, Jon; Saegrov, Sveinung; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Oslo Vann og Avløpsetaten (Oslo VAV)-the water/wastewater utility in the Norwegian capital city of Oslo-is assessing future strategies for selection of most reliable materials for wastewater networks, taking into account not only material technical performance but also material performance, regarding operational condition of the system.The research project undertaken by SINTEF Group, the largest research organisation in Scandinavia, NTNU (Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet) and Oslo VAV adopts several approaches to understand reasons for failures that may impact flow capacity, by analysing historical data for blockages in Oslo.The aim of the study was to understand whether there is a relationship between the performance of the pipeline and a number of specific attributes such as age, material, diameter, to name a few. This paper presents the characteristics of the data set available and discusses the results obtained by performing two different approaches: a traditional statistical analysis by segregating the pipes into classes, each of which with the same explanatory variables, and a Evolutionary Polynomial Regression model (EPR), developed by Technical University of Bari and University of Exeter, to identify possible influence of pipe's attributes on the total amount of predicted blockages in a period of time.Starting from a detailed analysis of the available data for the blockage events, the most important variables are identified and a classification scheme is adopted.From the statistical analysis, it can be stated that age, size and function do seem to have a marked influence on the proneness of a pipeline to blockages, but, for the reduced sample available, it is difficult to say which variable it is more influencing. If we look at total number of blockages the oldest class seems to be the most prone to blockages, but looking at blockage rates (number of blockages per km per year), then it is the youngest class showing the highest blockage rate

  19. The Oslo health study: cheese intake was negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne T; Tomten, Sissel E

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported that the frequency of cheese intake (FCI) was negatively associated with serum triglycerides and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We therefore wanted to study whether FCI is associated with MetS. The Oslo Health Study (18,770 subjects), obtained data from 7815 men and 9685 women on cheese intake and risk factors for MetS, except for fasting glucose. MetS requires central obesity and at least 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. We calculated the index SumRisk, providing the number of MetS factors present, and MetSRisk to reflect the combined levels of many MetS factors. The association between FCI and MetSRisk (SumRisk) was studied using regression analyses. In young (30 years), middle-aged (40 and 45 years), seniors (59-60), and old (75-76 years) subjects, there was an inverse association between FCI and MetSRisk (p ≤ 0.005, except in old men). Using regression, we found a consistent negative association (p < 0.001) between FCI and MetSRisk, SumRisk, single MetS components, and the complete MetS, prevailing after controlling for sex, age, time since last meal, intake of fruit/berries, fruit juice, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, leisure time physical activity, years at school, and birthplace. FCI was also negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.02), except in old women. Cheese intake can be negatively and independently associated with (1) an index including the level of many risk factors for MetS, (2) the number of MetS requirements present, (3) single MetS components, and (4) the complete MetS.

  20. Modelling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, M.; Kukkonen, J.; Keuken, M. P.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Pirjola, L.; Hussein, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of one hour, i.e. on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using an aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of n-alkanes, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. It was not necessary to model the nucleation of gas-phase vapors, as the computations were started with roadside conditions. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The effect of condensation and evaporation of organic vapors emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. Under inefficient dispersion conditions, condensational growth contributed significantly to the evolution of PN from roadside to the neighborhood scale. The simplified parameterization of aerosol processes can predict particle number concentrations between roadside and the urban background with an inaccuracy of ∼ 10 %, compared to the fully size-resolved MAFOR model.

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian; Gehring, Ulrike; Walker, Sam Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Stigum, Hein; Naess, Oyvind; Nafstad, Per

    2010-05-01

    Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations in exposure, residential mobility, and work addresses during pregnancy. We used information from the National Birth Registry of Norway to examine associations between ambient environmental exposure such as air pollution and temperature, and offspring's birth weight taking advantage of information on migration history and work address in a large population-based cohort. A dispersion model was used to estimate ambient air pollution levels at all residential addresses and work addresses for a total of 25,229 pregnancies between 1999 and 2002 in Oslo, Norway. Ambient exposure to traffic pollution for the entire pregnancy was associated with a reduction in term birth weight in crude analyzes when comparing children of the highest and lowest exposed mothers. No evidence for an association between exposure to traffic pollution at home and work addresses and term birth weight after adjustment for covariates known to influence birth weight during pregnancy. After stratification, small statistically non-significant reductions were present but only for multiparious mothers. This group also had less residential mobility and less employment during pregnancy. The overall findings suggest no clear association between term birth weight and traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy. However, mobility patterns could introduce possible confounding when examining small-scale variations in exposure by using addresses. This could be of importance in future studies.

  2. Importance of investment decisions and rehabilitation approaches in an ageing wastewater pipeline network. A case study of Oslo (Norway).

    PubMed

    Ugarelli, Rita; Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge; Saegrov, Sveinung

    2008-01-01

    As Oslo Vann og Avløpsetaten (VAV, meaning Water and Sewage Department) looks into the future, it is faced with a quandary-to replace old pipelines or to continue maintaining them. The primary goal is to improve the level of service. The secondary goals are to rejuvenate the system and stem the decline in capital value. In 1991-2006, the Operation and Maintenance expenses (O&M) were far higher than the investments, and the network aged as its capital value plummeted. However, if the funds are insufficient, the self-financing Oslo VAV would have to turn to the consumers for help. Will the consumers pay more to have a 'younger' system? What if they are happy with the 'status quo' and are unconcerned about the falling capital value? Should the pipelines be depreciated over a longer period than the 40 years which is adopted now? Should the economic method be replaced by a more engineering-based method, whereby the pipes are assessed 'on merit'-on the basis of their service lives? There are numerous issues and a good decision will ease the road ahead. This paper, using Life Cycle Costing Analysis (LCCA) and scenarios therein, looks at how Oslo VAV could strike a balance between expending on O&M, investing in upgrading the network, and decelerating the ageing of the network while augmenting the capital value, and what is the best attainable set of targets they could aim for, at the end of the next 20 years. The two approaches mentioned above are compared with each other. It is seen that a rehabilitation programme based on the pipes performance approach is preferable to one guided by an economic lifetime approach, when the motive is to optimise expenditure and also improve the level of service.

  3. Reanalysis of total ozone measurements at Dombås and Oslo, Norway, from 1940 to 1949

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendby, Tove M.

    2003-12-01

    Total ozone measurements from Dobson spectrometer number 8 at Dombås, Norway (62.1°N, 9.1°E), and Oslo, Norway (59.9°N, 10.7°E), from 1940 to 1949 have been examined and reanalyzed. New sets of Bass-Paur absorption and Rayleigh scattering coefficients have been created, and total ozone values have been recalculated using the new coefficients. Approximately half of the ozone registrations at Dombås were based on direct Sun observations calculated from the CC' wavelength pairs. The long C' pair has provided valuable information about the effect of atmospheric aerosols on the ozone measurements. A method for determining aerosol corrections is presented which demonstrates that the monthly mean aerosol error can reach 4% total ozone, normally with a higher correction in the summer than in the winter. Also, the influence of SO2 on the Oslo ozone measurements is estimated. The D8 ozone series from 1940 to 1949 has been compared to ozone records from other European stations and to the D56 ozone series from Oslo 1978-1998. Studies of old and new Dobson data demonstrate that the annual variation in the ozone layer has changed during the last 50-60 years. The comparison indicates that the ozone decrease is relatively small for the summer months (2.9 ± 1.8%), whereas the average winter and spring values have deceased by 6.1 ± 3.9% from the 1940s to the 1990s. If the postwar increase in tropospheric ozone is taken into account, the depletion of the ozone layer is considerably higher, probably 8-9% for winter/spring. All the reanalyzed total ozone data from D8 for the period 1940 to 1949 are available at the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Center.

  4. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    PubMed

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  6. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lützenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64 %. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and

  7. The 33rd IGC, Oslo, Norway 2008; Geoscience World Congress 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Bjoerlykke, A.

    2007-12-01

    The International Geological Congress (IGC) has been arranged every four years since 1878. During the previous Congress in Florence, Italy, 2004, the Nordic countries were awarded the organisation of the 33rd IGC, which will be held in Oslo, Norway, August 6-14, 2008. We expect between 6000 and 9000 participants to the Congress, which also includes workshops, short-courses, and business meetings, as well as more than 50 pre -and post Congress excursions. The Congress is organised under the umbrella of IUGS and the patronage of UNESCO. The Congress will run with 40 parallel sessions and cover the whole width of the geosciences. About 500 symposia will run in 40 parallel sessions. There will be a major poster session, as well as a large exhibition (Geoexpo 2008), in which industry and other organisations will be able to exhibit their products and services. A number of international affiliations have announced their interest in organising annual business meetings during the Congress. In addition, a number of workshops and short-courses will be arranged. More than 50 excursions are planned for the two weeks before the Congress and one week after. These run in all the Nordic Countries, as well as in NW Russia, Ukraine, Greenland, Svalbard, and the Faeroes Islands. These excursions will give the participants a first-hand insight into Nordic Geosciences, as well as the Nordic natural and cultural heritage. Two major international events are important for the Congress. The "International Polar Year" (IPY) and the United Nations' "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) are both running in the period 2007-2009. The Congress focuses on many of the main themes of IYPE, with major emphasis on "Geoscience and Society". Seven major themes will be treated in full-day plenary sessions of lectures given by invited lecturers. These plenary sessions will have a scientific part in the morning, a key-note lecture at lunch-time, and a societal part in the afternoon, followed by a

  8. Sensitivity of black carbon concentrations and climate impact to aging and scavenging in OsloCTM2-M7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate representation of black carbon (BC) concentrations in climate models is a key prerequisite for understanding its net climate impact. BC aging and scavenging are treated very differently in current models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of three-dimensional (3-D), temporally resolved BC concentrations to perturbations to individual model processes in the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2-M7. The main goals are to identify processes related to aerosol aging and scavenging where additional observational constraints may most effectively improve model performance, in particular for BC vertical profiles, and to give an indication of how model uncertainties in the BC life cycle propagate into uncertainties in climate impacts. Coupling OsloCTM2 with the microphysical aerosol module M7 allows us to investigate aging processes in more detail than possible with a simpler bulk parameterization. Here we include, for the first time in this model, a treatment of condensation of nitric acid on BC. Using kernels, we also estimate the range of radiative forcing and global surface temperature responses that may result from perturbations to key tunable parameters in the model. We find that BC concentrations in OsloCTM2-M7 are particularly sensitive to convective scavenging and the inclusion of condensation by nitric acid. The largest changes are found at higher altitudes around the Equator and at low altitudes over the Arctic. Convective scavenging of hydrophobic BC, and the amount of sulfate required for BC aging, are found to be key parameters, potentially reducing bias against HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flight-based measurements by 60 to 90 %. Even for extensive tuning, however, the total impact on global-mean surface temperature is estimated to less than 0.04 K. Similar results are found when nitric acid is allowed to condense on the BC aerosols. We conclude, in line with previous studies, that a shorter atmospheric BC lifetime broadly improves the

  9. Origin of the Oslo Graben in relation to the Hercynian-Alleghenian orogeny and lithospheric rifting in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael J.; Smythe, David K.

    1983-05-01

    The contemporaneous extrusion of basalts in the Oslo Graben and intrusion of dolentes in northern Britain and southern Sweden at ~ 295 Ma calls for a common explanation. Two hypotheses are investigated: (1) the Graben and dykes resulted from extensional stresses associated with progressive lithosphere separation to the northwest of Europe in the late Carboniferous. (2) the dykes, and therefore the Graben, were related in some way to oblique collision of plates in the Hercynian orogeny which was developing to the south. The first hypothesis is mechanically more satisfying, and makes a number of testable predictions. It states that in late Carboniferous times the lithosphere separated in two places along the orogenic grain to the west of Britain and Norway. The two embryonic oceanic rifts were divided by thick cold lithosphere with an Archaean crust to the north of Scotland. Extensional stresses were focussed in this region, fanning out in an arcuate zone to the south and east, causing failure where the lithosphere was relatively thin. In Norway the strain was restricted to a zone previously thinned and weakened in the Early Palaeozoic i.e. the Oslo Graben. In Britain the Caledonoid grain is oblique to the expected direction of extensional strain, and a dyke swarm, trending E-W and about 300 km wide, was formed. The first hypothesis predicts that the dykes should die out to the west but continue along an arc and widen to the east-northeast under the western North Sea. Interpretation of aeromagnetic maps shows that the dykes behave as predicted by hypothesis one, but that their trends and extent are at variance with the expectations of hypothesis two. The apparent contradiction of rifting to the northwest of Europe occurring at the same time as compression and oblique collision in the heart of Europe is resolved in principle by two plate tectonic reconstructions of Pangaea drawn for late Carboniferous and early Permian times. The Oslo Graben was conceived in mid

  10. Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Ellen J

    2012-07-23

    Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20-60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents' generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim immigrants reported a significantly

  11. Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. Method The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20–60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents’ generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Results Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim

  12. Recalculated values of the total ozone amount over Oslo, 60 deg N, for the period 1979-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Soren H. H.; Svendby, Tove; Tonnessen, Finn; Dahlback, Arne

    1994-01-01

    The total ozone amount over Oslo has been measured with the Dobson spectrophotometer No 56. The instrument was modified, calibrated, and intercompared in 1977 in Boulder. A new intercomparison was made in 1986 in Arosa. Much work has been done to make the zenith charts reliable. A new method has been introduced where one takes into account the change in the shape of the zenith chart curves which is caused by a change of the ozone profile when the ozone amount changes. According to the conclusion derived from the intercomparison in Arosa 1986, the instrument has not been stable. The R-N tables had to be altered, but not the Q-tables. We have tried to account for this change in our handling of the observation data. No statistical analyses of these data has yet been made, but the monthly averages of the raw data show a negative linear trend of about 4 percent for the whole period.

  13. Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: case study of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants, while performing the important function of treating wastewater to meet the prescribed discharge standards, consume energy and a variety of chemicals. This paper analyses the consumption of energy and chemicals by wastewater treatment plants in Oslo over eight years, and their potential environmental impacts. Global warming and acidification were the dominant impacts for chemicals and energy, respectively. Avoided impacts due to usable by-products - sludge, ammonium nitrate and biogas - play a key role in shrinking the environmental footprint of the wastewater plants. The scope for decreasing this footprint by streamlining energy and chemicals consumption is limited, however, considering that over 70% of the impact is accounted for by the eutrophication potential (thanks to the nitrogen and phosphorus which is discharged to the sink) of the treated effluent wastewater.

  14. Magnetic properties of terrestrial moss (Hylocomium splendens) along a north-south profile crossing the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; McEnroe, Suzanne A; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjørn

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic measurements are routinely used in geophysics and environmental sciences to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron minerals. Here, magnetic properties of 38 terrestrial moss samples (Hylocomium splendens) from a ~120km south-north transect through Oslo are studied to gain better insight into the nature and origin of their Fe fraction. The concentration-dependent quantities, magnetic susceptibility k, and isothermal remanent magnetization IRM(700mT) after weight normalization have significantly higher values in urban regions, and parallel the previously found concentration signals of 16 out of 29 chemical elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Sb, Ti, and Zn). Because there is no evidence that Hylocomium splendens produces biogenic magnetic remanence carriers, the increase in IRM is attributed to adsorption of dust containing iron oxide minerals. This agrees with previous observations that Ti concentrations, related to local mineral dust, have a peak in Oslo, and at sites close to known dust sources. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed an increased density of minerogenic particles on the moss surfaces in the urban samples, which qualitatively supports the dust based interpretation. The concentration-independent ratios k/Fe and IRM(700mT)/Fe also have extreme values in the urban parts of the transect. This indicates that more of the total iron occurs in magnetically ordered form and in remanence carriers, interpreted as adsorbed dust. In addition, purely magnetic ratios displayed differences in urban and rural areas, indicating that their magnetic dust particles are inherently of different types. Therefore, it is likely that anthropogenic dust sources contribute considerably to the magnetic signal. Urban dust enhancement is not exclusively due to increased erosion, leading to higher loads of geogenic dust in the atmosphere, but also to specific anthropogenic sources from combustion, corrosion

  15. Musculo-skeletal pain among 40- and 45-year olds in Oslo: differences between two socioeconomically contrasting areas, and their possible explanations

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Mette; Hjortdahl, Per

    2004-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence and severity of musculo-skeletal pain between two socioeconomically contrasting areas in Oslo, Norway, and to explore possible explanatory factors. Methods Questionnaire survey, carried out as part of The Oslo Health Study in 2000–2001. Data from 821 persons (40 and 45 year old) living in a less affluent inner city area (called east) were compared with 854 persons living in an affluent area of the city (called west). Bivariate comparisons (chi square test) and multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate differences between the samples. Results 61 % in east and 56 % in west (p < 0.05) reported pain/stiffness in muscles/joints during the last four weeks. 30 % in east versus 19 % in west (p < 0.001) reported extensive pain. The between area difference in extensive pain was partially explained by physical inactivity, mental health problems and being of non-Western origin. Conclusion Musculo-skeletal pain is reported by 55–60 % of middle aged persons in Oslo during a four week period, and must be considered a normal phenomenon. Poor social conditions, inactivity, mental health problems and being an immigrant imply increased risk of more severe symptoms with a concomitant demand of health care. PMID:15494077

  16. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  17. Proximity to terror and post-traumatic stress: a follow-up survey of governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marianne B; Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeted towards the Norwegian Ministries, and to explore the importance of proximity to the bomb explosion as a predictor of PTSD. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a survey 10 months after the Oslo bombing on 22 July 2011. A total of 3520 employees were invited to the study. Net samples comprised 1927 employees in 14 of the 17 Norwegian Ministries. The employees reported where they were at the time of the explosion. PTSD was assessed with the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL). A total of 207 of the 1881 (11%) ministerial employees who completed the survey were present at work when the bomb exploded. Of these, a quarter (24%, 95% CI 18.4 to 30.0) had symptom levels equivalent to PTSD, while the prevalence was approximately 4% among those not present at work. In the latter group the prevalence was similar irrespective of whether their location was in Oslo, other places in Norway or abroad. Leadership responsibility was associated with lower risk for PTSD. The risk of PTSD is mainly associated with being present at work at the time of a terror attack. For those not present at work, the risk of PTSD is low and independent of proximity to the terror scene. The findings may have implications for planning and priority of healthcare services after a work place terror attack.

  18. Inflammatory Response After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases: Data From the Oslo-CoMet Trial.

    PubMed

    Fretland, Asmund Avdem; Sokolov, Andrey; Postriganova, Nadya; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Pischke, Soren E; Nilsson, Per H; Rognes, Ingrid Nygren; Bjornbeth, Bjorn Atle; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Edwin, Bjorn

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic and open liver resection have not been compared in randomized trials. The aim of the current study was to compare the inflammatory response after laparoscopic and open resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in a randomized controlled trial.This was a predefined exploratory substudy within the Oslo CoMet-study. Forty-five patients with CLM were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 23) or open (n = 22) resection. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma samples were collected preoperatively and at defined time points during and after surgery and snap frozen at -80 C. A total of 25 markers were examined using luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques: high-mobility box group 1(HMGB-1), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), cytokines, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex complement activation.Eight inflammatory markers increased significantly from baseline: HMGB-1, cfDNA, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, monocyte chemotactic protein -1, IL-10, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex. Peak levels were reached at the end of or shortly after surgery. Five markers, HMGB-1, cfDNA, IL-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, showed significantly higher levels in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopic surgery group.Laparoscopic resection of CLM reduced the inflammatory response compared with open resection. The lower level of HMGB-1 is interesting because of the known association with oncogenesis.

  19. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  20. Posttraumatic growth and centrality of event: A longitudinal study in the aftermath of the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    PubMed

    Blix, Ines; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that construing a traumatic event as central to one's life story and identity are associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG). Due to cross-sectional designs, these studies provide only weak evidence of a causal relationship between event centrality and PTG. The main aim in the present study is to examine the longitudinal associations and directionality between centrality of event and PTG in ministerial employees who were present at work during the 2011 Oslo bombing attack (N = 229). By applying a cross-lagged autoregressive model, the present study investigates both stability across time, possible time-lagged effects, and the relationship between centrality of event and PTG at 1 and 2 years after the bombing. The results showed that levels of centrality of event and PTG were stable across time. There was a significant association between centrality of event and PTG both 1 and 2 years after the bombing; however, this relationship attenuated over time. No time-lagged effects in either direction were found. The present findings are in line with previous findings indicating that centrality of a traumatic event is related to PTG. However, the present longitudinal data do not support a hypothesis about a long-term causal effect of event centrality on PTG. Rather, the relationship between centrality of event and PTG are concurrent, and attenuates with time.

  1. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    PubMed

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  2. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway)

    PubMed Central

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources. PMID:25658685

  3. Prediction of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in the Oslo region - a model based on geographical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to estimate the radon concentration inside each dwelling in the Oslo region, Norway. The model was based on indoor radon measurements from dwellings at predefined distances from the unmeasured dwellings. The results were evaluated by comparing them with actual indoor measurements, airborne gamma ray spectrometry measurements and bedrock geology. It is the first study to evaluate the reliability between estimated indoor radon in each dwelling with airborne measurements (eK, eTh and eU) and underlying geology around the house in a large population. A total of 28 396 indoor radon measurements showed that 42.2% of the dwellings had a radon value higher than the threshold limit of 100 Bq m-3. 18.9% of the dwellings were above the maximum action level of 200 Bq m-3. A positive correlation was found between indoor radon concentration, bedrock geology and airborne gamma measurements (Pearson correlation: eK: 0.42, eTh: 0.67 and eU: 0.65). Highest correlation was found in areas with alum shale (eU: 0.74). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) showed a good agreement between radon estimates from our method and radon estimates from the regression model with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.67.

  4. Awareness and attitudes related to dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Mulic, Aida; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid; Skaare, Anne B

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe awareness and attitudes related to dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old adolescents in Oslo and to explore attitudinal differences between participants with and without the condition. All 18-yr-old subjects scheduled for their routine examination at the Public Dental Service clinics during 2008 (n = 3,206) were invited, and 1,456 agreed to participate (a response rate of 45%). The data were collected using structured questionnaires and by clinical examination of the participants. Dental erosive wear was assessed using a pictorial manual - the Visual Erosion Dental Examination scoring system - as a guide. Overall, 88% of participants had heard about dental erosive wear; however, of participants with erosive lesions only 56% were aware of, and only 47% could recall their dentist mentioning, the condition. Participants with erosive wear were more likely to have low or moderate positive attitudes towards acidic drink consumption and to be reluctant to change. In multivariate analyses controlling for gender and behavioural variables, weak or moderate positive awareness of acidic drinks remained significantly associated with higher erosion risk. This study emphasizes the importance of assessment and understanding of awareness and attitudinal aspects in relation to dental erosive wear. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  6. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo: refinement of a technique and discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L. W.

    2017-06-01

    A technique for non-invasive dendrochronological analysis of oak was developed for archaeological material, using an industrial CT scanner. Since 2013, this experience has been extended within the scope of the research project `After the Black Death: Painting and Polychrome Sculpture in Norway'. The source material for the project is a collection of late-medieval winged altarpieces, shrines, polychrome sculpture, and fragments from Norwegian churches, which are owned by the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. The majority cannot be sampled, and many are too large to fit into the CT scanner. For these reasons, a combined approach was adopted, utilizing CT scanning where possible, but preceded by an `exposed-wood' imaging technique. Both non-invasive techniques have yielded reliable results, and CT scanning has confirmed the reliability of the imaging technique alone. This paper presents the analytical methods, along with results from two of the 13 objects under investigation. Results for reliable dates and provenances provide new foundations for historical interpretations.

  7. Weight cycling and risk of forearm fractures: a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo Study.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Meyer, Haakon E; Tonstad, Serena; Håheim, Lise Lund; Holme, Ingar

    2008-04-15

    Weight cycling may lead to fractures in non-weight-bearing bone. The authors investigated the association between self-reported episodes of weight loss and forearm fracture in a cohort of elderly Norwegian men (n = 4,601; mean age = 71.6 years). Men initially examined in 1972-1973 as part of the population-based Oslo Study were reexamined in 2000. Weight and height were measured both times; histories of weight cycling (amount and frequency) and fracture and information on covariates were elicited by questionnaire. Irrespective of amount of weight loss, 35-43% of men reporting four or more weight loss episodes at ages 25-50 years had experienced a forearm fracture, as compared with 17-18% of men without weight loss episodes. For weight loss episodes that had occurred after age 50 years, associations were weaker. In an analysis limited to men whose last fracture had occurred after the weight loss episodes, the adjusted odds ratio for forearm fracture was 2.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 7.64) for four or more weight loss episodes versus none. These findings suggest that weight cycling may predict forearm fracture in elderly men and indicate that the potentially harmful effects of weight cycling are related to the number of episodes occurring at ages 25-50 years.

  8. Global Health Governance and Global Power: A Critical Commentary on the Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report on Global Governance for Health provides an insightful analysis of the global health inequalities that result from transnational activities consequent on what the authors call contemporary "global social norms." Our critique is that the analysis and suggested reforms to prevailing institutions and practices are confined within the perspective of the dominant-although unsustainable and inequitable-market-oriented, neoliberal development model of global capitalism. Consequently, the report both elides critical discussion of many key forms of material and political power under conditions of neoliberal development and governance that shape the nature and priorities of the global governance for health, and fails to point to the extent of changes required to sustainably improve global health. We propose that an alternative concept of progress-one grounded in history, political economy, and ecologically responsible health ethics-is sorely needed to better address challenges of global health governance in the new millennium. This might be premised on global solidarity and the "development of sustainability." We argue that the prevailing market civilization model that lies at the heart of global capitalism is being, and will further need to be, contested to avoid contradictions and dislocations associated with the commodification and privatization of health.

  9. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    PubMed Central

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Background Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Results Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post

  10. The Influence of Parental Divorce on Educational Ambitions of 18/19 Year-Old Adolescents from Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/2001 and 2004. A change in educational ambition was investigated in a prospective study (n = 1,861) by comparing 18/19 year-olds who experienced late parental divorce with adolescents of continuously married parents. 18/19 year-old adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 2,391) with their peers from continuously married parents. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to include, among others, mental health problem as a potential confounder. The prospective study showed that a change from ambition for university/college education to having undecided educational ambition was significantly higher among adolescents with experience of late parental divorce than among adolescents of continuously married parents (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0). In the cross-sectional study, adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were more likely to have undecided educational ambition, compared to their peers from continuously married parents (OR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8). In conclusion, experience of parental divorce seems to be associated with undecided educational ambition among 18/19 year-old adolescents. Mechanisms that reduce the adverse influence of parental divorce on educational ambitions need to be in place.

  11. Source to sink tracking of selected human pharmaceuticals from two Oslo city hospitals and a wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Dye, Christian; Schlabach, Martin; Langford, Katherine H

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of twenty pharmaceutical compounds was quantitatively determined in effluents from two major Oslo city hospitals, Rikshospitalet and Ullevål, along with influent, sludge and final effluent from the city's VEAS wastewater treatment works (WTW). Composite hospital effluents were collected over a twelve week period and were showed to contain paracetamol, metoprolol, diclofenac, ibuprofen, 17beta-Estradiol, estriol, estrone, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, chlorotetracycline, demeclocycline, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Three pharmaceuticals were not detected above the limit of detection; cefuroxime, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and meclocycline. Composite influent, sludge and effluent samples were collected from VEAS WTW over a seven week period. The influent into VEAS WTW contained all of the same selected substances detected in the hospital effluents, except for oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, demeclocycline, cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. The percentage of pharmaceuticals entering the works from the hospitals was <10% for all of the selected compounds. VEAS sludge samples contained a different profile of substances reflecting their physico-chemical properties. Hydrophobic antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, were detected in all of the collected sludge samples. Their absence in the collected influent samples suggests that they enter the works bound to effluent particles, with the dissolved fraction observed in the hospital effluents partitioning onto particulate matter within the sewerage network. The final effluent from VEAS WTW contained reduced concentrations of many pharmaceuticals, including paracetamol, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. For other compounds, such as metoprolol, diclofenac and trimethoprim, there were often higher concentrations in the effluent than the influent. These effluent concentrations represent median inputs varying from low

  12. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    PubMed

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  13. Intervention effects on physical activity and insulin levels in men of Pakistani origin living in Oslo: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind; Høstmark, Arne T; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is seen in some immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. Our aims were to increase the physical activity (PA) level in a group of Pakistani immigrant men, and to see whether any increase was associated with reduced serum glucose and insulin concentrations. The intervention was developed in collaboration with the Pakistani community. It used a social cognitive theory framework and consisted of structured supervised group exercises, group lectures, individual counselling and telephone follow-up. One- hundred and fifty physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway, were randomised to either a control group or an intervention group. The 5-month intervention focused on increasing levels of PA, which were assessed by use of accelerometer (Actigraph MTI 7164) recordings. Risk of diabetes was assessed by serum glucose and insulin concentrations determined in a fasted state, and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANCOVA was used to assess differences between groups. There was a mean difference in PA between the two groups of 49 counts per minute per day, representing a 15 % (95 % CI = 8.7-21.2; P = 0.01) higher increase in total PA level in the intervention group than in the control group. Insulin values taken 2 h after an OGTT were reduced in the intervention group by 27 % (95 % CI = 18.9-35.0; P = 0.02) more than those in the control group. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial glucose values between the groups at the follow-up test. This type of intervention can increase PA and reduce serum insulin in Pakistani immigrant men, thereby presumably reducing their risk of T2D.

  14. Associations between food patterns, socioeconomic position and working situation among adult, working women and men in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, M K; Holmboe-Ottesen, G; Wandel, M

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in diet are well documented, but the relative importance of different indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) is not well known. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between food patterns, SEP (occupation, education and income) and degree of work control. A cross-sectional population-based study 2000-2001, using three self-administered questionnaires including food frequency questions (FFQs). Factor analysis was used to explore food patterns. Participants include 9762 working Oslo citizens, 30-60 years of age, having answered the questionnaires with <20% of the FFQ missing. Four food patterns were found: Western, prudent, traditional and sweet. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of having a high intake of the Western pattern was lowest in the two highest educational groups (women: odds ratio (OR)=0.54/OR=0.75; men: OR=0.51/OR=0.76), and in the two highest occupational groups for men (OR=0.73/OR=0.78). The odds of having a high intake of the prudent pattern was highest in the two highest educational groups (women: OR=2.50/OR=1.84; men: OR=2.23/OR=1.37), and among the self-employed (women OR=1.61, men OR=1.68), as well as in the highest occupational group for men (OR=1.33). Women always having work control were least likely to have high intake of the Western pattern (OR=0.78) and most likely to have high intake of the prudent pattern (OR=1.39). The SEP indicators were in different ways related to the food patterns, but the effect of occupation and income was partly explained by education, especially among women. Women's work control and men's occupation were important for their eating habits.

  15. The protocol of the Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium; LUCID: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Neerland, Bjørn Erik; Hov, Karen Roksund; Bruun Wyller, Vegard; Qvigstad, Eirik; Skovlund, Eva; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir

    2015-02-10

    Delirium affects 15% of hospitalised patients and is linked with poor outcomes, yet few pharmacological treatment options exist. One hypothesis is that delirium may in part result from exaggerated and/or prolonged stress responses. Dexmedetomidine, a parenterally-administered alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist which attenuates sympathetic nervous system activity, shows promise as treatment in ICU delirium. Clonidine exhibits similar pharmacodynamic properties and can be administered orally. We therefore wish to explore possible effects of clonidine upon the duration and severity of delirium in general medical inpatients. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel group study with 4-month prospective follow-up. We will recruit 100 older medical inpatients with delirium or subsyndromal delirium in the acute geriatric ward. Participants will be randomised to oral clonidine or placebo until delirium free for 2 days (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria), or after a maximum of 7 days treatment. Assessment of haemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram) and delirium will be performed daily until discharge or a maximum of 7 days after end of treatment. The primary endpoint is the trajectory of delirium over time (measured by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale). Secondary endpoints include the duration of delirium, use of rescue medication for delirium, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clonidine, cognitive function after 4 months, length of hospital stay and need for institutionalisation. LUCID will explore the efficacy and safety of clonidine for delirium in older medical inpatients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956604. EudraCT Number: 2013-000815-26.

  16. The relation of early experienced negative life events and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2012-03-01

    Negative life events have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life events associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life events on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life events. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life event among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life events were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life events and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life events at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  19. Proximity to terror and post-traumatic stress: a follow-up survey of governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marianne B; Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeted towards the Norwegian Ministries, and to explore the importance of proximity to the bomb explosion as a predictor of PTSD. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from a survey 10 months after the Oslo bombing on 22 July 2011. Participants A total of 3520 employees were invited to the study. Net samples comprised 1927 employees in 14 of the 17 Norwegian Ministries. Outcome measures The employees reported where they were at the time of the explosion. PTSD was assessed with the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Results A total of 207 of the 1881 (11%) ministerial employees who completed the survey were present at work when the bomb exploded. Of these, a quarter (24%, 95% CI 18.4 to 30.0) had symptom levels equivalent to PTSD, while the prevalence was approximately 4% among those not present at work. In the latter group the prevalence was similar irrespective of whether their location was in Oslo, other places in Norway or abroad. Leadership responsibility was associated with lower risk for PTSD. Conclusions The risk of PTSD is mainly associated with being present at work at the time of a terror attack. For those not present at work, the risk of PTSD is low and independent of proximity to the terror scene. The findings may have implications for planning and priority of healthcare services after a work place terror attack. PMID:23872287

  20. Use of emergency care services by immigrants—a survey of walk-in patients who attended the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Sven Eirik; Aga, Ruth; Natvig, Bård; Hjortdahl, Per

    2015-10-07

    The Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) experienced a 5-6% annual increase in patient visits between 2005 and 2011, which was significantly higher than the 2-3% annual increase among registered Oslo residents. This study explored immigrant walk-in patients' use of both the general emergency and trauma clinics of the OAEOC and their concomitant use of regular general practitioners (RGPs) in Oslo. A cross-sectional survey of walk-in patients attending the OAEOC during 2 weeks in September 2009. We analysed demographic data, patients' self-reported affiliation with the RGP scheme, self-reported number of OAEOC and RGP consultations during the preceding 12 months. The first approach used Poisson regression models to study visit frequency. The second approach compared the proportions of first- and second-generation immigrants and those from the four most frequently represented countries (Sweden, Pakistan, Somalia and Poland) among the patient population, with their respective proportions within the general Oslo population. The analysis included 3864 patients: 1821 attended the Department of Emergency General Practice ("general emergency clinic"); 2043 attended the Section for Orthopaedic Emergency ("trauma clinic"). Both first- and second-generation immigrants reported a significantly higher OAEOC visit frequency compared with Norwegians. Norwegians, representing 73% of the city population accounted for 65% of OAEOC visits. In contrast, first- and second-generation immigrants made up 27% of the city population but accounted for 35% of OAEOC visits. This proportional increase in use was primarily observed in the general emergency clinic (42% of visits). Their proportional use of the trauma clinic (29%) was similar to their proportion in the city. Among first-generation immigrants only 71% were affiliated with the RGP system, in contrast to 96% of Norwegians. Similar finding were obtained when immigrants were grouped by nationality. Compared to

  1. Proceedings of a joint meeting between the Norwegian Society of Infectious Diseases and the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Oslo, 20 June 2008.

    PubMed

    Newport, Melanie J; Myrvang, Bjorn

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of a scientific meeting that was held between the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the Norwegian Infectious Diseases Society at Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo on 20 June 2008. Seven speakers updated the audience on recent advances in relevant issues, including international maternal and child health, podoconiosis, schistosomiasis and HIV, leprosy in the UK, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis and the Global Filariasis Programme. The meeting ended with a series of case presentations.

  2. Changes in food habits after migration among South Asians settled in Oslo: the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to explore changes in food habits after migration, and the resultant present food consumption patterns, as well as the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors on these changes. Analyses were based on data collected through the Oslo Immigrant Health study, from 629 persons 30-60 years of age, born in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and living in Oslo, Norway. A majority of the Sri Lankans reported increase in the consumption of meat, milk, butter, margarine and potatoes. Around half of those from Pakistan reported increased consumption of oil, meat, fish and potatoes. Both groups reported a decrease in bean and lentil consumption. Multivariate regression showed that age was negatively related to increases in butter and margarine consumption, and a good command of the Norwegian language reduced the likelihood of increased consumption of oil and butter. The likelihood of having present fat and sugar rich food patterns were reduced with age and years of education, whereas scoring high on an index of integration increased the likelihood of a fat rich food pattern. In conclusion, a number of demographic and socio-cultural factors may modify the changes in food habits after migration. Some of these may have substantial health implications.

  3. Jens Esmark's Christiania (Oslo) meteorological observations 1816-1838: the first long-term continuous temperature record from the Norwegian capital homogenized and analysed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestmark, Geir; Nordli, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    In 2010 we rediscovered the complete set of meteorological observation protocols made by Jens Esmark (1762-1839) during his years of residence in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then Christiania). From 1 January 1816 to 25 January 1839, Esmark at his house in Øvre Voldgate in the morning, early afternoon and late evening recorded air temperature with state-of-the-art thermometers. He also noted air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation and wind directions, and experimented with rain gauges and hygrometers. From 1818 to the end of 1838 he twice a month provided weather tables to the official newspaper Den Norske Rigstidende, and thus acquired a semi-official status as the first Norwegian state meteorologist. This paper evaluates the quality of Esmark's temperature observations and presents new metadata, new homogenization and analysis of monthly means. Three significant shifts in the measurement series were detected, and suitable corrections are proposed. The air temperature in Oslo during this period is shown to exhibit a slow rise from 1816 towards 1825, followed by a slighter fall again towards 1838.

  4. Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On July 22, 2011, a single perpetrator killed 77 people in a car bomb attack and a shooting spree incident in Norway. This article describes the emergency medical service (EMS) response elicited by the two incidents. Methods A retrospective and observational study was conducted based on data from the EMS systems involved and the public domain. The study was approved by the Data Protection Official and was defined as a quality improvement project. Results We describe the timeline and logistics of the EMS response, focusing on alarm, dispatch, initial response, triage and evacuation. The scenes in the Oslo government district and at Utøya island are described separately. Conclusions Many EMS units were activated and effectively used despite the occurrence of two geographically separate incidents within a short time frame. Important lessons were learned regarding triage and evacuation, patient flow and communication, the use of and need for emergency equipment and the coordination of helicopter EMS. PMID:22280935

  5. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area

    PubMed Central

    Gele, Abdi A; Sagbakken, Mette; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC) is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda – both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway’s approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants’ support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence permit is granted. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of the abandonment of FC among immigrants in Western countries. PMID:26648760

  6. Cheese can reduce indexes that estimate fatty acid desaturation. Results from the Oslo Health Study and from experiments with human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne T; Lunde, Marianne S H

    2012-02-01

    Previously, cheese intake was shown to be inversely related to serum triglycerides, raising the possibility that cheese might inhibit triglyceride synthesis, which is governed by fatty acid desaturases. Therefore, analyses were done to study whether cheese intake was associated with indexes that reflect fatty acid desaturation in 121 healthy ethnic Norwegians aged 40-45 years, a subsample from the Oslo Health Study (N = 18 777). Experiments with human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were done to clarify whether cheese might have a causal effect on desaturases. Fatty acid distribution in lipids of human sera and HepG2 cells was determined by gas chromatography. Δ9-Desaturase was estimated by the (16:1,n-7)/(16:0) and (18:1,n-9)/(18:0) ratios, abbreviated ds9_1 and ds9_2, and Δ5-desaturase (ds5) by the (20:4,n-6)/(18:2,n-6) ratio. Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression models were used to study associations. Oslo Health Study: Subjects with cheese intake >4-6 times per week had 33% lower ds9_1 and 16% lower ds5 than subjects with intake ≤ 4-6 times per week. The cheese intake vs. ds5 association prevailed when adjusting for sex, time since last meal, fatty fish, vegetables, fruit-berries, fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, length of education, and smoking. HepG2 cells: An ethanol extract of Jarlsberg cheese lowered the desaturase indexes. Inhibition of ds9_1 increased with increasing amount cheese extract added. Thus, cheese may contain inhibitors of desaturases, thereby providing an explanation for the previously reported negative association between cheese intake and triglycerides.

  7. eHealth Use Among First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway, With Focus on Diabetes: Survey Protocol.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Naoe; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Mirkovic, Jelena; Andreassen, Hege Kristin

    2016-04-25

    A variety of eHealth services are available and commonly used by the general public. eHealth has the potential to engage and empower people with managing their health. The prerequisite is, however, that eHealth services are adapted to the sociocultural heterogeneity of the user base and are available in a language and with contents that fit the users' preference, skills, and abilities. Pakistani immigrants in the Oslo area, Norway, have a much higher risk of Type-2 diabetes (T2D) than their Norwegian counterparts do. In spite of having access to information and communication technology (ICT) and the Internet, ICT skills in this population are reported to be relatively low. Further, there is insufficient information about their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, necessitating investigation of this group in particular. This study targets first-generation immigrants from Pakistan living in the Oslo area and examines their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, specifically: information searches, communication using ICT, and use of ICT for self-management or decision making, all concerning T2D. Due to a high prevalence of low literacy among the target population, we employed questionnaire-based individual interviews. The questionnaire was developed by implementing potentially relevant theoretical constructs (technology acceptance model (TAM) and health belief model (HBM)) as measures. To explore issues around language, culture, and general ICT skills, we also implemented questions that we assume were particularly relevant in the context studied but do not appear in any theoretical frameworks. The questionnaire was revised to reflect results of a pilot study involving 10 participants. We employed culturally sensitive sampling methods to reach informants who could otherwise fail to be included in the survey. This paper presents a survey protocol. The data collection is ongoing. The aim is to collect 200 responses in total by March 2016. For eHealth to

  8. eHealth Use Among First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway, With Focus on Diabetes: Survey Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Mirkovic, Jelena; Andreassen, Hege Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of eHealth services are available and commonly used by the general public. eHealth has the potential to engage and empower people with managing their health. The prerequisite is, however, that eHealth services are adapted to the sociocultural heterogeneity of the user base and are available in a language and with contents that fit the users’ preference, skills, and abilities. Pakistani immigrants in the Oslo area, Norway, have a much higher risk of Type-2 diabetes (T2D) than their Norwegian counterparts do. In spite of having access to information and communication technology (ICT) and the Internet, ICT skills in this population are reported to be relatively low. Further, there is insufficient information about their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, necessitating investigation of this group in particular. Objective This study targets first-generation immigrants from Pakistan living in the Oslo area and examines their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, specifically: information searches, communication using ICT, and use of ICT for self-management or decision making, all concerning T2D. Methods Due to a high prevalence of low literacy among the target population, we employed questionnaire-based individual interviews. The questionnaire was developed by implementing potentially relevant theoretical constructs (technology acceptance model (TAM) and health belief model (HBM)) as measures. To explore issues around language, culture, and general ICT skills, we also implemented questions that we assume were particularly relevant in the context studied but do not appear in any theoretical frameworks. The questionnaire was revised to reflect results of a pilot study involving 10 participants. We employed culturally sensitive sampling methods to reach informants who could otherwise fail to be included in the survey. Results This paper presents a survey protocol. The data collection is ongoing. The aim is to collect 200 responses

  9. Reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner – a survey among immigrant and native walk-in patients in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner (RGP). Design Cross-sectional study using a multilingual anonymous questionnaire. Setting Native and immigrant walk-in patients attending a general emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo (Monday–Friday, 08:00–23:00) during 2 weeks in September 2009. Subjects We included 1022 walk-in patients: 565 native Norwegians (55%) and 457 immigrants (45%). Main outcome measures Patients’ reasons for attending an emergency outpatient clinic versus their RGP. Results Among patients reporting an RGP affiliation, 49% tried to contact their RGP before this emergency encounter: 44% of native Norwegian and 58% of immigrant respondents. Immigrants from Africa [odds ratio (OR) = 2.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–4.46)] and Asia [OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.42–3.78)] were more likely to contact their RGP before attending the general emergency outpatient clinic compared with native Norwegians. The most frequent reason for attending the emergency clinic was difficulty making an immediate appointment with their RGP. A frequent reason for not contacting an RGP was lack of access: 21% of the native Norwegians versus 4% of the immigrants claimed their RGP was in another district/municipality, and 31% of the immigrants reported a lack of affiliation with the RGP scheme. Conclusions and implications Access to primary care provided by an RGP affects patients’ use of emergency health care services. To facilitate continuity of health care, policymakers should emphasize initiatives to improve access to primary health care services. Key points Access to immediate primary health care provided by a regular general practitioner (RGP) can reduce patients’ use of emergency health care services. The main reason for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic was difficulty obtaining an immediate appointment with an RGP. A frequent reason for native Norwegians

  10. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Dalgard, Florence; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2009-09-16

    Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68) and females (OR = 2.04), and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38). Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with mental distress and, among girls, with infrequent consumption

  11. Reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner - a survey among immigrant and native walk-in patients in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Sven Eirik; Hjortdahl, Per; Natvig, Bård

    2017-03-01

    To explore reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner (RGP). Cross-sectional study using a multilingual anonymous questionnaire. Native and immigrant walk-in patients attending a general emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo (Monday-Friday, 08:00-23:00) during 2 weeks in September 2009. We included 1022 walk-in patients: 565 native Norwegians (55%) and 457 immigrants (45%). Patients' reasons for attending an emergency outpatient clinic versus their RGP. Among patients reporting an RGP affiliation, 49% tried to contact their RGP before this emergency encounter: 44% of native Norwegian and 58% of immigrant respondents. Immigrants from Africa [odds ratio (OR) = 2.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-4.46)] and Asia [OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.42-3.78)] were more likely to contact their RGP before attending the general emergency outpatient clinic compared with native Norwegians. The most frequent reason for attending the emergency clinic was difficulty making an immediate appointment with their RGP. A frequent reason for not contacting an RGP was lack of access: 21% of the native Norwegians versus 4% of the immigrants claimed their RGP was in another district/municipality, and 31% of the immigrants reported a lack of affiliation with the RGP scheme. Access to primary care provided by an RGP affects patients' use of emergency health care services. To facilitate continuity of health care, policymakers should emphasize initiatives to improve access to primary health care services. KEY POINTS Access to immediate primary health care provided by a regular general practitioner (RGP) can reduce patients' use of emergency health care services. The main reason for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic was difficulty obtaining an immediate appointment with an RGP. A frequent reason for native Norwegians attending a general emergency outpatient clinic during the daytime is having an RGP outside Oslo. Lack of

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway: measurements overview and physical properties--URBAN-AEROSOL Project.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, M; Aleksandropoulou, V; Smolík, J; Hansen, J E; Glytsos, T; Kalogerakis, N; Dahlin, E

    2006-08-01

    Indoor/outdoor measurements have been performed in the Oslo metropolitan area during summer and winter periods (2002-2003) at two different residential houses. The objective of the measurement study was to characterize, physically and chemically, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants associated with actual human exposure in the selected places, and their indoor/outdoor relationship. In this paper, we focus on the PM measurements and examine the relationship between the indoor and outdoor PM concentrations taking into account the ventilation rate, indoor sources and meteorological conditions. The indoor/outdoor measurements indicate the important contribution of the outdoor air to the indoor air quality and the influence of specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking to the concentration of PM inside houses. However, no specific correlation was found between the indoor/outdoor concentration ratio and the meteorological parameters. This study provides information on the physical characteristics and the relationship of indoor to outdoor concentration of particulate matter in residential houses. Moreover, the parameters that influence this relationship are discussed. The results presented here are specific to the sampled houses and conditions used and provide data on the actual human exposure characteristics which occur in the spatial and temporal scales of the present study.

  13. The oslo health study: a dietary index estimating frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  14. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  15. The nature of Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District (Norway): witnesses of primary glacio-eustasy or diagenetic rhythms?

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, Chloé E. A.; Collart, Tim; Salenbien, Wout; Egger, Lisa M.; Munnecke, Axel; Nielsen, Arne T.; Monnet, Claude; Hammer, Øyvind; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ordovician limestone-marl alternations in the Oslo-Asker District have been interpreted as signaling glacio-eustatic lowstands, which would support a prolonged “Early Palaeozoic Icehouse”. However, these rhythmites could alternatively reflect differential diagenesis, without sedimentary trigger. Here, we test both hypotheses through one Darriwilian and three Katian sections. Our methodology consists of a bed-by-bed analysis of palynological (chitinozoan) and geochemical (XRF) data, to evaluate whether the limestone/marl couplets reflect an original cyclic signal. The results reveal similar palynomorph assemblages in limestones and marls. Exceptions, which could be interpreted as reflecting palaeoclimatological fluctuations, exist at the species level: Ancyrochitina bornholmensis seems to be more abundant in the marl samples from the lower Frognerkilen Formation on Nakkholmen Island. However, these rare cases where chitinozoans differ between limestone/marl facies are deemed insufficient for the identification of original cyclicity. The geochemical data show a near-perfect correlation between insoluble elements in the limestone and the marls, which indicates a similar composition of the potential precursor sediment, also in the Frognerkilen Formation. This is consistent with the palynological data. Although an original cyclic pattern could still be recorded by other, uninvestigated parameters, our palaeontological and geochemical data combined do not support the presence of such a signal. PMID:26739251

  16. Does optimism act as a buffer against posttraumatic stress over time? A longitudinal study of the protective role of optimism after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have revealed that high levels of optimism can protect against high levels of posttraumatic stress after exposure to trauma. However, this is the first study to explore (a) the protective role of optimism in a longitudinal perspective and (b) optimism's protective effects on specific symptom clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This study used prospective survey data from ministerial employees (n = 256) collected approximately 1, 2, and 3 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing. To examine relationships between optimism and development of posttraumatic stress, we applied a series of latent growth curve analyses of both overall posttraumatic stress and the 5 clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (intrusions, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal) with predictors and interaction terms. The results showed that levels of exposure and optimism had main effects on starting levels of all clusters of posttraumatic stress. In addition, optimism had a protective-stabilizing effect on starting levels of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal. No associations between optimism and rate of change in symptoms clusters were found. These results suggest that optimism may help to neutralize the effects of high exposure on levels of symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal but not on the symptoms of intrusions and anxious arousal. Thus, individuals high in optimism still experience intrusions and anxious arousal after trauma, but may be better equipped to cope with these so they do not develop into avoidance, numbing and dyshorical arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Studying the demand-side vis-à-vis the supply-side of urban water systems--case study of Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The research focus of resource consumption and emissions from urban water services has, by and large, been restricted to what comes under the domain of the urban water utilities - the upstream sub-systems of water treatment and supply and the downstream sub-systems of wastewater collection, treatment and disposal. However, the material and energy flows necessitated by activities in the water demand sub-system (households, for instance) are by no means negligible. This paper studies the per-capita material and energy requirements, and the related emissions and life cycle environmental impacts, associated with water consumption in households of the city of Oslo for the year 2009. For example, the per-capita energy consumption in the household consumption phase, at 1.38 MWh per year, is eight times more than the corresponding consumption for the entire water-wastewater utility. All findings, taken together, clearly demonstrate the imperativeness of paying more attention to the demand-side management issues.

  18. Chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Mirassol d'Oeste cap dolostones (Mato Grosso, Brazil): An alternative model for Marinoan cap dolostone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Nédélec, A.; Trindade, R. I. F.; Macouin, M.; Charrière, A.

    2006-10-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the Neoproterozoic Mirassol d'Oeste cap dolostones that overlay the glacial diamictites of the Puga Formation (˜ 635 Ma, Amazon craton, Brazil) in order to understand the formation of these post-glacial dolostones. Petrographic features indicate that the dolostones are primary to early diagenetic in origin and precipitated in a moderately shallow-water platform corresponding to a carbonate ramp during transgressive conditions. Major and trace element contents, as well as C and O isotopic signatures, are consistent with an anoxic sediment influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Such an environment is known to provide favourable conditions for the precipitation of dolomite as observed nowadays in modern hypersaline lagoons. Isotopic compositions of tube-like structures suggest local upward fluid seepage from the underlying cap dolostone. Our data concur with geochemical data from other Neoproterozoic cap dolostones to support a microbially-mediated model in specific environmental conditions for the formation of these unusual deposits worldwide.

  19. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model

  20. Do mental health and behavioural problems of early menarche persist into late adolescence? A three year follow-up study among adolescent girls in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2010-08-01

    Early menarche has been linked to mental health and behavioural problems in several studies. Most of these studies are cross-sectional, the data gathered during puberty. Thus, there is a lack of research on the long-term effect of early menarche on mental health. The main aim of this study was to explore whether the differences in mental health problems between girls with early and late menarche persist into late adolescence. The data consisted of responses from a large school-based survey of all 10th grade girls (15 years of age) in Oslo, Norway. Of the 1860 participating girls in the 2001 survey, 1377 were included in the three year follow-up study in 2004, giving a response rate of 74%. Mental distress was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Check list 10-version. Additional items assessed were number of sexual partners, weight and body satisfaction. All information was self-reported, including age of menarche. We found a clear gradient in the cross sectional analyses at baseline of higher odds for mental distress at lower age of menarche even after adjustment for socio demographic and other factors. In the analysis of the follow-up data there was no statistically significant difference in mental distress across age of menarche, even though the differences in body and weight satisfaction and average body mass index remained at the same level between baseline and follow-up. We therefore conclude that the effects of age of menarche on mental health problems are a transitory problem during puberty.

  1. Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. Method: One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10th grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. Results:In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Conclusion: Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence. PMID:25006342

  2. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Ø; Birkeland, M S; Blix, I; Hansen, M B; Heir, T

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and its link to functional impairment over time is limited. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology (Post-traumatic Checklist, PCL) was assessed three times in 1-year increments (T1, T2, T3) following the Oslo bombing of 22 July, 2011, in directly (n = 257) and indirectly exposed (n = 2223) government employees, together with demographics, measures of exposure and work and social adjustment. The dynamics of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom cluster interplay were examined within a structural equation modelling framework using a cross-lagged autoregressive panel model. Intrusions at T1 played a prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2 for the directly exposed group, exhibiting especially strong cross-lagged relationships with avoidance and anxious arousal. For the indirectly exposed group, dysphoric arousal at T1 played the most prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2, exhibiting a strong relationship with emotional numbing. Emotional numbing seemed to be the main driver behind prolonged stress at T3 for both groups. Functional impairment was predominately associated with dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing in both groups. For directly exposed individuals, memories of the traumatic incident and the following intrusions seem to drive their post-traumatic stress symptomatology. However, as these memories lose their potency over time, a sequela of dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing similar to the one reported by the indirectly exposed individuals seems to be the main driver for prolonged post-traumatic stress and functional impairment. Findings are discussed using contemporary models within an exposure-dependent perspective of post-traumatic stress.

  3. The effect of a pre- and post-operative orthogeriatric service on cognitive function in patients with hip fracture. The protocol of the Oslo Orthogeriatrics Trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hip fractures mainly affect older people. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and in particular a high frequency of delirium. Incident delirium following hip fracture is associated with an increased risk of dementia in the following months, but it is still not firmly established whether this is an association or a causal relationship. Orthogeriatric units vary with respect to content and timing of the intervention. One main effect of orthogeriatric care may be the prevention of delirium, especially if preoperative and postoperative care are provided. Thus, the aim of Oslo Orthogeriatric Trial, is to assess whether combined preoperative and postoperative orthogeriatric care can reduce the incidence of delirium and improve cognition following hip fracture. Methods/design Inclusion and randomisation will take place in the Emergency Department, as soon as possible after admission. All patients with proximal femur fractures are eligible, irrespective of age, pre-fracture function and accommodation, except if the fracture is caused by a high energy trauma or the patient is terminally ill. The intervention is pre-and post-operative orthogeriatric care delivered on a dedicated acute geriatric ward. The primary outcome measure is a composite endpoint combining the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and the 10 word memory task at four months after surgery. Secondary outcomes comprise incident delirium, length of stay, cognition, mobility, place of residence, activities of daily living and mortality, measured at 4 and 12 months after surgery. We have included 332 patients in the period 17th September 2009 to 5th January 2012. Discussion Our choice of outcome measures and our emphasis of orthogeriatric care in the preoperative as well as the postoperative phase will enable us to provide new knowledge on the impact of orthogeriatric care on cognition. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01009268 PMID:22817102

  4. Association of coronary heart disease mortality with risk factors according to length of follow-up and serum cholesterol level in men: the Oslo Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Holme, Ingar; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify the strength of the association between conventional and metabolic risk factors to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality across short, intermediate, and long periods of follow-up and whether the effects of risk factors are heterogeneous across serum cholesterol levels. The Oslo Study prospective cohort of 14,846 men aged 40-49 years was followed from screening in 1972-73 until 2006, during which time 1655 subjects died of CHD. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional models compared hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHD mortality across 0-12, 12-24, and 24-33 years of follow-up. Interactions between risk factors and quartile level of total serum cholesterol were assessed. Total cholesterol, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were associated with CHD mortality in multivariate analyses across all follow-up periods. Nonfasting triglyceride levels were associated with CHD in multivariate analyses (0-12 years, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25; 12-24 years, HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23; 24-33 years, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; 0-33 years, HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16). A metabolic risk factor score (based on blood pressure, triglycerides, body mass index, and glucose) retained predictivity across all periods. The relations between systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic risk factor score to CHD were stronger in the lower than the upper quartiles of serum cholesterol (p < 0.001). Conventional risk factors and nonfasting triglycerides increased CHD mortality across all periods of follow-up. The association with metabolic variables was strongest in men with low total cholesterol levels supporting the idea that lowering cholesterol should be the primary target of primary prevention.

  5. Does mastering have an effect on disability pensioning independent of health, and may it explain divides of education in the Oslo Health Survey?

    PubMed

    Valset, Kirsti; Naper, Sille Ohrem; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Dalgard, Odd Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Does mastering abilities have an independent effect on disability pensioning? Are some of the large divides across education explained by mastering factors when adjusted for health? Data from the National Insurance Administration were linked to a health survey of 10,720 Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, and 60 years, 46% of the total populations in these age groups who were invited to a Health Survey in 2000-01. Measures of general health, chronic somatic diseases, psychiatric symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain were self-reported. The mastering test Generalized Self Efficacy was used. 10.5% of our eligible sample had disability pension at the time of the survey. The risk was more than five times higher for those with primary school than for those with university education and 50% higher for women than for men. Lowest score on the Generalized Self Efficacy test (poor mastering) had an age-, gender-, and health-adjusted OR of 2.4 compared with the highest level of mastering. Adjusting for mastering lowered the educational divide but not that of gender, when health indicators were taken into consideration Those reporting poor general health had a seven times higher risk than those with good health, and those with a chronic somatic disease, musculoskeletal pain, or poor psychiatric health had a somewhat lower increase in risk of disability pension. Health measures did reduce the impact of education, but not of gender, when adjusted for mastering. Poor mastering was associated with disability pensioning, and reduced the differences across educational level and health but not across gender.

  6. Illness and exposure to negative life experiences in adolescence: two sides of the same coin? A study of 15-year-olds in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Haavet, O R; Straand, J; Saugstad, O D; Grünfeld, B

    2004-03-01

    To investigate associations between negative life experiences and common illnesses among adolescents. Cross-sectional questionnaire study carried out at all lower secondary schools (10 grade) in Oslo. Norway, during 2000 and 2001 (n = 8316 pupils). Different negative life experiences and illnesses were addressed. The participation rate was 88%. Among reported negative life experiences last year were a pressure felt to succeed (62%), death of a close person (26%), exposure to physical violence (22%), bullying at school (15%) and sexual violation (4%). A large number of the pupils had some chronic illness: hay fever (38%), eczema (29%) and asthma (13%). Reported illnesses the previous 12 month were: headache (56%), painful neck or shoulders (35%), sore throat at least three times (15%), lower respiratory tract infection (9%) and mental problems for which help was sought (7%). During the week prior to the survey, 26% of all girls had symptoms of a depressive disorder, while this applied to 10% of all boys. Fifty-three percent of the boys (29% of the girls) who had depressive symptoms had been exposed to physical violence. Sexually violated boys had a high probability for seeking help for mental problems (OR = 4.9) and for frequent episodes of sore throat (OR = 2.5). Corresponding odds ratios for girls were 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. Common illnesses in adolescence are significantly associated with negative life experiences. In clinical encounters with adolescents not only should the presenting complaints be addressed, but also other common illnesses and relevant background factors such as negative life events.

  7. Long-term relationships between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Knatten, Charlotte Kristensen; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Hem, Camilla; Heir, Trond

    2016-09-15

    After traumatic events, social support and posttraumatic stress are interrelated, but little is known about the underlying dynamics behind this association. Levels of social support and posttraumatic stress may change and affect each other over time, but there are also stable time-invariant individual differences in both constructs. The present study aimed to determine the amount of variance explained by stable individual differences in levels of social support and posttraumatic stress across three years, and to determine whether and to what extent social support and posttraumatic stress may affect one another when these stable individual differences are controlled for. We used data from ministerial employees present in the Governmental district during the 2011 Oslo bombing attack (N=255). Data was collected ten months, two years, and three years after the terror attack. Using a random intercept cross lagged panel model (RI-CLPM), we tested the possible directional effects between social support and posttraumatic stress within persons when variance between persons was taken into account. The intraclass correlations of the three measures of posttraumatic stress and social support were.83 and.74, respectively. The remaining variation within persons could not be explained by change in either of these constructs. We have no information on the processes that might have occurred before 10 months after the incident. Our findings indicate that the long-term longitudinal linkage between social support and posttraumatic stress may be best explained by stable individual differences rather than causal processes operating within persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Health status has improved more in women than in men with rheumatoid arthritis from 1994 to 2009: results from the Oslo rheumatoid arthritis register.

    PubMed

    Austad, C; Kvien, T K; Olsen, I C; Uhlig, T

    2015-01-01

    To examine changes in patient reported outcome measures (PROs) over 15 years in a representative population of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with a particular focus on gender differences. Patients in the Oslo RA register filled in questionnaires including the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ), the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) with physical (PCS) and mental component summaries and derived utility (SF-6D), visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, patient global assessment of disease (PtGA) and fatigue, and checklists of medication commonly used in the treatment of RA. Data were collected at five time points during a 15-year period from 1994. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse longitudinal changes in PROs from 1994 to 1996, 2001, 2004 and 2009. Data were available from 829-1025 RA patients at each time point. PROs were statistically significantly improved from 1994 to 2009 (MHAQ, SF-36 PCS, SF-6D, pain VAS, PtGA VAS and fatigue VAS; all p<0.001), and also with clinically important improvement. Men reported significantly better health status than women in 1994, but women improved significantly more than men over 15 years with a reduction of the gender gap in 2009. Antirheumatic medication was increasingly used over 15 years with no gender differences. RA patients reported statistically significantly improved health status for most PROs from 1994 to 2009. Women improved most, and although they still reported higher disease impact than men, the gender differences were small at the final data collection in 2009. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  10. The effect of a pre- and postoperative orthogeriatric service on cognitive function in patients with hip fracture: randomized controlled trial (Oslo Orthogeriatric Trial)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is a common complication in patients with hip fractures and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent dementia. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a pre- and postoperative orthogeriatric service on the prevention of delirium and longer-term cognitive decline. Methods This was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial in which patients with hip fracture were randomized to treatment in an acute geriatric ward or standard orthopedic ward. Inclusion and randomization took place in the Emergency Department at Oslo University hospital. The key intervention in the acute geriatric ward was Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment including daily interdisciplinary meetings. Primary outcome was cognitive function four months after surgery measured using a composite outcome incorporating the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and the 10 words learning and recalls tasks from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease battery (CERAD). Secondary outcomes were pre- and postoperative delirium, delirium severity and duration, mortality and mobility (measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)). Patients were assessed four and twelve months after surgery by evaluators blind to allocation. Results A total of 329 patients were included. There was no significant difference in cognitive function four months after surgery between patients treated in the acute geriatric and the orthopedic wards (mean 54.7 versus 52.9, 95% confidence interval for the difference -5.9 to 9.5; P = 0.65). There was also no significant difference in delirium rates (49% versus 53%, P = 0.51) or four month mortality (17% versus 15%, P = 0.50) between the intervention and the control group. In a pre-planned sub-group analysis, participants living in their own home at baseline who were randomized to orthogeriatric care had better mobility four months after surgery compared with patients randomized to the

  11. Combining time-lapse electrical resistivity, suction cup and tensiometer measurements to monitor snowmelt and solute transport at Oslo airport, Gardermoen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, Esther; French, Helen K.

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical methods provide indirect measurements of subsurface properties over larger volumes than traditional techniques, and are potentially cost-efficient. However, the usefulness of any individual set of geophysical measurements (akin to a snapshot at one point in time) is severely limited by the problem of non-uniqueness or ambiguity when used to study contaminated sites, where the attendant processes vary in space and time. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate quasi field-scale, extensively instrumented tools, with non-invasive (geophysical) methods. The impact of annual infiltration of large quantities of de-icing chemicals at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, represents common challenge for all airports with winter frost. It is also similar to the challenge posed by de-icing salt application along roads. To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies for natural attenuation, we require a better understanding on the resistivity effects from infiltrating snowmelt and contaminant movement to the methods suitable for monitoring resistivity changes over time at contaminated sites. Electrical and electromagnetic methods are widely applied for soil mapping and detecting of contaminated plumes. Time-lapse measurements have become a common method to characterize changes in water saturation and solute transport in the unsaturated zone (French and Binley, 2004; French et al. 2002). The non-uniqueness of the interpretation techniques can be reduced by constraining the inversion through the addition of independent measurements along the same profile. Such measurements include soil physical properties, soil suction, contaminant concentration and temperatures. At the research field station at Gardermoen, a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer were added to the snow cover prior to snowmelt. In order to link geophysical measurements to solute transport processes in the

  12. Monitoring snowmelt and solute transport at Oslo airport by combining time-lapse electrical resistivity, soil water sampling and tensiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring contaminant transport at contaminated sites requires optimization of the configuration of a limited number of samplings points combined with heterogeneous flow and preferential flowpaths. Especially monitoring processes in the unsaturated zone is a major challenge due to the limited volume monitored by for example suction cups and their risk to clog in a highly active degradation zone. To make progress on soil contamination assessment and site characterization there is a strong need to integrate field-sale extensively instrumented tools, with non-invasive (geophysical) methods which provide spatially integrated measurements also in the unsaturated zone. Examples of sites that might require monitoring activities in the unsaturated zone are airports with winter frost where large quantities of de-icing chemicals are used each winter; salt and contaminant infiltration along roads; constructed infiltration systems for treatment of sewerage or landfill seepage. Electrical resistivity methods have proved to be useful as an indirect measurement of subsurface properties and processes at the field-scale. The non-uniqueness of the interpretation techniques can be reduced by constraining the inversion through the addition of independent geophysical measurements along the same profile. Or interpretation and understanding of geophysical images can be improved by the combination with classical measurements of soil physical properties, soil suction, contaminant concentration and temperatures. In our experiment, at the research field station at Gardermoen, Oslo airport, we applied a degradable de-icing chemical and an inactive tracer to the snow cover prior to snowmelt. To study the solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone time-lapse cross borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements were conducted at the same time as soil water samples were extracted at multiple depths with suction cups. Measurements of soil temperature, and soil tension were

  13. A water contamination incident in Oslo, Norway during October 2007; a basis for discussion of boil-water notices and the potential for post-treatment contamination of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lucy; Gjerde, Bjørn; Hansen, Elisabeth Furuseth; Stachurska-Hagen, Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Over a 5 day period in October 2007 a boil-water notice was served on the majority of Oslo, capital city of Norway, as a result of a combination of bacteriological findings (coliforms, intestinal enterococci, and E. coli), and very low numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in 10 L water samples taken from the water distribution network. The water source had been regularly monitored for these parasites and generally found to be negative. Over 460,000 residents were affected by the boil-water notice, as were many thousands of businesses. Despite an extensive outbreak of waterborne giardiasis in Bergen, Norway during 2004/2005, occurrence of parasites in Norwegian drinking water supplies has apparently continued to be considered to be of minimal relevance by Norwegian health authorities. Here we describe the background and occurrence of the episode in Oslo, including the species of Cryptosporidium detected, and use this event, in conjunction with incidents from other countries, as a basis to discuss the following issues: (1) under which circumstances should the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies trigger the issue of a boil-water notice, and (2) the possibilities and probabilities of post-treatment contamination events in the water distribution network.

  14. Geological and geochemical studies of the Sierra del Morro-Oeste (San Luis Province, Argentina): Meta-sediments and meta-volcanics from a probable back-arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delakowitz, B.; Höll, R.; Hack, M.; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Stärk, H.

    The Sierra del Morro-Oeste covers an area of some 40 km 2 in the northeastern part of San Luis Province, Argentina. This area is an integral part of the scheelite- and wolframite-bearing crystalline basement of the Sierras Pampeanas. A "characteristic rock sequence"—several tens of meters thick—is concordantly embedded between uniform country rocks (quartz-oligoclase/andesine micaschists and gneises); it includes layered alternations of banded amphibolites, hornblende-epidote schists, scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, lenses of barren marble, and, locally, tourmaline-bearing micaschists. Chemical analyses of amphibolite samples allow these metamorphic rocks to be interpreted as derivatives of a tholeiite-basaltic volcanism. The amphibolites are subdivided into two groups (A and B) because of significant differences in their chemical composition. These differences are related to hydrothermal seafloor alteration. This sea-water alteration has been most effective in the youngest tholeiite-basaltic lava extrusions. The derivatives of the submarine altered tholeiite-basaltic lavas (amphibolites of Group B) can therefore be interpreted as younger in comparison with the primary lavas of the non-altered amphibolites of Group A. The extrusion of the tholeiite-basaltic lavas obviously took place during an initial stage of back-arc basin rifting on continental crust.

  15. The Association Between Commonly Investigated User Factors and Various Types of eHealth Use for Self-Care of Type 2 Diabetes: Case of First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Naoe; Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Mirkovic, Jelena; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg

    2017-10-05

    Sociodemographic and health-related factors are often investigated for their association with the active use of electronic health (eHealth). The importance of such factors has been found to vary, depending on the purpose or means of eHealth and the target user groups. Pakistanis are one of the biggest immigrant groups in the Oslo area, Norway. Due to an especially high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) among this population, knowledge about their use of eHealth for T2D self-management and prevention (self-care) will be valuable for both understanding this vulnerable group and for developing effective eHealth services. The aim of this study was to examine how commonly were the nine types of eHealth for T2D self-care being used among our target group, the first-generation Pakistani immigrants living in the Oslo area. The nine types of eHealth use are divided into three broad categories based on their purpose: information seeking, communication, and active self-care. We also aimed to investigate how sociodemographic factors, as well as self-assessment of health status and digital skills are associated with the use of eHealth in this group. A survey was carried out in the form of individual structured interviews from September 2015 to January 2016 (N=176). For this study, dichotomous data about whether or not an informant had used each of the nine types of eHealth in the last 12 months and the total number of positive answers were used as dependent variables in a regression analysis. The independent variables were age, gender, total years of education, digital skills (represented by frequency of asking for help when using information and communication technology [ICT]), and self-assessment of health status. Principal component analyses were applied to make categories of independent variables to avoid multicollinearity. Principal component analysis yielded three components: knowledge, comprising total years of education and digital skills; health, comprising age

  16. The Oslo Health Study: a Dietary Index estimating high intake of soft drinks and low intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with components of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2010-12-01

    A previous finding that soft drink intake is associated with increased serum triglycerides and decreased high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), raises the question of whether other aspects of an unhealthy diet might be associated with MetS. Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Of the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, there were 13 170 respondents (5997 men and 7173 women) with data on MetS factors (except fasting glucose) and on the components used to determine the Dietary Index score (calculated as the intake estimate of soft drinks divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables). MetSRisk was calculated as the sum of arbitrarily weighted factors positively associated with MetS divided by HDL cholesterol. Using regression analyses, the association of the Dietary Index with MetSRisk, with the number of MetS requirements present, and with the complete MetS was studied. In young, middle-aged, and senior men and women, there was, in general, a positive association (p < 0.001) between the Dietary Index and the MetS estimates, which persisted in regression models adjusted for sex, age, time since the last meal, intake of cheese, intake of fatty fish, intake of coffee, intake of alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, and birthplace. Thus, an index reflecting a high intake of soft drinks and a low intake of fruit and vegetables was positively and independently associated with aspects of MetS.

  17. Antihypertensive drugs and blood lipids: the Oslo study.

    PubMed Central

    Leren, P; Eide, I; Foss, O P; Helgeland, A; Hjermann, I; Holme, I; Kjeldsen, S E; Lund-Larsen, P G

    1982-01-01

    1 The report presents the effects on blood lipids and uric acid of six different antihypertensive drugs, used alone and of five different combinations of two antihypertensive drugs. 2 Prazosin significantly lowered serum LDL + VLDL cholesterol and total triglycerides. Atenolol lowered LDL + VLDL cholesterol to a smaller but significant extent. Both pindolol and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTH) were without effect, while oxprenolol significantly increased total triglycerides. Propranolol significantly lowered HDL cholesterol and increased total triglycerides and uric acid. 3 The combination prazosin and pindolol had a favourable effect on the lipid profile, while the combination propranolol and HCTH lowered HDL cholesterol but increased total triglycerides. Propranolol and prazosin lowered HDL cholesterol, while methyldopa and HCTH, and HCTH and amiloride were without effect on blood lipids. 4 It is suggested that the metabolic effects of antihypertensive drugs could be of special importance in long-term treatment of mild hypertension. PMID:7104158

  18. Report from Oslo conference. Can the war against child labour be won? Oslo conference says an emphatic "yes".

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    Worldwide, about 250 million children work, often in exploitative and dangerous conditions. Child labor is most prevalent in the less developed countries, with 61% of the world's total child laborers being in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America. The government of Norway, together with the International Labor Organization (ILO) and UNICEF, recently organized an international conference to organize action against child labor. 350 high-level representatives from governments, workers' and employers' organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and a number of international organizations and independent experts attended. The ILO Director-General proposed a 4-point strategy involving a political commitment to the effective and absolute abolition of child labor; a program of action involving prevention, removal, and rehabilitation; adoption of a new international convention to end all extreme forms of child labor; and a global agreement for international cooperation and mutual assistance to allocate more resources against poverty and child labor. The strategy would also fight the international aspects of the problem, such as the sale and trafficking of children and child sex tourism.

  19. Prelude: The ISME Commission on Community Music Activity and Its Oslo Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, John

    2010-01-01

    This short introduction to the proceedings of the 1990 Commission of Community Music Activity spells out a prevailing spirit of those involved. Describing community music as the cutting edge in music education, this prelude suggests that community music activity should play a vital role in the future of music education training.

  20. Twinning in Norway Following the Oslo Massacre: Evidence of a 'Bruce Effect' in Humans.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Ralph A; Saxton, Katherine B; Gemmill, Alison; Hartig, Terry

    2016-10-01

    Emerging theory and empirical work suggest that the 'Bruce Effect', or the increase in spontaneous abortion observed in non-human species when environments become threatening to offspring survival, may also appear in humans. We argue that, if it does, the effect would appear in the odds of twins among male and female live births. We test the hypothesis, implied by our argument, that the odds of a twin among male infants in Norway fell below, while those among females rose above, expected levels among birth cohorts in gestation in July 2011 when a deranged man murdered 77 Norwegians, including many youths. Results support the hypothesis and imply that the Bruce Effect operates in women to autonomically raise the standard of fetal fitness necessary to extend the gestation of twins. This circumstance has implications for using twins to estimate the relative contributions of genes and environment to human responses to exogenous stimuli.

  1. Can the War against Child Labour Be Won? Oslo Conference Says an Emphatic "Yes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 1997

    1997-01-01

    A conference on child labor sponsored by the International Labour Organization and UNICEF identified strategies for eliminating child labor and developing cooperative programs to assess the effects of child labor. (JOW)

  2. Can the War against Child Labour Be Won? Oslo Conference Says an Emphatic "Yes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 1997

    1997-01-01

    A conference on child labor sponsored by the International Labour Organization and UNICEF identified strategies for eliminating child labor and developing cooperative programs to assess the effects of child labor. (JOW)

  3. Teaching Language Minority Students in Los Angeles and Oslo--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Özerk, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  4. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  5. Hospital costs fell as numbers of LVADs were increasing: experiences from Oslo University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to examine total hospital costs per patient of a consecutive implantation series of two 3rd generation Left Ventricle Assist Devices (LVAD). Further we analyzed if increased clinical experience would reduce total hospital costs and the gap between costs and the diagnosis related grouped (DRG)-reimbursement. Method Cost data of 20 LVAD implantations (VentrAssist™) from 2005-2009 (period 1) were analyzed together with costs from nine patients using another LVAD (HeartWare™) from 2009-June 2011 (period 2). For each patient, total costs were calculated for three phases - the pre-LVAD implantation phase, the LVAD implantation phase and the post LVAD implant phase. Patient specific costs were obtained prospectively from patient records and included personnel resources, medication, blood products, blood chemistry and microbiology, imaging and procedure costs including operating room costs. Overhead costs were registered retrospectively and allocated to the specific patient by predefined allocation keys. Finally, patient specific costs and overhead costs were aggregated into total hospital costs for each patient. All costs were calculated in 2011-prices. We used regression analyses to analyze cost variations over time and between the different devices. Results The average total hospital cost per patient for the pre-LVAD, LVAD and post-LVAD for period 1 was $ 585, 513 (range 132, 640- 1 247, 299), and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2009) was $ 143, 192 . The mean LOS was 54 days (range 12- 127). For period 2 the total hospital cost per patient was $ 413, 185 (range 314, 540- 622, 664) and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2010) was $ 136, 963. The mean LOS was 49 days (range 31- 93). The estimates from the regression analysis showed that the total hospital costs, excluding device costs, per patient were falling as the number of treated patients increased. The estimate from the trend variable was -14, 096 US$ (CI -3, 842 to -24, 349, p < 0.01). Conclusion There were significant reductions in total hospital costs per patient as the numbers of patients were increasing. This can possibly be explained by a learning effect including better logistics, selection and management of patients. PMID:22925716

  6. Prelude: The ISME Commission on Community Music Activity and Its Oslo Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, John

    2010-01-01

    This short introduction to the proceedings of the 1990 Commission of Community Music Activity spells out a prevailing spirit of those involved. Describing community music as the cutting edge in music education, this prelude suggests that community music activity should play a vital role in the future of music education training.

  7. Making regional facility location decisions: the example of Hospital do Oeste Norte, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jorge; Antunes Ferreira, J; Condessa, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the decision-making process for the location of large public facilities, responding to the growing demand for greater rationality in public investment whilst still offering services of quality and addressing the problem of spatial friction. The specific problem analysed in this paper is the need to define the best location for a public hospital in a particular region of Portugal. The singularity of the approach adopted lies above all in the segmentation into macro-location and micro-location.

  8. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Plósz, Benedek Gy; Leknes, Henriette; Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that accounts for diurnal secondary effluent micro-pollutant and hydraulic loading patterns.

  9. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries the most likely vehicle of a norovirus outbreak in Oslo, Norway, November 2013.

    PubMed

    Einöder-Moreno, M; Lange, H; Grepp, M; Osborg, E; Vainio, K; Vold, L

    2016-10-01

    In November 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of a gastroenteritis outbreak following two meetings held at a conference centre. Identical food and beverages were served during the meetings. We investigated in order to identify the vehicle of infection and implement control measures. Meeting participants completed an online questionnaire on consumption of foods and beverages. We asked symptomatic participants to provide a stool sample. We defined a case as diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a participant who became ill within 3 days after the meeting. We calculated attack rates (AR) and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using binomial regression. We conducted environmental investigations. Overall, 147/168 (88%) participants responded, of which 74 (50%) met the case definition. All five stool samples provided were norovirus positive. No kitchen staff reported being sick. Risk of illness was higher in those who consumed raspberry mousse (aRR 3·4, 95% CI 1·4-8·2) and sliced fresh fruit (aRR 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·8). Seventy cases (95%) ate raspberry mousse. Frozen raspberries used for the mousse were imported and not heat-treated before consumption. Non-heat-treated frozen raspberries were the most likely outbreak vehicle. Contamination by a food handler could not be excluded. We recommend heat-treatment of imported frozen berries before consumption.

  10. Developing Distance Education. Report from the World Conference (14th, Oslo, Norway, August 9-16, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Distance Education.

    This report of the proceedings of the 50th anniversary year of the International Council for Distance Education (ICDE) includes: (1) the text of the address given by Kevin Smith, the outgoing president of the organization; (2) a review by the outgoing president of activities of the ICDE during its first 50 years (from 1938 to 1988); (3) the text…

  11. CONSENSUS CRITERIA FOR DEFINING ‘SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME’ AFTER ACL INJURY AND RECONSTRUCTION: A DELAWARE-OSLO ACL COHORT INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Andrew D.; Logerstedt, David S.; Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Hicks, Gregory E.; Axe, Michael J.; Engebretsen, Lars; Arna Risberg, May; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background No gold standard exists for identifying successful outcomes 1 and 2 years after operative and non-operative management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This limits the ability of researcher and clinicians to compare and contrast results of interventions. Purpose to establish a consensus based on expert consensus of measures that define successful outcomes 1 and 2 years after ACL injury or reconstruction. Methods Members of international sports medicine associations, including the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), the European Society for Sports Traumatology, Surgery, and Knee Arthroscopy (ESSKA), and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), were sent a survey via e-mail. Blinded responses were analyzed for trends with frequency counts. A summed importance percentage (SIP) was calculated and 80% SIP operationally indicated consensus. Results 1779 responses were obtained. Consensus was achieved for six measures in operative and non-operative management: the absence of giving way, patient return to sports, quadriceps and hamstrings strength greater than 90% of the uninvolved limb, the patient having no more than a mild knee joint effusion, and using patient reported outcomes (PRO). No single PRO achieved consensus, but threshold scores between 85 and 90 were established for PROs concerning patient performance. Conclusion The consensus identified six measures important for successful outcome after ACL injury or reconstruction. These represent all levels of the International Classification of Functioning; effusion, giving way, muscle strength (body structure and function), PRO (activity and participation), and return to sport (participation) and should be included to allow for comparison between interventions. PMID:23881894

  12. Nonsurgical or Surgical Treatment of ACL Injuries: Knee Function, Sports Participation, and Knee Reinjury: The Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-08-06

    While there are many opinions about the expected knee function, sports participation, and risk of knee reinjury following nonsurgical treatment of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), there is a lack of knowledge about the clinical course following nonsurgical treatment compared with that after surgical treatment. This prospective cohort study included 143 patients with an ACL injury. Isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength and patient-reported knee function as recorded on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 form were collected at baseline, six weeks, and two years. Sports participation was reported monthly for two years with use of an online activity survey. Knee reinjuries were reported at the follow-up evaluations and in a monthly online survey. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze group differences in functional outcomes, sports participation, and knee reinjuries, respectively. The surgically treated patients (n = 100) were significantly younger, more likely to participate in level-I sports, and less likely to participate in level-II sports prior to injury than the nonsurgically treated patients (n = 43). There were no significant group-by-time effects on functional outcome. The crude analysis showed that surgically treated patients were more likely to sustain a knee reinjury and to participate in level-I sports in the second year of the follow-up period. After propensity score adjustment, these differences were nonsignificant; however, the nonsurgically treated patients were significantly more likely to participate in level-II sports during the first year of the follow-up period and in level-III sports over the two years. After two years, 30% of all patients had an extensor strength deficit, 31% had a flexor strength deficit, 20% had patient-reported knee function below the normal range, and 20% had experienced knee reinjury. There were few differences between the clinical courses following nonsurgical and surgical treatment of ACL injury in this prospective cohort study. Regardless of treatment course, a considerable number of patients did not fully recover following the ACL injury, and future work should focus on improving the outcomes for these patients. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  14. A resolution condemning the horrific attacks on government buildings in Oslo, Norway, and a youth camp on Utoya Island, Norway, on July 22, 2011, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-07-27

    Senate - 07/27/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A resolution condemning the horrific attacks on government buildings in Oslo, Norway, and a youth camp on Utoya Island, Norway, on July 22, 2011, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-07-27

    07/27/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S4970; text as passed Senate: CR S4970; text of measure as introduced: CR S4962) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. A resolution condemning the horrific attacks on government buildings in Oslo, Norway, and a youth camp on Utoya Island, Norway, on July 22, 2011, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-07-27

    07/27/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Developing Distance Education. Papers Submitted to the World Conference of the International Council for Distance Education (14th, Oslo, Norway, August 9-16, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewart, David, Ed.; Daniel, John S., Ed.

    These proceedings contain 10 keynote papers and more than 100 papers from an international conference on the theme of developing distance education. The keynote papers are: (1) "Communications Technology" (Yoshia Abe); (2) "Continuing Education. New Needs and Challenges for Distance Studies" (Urban Dahllof); (3) "Distance…

  18. Recreational drug use in the Oslo nightlife setting: study protocol for a cross-sectional time series using biological markers, self-reported and qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Edland-Gryt, Marit; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Buvik, Kristin; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-04-22

    Recreational drug use in the nightlife setting carries the risk of many negative consequences, such as violence, injuries, aberrant driving and sexual risk-taking. The aim of this study is to investigate recreational drug use and user characteristics among people visiting licensed premises, for example, nightclubs and bars, by using self-reports and biological markers. Staff of licensed premises will be asked to report drug use observations. Further, by using qualitative data, we will examine the motives, consequences and culture associated with recreational drug use. An additional aim is to compare self-reported drug use with oral fluid test (OFT) results in order to validate the different measurement methods in this context. Data collection will be conducted among patrons (n=1000) outside licensed premises. On consent, patrons will be asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire, a breath alcohol concentration test and an OFT. Patrons who report use of recreational drugs in the previous 12 months will be asked to leave their contact information for a subsequent qualitative in-depth interview (n=30-40). Staff from licensed premises (n=500) will be invited during Responsible Beverage Service Training to participate in an anonymous survey. Survey data will be analysed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the oral fluids will be analysed for a large number of drugs using biochemical methods. Cohen's κ will be used as a measure of agreement between self-reported drug use and OFT. In-depth interviews will be coded in HyperRESEARCH and analysed using an inductive approach. Data collection will be repeated on a biannual basis until at least 2020, allowing for examination of trends in recreational drug use. This study has been approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics. Results will be disseminated in research journals, conferences and the media. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Recreational drug use in the Oslo nightlife setting: study protocol for a cross-sectional time series using biological markers, self-reported and qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Edland-Gryt, Marit; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Buvik, Kristin; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recreational drug use in the nightlife setting carries the risk of many negative consequences, such as violence, injuries, aberrant driving and sexual risk-taking. The aim of this study is to investigate recreational drug use and user characteristics among people visiting licensed premises, for example, nightclubs and bars, by using self-reports and biological markers. Staff of licensed premises will be asked to report drug use observations. Further, by using qualitative data, we will examine the motives, consequences and culture associated with recreational drug use. An additional aim is to compare self-reported drug use with oral fluid test (OFT) results in order to validate the different measurement methods in this context. Methods and analyses Data collection will be conducted among patrons (n=1000) outside licensed premises. On consent, patrons will be asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire, a breath alcohol concentration test and an OFT. Patrons who report use of recreational drugs in the previous 12 months will be asked to leave their contact information for a subsequent qualitative in-depth interview (n=30–40). Staff from licensed premises (n=500) will be invited during Responsible Beverage Service Training to participate in an anonymous survey. Survey data will be analysed by univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the oral fluids will be analysed for a large number of drugs using biochemical methods. Cohen's κ will be used as a measure of agreement between self-reported drug use and OFT. In-depth interviews will be coded in HyperRESEARCH and analysed using an inductive approach. Data collection will be repeated on a biannual basis until at least 2020, allowing for examination of trends in recreational drug use. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics. Results will be disseminated in research journals, conferences and the media. PMID:27105710

  20. Aeromedical Support in Military Helicopter Operations: Lecture Series Held at Soesterberg, The Netherlands on 4-5 June 1984, Fuerstenfeldbruck, Germany on 7-8 June 1984 and Oslo, Norway on 12-13 June 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    periods shorter - e.g. 6 hre - more elderly persons (over 50 yrs of age) and very young (under 18-20) may not be able to accept shift work as well as...mission of AGARD is to bring together the leading personalities of the NATO nations in the fields of science and technology relating to aerospace for the...psychological stressors will affect performance. My personal belief (based on intuition rather than science) is that reserves of energy, mental strength

  1. Self-reported Knee Function Can Identify Athletes Who Fail Return to Activity Criteria up to 1 Year after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. A Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Stasi, Stephanie Di; Grindem, Hege; Lynch, Andrew; Eitzen, Ingrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna; Axe, Michael J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cohort study, cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To determine if self-reported knee function assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 Subjective Knee Form (IKDC2000) could discriminate between successful and non-successful performance on return to activity criteria (RTAC) tests after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. BACKGROUND Rehabilitation specialists are challenged in selecting appropriate performance-based and patient-reported tests that can detect side-to-side asymmetries, assess global knee function, and determine a participant's readiness to return to activity after ACL reconstruction. A simple tool or questionnaire that could identify athletes with neuromuscular impairments or activity limitations could provide rehabilitation specialists crucial data pertinent to their current knee function and their readiness to return to higher level activities. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight Level I/II athletes 6 months after ACL reconstruction and 141 athletes 12 months after ACL reconstruction completed a functional test battery to determine readiness to return to activity and the IKDC2000 to determine self-reported knee function. For each athlete, status on return to activity tests criteria was dichotomized as “Passed” or ”Failed” and status on the IKDC2000 scores was dichotomized as being “within” or “below age- and sex-matched normal ranges”. Comparisons were made between status on RTAC and IKDC2000 using Chi-square tests. Accuracy statistics were also calculated. RESULTS Six months after ACL reconstruction, 112 athletes (70.9%) failed RTAC and 76 (48.1%) were classified as having self-reported knee function below normal ranges. Among the 76 participants with IKDC2000 scores below normal ranges, 69 (90.8%) failed RTAC test battery (P<.001). However, among the 82 participants whose IKDC2000 scores were within normal limits at 6 months, only 39 (47.6%) passed RTAC test battery (P=.74). Twelve months after ACL reconstruction, 67 athletes (47.5%) failed RTAC and 31 (78.0%) had knee function below normal ranges. Among the 31 participants with IKDC2000 scores below normal ranges, 25 (80.6%) failed RTAC test battery (P<.001). However, among the 110 participants whose IKDC2000 scores were within normal limits at 12 months, only 68 (61.8%) passed RTAC test battery (P=.017). CONCLUSION The IKDC2000 may be a clinically relevant tool to determine the timeliness or necessity of RTAC testing. For scores obtained 6 and 12 months after ACL reconstruction, low IKDC2000 scores were reasonably indicative of failure on RTAC test battery, whereas normal IKDC2000 scores were not predictive of passing scores on the RTAC test battery. PMID:25347228

  2. T-Tau is Associated with Objective Memory Decline Over Two Years in Persons Seeking Help for Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Report from the Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Erik; Nordlund, Arto; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Bjerke, Maria; Eckerström, Carl; Göthlin, Mattias; Fladby, Tormod; Reinvang, Ivar; Wallin, Anders

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to find very early markers for pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease as interventions early in the disease process are thought to be most effective. The present study aimed to address the potential relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and reduced cognitive function in a relatively young cohort of memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive decline. 122 patients (mean age 63 years) with subjective cognitive decline were recruited from two university memory clinics and followed for two years. The main finding was that the subgroup with objective memory decline during the study period had significantly higher T-tau at baseline than the group with improved memory. Baseline CSF variables showed a trend toward more pathological values in the patients with memory decline compared to those who improved or remained stable. The baseline memory score of those who declined was significantly better than the baseline score of those who improved over two years. The general trend for the whole group was improved memory and executive test scores. There were no differences in cognitive scores based on CSF quartiles at baseline, nor were there differences in cognitive outcome for patients with early amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus average cognitive function at baseline. The main finding that T-tau rather than amyloid-β was associated with memory decline do not support the prevailing opinion about the chain of events assumed to take place in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, memory decline was not associated with poor baseline memory score. Thus, a memory cut-off indicating low baseline memory would not would have identified the declining group.

  3. Selection and prioritisation procedure of hazardous substances for the marine environment within OSPAR/DYNAMEC. Oslo and Paris Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Wiandt, Suzanne; Poremski, Heinz-Jochen

    2002-10-01

    In 1998, the contracting parties to the OSPAR Convention agreed on a "Strategy with regard to Hazardous Substances": [... ] the prevention of pollution of the maritime area by continuously reducing discharges, emissions and losses of hazardous substances thereby moving towards the target of their cessation within one generation (25 years, year 2020) [... ]. In OSPAR, an ad-hoc working group on the development of a dynamic selection and prioritisation mechanism for hazardous substances (called DYNAMEC) has developed a dynamic selection and prioritisation scheme for the marine environment. The approach taken within OSPAR and DYNAMEC to implement the political agreement into practical instruments is summarised in the following.

  4. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations of Norway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    alminnelig aim. mob. alminnelig mobilisering common, general, universal general mobilization ALP Anders Langes Parti (Norwegian party that favored...Univers itetet Home Guard Section at the University HVU Heimevernsavdeling ved Universitetet og hoyskolene i Oslo Home Guard Section at the... University and High Schools in Oslo hyg hygienisk sanitary; medical HYSB Haerens yrkesskole for bilteknisk befal Army Automobile Mechanics School

  5. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Norway.

    PubMed

    Falch, J A; Ilebekk, A; Slungaard, U

    1985-02-01

    During the 2-year period 1978-1979, a total of 2109 hip fractures (of the proximal end of the femur) occurred in Oslo. The age- and sex-specific annual incidence was the highest ever reported. A previous hip fracture had occurred in 13 per cent of the women and 6.8 per cent of the men. In 1979, a total of 5920 hip fractures was reported in Norway. Compared with Oslo, all other counties had a lower incidence. The number of fractures in Oslo was five times greater in 1982 compared with 1950. This increase cannot be explained only by the increasing number of elderly persons.

  6. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  7. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  8. Regional Chemistry from Global CTMs with EC-Modeled Met-fields for the TRACE-P Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The UC Irvine project for Trace-P (PI: Prather) is a collaboration with Frontier-Japan (Wild and Akimoto) and U. Oslo (Sundet and Isaksen) to make high-resolution global T63 CTM simulations of trace gases and the oxidant budgets for the Trace-P period. Research at FRS and Oslo is not funded by GTE/TRACE-P. Completed control runs for the Trace-P period at T63L40 resolution using the standard emissions with the two related, but independent CTMs at Frontier-UCI and at U. Oslo. Preliminary diagnosis of the impact of Asian emissions on ozone and oxidant budgets is completed. A series of sensitivity runs is beginning to analyze where uncertainty in emissions is related to better simulation of the Trace-P observations.

  9. EDITORIAL: The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 24th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páll Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2012-03-01

    AndersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Pia BomholtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hafliði P GíslasonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Haraldur Páll GunnlaugssonAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark John HansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Britta JohansenAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Volodymyr KhranovskyyLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Arne Nylandsted LarsenAarhus University, Denmark Helge MalmbekkUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik Stensrud MarsteinInstitute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway Antonio MartiUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Torben MølholtUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Sveinn ÓlafssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Thomas PedersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Thomas Garm PedersenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Dirch Hjorth PetersenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Vincent QuemenerUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Henry RadamsonKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Bahman RaeissiUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Jonatan SlotteAalto University, Aalto, Finland Xin SongUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Einar Örn SveinbjörnssonUniversity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Mikael SyväjärviLinköping University, Linköping, Sweden Chi Kwong TangUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Erik V ThomsenTechnical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Christian UhrenfeldtAarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Hans Ulrik UlriksenAalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Muhammad UsmanKTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden Lasse VinesUniversity of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Ulrich WahlUnidade de Física e Aceleradores, Sacavém, Portugal Helge WemanNTNU, Trondheim, Norway Gerd WeyerAarhus University, Denmark

  10. A cephalometric intercentre comparison of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Del Guercio, Filomena; Meazzini, Maria Costanza; Garattini, Giovanna; Morabito, Alberto; Semb, Gunvor; Brusati, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate any differences between the craniofacial growth of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients who underwent surgery in the Milan CLP centre with those from the Oslo CLP centre at 5 and 10 years of age. The Milan sample comprised 88 UCLP patients (60 males, 28 females) at 5 years of age and 26 patients (17 males, 9 females) at 10 years of age all operated on by the same surgeon. The Oslo sample consisted of 48 UCLP patients (26 males, 22 females) aged 5 years and 29 patients (20 males, 9 females) aged 10 years treated by four different surgeons. Lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained for both samples were analysed and angular measurements and ratios were calculated both for the hard and soft tissues. Statistical analysis was undertaken with an unpaired t-test. At 5 years of age, there were neither sagittal nor vertical hard tissue differences between the two groups. With regard to the soft tissues, only the naso-labial angle showed a statistically significant difference (Milan greater than Oslo by 5 degrees, P < 0.01). At 10 years of age, both SNA and ANB differences were larger in the Oslo group than in the Milan group, >2.6 degrees, P < 0.01 and >2.9 degrees, P < 0.001, respectively. At 5 years of age, the Milan UCLP sample had the same maxillary protrusion as the Oslo group, while at 10 years of age, the Milan sample were slightly less protruded than the Oslo group.

  11. Moments of Goodness: An Analysis of Ethical and Educational Dimensions of the Terror Attack on Utøya, Norway (July 22, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is based on some moral experiences taking place during a terrorist attack on the Norwegian Labor Party's youth camp on the island of Utøya (outside of Oslo) July 22, 2011, where 69 young people were killed and several seriously injured. After the attack many of the survivors told stories of how strangers spontaneous had helped and…

  12. Citizenship Education and National Identity: Teaching Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with issues of national identity in a multicultural society (Sweden) and the role of citizenship education in creating a national identity. After having witnessed the terrorist attack and the traumas from Oslo and Utøya (22 July 2011), and the suicide bombing in Stockholm on 11 December 2010, certain words, such as…

  13. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  14. Curves and Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Morten Dohlen Center for Industrial Rcsearch(SI), Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo 3, Norway. Abstract. The combination of refinement and decomposition...of Technology Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Section Mechanical Engineering Design Jaffalaan 9 NL-2628 BX Delft The Netherlands louwe...OF A GIVEN SET OF POINTS Leonardo Traversoni Dominguez Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Iztapalapa) ap

  15. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  16. Modelling the dispersion of particle numbers in five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, J.; Karl, M.; Keuken, M. P.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Denby, B. R.; Singh, V.; Douros, J.; Manders, A.; Samaras, Z.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Jonkers, S.; Aarnio, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Petäjä, T.; Vouitsis, I.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an overview of the modelling of particle number concentrations (PNCs) in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008. Novel emission inventories of particle numbers have been compiled both on urban and European scales. We used atmospheric dispersion modelling for PNCs in the five target cities and on a European scale, and evaluated the predicted results against available measured concentrations. In all the target cities, the concentrations of particle numbers (PNs) were mostly influenced by the emissions originating from local vehicular traffic. The influence of shipping and harbours was also significant for Helsinki, Oslo, Rotterdam, and Athens, but not for London. The influence of the aviation emissions in Athens was also notable. The regional background concentrations were clearly lower than the contributions originating from urban sources in Helsinki, Oslo, and Athens. The regional background was also lower than urban contributions in traffic environments in London, but higher or approximately equal to urban contributions in Rotterdam. It was numerically evaluated that the influence of coagulation and dry deposition on the predicted PNCs was substantial for the urban background in Oslo. The predicted and measured annual average PNCs in four cities agreed within approximately ≤ 26 % (measured as fractional biases), except for one traffic station in London. This study indicates that it is feasible to model PNCs in major cities within a reasonable accuracy, although major challenges remain in the evaluation of both the emissions and atmospheric transformation of PNCs.

  17. International Intelligence Forum 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo

  18. Integrating the Interagency in the Armed Forces of the Philippines Approach to Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-23

    December 2007, 1060. Tom Christensen is a Professor University of Oslo, Norway and is also an adjunct senior researcher at the Rokkan Centre...Department of Administration and Organization Theory and senior researcher at Stein Rokkan Centre for Social Studies, University of Bergen, Norway. He

  19. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot - Numeric Simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video is similar to the IRIS Spectrum Line Plot video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4V_vF3qMSI, but now as derived from a numerical simulation of the Sun by the University of Oslo. Credit...

  20. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  1. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. November 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network (CNN) Newsroom broadcasts for November 1-30, 1999, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to relevant World Wide Web sites, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: EgyptAir Flight 990 crash, Oslo summit, India cyclone,…

  2. Exploring Anti-Semitism in the Classroom: A Case Study among Norwegian Adolescents from Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores high school students' views of Jews in one minority-dominated school in Oslo, Norway. Employing a qualitative approach, semistructured interview guides and classroom-based discussions teased out attitudes toward Jews drawing on questions from a nationwide research conducted by The Center for Studies of the Holocaust and…

  3. Schooling, Education and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtung, Johan

    A series of discussions on the present and possible future of education in Sweden is presented. The major themes covered are: the boredom of school; school and the life-cycle; the problem of examinations; a comparison of schooling and eating; a pupil centered school; experimental schools in Sicily and Oslo; the university; distinctions among the…

  4. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  5. Birkeland, Kristian (1868-1917)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    Birkeland was a Norwegian physicist, born in Oslo. In 1900, he identified and then simulated the charged electron-magnetic flux tube connection between the Sun and Earth that produces the aurora. He studied the zodiacal light during expeditions to the Sudan and Egypt. Birkeland committed suicide in a depression associated with the rejection of his auroral theories by his contemporary established...

  6. Children's Lived Experience and Their Sense of Coherence: Bodily Play in a Norwegian After-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londal, Knut

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on materials gathered from qualitative research interviews among eight-year-old and nine-year-old children participating in an after-school programme (ASP) in Oslo, and investigates how bodily play affects their sense of coherence (SOC). In line with Maurice Merleau-Ponty, children's lived experiences are regarded as layered…

  7. The Key to the Future of the Library Catalog is Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrum, Anne-Lena

    2011-01-01

    Technology makes it possible to redefine libraries and make them relevant to the public once again. But how good are the digital services offered by public libraries today? The digital services department team of the Pode project at Norway's Oslo Public Library has spent the last 2 years investigating the possibilities available in order to…

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. November 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network (CNN) Newsroom broadcasts for November 1-30, 1999, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to relevant World Wide Web sites, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: EgyptAir Flight 990 crash, Oslo summit, India cyclone,…

  9. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  10. Exploring Anti-Semitism in the Classroom: A Case Study among Norwegian Adolescents from Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores high school students' views of Jews in one minority-dominated school in Oslo, Norway. Employing a qualitative approach, semistructured interview guides and classroom-based discussions teased out attitudes toward Jews drawing on questions from a nationwide research conducted by The Center for Studies of the Holocaust and…

  11. Multiple Repertoires of Ways of Being and Acting in Music: Immigrant Students' Musical Agency as an Impetus for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how immigrant students experience and enact musical agency inside and outside the music lessons in three Nordic lower secondary schools. The research was designed as a multi-sited ethnographic study and the data were collected in Helsinki, Stockholm and Oslo through classroom observations and interviews with…

  12. Utilization of Norway’s Emergency Wards: The Second 5 Years after the Introduction of the Patient List System

    PubMed Central

    Goth, Ursula S.; Hammer, Hugo L.; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of services is an important indicator for estimating access to healthcare. In Norway, the General Practitioner Scheme, a patient list system, was established in 2001 to enable a stable doctor-patient relationship. Although satisfaction with the system is generally high, people often choose a more accessible but inferior solution for routine care: emergency wards. The aim of the article is to investigate contact patterns in primary health care situations for the total population in urban and remote areas of Norway and for major immigrant groups in Oslo. The primary regression model had a cross-sectional study design analyzing 2,609,107 consultations in representative municipalities across Norway, estimating the probability of choosing the emergency ward in substitution to a general practitioner. In a second regression model comprising 625,590 consultations in Oslo, we calculated this likelihood for immigrants from the 14 largest groups. We noted substantial differences in emergency ward utilization between ethnic Norwegians both in rural and remote areas and among the various immigrant groups residing in Oslo. Oslo utilization of emergency ward services for the whole population declined, and so did this use among all immigrant groups after 2009. Other municipalities, while overwhelmingly ethnically Norwegian, showed diverse patterns including an increase in some and a decrease in others, results which we were unable to explain. PMID:24662997

  13. Report on Outcomes of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morch, Anders; Nygard, Kathrine; Andersen, Renate; Mushtaq, Shazia; Nedic, Damir; Olsen, Espen; Hauge, Trond Eiliv; Vedoy, Gunn; Norenes, Svein Olav; Moen, Anne; Nes, Sturle; Olsen, Dorothy S.; Ludvigsen, Sten; Toiviainen, Hanna; Lallimo, Jiri; Toikka, Seppo; Paavola, Sami; Pohjola, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable has been produced in the context of the Knowledge-Practice Laboratory (KP-Lab) project. KP-Lab focuses on innovative practices of working with knowledge in higher education, teacher training, and workplaces. Participants of WP10 are University of Helsinki, University of Oslo and Poyry Forest Industry representing both researchers…

  14. Exploring "Learning Lives": Community, Identity, Literacy and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erstad, Ola; Gilje, Oystein; Sefton-Green, Julian; Vasbo, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the term "learning lives" by reporting on three research projects conducted by members of the Oslo-based research group TransActions. By stressing the term "learning lives" within a range of social "educational" contexts, the article aims to look at learning within and across different learning…

  15. Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-03

    this as a welcome departure from “traditional” Arab pedagogy, which stresses rote memorization and authoritarianism. For others, the PA curriculum...available online at [http://www.gei.de/english/ projekte /israel.shtml]. 18 Nathan J. Brown, Palestinian Politics After the Oslo Accords, 2003. ! The

  16. Space dust in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    Next time you take a stroll in Paris, Oslo or Berlin, you might be breathing in big particles of cosmic dust after a study led by earth scientist Matthew Genge from Imperial College London found tiny specks of space dust on the rooftops of the three European capitals.

  17. Reinforcing Norway in War: A Dilemma in Norwegian National Security Policy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-15

    into the concept of the Nordic Balance, coined by Arne Olar Brundtland of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Although Nordic countries...Olav and Tammes, Rolf. The Soviet Naval Threat and Norway. Oslo: National Defence College of Norway, 1986. Skogan, John Kristen and Brundtland , Arne

  18. The Formalization of the University: Rules, Roots, and Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Christensen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the formal organization of two universities and two schools within these universities, the University of Oslo and Stanford University. We focus on role differentiation, rule formation, and resource seeking structures and describe organizational developments along these dimensions. We find that both these…

  19. State-of-the-art methods for research, planning, and determining the benefits of outdoor recreation

    Treesearch

    Gary H. Elsner

    1977-01-01

    These eight papers were presented at Working Party S6.01-3, XVIth World Congress of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Oslo, Norway, June 22, 1976. Topics covered include (a) improving studies on demand for outdoor recreation, (b) forecasting changes in number of visitors after a change in recreational quality at an area, (c) comparing the use...

  20. Frequent Collocates and Major Senses of Two Prepositions in ESL and ENL Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This contribution assesses in quantitative terms frequent collocates and major senses of "between" and "through" in the corpus of Cameroonian English (CCE), the corpus of East-African (Kenya and Tanzania) English which is part of the International Corpus of English (ICE) project (ICE-EA), and the London Oslo/Bergen (LOB) corpus…

  1. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  2. Frequent Collocates and Major Senses of Two Prepositions in ESL and ENL Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This contribution assesses in quantitative terms frequent collocates and major senses of "between" and "through" in the corpus of Cameroonian English (CCE), the corpus of East-African (Kenya and Tanzania) English which is part of the International Corpus of English (ICE) project (ICE-EA), and the London Oslo/Bergen (LOB) corpus…

  3. The Formalization of the University: Rules, Roots, and Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Christensen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the formal organization of two universities and two schools within these universities, the University of Oslo and Stanford University. We focus on role differentiation, rule formation, and resource seeking structures and describe organizational developments along these dimensions. We find that both these…

  4. Medical Students' and Tutors' Experiences of Directed and Self-Directed Learning Programs in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Qualitative Evaluation Accompanying a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Peter; Oterholt, Christina; Nordheim, Lena; Bjorndal, Arild

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to interpret the results of a randomized controlled trial comparing two educational programs (directed learning and self-directed learning) in evidence-based medicine (EBM) for medical students at the University of Oslo from 2002 to 2003. There is currently very little comparative educational research in this field. In…

  5. Exploring Advertising in Higher Education: An Empirical Analysis in North America, Europe, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni; Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study explores higher education advertising campaigns displayed in five world cities: Boston, New York, Oslo, Tokyo, and Toronto. The study follows a mixed-methods research design relying on content analysis and multimodal semiotic analysis and employs a conceptual framework based on the knowledge triangle of education, research,…

  6. Implementing CEFR Principles in Introductory Norwegian Language Courses for International Students: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapinska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes some of the opportunities and challenges presented by beginners' courses in Norwegian for international students offered by the Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies at the University of Oslo. Teaching approaches and course content are examined in relation to CEFR levels A1, A2 and B1 and the CEFR's main…

  7. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  8. Third Space Epistemologies: Ethnicity and Belonging in an "Immigrant"-Dominated Upper Secondary School in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul; Changezi, Sofie Haug; Enstad, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores typologies of modes of ethnic boundary-making among upper secondary school students in one school in Oslo, Norway, which has witnessed a seismic shift in its uptake of students who are mainly from non-White or "immigrant" backgrounds. Wimmer's typologies of modes of boundary-making--"contraction" and…

  9. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  10. Group Coaching: A New Way of Constructing Leadership Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit; Vavik, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on group coaching, one of the newer school leadership development approaches to recently emerge. Using a group-coaching methodology developed at the University of Oslo, we deconstruct the concept of leadership identity as it is reported in texts from students in the National Principal Programme. We suggest that leaders develop…

  11. Group Coaching: A New Way of Constructing Leadership Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit; Vavik, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on group coaching, one of the newer school leadership development approaches to recently emerge. Using a group-coaching methodology developed at the University of Oslo, we deconstruct the concept of leadership identity as it is reported in texts from students in the National Principal Programme. We suggest that leaders develop…

  12. U.S. Team Green Building Challenge (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-09-01

    Mini-CD with copies of U.S. Team materials handed out at the International Green Building Challenge conference in Oslo, Norway in September 2002. CD contents contains map of U.S., project brochures, project posters, and GBTool spreadsheets.

  13. Children's Lived Experience and Their Sense of Coherence: Bodily Play in a Norwegian After-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londal, Knut

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on materials gathered from qualitative research interviews among eight-year-old and nine-year-old children participating in an after-school programme (ASP) in Oslo, and investigates how bodily play affects their sense of coherence (SOC). In line with Maurice Merleau-Ponty, children's lived experiences are regarded as layered…

  14. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  15. Moments of Goodness: An Analysis of Ethical and Educational Dimensions of the Terror Attack on Utøya, Norway (July 22, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Aslaug

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is based on some moral experiences taking place during a terrorist attack on the Norwegian Labor Party's youth camp on the island of Utøya (outside of Oslo) July 22, 2011, where 69 young people were killed and several seriously injured. After the attack many of the survivors told stories of how strangers spontaneous had helped and…

  16. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugan, Are

    2013-05-01

    The 6th International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods (TRACER 6) was arranged in Oslo, 6-8 June 2011. The conference was organized by Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), located at Kjeller in Norway. The internet sites for TRACER 6 and IFE can be found at http://www.tracer6.com and http://www.ife.no, respectively.

  17. Exploring Advertising in Higher Education: An Empirical Analysis in North America, Europe, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni; Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study explores higher education advertising campaigns displayed in five world cities: Boston, New York, Oslo, Tokyo, and Toronto. The study follows a mixed-methods research design relying on content analysis and multimodal semiotic analysis and employs a conceptual framework based on the knowledge triangle of education, research,…

  18. The Day Care Experience of Minority Families in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergaard, Trude Brita

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the results of a Norwegian trial scheme involving free half-day day care for all four and five-year-olds in a district of Oslo with a large immigrant population. Although the scheme applied to all children in this age group, the target group was children whose parents came from non-Western countries. The evaluation, which is…

  19. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  20. Citizenship Education and National Identity: Teaching Ambivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljunggren, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with issues of national identity in a multicultural society (Sweden) and the role of citizenship education in creating a national identity. After having witnessed the terrorist attack and the traumas from Oslo and Utøya (22 July 2011), and the suicide bombing in Stockholm on 11 December 2010, certain words, such as…

  1. "COMPARE" Forum: The Idea of North-South and South-South Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.; Desai, Zubeida; Botha, Louis Royce; Breidlid, Anders; Bastien, Sheri; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Ezekiel, Mangi J.; Helleve, Arnfinn; Farag, Alawia I.; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi

    2013-01-01

    The idea of having a "Compare" Forum focusing on the above title was first discussed with one of the Editors of "Compare" during a PhD defence in Oslo in 2011. The PhD dissertation itself was linked to a larger project in which researchers from the North (Norway) and the South (South Africa) had been collaborating in…

  2. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  3. Third Space Epistemologies: Ethnicity and Belonging in an "Immigrant"-Dominated Upper Secondary School in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul; Changezi, Sofie Haug; Enstad, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores typologies of modes of ethnic boundary-making among upper secondary school students in one school in Oslo, Norway, which has witnessed a seismic shift in its uptake of students who are mainly from non-White or "immigrant" backgrounds. Wimmer's typologies of modes of boundary-making--"contraction" and…

  4. The Norwegian Decision-Making Process and Ways to Improve It

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    56 Johs Andenes and Arne Fliflet, Statsforfatningen i Norge (The Norwegian Constitution), 10th ed. (Oslo...This responsibility is split between the Minister of Defense and the 70 Andenes , 276. 32...www.aftenposten.no:80/nyheter/iriks/article1982345.ece. Andenes , Johs, and Fliflet, Arne. The Norwegian Constitution (Statsforfatningen i Norge). 10th ed

  5. Implementing CEFR Principles in Introductory Norwegian Language Courses for International Students: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapinska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This article describes some of the opportunities and challenges presented by beginners' courses in Norwegian for international students offered by the Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies at the University of Oslo. Teaching approaches and course content are examined in relation to CEFR levels A1, A2 and B1 and the CEFR's main…

  6. Time and Amplitude Fluctuations of Teleseismic P-Signals at NORSAR in view of Wave Scattering Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    used for representing the anomalous gravity field of the earth ( Heiskanen and Moritz, 1967). Finally we look at the expressions for the transverse...Oslo, Norway. Heiskanen , W.A., and H. Moritz (1967): Physical Geodesy, W.H. Freeman and Company. Husebye, E.S., A. Dahle and K.A. Berteussen (1974

  7. Unit Specific Crew Rest Strategies: Phase 1 Evaluation of the 1/212th Aviation Battalion during Shiftwork Transitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    common in night shifters and shift workers in general (Aanonsen, 1964; Angersbach et al., 1980). In particular, during transitions to early morning...Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget. Angersbach , D., Knauth, P., Loskant, H., Karvoner, N.J., Undeutsch, K., and Rutenfranz, J. 1980. A retrospective

  8. Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-19

    each sensor is a serpentine resistor trace 1.6 µm wide on a 4.0 µm pitch , with a total length of 8 mm within a 200 µm-diameter circular zone. The...4608-4610. [23] Dynal, Dynal Biotech , Oslo, Norway., [24] W.S. Prestvik, A. Berge, P.C. Mork, P.M. Stenstad, J. Ugelstad, Preparation and

  9. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  10. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  11. Classroom Behaviour and Academic Achievement: How Classroom Behaviour Categories Relate to Gender and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Latent profile analysis was used to identify different categories of students having different "profiles" using self-reported classroom behaviour. Four categories of students with unique classroom behaviour profiles were identified among secondary school students in Oslo, Norway (n = 1570). Analyses examined how classroom behaviour…

  12. Perceptions of National Identity: How Adolescents in the United States and Norway View Their Own and Other Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Jack

    2003-01-01

    During the spring and summer 1999, to increase his understanding of the mental pictures that young adolescents hold of their own nation and other nations, the author interviewed students from four sociologically similar urban-area New York schools and students in a junior high school class in Oslo, Norway. He used a semantic differential survey…

  13. Assessing Educational Quality: Knowledge Production and the Role of Experts. ENQA Workshop Report 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Gro Hanne; Askling, Berit; Dittrich, Karl; Froestad, Wenche; Haug, Peder; Lycke, Kirsten Hofgaard; Moitus, Sirpa; Pyykko, Riitta; Sorskar, Anne Karine

    2009-01-01

    This report is a product of an European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA) Workshop "Assessing educational quality: Knowledge production and the role of experts" hosted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT) in Oslo in February, 2008. The workshop gathered representatives from higher…

  14. A new species of Golinca Thomson (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae): first record of the genus for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valois, M; Silva, F

    2015-02-16

    Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.

  15. Long-term quality-of-life and functioning comparison of atomoxetine versus other standard treatment in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Joaquin; Danckaerts, Marina; Cardo, Esther; Puvanendran, Kanasagabi; Berquin, Patrick; De Bruyckere, Katrien; Montoya, Alonso; Quail, Deborah; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    Psychopharmacological agents were shown to be important for improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A short-term, 10-week study found atomoxetine (ATX) to be effective in improving QoL of ADHD patients. We compared, for the first time, long-term treatment outcomes of ATX and other early standard therapy (OEST, any pharmacological ADHD treatment except ATX) in QoL and functional impairment in pharmacologically naive children/ adolescents in a randomized, controlled, open-label study at 6 and 12 months. Patients received ATX (0.5-1.8 mg/kg per day) or OEST (mainly methylphenidate). Quality of life and functioning were assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, Parent Rating Form and the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report. Three hundred ninety-eight patients (79.4% male; mean age, 9.3 years) received study treatment. The Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, Parent Rating Form achievement domain t scores significantly improved from baseline to 6 months from means of 28.0 to 37.1 for ATX and from 28.3 to 40.7 for OEST. Mean t scores at 12 months were 40.0 for ATX and 41.0 for OEST. The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report total score improved from baseline to 6 months in both groups (ATX: mean 1.02 to 0.63; OEST: 0.96 to 0.59). Both treatments were safe with no statistically significant difference in the overall rate of adverse events. Overall, the improvements in QoL and functional impairment observed over time for ATX and OEST were meaningful and stable over the study period of 12 months. Between-group differences were small but sometimes statistically significant, providing the first-time long-term comparative symptomatic and QoL analysis between ATX and OEST.

  16. Evaluation of data utility for earth sciences from methodical point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following signficant results. A very distinct line representing the Ra-substage of the last deglaciation period is observable around the outer parts of the Oslo fjord. The moraine line is also traceable in some parts of the forest district on the Swedish side of the border forming part of the Central Swedish End Moraines. In the area of Lake Vanern to the southeast, the line is then again more distinct, partly due to the cultivation pattern. Outside the Central Swedish Moraine Line and nearer to the coast another not so distinct moraine line could be observed running NNW-SSE. This line crosses the coastline before reaching the Oslo fjord. Probably the moraine deposits on some outer islands in the fjord constitute part of this older moraine line. The study will be extended to districts of southern Sweden, where old moraine lines of the last deglaciation period are incompletely mapped.

  17. Impact of bioethanol fuel implementation in transport based on modelled acetaldehyde concentration in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sundvor, Ingrid; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2014-10-15

    This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the current situation in Oslo where one bus line is running with bioethanol (E95; 95% ethanol-5% petrol) among petrol and diesel vehicles; and 2) a hypothetical scenario characterized by a full implementation of high-blend bioethanol (i.e. E85) as fuel for transportation, and thus an entire bioethanol fleet. The results indicate that a full implementation of bioethanol will have a certain impact on urban air quality due to direct emissions of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde emissions are estimated to increase by 233% and concentration levels increase up to 650% with regard to the baseline.

  18. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from 300 MeV Proton Scatttering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk

    The gamma strength function (GSF) as well as total level densities (LDs) in 208Pb and 96Mo were extracted from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at RCNP, Osaka, Japan, and compared to experimental results obtained with the Oslo method in order to test the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The case of 208Pb is inconclusive because of strong fluctuations of the GSF due to the small level density in a doubly closed-shell nucleus. In 96Mo the data are consistent with the BA hypothesis. The good agreement of LDs provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LDs in Oslo-type experiments.

  19. Level Densities, Thermodynamics and gamma -Ray Strength Functions in 163,164Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Bürger, A.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2009-03-01

    The nuclei 163,164Dy have been investigated by use of the Oslo method on data from the pick-up reaction {(3He,alpha )} and the inelastic scattering {(3He,3He')}, respectively. The experiment was conducted at the Oslo cyclotron laboratory (OCL). The gamma -decay and ejectiles were measured with the CACTUS multidetector array, which consists of 28 NaI gamma -detectores and 8 Delta E - E Si particle telescopes. Thermodynamic quantities have been extracted within the micro-canonical ensemble theory. The pygmy resonance found around 3 MeV in the gamma -ray strength function, also referred to as the scissors mode, was studied. The question whether the width of the pygmy resonance is reaction dependent is addressed.

  20. Low-energy enhancement of nuclear γ strength and its impact on astrophysical reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Bürger, A.; Camera, F.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Goriely, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Harissopulos, S.; Koehler, P. E.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T. T.; Rose, S.; Ruud, I. E.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-03-01

    An unexpected enhancement in the low-energy part of the γ-strength function for light and medium-mass nuclei has been discovered at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. This enhancement could lead to an increase in the neutron-capture rates up to two orders of magnitude for very exotic, neutron-rich nuclei. However, it is still an open question whether this structure persists when approaching the neutron drip line.

  1. Data Assembly and Processing for Operational Oceanography: 10 Years of Achievements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    and N.R. Smith. GODAE project office, Bureau of Meteorology , 529-545. Le Traon, P.Y.,G. Dibarboure and N. Ducet (2001) Use of a high-resolution...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1... Meteorological Institut, Oslo, Norway Abstract Data assembly and processing centers are essential elements of the operational oceanography

  2. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning January 2008 - June 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    additional processing of wastewater effluents, reverse osmosis treatment of potable water, and combined ultraviolet/reverse osmosis treatment of potable... Processes under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety was also published at this meeting. The Ninth Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on Biological ...the UN fail, nations form coalitions to carry out negotiations and procedures for an international accord. A successful example is the Oslo Process

  3. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    illustrate the concept with a sample model -run incorporating representative data. Title 12: Space weather challenges of the polar cap ionosphere ...located at Oslo and Ny-Ålesund. The primary objective has been to obtain a better understanding solar wind impacts on the polar ionosphere which are of...made no inventions, and Section 8 lists the core UiO personnel during this project. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, ionosphere (polar

  4. Comet C/2012 S1 (Ison)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granslo, B. H.; Nakano, S.

    2013-12-01

    16.88 16 11 31.6 +19 45 05 0.07+ 0.14+ 15.5 Unsuccessful visual searches for the comet, with estimated limiting magnitudes: Dec. 4.26 UT, [8.0 (B. H. Granslo, Roverkollen, Oslo, Norway, 0.08-m refractor; altitude 5 degrees in twilight); Dec. 8.8, [10.6 (Akie Hashimoto, Chichibu, Saitama-ken, Japan, 25x150 binoculars; communicated by S. Nakano, Sumoto, Japan).

  5. [From Problemata Aristotelis to the handbooks of Döderlein. The old book collection of the Rikshospitalet, a center of knowledge and a research tool].

    PubMed

    Børdahl, P E; Hem, E

    2001-12-10

    The collection of old medical and scientific books from the National Hospital in Oslo is a valuable library for education and research. Most of the books are from the collections of the obstetric, paediatric and dermatological departments. The oldest date from the mid-sixteenth century, but the collection also reflects systematic purchases of medical literature after 1800. This library offers an exceptional opportunity in Norway for studying the development of medical knowledge and practice over two centuries.

  6. Current Scientific Approaches to Decision Making in Complex Systems. 3. Volume 2. Conference Position Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Search: Traffic on a Multi- dimensional Structure R. i. Atkin, University of Essex, England b. Annex. Volume 3: Decision: Foundation and Practice Brian R...Gaines, University of Essex, England Volume 4: Competing Modes of Cognition and Communication in Simulated and Self-Reflective Systems Stein Braten... University of Oslo, Norway Volume 5: On the Spontaneous Emergence of Decision Making Constraints in Communicating Hierarchical Structure John S

  7. Parasites of wild sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax from Norway.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Erik

    2002-04-05

    Thirteen wild sea bass from the Oslo fjord in south-eastern Norway were examined for parasites. Nineteen species were found, comprising 5 protozoans, 1 monogenean, 8 digeneans, 1 cestode, 2 nematodes and 2 crustaceans. Based on the similarity to the parasitic fauna of Mediterranean sea bass, it is predicted that sea bass farmers in Northern Europe will experience the same parasite problems as sea bass farmers in warmer regions.

  8. Histocompatibility Typing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-28

    Oslo, New York, NY Norway Maryline Sasportes, Institute de Recherches Susan Hsu, Johns Hopkins University, sur Les Maladies du iang, Paris, France...from PLT cells primed initially series of critical values obtained from with lymphoblastoid cells were highly Harter’s tables ( Harter 1960). Critical...M. L., Wink. Harter , H. L (1960) Critical tables for Duncan’s R. & Bach, F. H. (1975) HLA-LD Typing: new multiple range test. Biometrics 16. A rapid

  9. Trace metals in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Waddenzee, coastal North Sea and the estuaries of Ems, Western and Eastern Scheldt

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Bouquet, W.; Burggraaf, M.M.; Rauchbaar, A.B.; Rus, J.

    1986-05-01

    Since 1979 the trace metal content of mussels in the Netherlands has been monitored as part of the Joint Monitoring Program for the assessment of the level of marine pollution and the effectiveness of measures taken for its reduction. The Joint Monitoring Program includes the coordinated monitoring activities of the Conventions of Oslo (1972) and Paris (1974). The results of the Dutch contribution are given in this paper.

  10. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  11. Sharing of Intelligence in Future Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    robust intelligence cell with capacity for cultura analysis, interrogation techniques and language skills. At company level there will also be a...War College, 1998. Coram, Robert, Boyd – The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War, United States of America: Little Brown and Company, 2002...Littlefield Publishers Inc, 2005. Rekkedal, Nils M., Moderne Krigskunst (English transl: Modern Art of War), Oslo, Norway: Forsvarets Stabsskole

  12. Being a Learner Using Social Media in School: The Case of Space2cre8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasbø, Kristin Beate; Silseth, Kenneth; Erstad, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to gain knowledge about what it means to be a learner using social media in an educational setting. The article presents an ethnographic study of students in a multiethnic community in Oslo who participate in a social networking site called Space2cre8 (S28). In this article, we set out to explore the kind of space for…

  13. Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    directive issued on January 14, 2004—called the new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE)—set out goals for future exploration of the solar system using...of the solar system using manned spacecraft. Among those goals was a proposal to return humans to the moon no later than 2020. The ultimate goal...U.S. launch capacity exclude the Sea Launch system operated by Boeing in partnership with RSC- Energia (based in Moscow), Kvaerner ASA (based in Oslo

  14. The role of education for current, former and never-smoking among non-western immigrants in Norway. Does the pattern fit the model of the cigarette epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Vedøy, Tord Finne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was (1) to investigate the association between education and smoking status (current, former and never-smoking) among non-western immigrants in Norway and (2) examine if these associations fit the pattern predicted by the model of the cigarette epidemic. Design. Data came from the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health study (2000–2002). The first included all Oslo citizens from seven selected birth cohorts. The second included all Oslo citizens born in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. 14,768 respondents answered questions on smoking, education and relevant background variables (over-all response rate 43.3%). Two gender specific multinomial logistic regression models with smoking status [current, former or never-smoker (reference)] as dependent variable were computed and predicted probabilities of smoking status among groups with different levels of education were calculated. Results. Smoking prevalence among men ranged from 19% among Sri Lankans to 56% among Turks. Compared to the smoking prevalence among Norwegian men (27%), smoking was widespread among Iranians (42%) and Vietnamese (36%). Higher education was associated with lower probability of current smoking among all male immigrant groups except Sri Lankans. Never having smoked was positively associated with education among Pakistani and Norwegian men. Among women, < 5% smoked among Pakistanis, Vietnamese and Sri Lankans. Smoking prevalence among Turkish (28%) and Iranian (23%) women were comparable to Norwegian women (30%). The probability of smoking among Turkish and Iranian women with secondary education was higher than for other levels of education. The probability of being a never-smoker was high among Turkish and Iranian women with primary education. Conclusions. High smoking prevalence among Turkish and Iranian men highlights the importance of addressing smoking behaviour in subgroups of the general population. Smoking was almost non-existent among

  15. An Evaluation of the Arctic - Will it Become an Area of Cooperation or Conflict?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    products/f35/. 213 Nicolas von Kospoth, “Norwegian Navy Receives Last of Five Fridtjof Nansen -Class Frigates Defence Professionals,” January 20, 2011...fighter.”212 Norway has also begun the renewal of its ageing Cold war maritime capability. In June of 2000, the government ordered five Fridtjof ... Nansen -class Aegis frigates to replace the aging Oslo-class frigates. As of January 18, 2011, all of the new frigates have been commissioned.213 The

  16. AGARD Index of Publications, 1989-1991 (Index des Publications 1989-1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    circulating hormones . Cardiovascular, respiratory, and other signs incidence of motion sickness such as age, mental activity, anxiety have also been reported...catecholamins secretion. These hormones will Aviation Medicine, Oslo, Norway produce very important changes in the general homeostasy. The (AGARD-CP-458...under simulated Service conditions system for composite structuue on in-service aircraft p 154 NW0-14417 p 180 N90-28712 p 237 N90-28079 A-49 HORMONES

  17. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    KONG STANDARD in English, 4 Dec 88] 8 Henan Employs New Immunization System for Children [XINHUA, 31 Jan 89] 9 Three Major Killer Diseases Named...Dec 88] 12 INDIA Child Prostitution, Sex Tourism Seen as AIDS Threat [Nina Bratt; Oslo AFTENPOSTEN, 21 Dec 88] 12 Medical Research Panel Reports... India may only be awaiting the favorable moment to unload millions of its people on East Africa, giving rise to one enormous Indian empire on either

  18. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Hannibalsson in Poll 37 NORWAY Gro Harlem Brundtland on LO Ties, Campaign Strategy (Terje Svabo; AFTENPOSTEN, 11 May 85) 38 - b - Union Congress...66] 9584 CSO: 3626/34 37 JPRS-WER-85-053 17 .TTTNIE 1985 POLITICAL NORWAY GRO HARLEM BRUNDTLAND ON LO TIES, CAMPAIGN STRATEGY Oslo...the prime minister himself. We are not competing with him in this area." This is how Labor Party leader Gro Harlem Brundtland responds to assertions

  19. Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab gets data from CodeV, function layout, and using cvHELP. The second part provides examples of use with JWST, including wavefront sensitivities and alignment simulations.

  20. "He's a big old girl!" Negotiation by gender inversion in gay men's speech.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Ole Ringdal

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of participant observation in the gay communities of San Francisco, Paris and Oslo, this article charts a pattern of gender inversion in the negotiation of identities and social relations that can be related to an international gay culture. The use of gender inversion in gay men's speech is seen as evidence of the discursive construction of specific generic identities whose capacity to carry meaning is dependent on conventional categories of gender.

  1. International Exploration of the Moon: A View from the IAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OHandley, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    On October 3, 1995 there were nine papers delivered on the topic of Lunar Exploration at the IAF Congress in Oslo, Norway. Some papers covered the national plans for lunar exploration. These included both robotic and human exploration missions. Additional papers discussed elements of the placement of permanent bases on the lunar surface. A review of the key points and plans presented at this international meeting will be presented.

  2. Ionospheric Structure and Variability on a Global Scale and Interactions with Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: Conference Proceedings of the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium Held in Munich (Germany, F.R.) on 16-20 May 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    H. Holter and A. Omholt, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. 8. PARK, C.G., 1976, "Downward Mapping of High-Latitude Ionospheric Electric Fields to the...operation of the facility, and the staff of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for maintaining the data analysis software . Special thanks are due to Nigel...Since the thirl, mode is not yet fully automated and the necessary processing software is not vet devel- oped, we limit the discussion to modes 1 and

  3. The Response of Small Scale Rigid Targets to Shallow Buried Explosive Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    buried bare charges. In: 20th military aspects of blast and shock symposium, Oslo, Norway, 2008. [15] Souli M. LS - DYNA advanced course in ale and fluid...using the LS - DYNA ALE technique for each of the two levels of porosity. Subsequently a simple bisection method was used to iteratively perform linear...Livermore Software Technology Corporation; 2006. [17] Du Bois P, Schwer L. LS - DYNA modeling of blast and penetration. Livermore, CA: Livermore Software

  4. Information Services: Their Organization, Control and Use.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Hauptabteilung Managing Director Datenverarbeitung Norwegian Centre for Informatics Gesellschaft fOr Information Forskningsveien I und Dokumentation (GIl...Oslo 3 Herriotstrasse 5 Norway D-6000 Frankfurt am Main 71 Fed Rep of Germany Mr J.G.Coyne Manager Mr D.W.Goode Technical Information Center Chief...drive and enthusiasm in the management and library staff. This latter point was endorsed by Mr Sauter (DTIC USA) who went oil to commend the value of

  5. Being a Learner Using Social Media in School: The Case of Space2cre8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasbø, Kristin Beate; Silseth, Kenneth; Erstad, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to gain knowledge about what it means to be a learner using social media in an educational setting. The article presents an ethnographic study of students in a multiethnic community in Oslo who participate in a social networking site called Space2cre8 (S28). In this article, we set out to explore the kind of space for…

  6. Recent advances in medicines for children and neonates.

    PubMed

    Choonara, Imti

    2011-09-01

    The European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology held its 13th Biennial Congress in Oslo, Norway. The congress was attended by over 100 health professionals from all around the world. The focus of the congress was recent advances in drug therapy in neonates and children. Alongside invited speakers, there were a host of presentations by young investigators which consisted of oral and poster presentations.

  7. [Incorporation of controlling dengue by community health agent].

    PubMed

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify self-perceived differences in the work processes of community health agents (CHA) in two counties of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding dengue control and Family Health Strategy (FHS) activities. Structured interviews were applied to 57 CHA. The subjects had similar sociodemographic characteristics. Agents in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, who performed only FHS tasks, failed to complete essential data of the Form A. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA currently perform tasks pertaining to dengue fever control, previously conducted by Endemic Disease Control Agents (now abolished), while in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, dengue control remained assigned to the latter group. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA did not view the double workload of two programs as affecting their professional productivity. The pooling of tasks from the two programs proved to be feasible, with no detrimental effects on performance.

  8. New species records of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for the state of Rondônia in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis Paulo Costa; Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges are small insects that are proven vectors of pathogens that cause disease in animals and humans. There are 1,368 species of Culicoides in the world, including 149 species in Brazil and 122 species in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. This study documents specimens that were collected between 2013 and 2015 in the municipalities of Alvorada d'Oeste, Buritis, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Espigão d'Oeste, Guajará-Mirim, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho and São Francisco Guaporé. Collections were performed using HP light traps in forest, pasture and peridomicilie environments. Species newly recorded in Rondônia State include Culicoides carpenteri Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. dasyophrus Macfie, 1940; C. eublepharus Macfie, 1948; C. galindoi Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. heliconiae Fox & Hoffman, 1944; and C. ignacioi Forattini, 1957. This is the first record in Brazil of C. darlingtonae Wirth & Blanton, 1971.

  9. New species records of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for the state of Rondônia in Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Culicoides biting midges are small insects that are proven vectors of pathogens that cause disease in animals and humans. There are 1,368 species of Culicoides in the world, including 149 species in Brazil and 122 species in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. This study documents specimens that were collected between 2013 and 2015 in the municipalities of Alvorada d’Oeste, Buritis, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Espigão d’Oeste, Guajará-Mirim, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho and São Francisco Guaporé. Collections were performed using HP light traps in forest, pasture and peridomicilie environments. New information Species newly recorded in Rondônia State include Culicoides carpenteri Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. dasyophrus Macfie, 1940; C. eublepharus Macfie, 1948; C. galindoi Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. heliconiae Fox & Hoffman, 1944; and C. ignacioi Forattini, 1957. This is the first record in Brazil of C. darlingtonae Wirth & Blanton, 1971. PMID:28765729

  10. Homicides in two Scandinavian capitals.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Rogde, S; Poulsen, K

    1999-09-01

    In this study we investigated homicides in the two Scandinavian capitals, Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway, for the 10-year period from 1985 to 1994. The total number of homicides was 431; 63.8% occurred in Copenhagen and 36.2% in Oslo. The average homicide rate was 1.6/100,000 in Copenhagen and 1.8/100,000 in Oslo. Blunt force, sharp force, and strangulation were the most common methods. Firearms were also used but did not account for >20% in either of the two cities. This is probably due to strict gun laws in both countries. There was no clear difference between the homicide victim populations in the two cities with regard to age, gender, or social and marital status. The proportion of alcoholics and unemployed persons was much higher than in the background population and to a similar extent in both cities, indicating that the homicide victim populations differ from the background populations. The perpetrator knew the victim in the majority of the cases. The most frequent motives or circumstances in both cities were fights, family rows, financial controversies, or jealousy.

  11. [Children and adolescents selling sex].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, W; Hegna, K

    2000-01-20

    Our knowledge about prostitution is shaped by female street prostitutes, many of whom are drug addicts. Less is known about children and adolescents from the normal population who sell sex. Total cohorts of pupils in all Oslo's schools (N 10,812) in the age groups 14-17 filled in a questionnaire at school. 1.4% of the adolescents had sold sex at least one time, more than three times as many boys as girls. Mean age for first episode was 12.6 years in boys, and 14.1 years in girls, and seventy per cent had sold sex more than three times. There were no associations to indicators of parental social class or residential area in Oslo. The adolescents who had sold sex were more lonely and more often reported symptoms of depression and anxiety than others. A multivariate analysis showed that associations to conduct problems, alcohol problems and use of drugs were most important. The majority reported no contact with public services aiming at helping adolescents with psychosocial problems. A group of children and adolescents in Oslo sell sex. Boys are involved more often than girls, their customers are assumed to be bisexual or homosexual men. These behaviours fall into a pattern of conduct and substance problems, and some of these adolescents could have high long-term risk of antisocial problems and drug abuse. More knowledge is needed, and preventive work should be intensified.

  12. The relative importance of socioeconomic indicators in explaining differences in BMI and waist:hip ratio, and the mediating effect of work control, dietary patterns and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Råberg; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Mosdøl, Annhild; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic differences in overweight are well documented, but most studies have only used one or two indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of indicators of SEP (occupation, education and income) in explaining variation in BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR), and the mediating effect of work control and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, smoking and physical activity). The Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study, was carried out in 2000-1, Oslo, Norway. Our sample included 9235 adult working Oslo citizens, who attended a health examination and filled in two complementary FFQ with < 20% missing responses to food items. Four dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and were named 'modern', 'Western', 'traditional' and 'sweet'. In multivariate models, BMI and WHR were inversely associated with education (P < 0.001/P < 0.001) and occupation (P = 0.002/P < 0.001), whereas there were no significant associations with income or the work control. The 'modern' (P < 0.001) and the 'sweet' (P < 0.001) dietary patterns and physical activity level (P < 0.001) were inversely associated, while the 'Western' dietary pattern (P < 0.001) was positively associated with both BMI and WHR. These lifestyle factors could not fully explain the socioeconomic differences in BMI or WHR. However, together with socioeconomic factors, they explained more of the variation in WHR among men (21%) than among women (7%).

  13. Civil-Military Engagement: An Empirical Account of Humanitarian Perceptions of Civil-Military Coordination During the Response to Typhoon Haiyan.

    PubMed

    Bollettino, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.

  14. Talk about talk with young children: pragmatic socialization in two communities in Norway and the US.

    PubMed

    Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cultures vary in subtle ways in the talk about talk that children hear and learn to produce. Twenty-two three-year-old children and their families in respectively Oslo, Norway and Cambridge, Massachusetts were observed during mealtime with the aim of identifying talk-focused talk. The analysis distinguished talk about (a) language per se, (b) discourse management, and (c) former conversations and use of reported speech. No category of talk-focused talk appeared exclusively in either community, and the frequency of such talk was similar across these. The Oslo families talked more often about language per se and their talk-focused conversations typically had a question-answer form. Talk about talk appeared more often within narratives in Oslo and within explanations in Cambridge. A second analysis compared talk-focused talk at home with such talk at school, suggesting that talk about language per se appeared more often at school across the two communities.

  15. Malmstrom AFB, Montana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    FREEZING SNOW I % OF SMOKE OUST % OF ORS TOTAL MONTH IST STORS AND OR RAIN & OR ANDOR HAIL OIS WITH FOG AND OR AND OR WTH OEST NO OF DRIZZLE DRIZZLE...8217 VIAJ AO.? .DUiS 1L. S. 1., WET BULB TEMPERATURE ODPRESSION (F) TOTAL i TOTAL (F) 0 1.2 3.4 5 6 7.- 9.-10 it - 12,13. 14 IS. 16117,. 119 2021 22j23

  16. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Treesearch

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for 2012-14 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) for Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (AFB), Tucson, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    latrans), black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), and desett cottontail (Sylvilagus audubon it). Common reptiles indigenous to the area include the...BASE Ken Bom Dauen Horstmeier John Thompson Gwen Lisa Annette Flanne1y Community Planner, 355 CES/CEAO Chief, Asset Optimization, 355 CES/CEAO...Tucson, AZ 8S70S Pascua Yaqui Tribe 7474 S Camino De Oeste Tucson, AZ 8S746 Dan Signor Pima County Planning 201 N Stone Tucson, AZ 85701 James

  18. Exposure of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) to select avian pathogens; Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Veronica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; Diaz, Luis A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the shorebird surveillance, Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) were sampled in two Patagonian sites in Argentina, Río Grande and San Antonio Oeste, during 2005-2006. Cloacal swabs and serum samples were collected from 156 birds and tested by virus isolation (Newcastle disease virus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR; avian influenza virus and Plasmodium/Hemoproteus), and for antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis virus. All test results were negative.

  19. Magnetic reversals in basal Ediacaran cap carbonates: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raub, T. D.; Evans, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    At least one paleomagnetic reversal has been reported from each of three "Snowball Earth" postglacial cap cabonate units: Walsh cap of Kimberley, northern Australia; Mirassol d'Oeste in Amazonia; and Hadash in Oman. Our data from Nuccaleena cap dolostone of South Australia add a fourth to that list. We critically review all four studies and note that: a) Strict stratigraphic control on position of reversals is only documented for Mirassol d'Oeste and Nuccaleena caps. The Walsh cap sites are not stratigraphically constrained, and the Hadash reversal stratigraphy is only apparent after site data are combined from sections separated by 10's to 100's of km. b) Although Walsh, Hadash, and Nuccaleena remanences pass regional fold tests, the folding events could be substantially younger than cap deposition. Dual-polarity remagnetizations are well-documented in other carbonates. Despite satisfactory rock-magnetic results from Mirassol d'Oeste, critical field stability tests on the age of magnetization are lacking. c) Indirect syn-sedimentary tests of magnetization are only documented and passed for Nuccaleena dolostone. Mean Nuccaleena magnetization directions are similar to those of the paraconformably underlying glacial Elatina Formation, which passes a synsedimentary fold test; and two postglacial reversal levels are correlatable across three sections and ~50 km of nearly continuous on-strike exposure. d) Reversals from Mirassol d'Oeste and Nuccaleena cap carbonates cannot correlate directly with each other if post-Snowball paleooceanographic carbon isotope trends or values are assumed to be globally synchronous. Allowing for complex ocean chemistry, the two units could be broadly coeval, but if both paleomagnetic signals are primary then they must be diachronous on polarity-zone timescales. e) Given the pattern of observed reversal profiles established with confidence for at least the Nuccaleena cap, we contend that only magnetostratigraphic studies of high spatial

  20. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-22

    reader to appreciate the value of this region. The archipelago, which is called in Spanish ISLAS CANARIAS , is situated in the North Atlantic Ocean...considered to be divided into two groups of * islands. One is the eastern islands, made up of Gran Canaria , Lanzarote and Fuerteventura and the other...Alegranza, Montana Clara, Roque del Este, Roque del 6 -Lmm ,.. . Oeste and Isla de Lobos. The main and most populated islands are Gran Canaria in the

  1. Maxwell AFB, Alabama Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A, C-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    MONTH A RRAIN & ,OR AND/OR HAIL OaS WITH FOG ANDOR BLOWING AND OR IWITH OeST NO OFL.S+T.) STORMS AND OR AZE SNOWDRIZZLE DEIZZLE SLEET FRECIF. HAZE SAND TO...WEATHER SE.4V1CL/MAC 722265 I1AXWLLL AF$ AL I!.-RInc STATION STATION MAW~ VIAJS MONiTu Tnp. WET BULB TEMPERATISE DEPRESSION (F) ______ TOTAL TOTAL (F

  2. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  3. Source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol - Quantitative estimates based on 14C- and organic tracer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Svendby, T. M.; Simpson, D.; Puxbaum, H.; Stenström, K.

    2009-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) points towards combustion derived primary particles when ascribing the negative health effects that ambient particles have on human health. These particles consist mainly of carbonaceous material. Further, great uncertainties are associated with the contribution from natural sources to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol concentration. Until recently there has been no way of separating such particles from particles from other sources in the ambient air. By the combined effort of thermal optical, 14C-, and organic tracer analysis this is now possible. When treating such data statistically using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), we are able to apportion the ambient aerosol carbonaceous material to a total of seven different sources, i.e. Elemental carbon from combustion of biomass (ECbb) and fossil fuel (ECff), organic carbon from combustion of biomass (OCbb) and fossil fuel (OCff), primary biogenics (OCpb), and secondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic and (ASOA) and biogenic (BSOA) precursors. The current approach makes it possible to separate not only primary versus secondary aerosols, but also to separate between natural and anthropogenic sources, which is highly important in order to sort out abatement strategies for reducing man-made emissions of combustion derived primary particles. The carbonaceous aerosol originating from the above mentioned seven sources has been examined with respect to size fraction (PM10 and PM1), time of the day and season for one rural background site (Hurdal) and one urban background site (Oslo) in Norway. Briefly, the results show that combustion derived primary particles (ECbb, ECff, OCbb, OCff) accounted for 45% of the carbonaceous material in PM10 in Oslo in summer, whereas 46% of the carbonaceous material came from natural sources (OCpb, BSOA). For PM1, combustion derived primary particles accounted for 47% of the carbonaceous material, whereas 36% originated from natural sources. The major

  4. Comparative effects of tectonism on Silurian carbonate platform evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Detailed comparisons of Silurian carbonates that formed under similar subtropical-tropical conditions in an island arc (Alexander terrane, Alaska), an orogenic belt (Oslo region, Norway), and on a stale craton (Gotland, Sweden) are used to evaluate tectonic controls on carbonate platform sedimentation. Silurian carbonates from Alaska record the evolution of a submarine platform in an island arc affected by late Silurian orogenesis. Silurian limestones that formed on the Baltoscandinavian epicontinental platform experienced Caledonian orogenesis in the Oslo region but accumulated on Gotland several 100 km east of the Caledonide front under quiescent tectonic conditions. This study shows that previous models for carbonate platform development do not predict the disproportionately thick carbonate sequences and characteristics of rocks preserved in the Alaskan island arc. High rates of subsidence and accumulation, steep submarine slopes, tectonic instability, and biogeographic isolation resulted in extraordinarily thick platform and periplatform carbonates, sequential evolution of fringing and barrier reefs, and patterns of faunal turnover that differentiate Silurian arc deposits from coeval carbonates that formed on the craton and in the orogenic belt. On the craton and in the orogenic belt, marine organisms were relatively unaffected by tectonic disturbances, but in the island arc marine biotas experienced regional extinction and faunal turnover. Similarities in the stages in carbonate platform development in the Oslo region and Alaska reflect comparable events involving compression, foreland basin evolution, and subsequent rejuvenation of carbonate depositional sites. Widespread destruction of carbonate environments correlated with orogenic activity and global marine regression eventually produced similar subaerial conditions in the Alexander terrane and across Baltoscandinavia by the late Silurian.

  5. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  6. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    SciTech Connect

    Tavukcu, Emel

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary γ rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary γ-ray spectrum represents the γ-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary γ-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary γ-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei 56Fe and 57Fe. The experimental level densities in 56Fe and 57Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for 56Fe and 57Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in 56Fe and 57Fe have surprisingly high values at low γ-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low γ-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  7. Ethnic differences in seasonal affective disorder and associated factors among five immigrant groups in Norway.

    PubMed

    Saheer, T B; Lien, Lars; Hauff, Edvard; Nirmal Kumar, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    Research studies on seasonal affective disorder (SAD) among immigrant populations are scarce. The objective of this article was to explore the associated risk and protective factors on prevalence of winter SAD (W-SAD), sub syndromal SAD (S-SAD) and Summer-SAD among five immigrant groups living in Oslo, Norway. The Oslo Immigrants Health study (innvandrer HUBRO, 2002), is a large cross sectional epidemiological survey conducted among five of the largest immigrant groups living in Oslo. 1047 subjects were included in the analysis out of 3019 who participated in the survey. Mailed questionnaire which included selected items of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire (SPAQ), Hopkins symptom check list (HSCL) and other variables were used in the analysis. The lowest levels of W-SAD were found among Sri Lankan men and women and the highest among Iranians. W-SAD was significantly associated with country of birth, younger age, smoking, presence of mental distress, frequent visits to general practitioner or psychiatrist, self reported poor health and presence of chronic disorders. S-SAD was significantly associated with country of birth, smoking and higher levels of alcohol consumption. SPAQ was not culturally validated. Poor response rate (39.7%) can also be considered as a limitation. Ethnic differences in W-SAD and S-SAD were observed. Sri Lankans had the lowest levels of W-SAD. However, there is a need for culturally validated instruments and further research must focus on exploring protective factors for SAD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental illness in a rural area: a Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Kringlen, Einar; Torgersen, Svenn; Cramer, Victoria

    2006-09-01

    Few epidemiological studies have compared less well-integrated urban areas with well-integrated rural areas with the same methods. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of mental disorder in a socially stable demographic western region of Norway and make comparison with previously observed prevalence figures of mental illness in Oslo, the capital of Norway. A random sample of the 107,738 residents of Sogn and Fjordane, a western rural region of Norway, age 18-65 years, was drawn from the Norwegian Population Register. A total of 1,080 subjects, 63% of the original sample, were interviewed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The mean age of the subjects was 39.2 years. The 12-month prevalence of mental illness was 16.5% and the lifetime prevalence was 30.9%. Simple phobia and social phobia had the highest 12-month prevalence whereas alcohol abuse and major depression had the highest lifetime prevalence. All mental disorders were more prevalent in women than in men, with the exception of alcohol and drug abuse. Severe psychopathology was found in 2.2% (12 month prevalence) and 5.1% (lifetime prevalence). These observations show that the 12-month and the lifetime prevalence of mental illness in this western area is approximately half the rate of figures observed for Oslo. Epidemiological figures for a western rural region of Norway showing 12-month and the lifetime prevalence of mental disorder are considerably lower than figures obtained in studies from the capital of Norway. However, the same basic pattern of mental illness can be observed in the rural as in the urban area of Oslo, with alcohol abuse/dependence and major depression being the most common disorders at both sites. The sex pattern is also the same with higher figures for women both in rural and urban areas with the exception of alcohol and drug abuse being higher in men.

  9. Studying the time trend of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway by use of non-stationary γ-Poisson distributions

    PubMed Central

    Moxnes, John F; Moen, Aina E Fossum; Leegaard, Truls Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Study the time development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and forecast future behaviour. The major question: Is the number of MRSA isolates in Norway increasing and will it continue to increase? Design Time trend analysis using non-stationary γ-Poisson distributions. Setting Two data sets were analysed. The first data set (data set I) consists of all MRSA isolates collected in Oslo County from 1997 to 2010; the study area includes the Norwegian capital of Oslo and nearby surrounding areas, covering approximately 11% of the Norwegian population. The second data set (data set II) consists of all MRSA isolates collected in Health Region East from 2002 to 2011. Health Region East consists of Oslo County and four neighbouring counties, and is the most populated area of Norway. Participants Both data sets I and II consist of all persons in the area and time period described in the Settings, from whom MRSA have been isolated. Primary and secondary outcome measures MRSA infections have been mandatory notifiable in Norway since 1995, and MRSA colonisation since 2004. In the time period studied, all bacterial samples in Norway have been sent to a medical microbiological laboratory at the regional hospital for testing. In collaboration with the regional hospitals in five counties, we have collected all MRSA findings in the South-Eastern part of Norway over long time periods. Results On an average, a linear or exponential increase in MRSA numbers was observed in the data sets. A Poisson process with increasing intensity did not capture the dispersion of the time series, but a γ-Poisson process showed good agreement and captured the overdispersion. The numerical model showed numerical internal consistency. Conclusions In the present study, we find that the number of MRSA isolates is increasing in the most populated area of Norway during the time period studied. We also forecast a continuous increase until the year 2017. PMID:26438133

  10. Statistical Description of Wave Induced Vibratory Stresses in Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    AD-Aill 186 NORSKE VERITAS OSLO FIG 13/10 STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF WAVE INDUCED VIBRATORY STRESSES IN S--ETC(U) I DEC 80 S GRAN DTC623-80-C-20007...UNCLASSIFIED 80-1171 USCG-M-2-81 NL Ummli.mm....m REPORT NO. CG-M-2-814 STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF WAVE INDUCED VIBRATORY STRESSES IN SHIPS Sverre Gran...Ttle anld Si ,fb.le 5. Roer, Dole December 1980 Statistical Description of Wave Induced Decmber 1980 Vibratory Stresses in Ships 6. Pef om.. O,’gOr n

  11. Regulation and policy: International trends and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, W.S.

    1997-03-01

    As offshore oil and gas resources become exhausted, the associated production platforms and facilities will be decommissioned. The world-wide oil and gas industry is strictly regulated by global, regional and national guidelines which have been developed by governments to find the most responsible framework to perform the decommissioning. In the summer of 1995, the Brent Spar incident brought uncertainty to decommissioning world-wide. In June of 1995, a moratorium prohibiting sea disposal within the North East Atlantic was imposed by the Oslo Commission, and an unsuccessful attempt was made in December of 1995 to impose a world-wide moratorium on sea disposal at the London Convention.

  12. Review of Reports on Lake Erie - Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix D. Economics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    Soybeans Wheat Barley Oats Rice Sorghum Grains Flaxseed Oilseeds, n.e.c. Tobacco, leaf Hay and Fodder Field crops, n.e.c. Fresh fruits Co ffee Cocoa beans...Dried or salted not Oslo, Malmo Milwaukee 2.68 requiring refrigeration Net Great Lakes Differential + $2.37 Soybean Meal (In Bags) Japanese Ports Seattle...1.96 Japanese Ports Chicago 2.16 Net Great Lakes Differential - $ .20 Auto Parts (Access) Rotterdam New York $3.73 Rotterdam Detroit 3.55 Net Great

  13. The effect of shell closure on the thermodynamic properties of 207Pb and 89Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, V.; Forozani, Gh.; Benam, Kh.

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear level densities of 207Pb and 89Y are calculated using the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method and Bradeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. It is revealed that the calculated nuclear level densities are highly matched with the experimental data of Oslo group. The excitation energy and entropy are calculated for mentioned nuclei. In the case of two studied nuclei the characteristic of being magic for the number of neutrons or protons causes the decrease of the excitation energy and entropy contribution of magic system at low temperatures.

  14. Facilitating the Concept of Universal Design Among Design Students - Changes in Teaching in the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Vavik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This short paper describes and reflects on how the teaching of the concept of Universal Design (UD) has developed in the last decade at the Institute of Design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). Four main changes are described. Firstly, the curriculum has evolved from teaching guidelines and principles to focusing on design processes. Secondly, an increased emphasis is put on cognitive accessibility. Thirdly, non-stigmatizing aesthetics expressions and solutions that communicate through different senses have become more important subjects. Fourthly the teaching of UD has moved from the second to the first year curriculum.

  15. [Graphic illustrations in old medical literature].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ø; Hofseth, D

    2001-12-10

    From around 1500 and up to the end of the 19th century, when photographs were introduced and gradually took over, graphic artwork was widely used in medical literature. Graphic techniques allowed for interpretations by the artist in collaboration with the medical scientist. They provide important glimpses into the history of art, into cultural and medical history, and into the history of science. Based primarily on the collections of the Oslo University Library, this article presents some of the high points in this tradition.

  16. Aerodynamic Phenomena in Stellar Atmospheres - A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-09-01

    statistical weights of the 4 2 S and 4 2 p levels, of the duplicity of the 2 p level, and of the metastable 2 D levels, Living from support theory a mean... theory , recovering the results obtained in M.N., 90, 140. The Solar Chromosphere; Chandrasekhar, S .; M.N., 94, 14, 1933. Turbulent support theory lacks...Fraunhofer and chromospheric lines are given. 6 On the Theory of the Chromosphere and the Corona; Rosseland, S .; University Observatory, Oslo, Publication No 5

  17. [3 summit conferences on Earth insufficient to save the Planet, Controversies and achievements].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, Félix

    2003-01-01

    This review summarizes the present concerns on the deteriorated biological systems. This concern has generated many publications since it is a very serious subject. The human being has produced a deep impact on the environment that could even could induce climatic changes. Because these circumstances have increased the socioeconomical differences between developed and third world countries, the United Nations Organization had organized three summit conferences (Oslo, 1972; Rio do Janeiro, 1992; Johannesburgh, 2002) in order to propose solutions. This review discusses the conclusions held at these conferences.

  18. The use of antigravity suits in the treatment of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landmark, K.; Kravik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is an uncommon disease characterized by a drop in blood pressure when going from a recumbent to a standing position. Treatment by medication generally produces poor results. Three patients at the Royal Hospital in Oslo were treated with antigravity suits and all were able to maintain adequate blood pressures in the standing position. One patient improved dramatically and was able to take short walks while wearing the suit. The two other patients, however, felt that wearing the suits eventually became uncomfortable. This treatment represents a useful treatment alternative for intractable cases.

  19. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions of 145,149,151Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, K. O.; Ozgur, M.; Algin, E.; Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Midtbo, J. E.; Modamio, V.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2016-10-01

    The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions are the key elements for Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations to predict reaction cross sections which have many applications including astrophysics. The nuclear level densities and y-ray strength functions have been determined for 145,149,151Nd isotopes below the neutron separation energies using the Oslo method with the 144,148,150Nd(d,p) reactions. The results from the first measurements as well as planned experiments at OCL will be presented.

  20. First results on photon strength functions of 78Se from the two-step γ Cascades measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenta, Stanislav; Bečvář, František; Krtička, Milan; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Two-step gamma cascades (TSCs) following the radiative capture of thermal neutrons in 77Se were measured at the research reactor at Řež near Prague. Results on photon strength functions (PSFs) of 78Se, obtained from comparison of experimental TSC spectra with outcomes of simulations under different assumptions about level density and PSFs using the DICEBOX algorithm, are presented. The main attention is paid to possible manifestation of the pygmy resonance observed recently in this nucleus in the nuclear resonance fluorescence measurement and low-energy PSF enhancement observed in Oslo-type experiments for all A ≲ 100 nuclei.

  1. Glaciers and Sea Level Rise

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Summit camp on top of the Austfonna Ice Cap in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). To learn about the contributions of glaciers to sea level rise, visit: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/glacier-sea-rise.html Credit: Thorben Dunse, University of Oslo NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Redescriptions of six species of Ilyodromus Sars, 1894 (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from New Zealand and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Rylan; Halse, Stuart; Koenders, Annette; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2014-10-23

    In this paper, we redescribe six species of the genus Ilyodromus Sars, 1894: I, stanleyanus (King, 1855), I. varrovillius (King, 1855), I. smaragdinus Sars, 1894, I. obtusus Sars, 1894, I. substriatus Sars, 1894 and I. viridulus (Brady, 1886) using materials stored in the Oslo museum (Norway) and (re-) described by G.O. Sars.  For each species examined, we have identified a number of additional diagnostic characters to those used by Sars and earlier authors. In particular, the length of setae, claws and segments of the antennule, antenna, sixth limb, and caudal ramus appear to be important for species delineation in the genus, as does the internal structure of the valves.

  3. Red River of the North Main Stem: Technical Information Report (with Special Emphasis on Agricultural Levees).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    INDIVIDUAL 22b.TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL DD FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted. SECURITY...DAMAGE CATEGORIES 25 8 OTHER AGRICULTURAL DAMAGES 26 ii TABLES (CONT) NUMBER PAGE 9 COMPARISON OF FLOODED AREAS WITH AND WITHOUT AGRICULTURAL LEVEES...NORTH AT OSLO, MINNESOTA 19 lia-b MAXIMUM- AREA FLOODED, 1975 FLOOD 29-30 12a-b MAXIMUM AREA FLOODED, 1978 FLOOD 31-33 iii FIGURES (CONT) iU iBER PAGE

  4. Desertification control and renewable-resource management in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of west africa. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Falloux, F.; Mukendi, A.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of papers presented at the 'Workshop on Desertification Control and Renewable Resource Management' held in Oslo, Norway in June 1986, and sponsored by the Norwegian Ministry of Development Cooperation, the Canadian International Development Agency and the World Bank. The main objective of the workshop was to develop workable guidelines for addressing the problem of resource depletion in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. Major policy areas covered include land tenure, water management, household energy use, production systems, and migration.

  5. Fridtjof Nansen - Scientist, Diplomat and Humanist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjelsvik, Tore

    In my opinion, no Norwegian has made a deeper impression upon his contemporaries than Fridtjof Nansen. Even today, more than 60 years after he passed away, young people who want to make an extraordinary physical effort talk about walking in his footsteps - or skiing in his ski tracks. References to Nansen's humanitarian efforts after the first world war can be read almost daily in Norwegian newspapers in articles discussing aid to refugees, starving populations or ethnic minorities threatened with extermination. More than 200,000 people, many of them foreigners, visit Nansen's famous polar ship FRAM, housed on the peninsula Bygdøy, on the outskirt of Oslo.

  6. Simultaneous Microscopic Description of Nuclear Level Density and Radiative Strength Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, N. Quang; Dang, N. Dinh; Huong, L. T. Quynh

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear level density (NLD) and radiative strength function (RSF) are simultaneously described within a microscopic approach, which takes into account the thermal effects of the exact pairing as well as the giant resonances within the phonon-damping model. The good agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data extracted by the Oslo group for 170,171,172Yb isotopes shows the importance of exact thermal pairing in the description of NLD at low and intermediate excitation energies. It also invalidates the assumption based on the Brink-Axel hypothesis in the description of the RSF.

  7. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  8. Prospective roles for Canadian oncology nurses in breast cancer rapid diagnostic clinics.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, M S; Maheu, C; Baku, L; Wedderburn, P J S; Lemonde, M

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rapid diagnostic clinics for breast cancer increases oncology nurses' (ONs) responsibility for patient education and coordination of multidisciplinary care. Developed as an outcome of the E-Mentorship Oncology Nursing Program, this paper proposes new roles for these nurses to respond effectively and competently to such diagnostic innovation. The Oslo Manual Conceptual Framework of Innovation inspired the idea of change in prospective ONs' roles, corroborated by the Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology's Standards of Practice and Competencies. New roles for ONs that are informed by the domain of information dynamics and evidence-based care are proposed.

  9. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Alastair H; Næss, Oyvind

    2009-06-01

    Life course epidemiology concentrates on the contribution that social or physical exposures have across the life course on adult health. It is known that the area of residence can affect health, but little is known about the effect of the area of residence across the life course. We examine the contribution that area of residence in 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 made on subsequent mortality for 49736 male inhabitants of Oslo in 1990. We compare the performance of multiple-membership and cross-classified multilevel models on these data with a correlated cross-classified model that was developed for this.

  10. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H; Næss, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    Life course epidemiology concentrates on the contribution that social or physical exposures have across the life course on adult health. It is known that the area of residence can affect health, but little is known about the effect of the area of residence across the life course. We examine the contribution that area of residence in 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 made on subsequent mortality for 49736 male inhabitants of Oslo in 1990. We compare the performance of multiple-membership and cross-classified multilevel models on these data with a correlated cross-classified model that was developed for this. PMID:21197131

  11. Usability of Information in Battle Management Operations (1’Exploitation de l’information dans les operations de gestion du champ de bataille)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    de gestion du champ de bataille) Papers presented at the RTO Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) Symposium held in Oslo, Norway, 10-13 April 2000...Information in Battle Management Operations (l’Exploitation de l’information dans les opérations de gestion du champ de bataille) Papers presented at the RTO...is easily used by battlespace managers and warfighters. iii l’Exploitation de l’information dans les opérations de gestion du champ de bataille (RTO

  12. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Byun, Y.; Ducasse, Q.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Jurado, B.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J.

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  13. Upper mesosphere temperatures from OH(asterisk)-emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, D.; Gerndt, R.

    Ground-based NIR spectrometers were operated at Wuppertal (FRG) and Oslo to detect seasonal and latitudinal mesospheric temperature variations by measuring the emission of metastable OH molecules. The measurement accuracy was + or - 2.5 K. The results are compared with various atmosphere models (Cole and Kantor, 1972; Barnett and Corney, 1985; Groves, 1985) in graphs, and good general agreement is found with the two 1985 models, with smaller discrepancies in winter than in summer. The relevance of the OH-based data for the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere is briefly indicated.

  14. Proposal for a Workshop in the Physics and Application of Hollow Electrode Glow Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-06

    Blindem Univ. of Padova 0316 Oslo 3 35100 Padova Norway Italy Dr. L. Pitchford Dr. D. Kaiabourniotis CNRS-U.P. Sabatier C.P.A.T. Univ. of Crete 118...corresponding experimental results. Self-Consistent Discharge Modeling J. P. Boeuf Centre de Physique Atomique de Toulouse (CNRS URA 277) Universit6 Paul Sabatier...Very High E/n L.C. Pitchford Centre de Physique Atomique URA 277 (CNRS) 31062 Toulouse France Abstract A simple, multi-beam model has been developed

  15. The incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents

    PubMed Central

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of Community Health Agents when dengue control activities were added to their tasks. METHODS Performance was measured comparing the evolution of selected indicators from the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program and the Family Health Strategy for 2002 to 2008 in the municipality of Sao Gabriel do Oeste, MS, Central Western Brazil, with those of Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, neighboring municipality with demographic, socioeconomic and health services similarities. Data were collected from municipal databases of the Information System for Yellow Fever and Dengue and the Information System for Primary Healthcare of the Mato Grosso do Sul State Health Office. The variables selected for the family health strategy activities were: monthly home visits, pregnant women whose antenatal care began in the first trimester, children under one with up-to-date vaccinations and hypertensive patients. Those selected for the Brazilian National Dengue Control Program were: properties inspected with Aedes aegypti and properties not inspected. RESULTS The two municipalities maintained a similar trend in dengue control indicators in the period studied. With regard to the Family Health Strategy, in 2002 Sao Gabriel do Oeste was better off in three of the four indicators studied, however, this situation was reversed at the end of the period when the county was overtaken by Rio Verde de Mato Grosso in three of the four indicators analyzed, including, the monthly average community health worker visits per registered family, the main activity of a Family Health Strategy agent. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the National Dengue Control Program into the Family Health Strategy is viable and developed without prejudice to dengue control activities, however, the same did not occur with the activities of family health in Sao Gabriel do Oeste. The additional workload of the community health workers is the most likely hypothesis for the declining performance of these

  16. Pascua Yaqui Tribe Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Arvayo, Maria

    2014-05-30

    In 2012, PYT was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program to conduct a Renewable Energy Development and Deployment Feasibility Study that would define the technical and economic viability of renewable energy on tribal lands. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was hired by PYT to complete the study. Through this study, Red Mountain concluded that there are viable opportunities for solar at Tortuga Ranch, the Casino del Sol and a third site near the Justice Center on Camino de Oeste.

  17. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

    2010-04-01

    We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights.

  18. New Argentine Central-West Line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's Centro-Oeste (Central-West) Gas Pipeline is now a reality, carrying gas from the extensive Loma de la Lata (Hill of Tin) field in Neuquen State to cities which had been relying on bottled gas. The project is impressive, but hardly seems unique. A pipeline consisting of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller diameter gathering and distribution lines is a big project but nothing that has not been done before. Sometimes figures and statistics hide more than they reveal. A discussion is provided of project financing, logistics, pipeline outlets, treatment plants, route, construction, other lines, compressor stations, and suppliers.

  19. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  20. Radiative strength functions in {sup 163,164}Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Syed, N. U. H.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2010-02-15

    The nuclei {sup 163,164}Dy have been investigated using the Oslo method on data from the pickup reaction {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 163}Dy and the inelastic scattering {sup 164}Dy({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He{sup '}{gamma}){sup 164}Dy, respectively. The radiative strength functions for both nuclei have been extracted, and a small resonance centered around E{sub {gamma}}approx =3 MeV is observed in both cases. The parameters of this so-called pygmy M1 resonance (the scissors mode) are compared with previous results on {sup 160,161,162}Dy using the Oslo method, and with data on {sup 163}Dy measured by the Prague group using the two-step cascade method. In particular, the integrated reduced transition probability B(M1arrow up) of the pygmy resonance is compared with neighboring dysprosium isotopes. We also observe an enhanced strength in the region above E{sub {gamma}}approx =5 MeV in {sup 164}Dy. Possible origins of this feature are discussed.

  1. Residential dampness problems and symptoms and signs of bronchial obstruction in young Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Nafstad, P; Oie, L; Mehl, R; Gaarder, P I; Lødrup-Carlsen, K C; Botten, G; Magnus, P; Jaakkola, J J

    1998-02-01

    To assess the role of dampness problems and house dust mite exposure in the development of bronchial obstruction in early life, a cohort of 3,754 children born in Oslo during 1992 and 1993 was followed for 2 yr. Bronchial obstruction was defined as two or more episodes with symptoms and signs of obstruction or one lasting 1 mo or more. A matched case-control study was carried out in 251 cases of bronchial obstruction (response rate: 98%) and their 251 paired controls. Information on home dampness problem(s), house dust mite exposure, and potential confounders was collected during home visits and by questionnaires. Dampness problems were confirmed in the homes of 27% of the cases and 14% of the controls, while a concentration of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens > 2 microg/g dust was found in the beds of 11 (4.5%) cases and three (1.2%) controls. In conditional logistic regression analysis controlling for potential confounders, confirmed dampness problems increased the risk of bronchial obstruction (adjusted odds ratio: 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-7.2). Exposure to D. pteronyssinus allergens > 2 microg/g dust increased the risk of bronchial obstruction (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.7-11.7). Residential dampness problems in Oslo dwellings seem to increase symptoms and signs of bronchial obstruction in young children, apparently without increasing their exposure to house dust mites.

  2. TOMS total ozone data compared with northern latitude Dobson ground stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heese, B.; Barthel, K.; Hov, O.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus 7 satellite are compared with ground-based measurements from five Dobson stations at northern latitudes to evaluate the accuracy of the TOMS data, particularly in regions north of 50 deg N. The measurements from the individual stations show mean differences from -2.5 percent up to plus 8.3 percent relative to TOMS measurements and two of the ground stations, Oslo and Longyearbyen, show a significant drift of plus 1.2 percent and plus 3.7 percent per year, respectively. It can be shown from nearly simultaneous measurements in two different wavelength double pairs at Oslo that at least 2 percent of the differences result from the use of the CC' wavelength double pair instead of the standard AD wavelength double pair. Since all Norwegian stations used the CC' wavelength double pair exclusively a similar error can be assumed for Tromso and Longyearbyren. A comparison between the tropospheric ozone content in TOMS data and from ECC ozonesonde measurements at Ny-Alesund and Bear Island shows that the amount of tropospheric ozone in the standard profiles used in the TOMS algorithm is too low, which leads to an error of about 2 percent in total ozone. Particularly at high solar zenith angles (greater than 80 deg), Dobson measurements become unreliable. They are up to 20 percent lower than TOMS measurements averaged over solar zenith angles of 88 deg to 89 deg.

  3. Lung cancer and air pollution: a 27 year follow up of 16 209 Norwegian men

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P; Haheim, L; Oftedal, B; Gram, F; Holme, I; Hjermann, I; Leren, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: The well documented urban/rural difference in lung cancer incidence and the detection of known carcinogens in the atmosphere have produced the hypothesis that long term air pollution may have an effect on lung cancer. The association between incidence of lung cancer and long term air pollution exposure was investigated in a cohort of Oslo men followed from 1972/73 to 1998. Methods: Data from a follow up study on cardiovascular risk factors among 16 209 40 to 49 year old Oslo men in 1972/73 were linked to data from the Norwegian cancer register, the Norwegian death register, and estimates of average yearly air pollution levels at the participants' home address in 1974 to 1998. Survival analyses, including Cox proportional hazards regression, were used to estimate associations between exposure and the incidence of lung cancer. Results: During the follow up period, 418 men developed lung cancer. Controlling for age, smoking habits, and length of education, the adjusted risk ratio for developing lung cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.15) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in average home address nitrogen oxide (NOx) exposure between 1974 and 1978. Corresponding figures for a 10 µg/m3 increase in sulphur dioxide (SO2) were 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08). Conclusions: Urban air pollution may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. PMID:14645978

  4. Lexicography for IBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engh, Jan

    In 1984, IBM and the University of Oslo set up a joint project, probably the first project of its kind in Norway. Its aim was to develop Norwegian language resources for IBM application software - for PCs, midrange computers, and mainframes. The primary objective: to create a “base dictionary” module that would drive language sensitive functions. The technology was based on simple character sequence recognition; its great asset being high compaction and rapid access to correct data. The module was to be built on documented linguistic forms. The dictionary should cover the general part of the vocabulary, and a broad coverage module was created for Norwegian Bokmål. Later, one module for Nynorsk was developed as well. At that stage, however, the project had become a regular IBM project. In the following years, other linguistic functions were added and eventually, the result served as the foundation for a grammar and for machine translation. The project was terminated because of the corporate financial crisis of the late 1980s. Later, the dictionaries were transferred to the University of Oslo. They are now an integral part of the basic infrastructure for Norwegian academic computational linguistics.

  5. Resonances in odd-odd 182Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brits, C. P.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Malatji, K. L.; Nyhus, H. T.; Papka, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced γ-decay on the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance, such as the scissors or pygmy resonances, can have significant impact on (n,γ) reaction rates. These rates are important input for modeling processes that take place in astrophysical environments and nuclear reactors. Recent results from the University of Oslo indicate the existence of a significant enhancement in the photon strength function for nuclei in the actinide region due to the scissors resonance. Further, the M1 strength distribution of the scissors resonances in rare earth nuclei has been studied extensively over the years. To investigate the evolution and persistence of the scissor resonance in other mass regions, an experiment was performed utilizing the NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector array (CACTUS) and silicon particle telescopes (SiRi) at the University of Oslo Cyclotron laboratory. Particle-γ coincidences from the 181Ta(d,p)182Ta and 181Ta(d,d')181Ta reactions were used to measure the nuclear level density and photon strength function of the well-deformed 181Ta and 182Ta systems, to investigate the existence of resonances below the neutron separation energy. Note to the reader: the title of this article has been corrected on September 19, 2017.

  6. Which substance is most dangerous? Perceived harm ratings among students in urban and rural Norway.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Von Soest, Tilmann

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have challenged the idea that illegal substances are necessarily associated with more harm than those that are legal. This study investigates perceived drug harm among students at the University of Oslo (UO) and at a smaller university located on Norway's coast in a more conservative and religious region, called 'Coastal University' (CU). This study consisted of surveys (n=458) about perceived physical harm, mental health conditions, dependence, injuries and social consequences that may be associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Information about substance use was also collected. Analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to examine whether harm ratings differed for different drugs, whether drug type, gender and university site interacted in predicting harm ratings, and what role the participants' own substance use played in their harm ratings. UO students rated cannabis as overall less harmful than alcohol, while the opposite was true for CU students. Tobacco received the highest physical harm score. Alcohol was rated as most harmful with regard to injuries; cannabis was rated as most harmful with regard to mental health consequences. Use of the substance in question was associated with a reduced harm rating. This was particularly true for cannabis. Norwegian students rate the harm of substances differently from previous reports from the Norwegian general population. Most importantly, their relative ratings of cannabis harm were lower. However, the pattern was most evident among students from the urban Oslo area. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Research ethics on the agenda - the debates preceding the establishment of the ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Nadia Shad; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2016-11-01

    BACKGROUND This article examines two factors that helped to trigger and drive forward the debate about research ethics committees (now the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics) in Norway in the 1970s: the revision of the Declaration of Helsinki by a Scandinavian working group, and the unfolding of the so-called Gro case in the Norwegian national media.METHOD We have used existing literature in the form of books and articles on the history of research ethics from the University Library of the University of Oslo, the National Library of Norway, the History of Science, Technology and Medicine database, and Retriever. We have manually reviewed issues of the Dagbladet daily newspaper from 1974, and relevant volumes of the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association from the 1960s and 1970s. Finally, we have used the archives of the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions, and the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Oslo.RESULTS The World Medical Association's revision of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975 stipulated the use of independent ethics committees for the assessment and supervision of research projects. The Gro case, which concerned the testing of behavioural therapeutic treatment on a young girl resident in an institution and the ensuing public debate, led to a demand from the public for closer monitoring and ethical regulation of research activity.INTERPRETATION Both of the events mentioned were used actively in the argumentation and preparatory work for the establishment of research ethics committees.

  8. Auroral research at the Tromsø Northern Lights Observatory: the Harang directorship, 1928-1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Alv; Burke, William J.

    2016-03-01

    The Northern Lights Observatory in Tromsø began as Professor Lars Vegard's dream for a permanent facility in northern Norway, dedicated to the continuous study of auroral phenomenology and dynamics. Fortunately, not only was Vegard an internationally recognized spectroscopist, he was a great salesman and persuaded the Rockefeller Foundation that such an observatory represented an important long-term investment. A shrewd judge of talent, Vegard recognized the scientific and managerial skills of Leiv Harang, a recent graduate from the University of Oslo, and recommended that he become the observatory's first director. In 1929, subsequent to receiving the Rockefeller Foundation grant, the University of Oslo established a low temperature laboratory to support Vegard's spectroscopic investigations. This paper follows the scientific accomplishments of observatory personnel during the 18 years of Harang's directorship. These include: identifying the chemical sources of auroral emissions, discovering the Vegard-Kaplan bands, quantifying height distributions of different auroral forms, interpreting patterns of magnetic field variations, remotely probing auroral electron distribution profiles in the polar ionosphere, and monitoring the evolving states of the ozone layer. The Rockefeller Foundation judges got it right: the Tromsø Nordlysobservatoriet was, and for decades remained, an outstanding scientific investment.

  9. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  10. Predictors of early in-hospital death after decompressive craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Sundseth, Jarle; Sundseth, Antje; Jacobsen, Eva Astrid; Pripp, Are Hugo; Sorteberg, Wilhelm; Altmann, Marianne; Lindegaard, Karl-Fredrik; Berg-Johnsen, Jon; Thommessen, Bente

    2017-02-01

    Swollen middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening disease and decompressive craniectomy is improving survival significantly. Despite decompressive surgery, however, many patients are not discharged from the hospital alive. We therefore wanted to search for predictors of early in-hospital death after craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction. All patients operated with decompressive craniectomy due to swollen middle cerebral artery infarction at the Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, between May 1998 and October 2010, were included. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed and candidate variables were age, sex, time from stroke onset to decompressive craniectomy, NIHSS on admission, infarction territory, pineal gland displacement, reduction of pineal gland displacement after surgery, and craniectomy size. Fourteen out of 45 patients (31%) died during the primary hospitalization (range, 3-44 days). In the multivariate logistic regression model, middle cerebral artery infarction with additional anterior and/or posterior cerebral artery territory involvement was found as the only significant predictor of early in-hospital death (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 0.01-0.77; p = 0.029). The present study identified additional territory infarction as a significant predictor of early in-hospital death. The relatively small sample size precludes firm conclusions.

  11. Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds.

    PubMed

    Dale, Svein; Lifjeld, Jan T; Rowe, Melissah

    2015-04-11

    Several life history and ecological variables have been reported to affect the likelihood of species becoming urbanized. Recently, studies have also focused on the role of brain size in explaining ability to adapt to urban environments. In contrast, however, little is known about the effect of colonization pressure from surrounding areas, which may confound conclusions about what makes a species urban. We recorded presence/absence data for birds in 93 urban sites in Oslo (Norway) and compared these with species lists generated from 137 forest and 51 farmland sites surrounding Oslo which may represent source populations for colonization. We found that the frequency (proportion of sites where present) of a species within the city was strongly and positively associated with its frequency in sites surrounding the city, as were both species breeding habitat and nest site location. In contrast, there were generally no significant effects of relative brain mass or migration on urban occupancy. Furthermore, analyses of previously published data showed that urban density of birds in six other European cities was also positively and significantly associated with density in areas outside cities, whereas relative brain mass showed no such relationship. These results suggest that urban bird communities are primarily determined by how frequently species occurred in the surrounding landscapes and by features of ecology (i.e. breeding habitat and nest site location), whereas species' relative brain mass had no significant effects.

  12. An aircraft noise study in Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gjestland, Truls T.; Liasjo, Kare H.; Bohn, Hans Einar

    1990-01-01

    An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled flights with intermediate and large size aircraft, the bulk being DC9 and Boeing 737. The total traffic during the summer of 1989 was expected to resemble the maximum level to which the regular traffic will increase before the new airport can be put into operation. The situation therefore represented a possibility to study the noise impact on the communities around Fornebu. A comprehensive social survey was designed, including questions on both aircraft and road traffic noise. A random sample of 1650 respondents in 15 study areas were contacted for an interview. These areas represent different noise levels and different locations relative to the flight paths. The interviews were conducted in a 2 week period just prior to the transfer of charter traffic from Gardemoen to Fornebu. In the same period the aircraft noise was monitored in all 15 areas. In addition the airport is equipped with a permanent flight track and noise monitoring system. The noise situation both in the study period and on an average basis can therefore be accurately described. In August a group of 1800 new respondents were subjected to identical interviews in the same 15 areas, and the noise measurement program was repeated. Results of the study are discussed.

  13. Inferring neutron capture rates of short-lived isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddick, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on short-lived nuclei play an important role in astrophysical processes such as the rapid neutron capture process. However, these cross sections are difficult to measure in the laboratory. The so-called beta-Oslo technique has been developed for constraining the neutron capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei by combining beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy and the Oslo method to extract nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions. The two quantities are used within the framework of a Hauser-Feshbach model to constrain the neutron capture cross section. The technique will be described and the inferred neutron capture cross sections for a preliminary set of nuclei presented. The experimental reach of the technique at current facilities and eventually at the upcoming Facility for Radioactive Ion Beams (FRIB) as well as the overlap with astrophysical processes will be discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY 102511, No. PHY 0822648, No. PHY 1350234 and by the Research Council of Norway, Project Grant No. 205528.

  14. Curriculum meeting points: a transcultural and transformative initiative in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah Sheets; Sheerin, Fintan; Bancel, Suzanne; Rodrigues Gomes, José Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Following the Bologna initiative in the 1990s, schools of nursing across Europe began considering ways in which they might collaborate with each other in educating nurses in advanced/post-bachelor programs. There were various levels of success which led the writers to explore if such collaboration was possible with similar programs in the United States. Spearheaded by the Institute of Nursing at the Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA), a consortium was established in 2010 to explore the possibilities of international collaborations in this area. In the process, recognition of subtle and more obvious barriers to such collaborations emerged. Consortium members agreed that there was a need to explore the origins and effects of these barriers and the assumptions which seemed to underpin them. The identified barriers were often caused by assumptions about the content of educational programs and about individual and collective approaches to teaching and learning. Several participants experienced a shift in consciousness about nursing education following the consortium's initial meeting in Oslo. For some, there was a feeling of finding 'like-minded thinkers' and for others it was like viewing a new landscape. This article details the evolution of the consortium and the philosophic underpinnings which guide its continued deliberations.

  15. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Becker, J; Belgya, T; Bernstein, L; Chankova, R; Garrett, P E; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Nelson, R O; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Sunde, A C

    2005-09-29

    We present data on the soft (E{sub {gamma}} < 3-4 MeV) radiative strength function (RSF) for electromagnetic transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) from two different types of experiments. The Oslo method provides data on the total level density and the sum (over all multipolarities) of all RSFs by sequential extraction from primary-{gamma} spectra. Measurements of two-step-decay spectra following neutron capture yields two-step-cascade (TSC) intensities which are roughly proportional to the product of two RSFs. Investigations on {sup 172}Yb and {sup 57}Fe have produced unexpected results. In the first case, a strong (B(M1 {up_arrow}) = 6.5 {mu}{sub N}{sup 2}) resonance at E = 3.3 MeV was identified. In the second case, a large (more than a factor of 10) enhancement compared to theoretical estimates of the very soft (E{sub {gamma}} {le} 3 MeV), summed RSF for transitions between warm states was observed. A somewhat weaker (factor {approx} 3) enhancement of the RSF in Mo isotopes observed within the Oslo method still awaits confirmation from TSC experiments.

  16. Comparison between multi-constellation ambiguity-fixed PPP and RTK for maritime precise navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegedor, Javier; Liu, Xianglin; Ørpen, Ole; Treffers, Niels; Goode, Matthew; Øvstedal, Ola

    2015-06-01

    In order to achieve high-accuracy positioning, either Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) or Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques can be used. While RTK normally delivers higher accuracy with shorter convergence times, PPP has been an attractive technology for maritime applications, as it delivers uniform positioning performance without the direct need of a nearby reference station. Traditional PPP has been based on ambiguity-­float solutions using GPS and Glonass constellations. However, the addition of new satellite systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou, and the possibility of fixing integer carrier-phase ambiguities (PPP-AR) allow to increase PPP accuracy. In this article, a performance assessment has been done between RTK, PPP and PPP-AR, using GNSS data collected from two antennas installed on a ferry navigating in Oslo (Norway). RTK solutions have been generated using short, medium and long baselines (up to 290 km). For the generation of PPP-AR solutions, Uncalibrated Hardware Delays (UHDs) for GPS, Galileo and BeiDou have been estimated using reference stations in Oslo and Onsala. The performance of RTK and multi-­constellation PPP and PPP-AR are presented.

  17. [Drug safety associated with the change of digitalis drug in Norway].

    PubMed

    Haga, Christian; Opdal, Mimi Stokke; Tuv, Silja Skogstad; Zahl, Per Henrik; Stenberg-Nilsen, Hanne

    2016-11-01

    BACKGROUND In 2011, following a period with delivery problems, the only registered digitoxin drug in Norway was replaced with digoxin. As a result, approximately 21 000 patients had to replace digitoxin with digoxin. There are important pharmacokinetic differences between digitoxin and digoxin (the general term for both drugs is digitalis), which must be taken into account when changing therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance of drug security, during the transition from digitoxin to digoxin in Norway.MATERIAL AND METHOD Enquiries addressed to the Norwegian Poison Information Centre and reports of fatal adverse effects to the Regional Drug Information Centres (RELIS) regarding intake of digitalis were analysed. Serum concentrations of digitoxin and digoxin analyzed at Oslo University Hospital were reviewed. All data sources were reviewed for the years 2010-2014 and patients > 20 years were included.RESULTS The total number of enquiries addressed to the Norwegian Poison Information Centre, fatal adverse drug reactions reported to RELIS, and patient samples in the toxic range analyzed at Oslo University Hospital increased from 2012, timewise related to the transition to digoxin.INTERPRETATION Despite extensive information from the Norwegian Medicines Agency, a small, transient increase was observed in the number of overdoses and reported deaths from digitalis related to change in therapy. The cause of the overdose was in many cases unknown. This study revealed several cases of incorrect dosage, simultaneous use of digitoxin and digoxin, and washout time that was insufficient or lacking before initiation of digoxin.

  18. A longitudinal three-center study of craniofacial morphology at 6 and 12 years of age in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Bartzela, Theodosia; Katsaros, Christos; Rønning, Elisabeth; Rizell, Sara; Semb, Gunvor; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, the craniofacial morphology and evaluated soft tissue profile changes, at 6 and 12 years of age in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (CBCLP) were compared. Lateral cephalograms from 148 patients with CBCLP, treated consecutively at three European cleft centers, Gothenburg (n (A) = 37), Nijmegen (n (B) = 26), and Oslo (n (C) = 85), were evaluated. Eighteen hard tissue and ten soft tissue landmarks were digitized. Paired t test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression models were applied for statistical analysis. ANOVA and Tukey-B, as a post hoc test, were used to evaluate the increments and compare centers. Hard and soft tissue data were superimposed using the generalized Procrustes analysis. For Nijmegen, the increments of the variables SNA, ANB, SN-NL, SN-ML, NL-ML, Snss, and Snpg were significantly different than the two other centers (p = 0.041 to <0.001). SNPg increments were significantly different between Nijmegen and Oslo (p = 0.002). The three cleft centers followed different treatment protocols, but the main differences in craniofacial morphology until 12 years of age were the growth pattern and the maxillary and upper incisor variables. Follow-up of these patients until facial growth has ceased, which may elucidate components for improving treatment outcome.

  19. Perceptions of the host country's food culture among female immigrants from Africa and Asia: aspects relevant for cultural sensitivity in nutrition communication.

    PubMed

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Qualitative in-depth interviews. Oslo, Norway. Twenty one female immigrants from 11 African and Asian countries, residing in areas of Oslo with a population having a low-to-middle socioeconomic status and a high proportion of immigrants. Participants varied in years of residence, employment status, and marital status. Analysis of the interviews was guided by a phenomenological approach. Participants emphasized the importance of preserving aspects of their original food cultures and related these aspects to taste, preparation effort and method, and adherence to religious dietary rules. They often perceived the food of the host country as "tasteless and boring." The authors observed strict, flexible, or limited continuity with the original food culture. Some elements that possibly influenced participants' degree of continuity are indicated. Immigrants may strive to preserve aspects of their original food culture after immigration. Nutrition communication becomes more culturally sensitive when it takes such aspects into account. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Israeli-Palestinian peace process and its vicissitudes: insights from attitude theory.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Herbert C

    2007-01-01

    The vicissitudes of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process since 1967 are analyzed using attitudes and related concepts where relevant. The 1967 war returned the two peoples' zero-sum conflict around national identity to its origin as a conflict within the land both peoples claim. Gradually, new attitudes evolved regarding the necessity and possibility of negotiations toward a two-state solution based on mutual recognition, which became the building stones of the 1993 Oslo agreement. Lacking a commitment to a final outcome, the Oslo-based peace process was hampered by reserve options, which increased avoidance at the expense of approach tendencies as the parties moved toward a final agreement. The resulting breakdown of the process in 2000 produced clashing narratives, reflecting different anchors for judgment and classical mirror images. Public support for violence increased, even as public opinion continued to favor a negotiated two-state solution. Reviving the peace process requires mutual reassurance about the availability of a partner for negotiating a principled peace based on a historic compromise that meets the basic needs and validates the identities of both peoples.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 among Norwegian military recruits: association with risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Saebø, A; Kapperud, G; Lassen, J; Waage, J

    1994-12-01

    IgG antibody activity to Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3 was detected in sera from 56 (7.4%) of 755 Norwegian military recruits, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highest prevalence was found among recruits from Oslo city (12/56, 21.4%). The recruits answered a questionnaire which covered demographic data, specific exposures, and clinical information. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with IgG activity in logistic regression analysis: receiving drinking water from a private well (odds ratio (OR) = 3.40; p = 0.004), being a resident of Oslo city (OR = 2.99; p = 0.006), and living in eastern Norway (OR = 2.25; p = 0.015). By univariate analysis, living in an urban area was associated with IgG activity, but this factor did not independently affect risk. Present or previous contact with animals, including pigs, and travels abroad were not associated with an increased risk. Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 seropositive recruits were more likely to report previous surgery for suspected appendicitis than seronegative individuals (OR = 4.26; p = 0.0024). Among recruits with previous appendectomy, mesenteric lymphadenitis as the sole peroperative finding was more common in patients with IgG activity to Y. enterocolitica O:3 (4/7) than in seronegative patients (1/19) (p = 0.01). Recurrent diarrhea, steatorrhea or joint complaints were not associated with antibody activity.

  2. Role of kdr and esterase-mediated metabolism in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Barros, A Thadeu M

    2006-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), has become a problem for Brazilian cattle producers even though its introduction into Brazil is relatively recent. Failure to control this cattle pest is becoming a concern, and horn fly populations from several ranches from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were surveyed for pyrethroid resistance. Susceptibility bioassays revealed that cypermethrin resistance was widespread and reached high levels in horn fly populations throughout the state, with resistance factors (RFs) ranging from 50.4 to 704.8. Synergist bioassays failed to detect a major role for esterases as a pyrethroid resistance mechanism in these populations, except for the highly pyrethroid-resistant Estrela do Oeste population (RF = 704.8). The kdr sodium channel gene mutation was not detected in eight of the 13 populations, but < 7% of individuals from four populations and 50% of the flies from Estrela do Oeste exhibited this mutation. Neither the superkdr sodium channel gene mutation nor a resistance-associated gene mutation in the HialphaE7 carboxylesterase were found in any of the fly populations. Although target site insensitivity (kdr) and esterase-mediated metabolism occur in horn fly populations from Mato Grosso do Sul state, it seems that they are not the major mechanism causing pyrethroid resistance in most of these populations.

  3. The predictive power of airborne gamma ray survey data on the locations of domestic radon hazards in Norway: A strong case for utilizing airborne data in large-scale radon potential mapping.

    PubMed

    Smethurst, M A; Watson, R J; Baranwal, V C; Rudjord, A L; Finne, I

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is responsible for as many as 300 deaths a year due to lung cancer. To address this, the authorities in Norway have developed a national action plan that has the aim of reducing exposure to radon in Norway (Norwegian Ministries, 2010). The plan includes further investigation of the relationship between radon hazard and geological conditions, and development of map-based tools for assessing the large spatial variation in radon hazard levels across Norway. The main focus of the present contribution is to describe how we generate map predictions of radon potential (RP), a measure of radon hazard, from available airborne gamma ray spectrometry (AGRS) surveys in Norway, and what impact these map predictions can be expected to have on radon protection work including land-use planning and targeted surveying. We have compiled 11 contiguous AGRS surveys centred on the most populated part of Norway around Oslo to produce an equivalent uranium map measuring 180 km × 102 km that represents the relative concentrations of radon in the near surface of the ground with a spatial resolution in the 100 s of metres. We find that this map of radon in the ground offers a far more detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of radon in the sub-surface than can be deduced from the available digital geology maps. We tested the performances of digital geology and AGRS data as predictors of RP. We find that digital geology explains approximately 40% of the observed variance in ln RP nationally, while the AGRS data in the Oslo area split into 14 bands explains approximately 70% of the variance in the same parameter. We also notice that there are too few indoor data to characterise all geological settings in Norway which leaves areas in the geology-based RP map in the Oslo area, and elsewhere, unclassified. The AGRS RP map is derived from fewer classes, all characterised by more than 30 indoor measurements, and the

  4. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  5. Identification and phylogeny of the small eukaryote population of raw and drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Otterholt, Eli; Charnock, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to investigate the small eukaryote composition of raw and finished waters in the Norwegian cities of Oslo, Tromsø, Fredrikstad and Oppegård. Probes with general applicability to the 18S rRNA genes of the small eukaryote consortium were used for PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and in the generation of clone libraries using the TOPO™ cloning and sequencing system. The chosen probes invariably gave a single band in agarose gel electrophoresis, indicating amplification of an area of similar size. DGGE and cloning analyses resolved the bands into components representing many unique amplicons. Diversity and composition in the collection were studied by DNA-sequencing, and visual examination of DGGE patterns. The cloning approach enabled the putative identification of a total of approximately 100 unique small eukaryotes. The major fraction of these represented ciliated and flagellated protozoal species. This was in keeping with the findings from protozoal cultivation. DNA from a number of multicellular eukaryotes was also detected. Amoebal and fungal DNA was rarely found. The latter may indicate a low incidence or a bias in the analysis technique. The population of small eukaryotes appears typical for pristine waters and no primary pathogens were detected by culture-independent techniques. However, the potentially pathogenic protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii was grown on one occasion from Oslo's drinking water. DGGE allowed the identification of fewer amplicons (by excision and sequencing of bands) than by the cloning-transformation approach. The DGGE analysis revealed clear similarities between the compositions of the raw and treated waters, indicating that cells or DNA in the raw water pass through the treatment trains. Protozoal culture and heterotrophic plate count analysis consistently revealed viable cells in both raw and treated waters in Oslo. This indicates that a fraction of the clone

  6. γ strength function and level density of 208Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassauer, S.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.

    2016-11-01

    Background: γ strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. Purpose: The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 database for the case of 208Pb. The upward GSF and LD in 208Pb are compared to γ decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. Methods: The E 1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. The total LD in 208Pb is derived from the 1- LD extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. Results: The E 1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 database showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known spin-flip M 1 resonance call for a substantial revision of the model suggested in RIPL-3. The total GSF derived from the present data is larger in the PDR energy region than the Oslo data but the strong fluctuations due to the low LD resulting from the double shell closure of 208Pb prevent a conclusion on a possible violation of the BA hypothesis. Using the parameters suggested by RIPL-3 for a description of the LD in 208Pb with the back-shifted Fermi gas model, remarkable agreement between the two experiments spanning a wide excitation energy range is obtained. Conclusions: Systematic parametrizations of the E 1 and M 1 GSF parts need to be reconsidered at low excitation energies. The good agreement of the LD provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  7. [Axel Ström--pioneer of social medicine and administrator].

    PubMed

    Sundby, Per

    2002-01-10

    Dr Axel Strøm (1901-85), professor in the University of Oslo from 1940 to 1970, was a leader in Norwegian medicine in the latter half of the 20th century. He qualified in 1926 and in 1936 gained a doctorate with a dissertation on the toxin production of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. His first appointment as a professor was in hygiene. In 1951 he moved on to public health, a field that he pioneered in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. As a professor during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, he joined the university's resistance against the Nazi authorities' attempts at taking control. When the war was over he became deeply involved in research on the impact of war on health. At a time when the study of the impact of lifestyle factors was still in its infancy, he suggested that the war-induced reduction in dietary fat consumption might be the cause of observed lower cardiovascular mortality. Of more practical importance were the studies he initiated of the mainly psychological late-onset effects of traumas suffered by prisoners in German camps, seamen, soldiers and other exposed groups. In this area, too, he was an early explorer, of what has come to be known as post-traumatic stress disorder. His efforts led to improved war pension entitlements for the victims. Over the years, exposed groups became his major professional interest as a public health specialist. In his academic work, dr Strøm also pioneered medical ethics, care for the elderly, legislation on abortion, and the rapidly expanding field of the medical basis for social security benefits. As a practising physician he was in the vanguard of occupational medicine and other kinds of preventive medicine. What brought him most recognition was, however, his leading role over many years in the Norwegian Medical Association and in the University of Oslo. He served as chairman of the Junior Hospital Doctors Association, president of the Norwegian Medical Association and

  8. Crustal composition in southern Norway from active and passive source seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W. R.; Frassetto, A. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-12-01

    Crustal composition and structure beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern Scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect and beneath the Oslo Graben where 60 million years of rifting and magmatism has altered the crust. Crustal structure in southern Norway was targeted with a multi-disciplinary seismic study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the southern Norway and a region wide array of broadband seismometers were deployed. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated from both active source profiling and receiver functions. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson’s ratio structure, within crustal layers, that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson’s ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower crust is present. The vast difference in Moho depths in the Fennoscandian shield are, therefore, mostly due to the variation in thickness of the high Vp lower crust. Estimates of crustal composition and the effect of Magma intrusion within the Oslo Graben, and possible delamination of the lowermost crust beneath

  9. Chronicles of Gerhard-Henrik Armauer Hansen's Life and Work.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sangita; Chaudhuri, Soumik

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard-Henrik Armauer Hansen, a Norwegian scientist, discovered Mycobacterium leprae as the causative organism for leprosy, defying the hereditary affliction theory of the disease. He was born in Bergen, Norway in 1841 in a Danish family. After acquiring his medical degree in 1866 from the University of Oslo, he joined as an assistant physician in a leprosy hospital in Bergen. In 1873, he published his report claiming leprosy to be an infectious disease with a description of the infectious material in leprous tissue. His conviction of belief and an unstinted devotion to a lifetime of scientific research changed the way leprosy was approached as a disease. It was the fruit of his untiring work that the amended act of 1885 was passed, which resulted in steady decline in leprosy burden in Norway. In February 1912 he breathed his last, leaving behind an inspirational story of a brave heart scientist who fought all odds to unveil the truth for the benefit of mankind.

  10. Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly

  11. Transitional γ strength in Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Ruud, I. E.; Bürger, A.; Goriely, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Harissopulos, S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.

    2013-01-01

    The level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 105,106,111,112Cd have been extracted from particle-γ coincidence data using the Oslo method. The level densities are in very good agreement with known levels at low excitation energy. The γ-ray strength functions display no strong enhancement for low γ energies. However, more low-energy strength is apparent for 105,106Cd than for 111,112Cd. For γ energies above ≈4 MeV, there is evidence for some extra strength, similar to what has been previously observed for the Sn isotopes. The origin of this extra strength is unclear; it might be due to E1 and M1 transitions originating from neutron skin oscillations or the spin-flip resonance, respectively.

  12. First evidence of low energy enhancement in Ge isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renstrøm, T.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Filipescu, D. M.; Gheorghe, I.; Goriely, S.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Glodariu, T.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Lui, Y.-W.; Negi, D.; Ruud, I. E.; Şahin, E.; Schwengner, R.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Tesileanu, O.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Wiedeking, M.

    2015-05-01

    The γ-strength functions and level densities of 73,74Ge have been extracted from particle-γ coincidence data using the Oslo method. In addition the γ-strength function of 74Ge above the neutron separation threshold, Sn = 10.196 MeV has been extracted from photoneutron measurements. When combined, these two experiments give a γ-strength function covering the energy range of ˜1-13 MeV for 74Ge. This thorough investigation of 74Ge is a part of an international campaign to study the previously reported low energy enhancement in this mass region in the γ-strength function from ˜3MeV towards lower γ energies. The obtained data show that both 73,74Ge display an increase in strength at low γ energies.

  13. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Goriely, S.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Lönnroth, T.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wikan, K.

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear γ-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from particle-γ coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low γ energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  14. Impact of oestrogenic substances from oil production at sea.

    PubMed

    Lye, C M

    2000-03-15

    The possibility that chemicals present in the environment may mimic hormones, causing deleterious physiological effects to wildlife, has been given considerable attention. Although the question of ecological significance of 'endocrine disrupters' is not yet settled, and standard assessment procedures have not yet been established, proposals to control these chemicals into the marine environment are now being made under the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). A possible source of such emissions is offshore-drilling, where applications containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols, indicated as environmental oestrogens, historically have been used. This paper examines available evidence regarding the potential impact of these substances on aquatic organisms living around offshore platforms.

  15. Statistical properties of 243Pu, and 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplace, T. A.; Zeiser, F.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Siem, S.; Garotte, F. L. Bello; Brown, J. A.; Campo, L. Crespo; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Hadyńska-KlÈ©k, K.; Henderson, R. A.; Klintefjord, M.; Lebois, M.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Younes, W.

    2016-01-01

    The level density and γ -ray strength function (γ SF ) of 243Pu have been measured in the quasicontinuum using the Oslo method. Excited states in 243Pu were populated using the 242Pu(d ,p ) reaction. The level density closely follows the constant-temperature level density formula for excitation energies above the pairing gap. The γ SF displays a double-humped resonance at low energy as also seen in previous investigations of actinide isotopes. The structure is interpreted as the scissors resonance and has a centroid of ωSR=2.42 (5 ) MeV and a total strength of BSR=10.1 (15 ) μN2 , which is in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The measured level density and γ SF were used to calculate the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section in a neutron energy range for which there were previously no measured data.

  16. Psychiatry on trial: the Norway 2011 massacre.

    PubMed

    Roth, Walton T; Dager, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    On July 22, 2011, Anders Breivik, a Norwegian citizen, detonated a fertilizer bomb near government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people, and then proceeded to a nearby island where the Labor Party was holding a youth camp. There, he killed 69 people before being arrested. Just before these events, he posted a "compendium" on the Web explaining his actions and encouraging others to do likewise. Much of the ensuing media coverage and trial focused on whether he was sane and whether he had a psychiatric diagnosis. One team of court-appointed psychiatrists found him to be psychotic with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia and legally insane. A second team found him neither psychotic nor schizophrenic and, thus, legally sane. Their contrary opinions were not reconciled by observing his behavior in court. We discuss why experienced psychiatrists reached such fundamentally opposing diagnostic conclusions about a "home-grown" terrorist holding extreme political views.

  17. Why prioritize when there isn't enough money?

    PubMed

    Wikler, Daniel

    2003-02-26

    In an informal address to the 4th International Conference on Priorities in Health (Oslo, 23 September 2002), Professor Jeffrey Sachs - Chairperson of the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health - maintained that the real causes of the inability of the world's poorest people to receive help for the lethal diseases that burden them did not include the "usual suspects" (corruption, mismanagement, and wrong priorities). Rather, the root cause was argued to be an inherent lack of money, indicating that the burden of disease would be lifted only if rich countries gave more money to poor ones.Without taking exception to anything that Sachs said in his address, there nevertheless remain a number of justifications for efforts to improve priority setting in the face of severely shortages of resources, including the following three defenses: prioritization is needed if we are to know that prioritization is insufficient; prioritization is most important when there is little money; prioritization can itself increase resources.

  18. Scientific Dishonesty: A Survey of Doctoral Students at the Major Medical Faculties in Sweden and Norway.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Helgesson, Gert; Juth, Niklas; Holm, Søren

    2015-10-01

    As we need knowledge about the prevalence of scientific dishonesty, this study investigates the knowledge of, experiences with, and attitudes toward various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD students at the main medical faculties in Sweden and Norway. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all post-graduate research students attending basic PhD courses at the medical faculties in Stockholm and Oslo during the fall 2014. The responding doctoral students reported to know about various forms of scientific dishonesty from the literature, in their department, and for some also through their own experience. Some forms of scientific misconduct were considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was a high level of willingness to report misconduct but little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Experimentally constrained (p,γ)Y89 and (n,γ)Y89 reaction rates relevant to p -process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Schwengner, R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Goriely, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Byun, Y.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Klintefjord, M.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Wiedeking, M.

    2016-04-21

    The nuclear level density and the g-ray strength function have been extracted for 89Y, using the Oslo Method on 89Y(p,p'γ)89Y coincidence data. The g-ray strength function displays a low-energy enhancement consistent with previous observations in this mass region (93-98Mo). Shell-model calculations give support that the observed enhancement is due to strong, low-energy M1 transitions at high excitation energies. The data were further used as input for calculations of the 88Sr(p,γ)89Y and 88Y(n,γ)89Y cross sections with the TALYS reaction code. Lastly, comparison with cross-section data, where available, as well as with values from the BRUSLIB library, shows a satisfying agreement.

  20. ESMN in Memoriam (1998 -- 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    The EC-FP5 European Solar Magnetism Network (ESMN) was terminated during this conference. Together with its FP4 predecessor, the European Solar Magnetometry Network (ESMN), it funded 22 postdoc and 9 graduate-student appointments at nine solar physics groups in Western Europe, it enhanced Europe-wide collaboration in solar physics, and it contributed to the integration of East-European groups in West-European enterprises. Its unfortunate demise results from lack of further fortune in the FP6 lottery. The FP6-funded Utrecht-Stockholm-Oslo graduate school in solar physics represents offspring, the FP6 Solaire network is a partial replacement, and the EAST undertaking and pledge to build an EST is a most worthy FP7 stake. The EC's policy shifts from postdoc to predoc funding and from requiring (too) small to requiring (too) large consortia are criticized.

  1. [20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].

    PubMed

    Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

    1992-02-28

    The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.

  2. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article.

  3. Kirkland gets license in hot Philippines area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, A.S.

    1992-08-03

    This paper reports that Kirkland As, Oslo, has received a geophysical survey and exploration contract (GSEC) in a sizzling exploration and development theater off the Philippines. The license covers about 6,000 sq miles of undisputed waters, with depths mostly less than 300 ft, and lies in the Reed Bank area off Northwest Palawan Island, where several major oil and gas strikes have been made recently. Kirkland has 1 year in which to carry out its seismic work commitment. The terms of the GSEC then give an option to drill one well in a 6 month period. Once the results have been analyzed, the company can either drill another well or enter into a service contract for the license. Kirkland has a 65% share in the license, with the remainder split between Philippine companies Philodrill Corp., Beguet Mining Corp. subsidiary Petrofields, and Seafront Resources Corp. The Philippines is one of Kirkland's main areas of activity, the Kirkland Commercial Manager Ralph Baxter.

  4. [Round-table discussion on the weak back problem. Misunderstood backache patients, a challenge to medical care].

    PubMed

    1975-12-01

    "Pain in the back" is one of the most common reasons for consultations, sick-leaves, and invalid pensions. In the Nordic countries, back trouble costs thousands of millions of kronor each year in terms of lost working days alone. Yet, the information to the doctors on problems connected with this disorder is generally sparse, and the primary doctors give too little time to the backache patients. The latter are often misunderstood - but most of those who seek medical advice for "pain in the back" really suffer pain. The failing care of backache patients was discussed at a round-table conference held by Nordisk Medicin in Oslo in October, 1975. A programme of action was outlined.

  5. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  6. Exploring the consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology education: benchmarking across Norway, Ireland and Australia.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, T; Evans, J L; Haugen, H K; Gorman, C; Kavanagh, Y; Cameron, A B

    2016-08-01

    Dental technology programmes of study must prepare students to practice in a broad range of contemporary workplaces. Currently, there is limited evidence to benchmark dental technology education - locally, nationally or internationally. This research aims to improve consistency, transparency and portability of dental technology qualifications across three countries. Data were accessed from open-source curriculum documents and five calibrated assessment items. Three institutions collaborated with Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; and Griffith University, Australia. From these, 29-44 students completed 174 assessments. The curricula reflect the community needs of each country and display common themes that underpin professional dental technology practice. Assessment results differed between institutions but no more than a normal distribution. Face-to-face assessment moderation was critical to achieve consistency. This collaborative research has led to the development of a set of guidelines for other dental technology education providers interested in developing or aligning courses internationally to enhance the portability of qualifications.

  7. European Zebrafish Meeting 2015 Husbandry Session Report.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zoltán M; Wilson, Carole; Alestrøm, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A workshop to address husbandry and animal welfare was held during the 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo, Norway, from June 28 to July 2, 2015. The husbandry workshop took place on Monday, June 29, and was well attended by ∼100 audience members. It highlighted problems arising from the diversity of current husbandry practices and included presentations on recent efforts to find common husbandry and animal welfare standards from a variety of international contributors, from Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, as well as the United States and Japan. Presentations included zebrafish and medaka as representatives of aquatic species used in biomedical research and addressed a diverse range of topics such as proposed European guidelines for zebrafish husbandry, general fish facility health and husbandry standards, cryopreservation, publication standards, and feeding strategies. The workshop highlighted the desire to develop common husbandry standards for the aquatic research community across the world.

  8. Stars at Gammasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Becker, J. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, M. A.; McMahan, M. A.; Guttormsen, M.; Rekstad, J. B.; Siem, S.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.; Mitchell, G. E.; Tavukcu, E.

    2002-10-01

    STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) is a highly segmented array of particle telescope designed to allow for particle-gamma coincidence measurements in both forward and inverse kinematics at either forward or backward angles using GAMAMSPHERE. Two different arrays of Silicon surface barrier detectors can be employed depending on the configuration of the experiment. The first STARS experiment at GAMMASPHERE took place in April 2002. The ^157Gd(^3He,α)^156Gd reaction at E_α = 45 MeV was used to a) measure level densities and gamma-ray strength functions below the neutron binding energy, and b) to simulate neutron-induced reactions on ^155Gd. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  9. Negative and Positive Consequences of Cancer Treatment Experienced by Long-term Osteosarcoma Survivors: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Fauske, Lena; Bondevik, Hilde; Bruland, Øyvind S; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-11-01

    Our study aimed to explore how survivors of osteosarcoma of the lower extremity experience physical and psychosocial late effects several years after undergoing arduous treatment. A qualitative, phenomenological and hermeneutic approach was applied. Osteosarcoma survivors (n=8) previously treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, participated in the study. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Three to ten years after diagnosis, the majority of participants had experienced both negative and positive consequences following treatment. Changes in activity and exclusion from participation in different areas were the most challenging consequences. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with disabilities. It is important to understand osteosarcoma survivors' own experiences in order to assist those who struggle to reorient in life and to construct a new identity for themselves. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of cloud droplet activation to the vertical velocity probability distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoose, C.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Svensson, G.

    2008-12-01

    Cloud droplet activation is calculated as a function of aerosol number, size and composition and of the vertical velocity in the global climate model CAM-Oslo (Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000; Storelvmo et al, 2006). For this, a gaussian distribution of the vertical velocity around its grid-mean value is assumed. However, this distribution is not a good approximation in all situations. In the convective boundary layer, the probability distribution of the vertical velocity is often positively skewed (Deardorff and Willis, 1985; Weil, 1990) with a tail to high upward velocities. Marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layers can exhibit both positive or negative skewnesses (Moyer and Young, 1991; De Laat and Duynkerke, 1998). We will show studies examining the sensitivity of the simulated cloud droplet concentration to the assumed shape of the vertical velocity distribution in specific situations, and calculate the aerosol indirect effect with the modified activation parameterization.

  11. Ellen Gleditsch: Pioneer Woman in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykknes, Annette; Kragh, Helge; Kvittingen, Lise

    We present the life and work of the Norwegian scientist Ellen Gleditsch (1879-1968) in the early era of radioactivity. From 1907-1912, Gleditsch worked as Marie Curie's assistant in the Laboratoire Curie in Paris on the alleged copper-lithium radioactive transformation and on the radiumuranium ratio, as well as studying chemistry and related subjects at the Sorbonne. Later,in 1913-1914, she worked in Bertram Boltwood's laboratory at Yale University on the half-life of radium. Gleditsch also was concerned with academic opportunities for women, and she became the president of the International Federation of University Women. As a professor, the second female professor in Norway, she initiated a research group on radioactivity at the University of Oslo.

  12. Post natal use of analgesics: comparisons between conventional postnatal wards and a maternity hotel.

    PubMed

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Eskild, Anne; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd

    2010-04-01

    To investigate factors related to analgesic use after delivery, and especially whether rates of analgesic use were different in a midwife-managed maternity hotel as compared to conventional postnatal wards. One maternity hotel and two conventional postnatal wards at Ullevål University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. Data were obtained from hospital records for 804 women with vaginal deliveries. Postnatal analgesic use. Overall, approximately half the women used analgesics after vaginal delivery in both conventional postnatal wards and maternity hotel. The factors that were significantly associated with use of analgesics postnatally in multivariate analysis were multiparity, having a non-Western ethnicity, smoking in pregnancy, younger age, instrumental delivery, analgesic use during labour, maternal complications post partum, and duration of postnatal stay 4 days or more. The use of analgesics is determined by socio-demographic and obstetric factors rather than the organisation of the ward.

  13. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Alexander, Jan; Amdam, Gro V; Andersen, Grethe; Bryan, Nathan S; Chen, Duan; Corpet, Denis E; De Smet, Stefaan; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haug, Anna; Karlsson, Anders H; Kleter, Gijs; de Kok, Theo M; Kulseng, Bård; Milkowski, Andrew L; Martin, Roy J; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Paulsen, Jan Erik; Pickova, Jana; Rudi, Knut; Sødring, Marianne; Weed, Douglas L; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2014-08-01

    This paper is based on a workshop held in Oslo, Norway in November 2013, in which experts discussed how to reach consensus on the healthiness of red and processed meat. Recent nutritional recommendations include reducing intake of red and processed meat to reduce cancer risk, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological and mechanistic data on associations between red and processed meat intake and CRC are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms are unclear. There is a need for further studies on differences between white and red meat, between processed and whole red meat and between different types of processed meats, as potential health risks may not be the same for all products. Better biomarkers of meat intake and of cancer occurrence and updated food composition databases are required for future studies. Modifying meat composition via animal feeding and breeding, improving meat processing by alternative methods such as adding phytochemicals and improving our diets in general are strategies that need to be followed up.

  14. Experimentally constrained (p,γ)Y89 and (n,γ)Y89 reaction rates relevant to p -process nucleosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Schwengner, R.; ...

    2016-04-21

    The nuclear level density and the g-ray strength function have been extracted for 89Y, using the Oslo Method on 89Y(p,p'γ)89Y coincidence data. The g-ray strength function displays a low-energy enhancement consistent with previous observations in this mass region (93-98Mo). Shell-model calculations give support that the observed enhancement is due to strong, low-energy M1 transitions at high excitation energies. The data were further used as input for calculations of the 88Sr(p,γ)89Y and 88Y(n,γ)89Y cross sections with the TALYS reaction code. Lastly, comparison with cross-section data, where available, as well as with values from the BRUSLIB library, shows a satisfying agreement.

  15. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; ...

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least upmore » to the neutron threshold.« less

  16. Why prioritize when there isn't enough money?

    PubMed Central

    Wikler, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In an informal address to the 4th International Conference on Priorities in Health (Oslo, 23 September 2002), Professor Jeffrey Sachs – Chairperson of the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health – maintained that the real causes of the inability of the world's poorest people to receive help for the lethal diseases that burden them did not include the "usual suspects" (corruption, mismanagement, and wrong priorities). Rather, the root cause was argued to be an inherent lack of money, indicating that the burden of disease would be lifted only if rich countries gave more money to poor ones. Without taking exception to anything that Sachs said in his address, there nevertheless remain a number of justifications for efforts to improve priority setting in the face of severely shortages of resources, including the following three defenses: prioritization is needed if we are to know that prioritization is insufficient; prioritization is most important when there is little money; prioritization can itself increase resources. PMID:12773216

  17. [Bronchial hyperreactivity in athletes].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, K H

    1994-01-01

    Elite athletics, particularly endurance sports, are characterised by a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Findings in several studies suggest short-term high intensity physical activity to cause a transient increase in BHR. Recent studies in Oslo have shown that regular physical endurance training over several years, particularly when combined with such climatic factors as low air temperatures, may result in an increased risk of BHR and EIA among elite athletes--e.g., cross-country skiers. Inhalation beta 2-agonists and steroids have been used by many athletes in endurance sports, particularly skiers. Athletes with symptoms of BHR or EIA should be examined with lung function tests and exercise testing, and the effect of antiasthmatic drugs should be ascertained. Inhaled beta 2-agonists have no beneficial effect upon physical performance in nonasthmatic athletes, and may have a slight limiting effect upon physical endurance.

  18. News and Views: Good publicity? Astrophysicists win Kavli Prizes; Maps for the planetary explorer; Small galaxies reveal property of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural Kavli Prizes, including the Astrophysics award, were marked by a ceremony in Oslo in 9 September, celebrating international scientific success. Planetary explorers may have the equivalent of SatNav to guide them, but to avoid ending up in the space equivalent of a double-decker bus wedged under a low bridge, they need proper maps. And the topographer who is mapping exploration targets has received an Exceptional Achievement medal from NASA for the quality of his work. How big is the smallest galaxy? About 10 million solar masses, according to researchers mapping the small faint galaxies around the Milky Way. And they think that this figure might indicate something about dark matter.

  19. First 3D radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, W.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the Gauss Seidel solver for radiative transfer with scattering in the Oslo Stagger Code. It fully supports MPI parallelism through domain decomposition of the simulation box, enabling fast computation of radiative transfer at a high resolution. Continuum and line opacities are treated with either a multigroup method or opacity sampling. Line scattering probabilities are estimated using the van Regemorter approximation for de-excitation rates of electron collisions. A solar-type test simulation with continuum and line scattering exhibits a steeper temperature gradient due to decreased radiative heating above the optical surface when compared with the strict local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) case. The classical van Regemorter approximation may overestimate the importance of line scattering, implying that the true temperature structure will be in between the LTE case and the scattering case considered here. It is demonstrated that continuum scattering is unimportant in the case of the Sun.

  20. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertino, M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Alagoz, E.; Andresen, J.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Brosius, R.; Bubna, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Jensen, F.; Krzywda, A.; Kumar, A.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Ngadiuba, J.; Osipenkov, I.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Tan, P.; Terzo, S.; Uplegger, L.; Wagner, S.; Dinardo, M.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  1. Bringing (domestic) politics back in: global and local influences on health equity.

    PubMed

    Schrecker, Ted

    2015-07-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for health correctly concluded that: 'with globalization, health inequity increasingly results from transnational activities that involve actors with different interests and degrees of power'. At the same time, taking up that Commission's focus on political determinants of health and 'power asymmetries' requires recognizing the interplay of globalization with domestic politics, and the limits of global influences as explanations for policies that affect health inequalities. I make this case using three examples - trade policy, climate change policy, and the domestic politics of poverty reduction and social policy - and a concluding observation about the 2015 UK election. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient alkene epoxidation catalyzed by molybdenyl acetylacetonate supported on aminated UiO-66 metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Reihaneh; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Zadehahmadi, Farnaz

    2015-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing Mo Schiff base complexes were prepared by post-synthesis method and applied as efficient catalysts in the epoxidation of alkenes with tert-BuOOH. In this manner, UiO-66-NH2 (UiO=University of Oslo) MOF was reacted with salicylaldehyde and thiophene-2-carbaldehyde to produce bidentate Schiff bases. Then, the Schiff base ligands were used for immobilization of molybdenyl acetylacetonate. These new catalysts were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). These catalytic systems showed excellent activity in the epoxidation of alkenes such as cyclic and linear ones with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in 1,2-dichloroethane, and reused several times without any appreciable loss of their activity.

  3. Treatment Experiences of Child Sexual Offenders in Norway: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Elvira S N; Holgersen, Helge

    2016-10-01

    This article is an attempt at gaining a better understanding of treatment of adults who have committed sexual offenses against children. In this study we aimed to explore what people who have committed sexual offenses against children find useful in therapy. The study was approached using qualitative methodology, and information was collected through semistructured interviews. Four male child sexual offenders were recruited from the Institute of Clinical Sexology and Therapy in Oslo, Norway. The informants were interviewed with a focus on what factors they found useful in therapy. Through an explorative, thematic analysis, five main themes were found. These themes include: "Why I started going to therapy," "Why did I do it?" "Therapy as life," "Previous and current relationships with others," and "I lived in a fantasy world where everything was okay." Based on this study and other earlier studies and theories it appears that the previously mentioned themes recur as important contributory factors in the treatment of child sexual offenders.

  4. Warm spells in Northern Europe in relation to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Arkadiusz M.; Piotrowski, Piotr; Bednorz, Ewa

    2017-05-01

    This study describes warm spells in Northern Europe and determines the synoptic situations that cause their occurrence. In this article, a relatively warm day was defined as a day when the maximum temperature exceeded the 95th annual percentile, and a warm spell (WS) was considered to be a sequence of at least five relatively warm days. In the analysed multiannual period and within the investigated area, 24 (Kallax) to 53 (Oslo) WSs were observed. The occurrence of WSs was mainly connected with positive anomalies of sea level pressure and a 500-hPa isobaric surface, displaying the presence of high-pressure systems. This occurrence was also accompanied by positive T850 anomalies.

  5. High prevalence and no latitude gradient of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.

  6. Illicit drug use in patients with psychotic disorders compared with that in the general population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ringen, P A; Melle, I; Birkenaes, A B; Engh, J A; Faerden, A; Jónsdóttir, H; Nesvåg, R; Vaskinn, A; Friis, S; Larsen, F; Opjordsmoen, S; Sundet, K; Andreassen, O A

    2008-02-01

    Prevalence estimates of illicit drug use in psychotic disorders vary between studies, and only a few studies compared prevalence estimates with those in the general population. Cross-sectional study comparing 148 stable-phase patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with 329 representative general citizens of Oslo. A total of 849 patients from the same hospital department in the same time period constituted a patient reference group. Lifetime illicit drug use was 44% higher (P < 0.001) in study patients than in the general population sample; while lifetime use of amphetamine/cocaine was 160% higher (P < 0.001). No differences were found between user groups for sociodemographic characteristics. Patients with psychotic disorders in stable phase had a markedly higher lifetime use of any illicit substance, especially amphetamine/cocaine, than the general population. They also seemed to use drugs more periodically. The same sociodemographic characteristics were associated with increased illicit drug use in both groups.

  7. The inflammatory response in lungs of rats exposed on the airborne particles collected during different seasons in four European cities.

    PubMed

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Stepnik, Maciej; Stetkiewicz, Jan; Krajnow, Aleksander; Kur, Barbara; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Rydzynski, Konrad; Dybing, Erik; Cassee, Fleming R

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations of ambient particulate air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In an in vivo model, we have tested the toxicity of urban airborne particles collected during spring, summer, and winter seasons in four cities (Amsterdam, Lodz, Oslo, and Rome) spread across Europe. The seasonal differences in inflammatory responses were striking, and almost all the study parameters were affected by PM. Coarse fractions of the urban particle samples were less potent per unit mass than the fine fractions in increasing cytokine [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] levels and in reducing Clara-cell secretory protein (CC16) levels. This study shows that PM collected at 4 contrasting sites across Europe and during different seasons have differences in toxic potency. These differences were even more prominent between the fine and coarse fractions of the PM.

  8. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Goergen, A.

    2011-10-28

    The nuclear {gamma}-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from particle-{gamma} coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low {gamma} energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  9. Transport mode preferences, risk perception and worry in a Norwegian urban population.

    PubMed

    Roche-Cerasi, Isabelle; Rundmo, Torbjørn; Sigurdson, Johannes Foss; Moe, Dagfinn

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare risk perception among Norwegians (n=512) living in the region of Oslo. This study was part of an ERANET 13 project entitled PETRIS, Perception of transport risk in France and Norway. The data collection was carried out in January 2011. The response rate was 51 percent. The results showed that respondents, divided in two groups according to their transport mode preferences, assessed differently risk perception in public and private transportation. Respondents who preferred collective transportation assessed the probability of experiencing criminality in collective transport modes as higher than those who preferred private modes. They were also more worried of experiencing accidents, criminality, and terror attacks in collective transportation. The relationship between transport mode preferences and use, risk perception and worry are discussed.

  10. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Micromotors with Tunable Engines and Brakes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxing; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Mingli; Liu, Wenjuan; Sandraz, Elodie; Lan, Hsin; Wang, Joseph; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-01-18

    Herein, we report that UiO-type (UiO = University of Oslo) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be transformed into self-propelled micromotors by employing several different metal-based propulsion systems. Incorporation of a bipyridine ligand into the UiO-67 lattice transforms the crystallites, upon metalation, into single-site, metal-based catalytic "engines" to power the micromotors with chemical fuel. The "engine performance" (i.e., propulsion) of the single-site powered micromotors has been tuned by the choice of the metal ion utilized. In addition, a chemical "braking" system was achieved by adding chelating agents capable of sequestering the metal ion engines and thereby suppressing the catalytic activity, with different chelators displaying different deceleration capacities. These results demonstrate that MOFs can be powered by various engines and halted by different brakes, resulting in a high degree of motion design and control at the nanoscale.

  11. Volcanic ash observed over Poland, April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Krzyścin, Janusz; Jarosławski, Janusz; Podgórski, Jerzy

    2010-05-01

    We present analyses of the results of the ground-based measurements of the aerosols at Belsk - Central Geophysical Observatory Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAS) after eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano. The lidar and Sun-photometric result are compared to model simulations by the Norwegian Institute of Meteorology (NIM), Oslo, Norway. Our measurements show presence of aerosol layers in free troposphere mainly 16 -17 April and 23 April when presence of ash cloud is predicted by the model. However, contribution of that layers to aerosol optical depth (AOD) is rather weak. Variability of AOD during measurements period is small and does not exceed overall mean for April. Aerosol microphysical properties, like size distribution, measured after eruption is typical for advection of clear air form northern Europe. Small fine mode is observed during whole period and only 16 and 17 Aril small increase of coarse mode was found.

  12. Syntactic reconstruction and reanalysis, semantic dead ends, and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-06-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is crucially has been found to be involved in syntactic processing of various kinds. This study investigates the cortical effects of two types of syntactic processes: (i) Reconstruction in ellipsis (recovery of left-out material given by context, More people have been to Paris than [...] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures ('dead ends') as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic 'garden paths', where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced to reanalyze. Reanalysis and reconstruction require additional syntactic processing and were predicted to increase activation in areas otherwise involved in structural computation: LIFG (BA 44,45), premotor BA 6, and posterior temporal BA 21,22. This was borne out. The results showed an interaction effect of the types of construction in all three areas reflecting syntactic processing.

  13. Teaching clinical communication: a mainstream activity or just a minority sport?

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    This plenary presentation from the EACH International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Oslo 2008, takes an honest look at the present state of communication teaching and considers how to take the next steps to move communication into the very centre of medical education. Although clinical communication teaching has become increasingly accepted as a formal component of the medical curriculum, there is still a problem to be faced. Communication still often appears in medical education to be a peripheral element rather than a mainstream activity truly perceived by schools and learners as central to all clinical interactions. This presentation explores why clinical communication often appears to be a minority sport in medical education, considers how to overcome this via integration throughout the curriculum, looks at five specific examples of integration in action, presents a new UK consensus statement which helps integrate communication into the mainstream, and finally explores the progression to maturity in communication curricula.

  14. Associations between Work Environment and Psychological Distress after a Workplace Terror Attack: The Importance of Role Expectations, Predictability and Leader Support

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing terrorism is associated with high levels of psychological distress among survivors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether work environmental factors such as role clarity and predictability, role conflicts, and leader support may protect against elevated levels of psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. Data from approximately 1800 ministerial employees were collected ten months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack which targeted the Norwegian ministries. The results show that after a traumatic event, lower role conflicts, higher role clarity, higher predictability, and higher leader support were independently associated with lower psychological distress. These findings suggest that the workplace environment may be a facilitator of employees’ mental health after stressful events. PMID:25769023

  15. Experimentally constrained (p,γ)Y89 and (n,γ)Y89 reaction rates relevant to p -process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Schwengner, R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Goriely, S.; Harissopulos, S.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Byun, Y.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Klintefjord, M.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Wiedeking, M.

    2016-04-21

    The nuclear level density and the g-ray strength function have been extracted for 89Y, using the Oslo Method on 89Y(p,p'γ)89Y coincidence data. The g-ray strength function displays a low-energy enhancement consistent with previous observations in this mass region (93-98Mo). Shell-model calculations give support that the observed enhancement is due to strong, low-energy M1 transitions at high excitation energies. The data were further used as input for calculations of the 88Sr(p,γ)89Y and 88Y(n,γ)89Y cross sections with the TALYS reaction code. Lastly, comparison with cross-section data, where available, as well as with values from the BRUSLIB library, shows a satisfying agreement.

  16. Determination of (n,{gamma}) cross sections in the rare-earth region using the surrogate ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Goldblum, B. L.; Prussin, S. G.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Younes, W.; Guttormsen, M.

    2008-12-15

    The surrogate ratio method was used to convert experimentally determined relative {gamma}-decay probabilities for excited {sup 171}Yb and {sup 161}Dy nuclei, populated using ({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{sup '}) and ({sup 3}He, {alpha}) reactions, into neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections in an equivalent neutron energy range of 165-465 keV. The relative {gamma}-decay probabilities were measured using the CACTUS array at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory and were found to agree with the ratio of neutron-induced {gamma}-decay cross sections for the same compound nuclei over the range of excitation energies measured. No significant entrance-channel effects on the extracted (n,{gamma}) cross sections were observed. The cross sections obtained using the surrogate ratio method were compared to directly measured neutron-capture cross sections and found to agree within the total estimated uncertainty over the range of equivalent neutron energies measured.

  17. Diet and chronic diseases: INCAP studies of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Miguel A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes early INCAP studies showing that cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were much lower in the low-income populations of Central America than values that were just beginning to emerge from industrialized countries. These led to the collection of aortas and coronary vessels from 14,610 males and 7,906 females from serial autopsies from 12 public general hospitals in developing countries, mostly in Latin America and in New Orleans and Oslo. The severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the samples was evaluated independently by four pathologists after the samples were randomized, who determined that the severity of atherosclerosis progressed so slowly in the developing country samples that it rarely became clinically significant. The strongest correlation with the severity of lesions was the fat content of the diet.

  18. Design and characterization of an SRAM-based neutron detector for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S.; Velure, Arild; Larsen, Eivind F.; Stokkevåg, Camilla H.; Röhrich, Dieter; Brekke, Njål; Odland, Odd Harald

    2015-12-01

    A neutron detector based on registration of radiation effects in Static Random Access Memories (SRAMs) has been developed at the University of Bergen for applications in particle therapy. Nine different SRAMs were tested and a 16 Mibit SRAM from Cypress was chosen for the final detector. The SRAMs were irradiated in beam lines at PTB Braunschweig, the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory, The Svedberg Laboratory, The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE, Kjeller) and the CERN-EU high-energy reference field. The results from the measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using the selected SRAMs for neutron detection. The results indicate low or no sensitivity to thermal neutrons while the cross section for fast neutrons increases with neutron energy before reaching a more stable level at energies of several tenths of MeV.

  19. Optical Design of Telescopes and other Reflective Systems using SLIDERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Optical design tools are presented to provide automatic generation of reflective optical systems for design studies and educational use. The tools are graphical in nature and use an interactive slider interface with freely available optical design software, OSLO EDU. Operation of the sliders provides input to adjust first-order and other system parameters (e.g. focal length), while appropriate system construction parameters are automatically updated to correct aberrations. Graphical output is also presented in real-time (e.g. a lens drawing) to provide the opportunity for a truly visual approach to optical design. Available systems include two- three- and four-mirror telescopes, relays, and afocal systems, either rotationally symmetric or having just a plane of symmetry. Demonstrations are presented, including a brief discussion of interfacing optical design software to MATLAB, and general research opportunities at NASA.

  20. The possible influences of the increasing anthropogenic emissions in India on tropospheric ozone and OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Weiliang; Zhou, Xiuji; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Sundet, J. K.; He, Jinhai

    2003-11-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the influences of the increasing anthropogenic emission in India. The model is capable of reproducing the observational results of the INDOEX experiment and the measurements in summer over India well. The model results show that when NO x and CO emissions in India are doubled, ozone concentration increases, and global average OH decreases a little. Under the effects of the Indian summer monsoon, NO x and CO in India are efficiently transported into the middle and upper troposphere by the upward current and the convective activities so that the NO x , CO, and ozone in the middle and upper troposphere significantly increase with the increasing NO x and CO emissions. These increases extensively influence a part of Asia, Africa, and Europe, and persist from June to September.

  1. GP Section selects Best Student Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) Section has announced its selection of a paper entitled “Multicomponent Magnetization of the Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian Ringerike Sandstone, Adjacent Dikes, and Permian Lavas, Oslo, Norway” as the best GP student paper presented at the 1986 AGU Spring Meeting. The primary author, Dartmouth College Ph.D. candidate David Douglass, was assisted on the paper by a colleague from Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. Douglass received his B.S. in geology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1980, and in 1984, he received his M.S. in earth sciences at Dartmouth. His current studies examine the paleomagnetism, structure, and sedimentation of several North Atlantic old red sandstone basins.

  2. [A 100 year old thesis. Amanuensis Hans Christian Geelmuyden].

    PubMed

    Bremer, J

    1997-12-10

    Hans Christian Geelmuyden (1861-1945) was amanuensis (assistant professor) at the Institute of Physiology, University of Oslo from 1889 to 1931. In 1897 he was awarded the degree "Doctor of Medicine" for his thesis "Om aceton som stofvexelprodukt" (On acetone as a metabolic product). The Nobel laureate Feodor Lynen referred to this thesis, which was also published in German, stating that Geelmuyden was the first to establish that ketone bodies are formed from fatty acids. Geelmuyden also established that acetone is metabolized in rabbits and dogs. Geelmuyden was a prolific writer on fat metabolism and diabetes and wrote a series of extensive reviews on these topics in Ergebnisse der Physiologie. Geelmuyden was active in the treatment of diabetic patients.

  3. Experimental nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions in Sc and V isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Loennroth, T.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2008-04-17

    The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from first-generation {gamma}-ray spectra. This method is applied on the nuclei {sup 44,45}Sc and {sup 50,51}V in this work. The experimental level densities of {sup 44,45}Sc are compared to calculated level densities using a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. The {gamma}-ray strength functions are also compared to theoretical expectations, showing an unexpected enhancement of the {gamma}-ray strength for low {gamma} energies (E{sub {gamma}}{<=}3 MeV) in all the isotopes studied here. The physical origin of this enhancement is not yet understood.

  4. Experimental Level Densities and {gamma}-Strength Functions in rare earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.; Oedegaard, S. W.

    2008-04-17

    The level density and radiative strength function for {sup 146,147}Sm and {sup 163,164}Dy have been extracted from primary {gamma} spectra using the Oslo method. As one approaches the closed N = 82 neutron shell, the structures in the level density become more pronounced due to shell effects. The experimental level densities can be used to explore thermodynamic properties of the nucleus within the microcanonical ensemble. Pygmy resonances, which are based on the scissors mode and seen in deformed rare-earth nuclei, are not observed in near-spherical {sup 146,147}Sm, as expected. Pygmy resonances in {sup 163,164}Dy were studied after {sup 3}He-induced reactions and their width was found to be twice as wide as compared to results reported after neutron-capture reactions.

  5. A retrospective view on research in neuroscience in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerstad, L; Gilhus, N E; Storstein, A

    2008-01-01

    This brief historical review on neuroscience in Norway shows a comparatively high research activity with many important results. The Norwegian zoologist Fridtjof Nansen, who later became a famous Arctic explorer, was the first to formulate the neuron doctrine. 'The Oslo School of Neuroanatomy' contributed enormously to the understanding of the detailed anatomy and chemistry of the central nervous system. Norwegian neurophysiologists made important findings from studies of hippocampus including the inhibitory basket cell, the LTP phenomenon and the 'hippocampal-slice-technique'. In clinical neuroscience the description of Refsum's disease and studies of myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis have been of particular importance. Two of 13 centres of excellence in Norway selected in 2003 were from neuroscience, and The Norwegian Research Council has its own programme for neuroscience. The Norwegian Neurological Association arranges annual meetings to promote interest in neurological research.

  6. [The human face of medicine--the visual art].

    PubMed

    Larsen, I F

    2000-12-10

    This article discusses the role of art in medicine on the background of experience with art lectures for medical students and courses and exhibitions for doctors. From the last half of the 19th century, Norwegian artists have taken an interest in medical themes. Their paintings are an important contribution to medical history in Norway; more generally, they contribute to our understanding of the development of Norwegian society. Visual art is an important element in the decoration of hospitals. The works on display in the new National Hospital buildings in Oslo show how art may successfully be used in indoor as well as outdoor areas. It is important to let artists in on the planning process prior to the building of a new hospital.

  7. Impact of aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Sundet, J. K.; Zhou, Xiuji; Ma, Jianzhong

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional global chemistry transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of subsonic aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China in terms of a year 2000 scenario of subsonic aircraft NO x emission. The results show that subsonic aircraft NO x emission significantly affects northern China, which makes NO x at 250 hPa increase by about 50 pptv with the highest percentage of 60% in January, and leading to an ozone increase of 8 ppbv with 5% relative change in April. The NO x increase is mainly attributed to the transport process, but ozone increase is produced by the chemical process. The NO x increases by less than 10 pptv by virtue of subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China, and ozone changes less than 0.4 ppbv. When subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China is doubled, its influence is still relatively small.

  8. Sexual diversity in urban Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Traeen, Bente; Stigum, Hein; Søorensen, Dagfinn

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe homosexual and heterosexual experiences in terms of sexual fantasies, sexual attraction, sexual conduct, and falling in love in an urban Norwegian population. In 1997, a random sample of 5,000 persons (18-49 years) was drawn from the population register in Oslo to participate in a sexual behavior survey. Data collection was carried out by means of postal questionnaires and 45% responded. The results indicated that exclusive homosexuality was rare in the population. One exception was the prevalence of homosexual fantasies in women. Compared to respondents who had had exclusively heterosexual contact, respondents reporting bisexual contacts had a significantly higher number of lifetime sex partners, higher frequency of anal and oral sex and masturbation, and lower age at orgasm and masturbation debut. What significantly separated the groups of exclusive heterosexuals, bisexuals, and exclusive homosexuals were attitudes towards various expressions of sexuality and number of lifetime sex partners.

  9. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  10. Finn Bøe--war, medicine, music.

    PubMed

    Hem, Erlend; Natvig, Jacob B; Børdahl, Per E

    2016-03-15

    In January 1944 the Norwegian Resistance Movement placed a radio transmitter in the attic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the National Hospital (Rikshospitalet), Oslo. Knut Haugland (1917-2009) used this to send messages to the Norwegian government-in-exile in London. The transmitter was discovered by the Gestapo, and German troops surrounded the building on 1 April 1944. Haugland survived a dramatic escape. While the transmitter was in operation, Haugland lived with senior registrar Finn Bøe (1906-70) and his family in a hospital apartment. Bøe risked his own life and that of his family to assist during a dramatic phase of the resistance struggle. Bøe had completed a focused and purposeful clinical and academic training when he was appointed senior registrar at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the National Hospital, in 1943. He was professionally ambitious. His thesis from 1938 was disqualified, but four years later he submitted a new, experimental thesis which he successfully defended in 1945. In 1955, Bøe became the first senior consultant at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Aker hospital. Under his leadership, it became the largest in the Oslo area, and one of the most active in Norway with regard to science. Several of Bøe's own academic works on placental morphology and blood circulation have become classics. Outside of medicine, his great interest was music, and not only as a piano player. He also wrote a book about his fellow townsman Edvard Grieg.

  11. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway.

    PubMed

    Zeratsion, Henok; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2013-04-30

    Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin's Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common.

  12. Parental divorce in late adolescence does not seem to increase mental health problems: a population study from Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Former studies have shown increased mental health problems in adolescents after parental divorce all over the Western world. We wanted to see if that still is the case in Norway today when divorce turns to be more and more common. Methods In a prospective study design, two samples were constituted, adolescents at a baseline survey in 2001/02 (n = 2422) and those at follow-up in 2003/04 (n = 1861), when the adolescents were 15/16 and 18/19 years-old, respectively. They answered self-administered questionnaires in both surveys of Young-HUBRO in Oslo. Early parental divorce was defined as that which occured before age 15/16 years, and late divorce occured between age 15/16 and 18/19. Internalized and externalized mental health problems were measured by the Hopkin’s Symptom Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results After linear regression models were adjusted for gender, ethnicity, family economy, social support, and mental health problem symptoms measured at baseline before parental divorce occured, late parental divorce did not lead to significant increase in mental health problems among adolescents in the city of Oslo. Early parental divorce was associated with internal mental health problems among young adolescents when adjusted only for the first four possible confounders. Conclusions It seems that parental divorce in late adolescence does not lead to mental health problems in Norway any more, as has been shown before, while such problems may prevail among young adolescents. This does not mean that parental divorce create less problems in late adolescence than before but these youths might have developed adjustment abilities against health effects as divorce have turned to be more common. PMID:23631712

  13. High frequency of enterovirus D68 in children hospitalised with respiratory illness in Norway, autumn 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bragstad, Karoline; Jakobsen, Kirsti; Rojahn, Astrid E; Skram, Marius K; Vainio, Kirsti; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne G; Kran, Anne-Marte B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An unexpectedly high proportion of children were admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during September and October, 2014. In light of the ongoing outbreak of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) in North America a real-time RT-PCR for screening of enterovirus and enterovirus D68 was established. Design We developed a duplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid screening of enterovirus D68. The method target the 5′ non-translated region (NTR) of the HEV genome at a location generally used for enterovirus detection. Sample Nasopharyngeal samples (n = 354), from children <15 years of age, received for respiratory virus analysis in OUH during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014, were tested for enterovirus and screened for enterovirus D68. Main outcome measures and results The duplex real-time RT-PCR method was an efficient tool for rapid screening for EV-D68 in respiratory specimens. Enterovirus was detected in 66 (22%) of 303 pediatric nasopharyngeal samples collected from children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection within the two-month period. Out of these, 33 (50%) were EV-D68. EV-D68 was associated with acute flaccid paralysis in one child. Conclusions An unexpectedly high proportion of children admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, were diagnosed with EV- D68 during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014. These results emphasise that greater vigilance is required throughout Europe as enteroviruses are cause of severe respiratory disease. PMID:25534826

  14. Changes in student approaches to learning with the introduction of computer-supported problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Strømsø, Helge I; Grøttum, Per; Hofgaard Lycke, Kirsten

    2004-04-01

    To study changes in student approaches to learning following the introduction of computer-supported, problem-based learning. Medical students at the University of Oslo undertake a 12-week period of clinical placement during their 10th term. In this period they continue to undertake problem-based learning (PBL) in the form of distributed problem-based learning (DPBL) in a computer-supported learning environment. A questionnaire focusing on learning styles, PBL, and information and communication technology (ICT) was distributed before and after the DPBL period. All students in their 10th term at the University of Oslo (n = 61). The introduction of DPBL did not seem to affect the participants' use of regulating strategies or their mental models of learning. After the DPBL period, group discussion and tutor input were reported to have less influence on students' self-study, while the students perceived themselves as being less active in groups and as expecting less from tutors. There was a relationship between perceived tutor influence and students' familiarity with ICT. The DPBL period seemed to increase students' task-related web accesses and use of experts, and to decrease their task-related use of textbooks and discussions with students outside the group. Students' general approaches to learning were not affected by the introduction of DPBL. However, there was a decrease in students' expectations concerning activity in the group and the importance of the tutor. These changes were related to students' familiarity with the use of computers. Web-based resources and experts became more important resources to the students during the DPBL period.

  15. Linking an anxiety-related personality trait to brain white matter microstructure: diffusion tensor imaging and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Westlye, Lars T; Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Grydeland, Håkon; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2011-04-01

    Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral response patterns underlying temperament and personality are established early and remain stable from childhood. Anxiety-related traits are associated with psychiatric disease and represent predisposing factors for various affective disorders, including depression and anxiety. Emotional processing relies on the structural and functional integrity of distributed neuronal circuits. Therefore, anxiety-related personality traits and associated increased risk of psychiatric disease might be rooted in structural variability in large-scale neuronal networks. To test the hypothesis that individuals with high scores on the harm avoidance (HA) subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory show reduced white matter (WM) structural integrity in distributed brain areas, including corticolimbic pathways involved in emotional processing and reappraisal. Healthy participants completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to examine the associations between HA and WM integrity across the brain. Center for the Study of Human Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. A total of 263 healthy adults aged 20 to 85 years recruited through newspaper advertisements. Neuroimaging diffusivity indexes of brain WM microstructure, including fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivity, and their associations with HA. In line with our hypothesis, increased HA was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean and radial diffusivity in major WM tracts, including pathways connecting critical hubs in a corticolimbic circuit. There was no evidence of modulating effects of sex, degree of subclinical depression, alcohol consumption, general intellectual abilities, or years of education. Increased HA is associated with decreased WM microstructure, implying that structural connectivity modulates anxiety-related aspects of

  16. Novel application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the characterization of drying oils in art: Elucidation on the composition of original paint materials used by Edvard Munch (1863-1944).

    PubMed

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Zanaboni, Marco; Uldanck, Daniele; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Kutzke, Hartmut; Tveit, Eva Storevik; Topalova-Casadiego, Biljana; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-08

    Modern oil paints, introduced at the beginning of the 20th century, differ from those classically used in antiquity in their chemical and compositional features. The main ingredients were still traditional drying oils, often used in mixtures with less expensive oils and added with several classes of additives. Consequently, detailed lipid profiling, together with the study of lipid degradation processes, is essential for the knowledge and the conservation of paint materials used in modern and contemporary art. A multi-analytical approach based on mass spectrometry was used for the study of original paint materials from Munch's atelier, owned by the Munch Museum in Oslo. The results obtained in the analysis of paint tubes were compared with those obtained by characterizing a paint sample collected from one of the artist's sketches for the decoration of the Festival Hall of the University of Oslo (1909-1916). Py-GC/MS was used as screening method to evaluate the presence of lipid, proteic or polysaccaridic materials. GC/MS after hydrolysis and derivatization allowed us to determine the fatty acid profile of the paint tubes, and to evaluate the molecular changes associated to curing and ageing. The determination of the fatty acid profile is not conclusive for the characterization of complex mixtures of lipid materials, thus the characterization of the triglyceride profiles was performed using an analytical procedure based on HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. This paper describes the first application of HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF for the acquisition of the triglyceride profile in a modern paint sample, showing the potentialities of liquid chromatography in the field of lipid characterization in modern paint materials. Moreover, our results highlighted that the application of this approach can contribute to address dating, authenticity and conservation issues relative to modern and contemporary artworks.

  17. Weight gain during the first year of life in relation to maternal smoking and breast feeding in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P; Jaakkola, J J; Hagen, J A; Pedersen, B S; Qvigstad, E; Botten, G; Kongerud, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the weight gain during the first year of life in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding. DESIGN: This was a one year cohort study. SETTING: The city of Oslo, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether 3020 children born in Oslo in 1992-93. Children were divided into three groups as follows: 2208 born to non-smoking mothers, 451 to mothers who were light smokers (< 10 cigarettes per day), and 261 to mothers who were heavy smokers (> or = 10 cigarettes per day). MAIN RESULTS: The mean birth weights were 3616 g, 3526 g, and 3382 g and 1 year body weights were 10,056 g (gain 6440 g per year), 10,141 g (6615 g), and 10,158 g (6776 g) in children of non-smoking and light and heavy smoking mothers respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that children of heavy smokers were 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7, 2.3) times and children of light smokers 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) times more likely to have stopped breast feeding during their first year of life compared with children whose mothers were non-smokers. Linear regression analysis, adjusting for confounders, showed that weight gain was slower in breast fed children than in those who were not breast fed (-38 g (-50, -27) per month of breast feeding). Compared with children of non-smokers, the adjusted weight gain was 147 g (40, 255) per year greater in children of light smokers and 184 g (44, 324) per year in children of heavy smokers. CONCLUSION: Children catch up any losses in birth weight due to maternal smoking, but some of the catch up effect is caused by a shorter duration of breast feeding in children of smoking mothers. PMID:9229054

  18. Lung cancer – changes in incidence by gender, age and county of residence 1984-2013.

    PubMed

    Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Skaug, Hans Kristian; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-11-03

    The Cancer Registry of Norway has reported a decline in age-standardised lung cancer rates for men and an unconfirmed levelling-off in the rate for women. This study describes the development in trends according to gender and age, nationwide as well as by county. Data on lung cancer from the Cancer Registry of Norway and the NORDCAN website are presented as age-specific and age-standardised rates by gender and place of residence, with a main emphasis on the period 1984-2013. Out of 62,937 Norwegian lung cancer patients (1984-2013), altogether 63% were men. Nationally there was a decline in the rate for middle-aged men (50-69 years), but only a levelling-off in the oldest age group (≥ 70 years). For women, the rates increased in both age groups, most markedly in the oldest one. The rates for older men in the Agder, Vestfold and Finnmark counties have remained above the national average for a prolonged period, and there are only modest signs of a decline among the middle-aged. Oslo is a clear exception, with a clear and sustained decline among men in both age groups. Vest-Agder county had the highest rate for women during the last five-year period, while the rates in Oslo are now at the national average. The national rates for middle-aged women and middle-aged men are converging, intersecting each other in Akershus county. The large differences between genders, age groups, counties and nations in terms of trends in lung cancer indicate that through preventive efforts, we might have achieved much more in a shorter time.

  19. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: Aging on the component level

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.; Meir, M.; Rekstad, J.

    2010-03-15

    Within this study, the aging behavior of a PPE + PS absorber material was investigated on the absorber component level. To indicate aging, characteristic mechanical values were determined by indentation tests of specimens taken from components and exposed to laboratory aging (140 C in air, 80 C in water) and service near outdoor aging conditions (stagnation in northern climate). In addition to the mechanical tests, the unaged and aged specimens were also characterized thermo-analytically via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that reductions in both characteristic mechanical values of the indentation tests, i.e., load of the first transition and ultimate indentation, reflect at least some physical aging although chemical aging may also be of importance based on previous analytical investigations of laboratory aged polymer films. While laboratory aging in air at 140 C and service exposure at a test facility in Oslo (N) under stagnation conditions led to a significant reduction in the mechanical indentation resistance, no influence of laboratory aging in water at 80 C on the mechanical behavior of the absorber sheet was found. Depending on the ultimate failure criterion applied (reduction of characteristic mechanical values to 80% and 50%, respectively), the technical service life found for hot air laboratory and stagnation service conditions was found to be less than 51 and 159 h, respectively. As these durations are significantly below the estimated stagnation conditions accumulated in the desired operation lifetime for such a collector, the PPE + PS type investigated does not seem to be a proper material candidate for solar thermal absorbers. Finally, based on the results obtained, a relation between laboratory aging time in air at 140 C and cumulated irradiation energy during exposure on the test facility in Oslo was established. (author)

  20. Bone mineral density in patients with hand osteoarthritis compared to population controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, I K; Slatkowsky‐Christensen, B; Ørstavik, R; Kvien, T K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have revealed increased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis, but few studies have addressed this issue in hand osteoarthritis (HOA). The aims of this study were to compare BMD levels and frequency of osteoporosis between female patients with HOA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls aged 50–70 years, and to explore possible relationships between BMD and disease characteristics in patients with HOA. Methods 190 HOA and 194 RA patients were recruited from the respective disease registers in Oslo, and 122 controls were selected from the population register of Oslo. All participants underwent BMD measurements of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine (dual‐energy x ray absorptiometry), interview, clinical joint examination and completed self‐reported questionnaires. Results Age‐, weight‐ and height‐adjusted BMD values were significantly higher in HOA versus RA and controls, the latter only significant for femoral neck and lumbar spine. The frequency of osteoporosis was not significantly different between HOA and controls, but significantly lower in HOA versus RA. Adjusted BMD values did not differ between HOA patients with and without knee OA, and significant associations between BMD levels and symptom duration or disease measures were not observed. Conclusion HOA patients have a higher BMD than population‐based controls, and this seems not to be limited to patients with involvement of larger joints. The lack of correlation between BMD and disease duration or severity does not support the hypothesis that higher BMD is a consequence of the disease itself. PMID:17502356

  1. [Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), portrait of a Nordic pioneer].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Willy; Freney, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Desending from a Danish family, Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen was born in Bergan, Norway, on 29 July, 1841. Graduated in medicine in 1866 from the University at Christiana (the former name of Oslo), he started his medical career as an assistant physician at the National Hospital of Oslo for one year, working afterwards as a medical officer for a fishing company outside the Arctic Circle. Taking not well his routine job, he soon returned to Bergen where he began his work on a disease known as leprosy at the age of 26 and as an assistant of D.C. Danielssen at the Lungegaarden Hospital. There he engaged in research and investigations on the nature of the disease. Studying the various types of leprosy (skin, nerve and visceral lesions), he was awarded, one year after beginning his work, the gold metal of the University for his first publication on the disease. While Danielssen leaned toward heredity as a dominant factor in leprosy, Hansen's conviction was that the disease must have an infectious causal agent. In about 1871, Hansen began to observe tiny little rods in tissue specimens and considered they could be the ethiologic agent of leprosy, the more he found these rods in all the infiltrated nodular lesions in his patients. Finally, he proposed on February 28, 1873, that the rods were bacilli, responsible of leprosy. Promoted to the rank of Chief of the Leprosy Service in 1875, he held his job for 37 years; Hansen's entire adult life was spent at work in leprosy. He edited the journal . Hansen was also an eminent zoologist engaged in studies involving mollusks and worms; Since 1874, he was president of the Bergen Museum of Natural History. Armauer Hansen died on February 12, 1912, and the funeral ceremonies took place in the Museum of Bergen where his ashes are still kept.

  2. Early secondary gingivo-alveolo-plasty in the treatment of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients: 20 years experience.

    PubMed

    Meazzini, Maria Costanza; Rossetti, Giulia; Garattini, Giovanna; Semb, Gunvor; Brusati, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Since 1988, the Milano surgical protocol has included lip, nose and soft palate repair at 6-9 months of age and closure of the hard palate at 18-36 months together with an Early Secondary Gingivo-Alveolo-Plasty (ESGAP). Prior to 1988 the alveolar cleft was repaired in a third step by bone grafting at 9-11 years of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients who have undergone ESGAP. Alveolar ossification after ESGAP was also studied in the permanent dentition. Growth assessment was carried out comparing lateral X-ray cephalograms of a UCLP ESGAP sample (15 consecutive patients with a mean age of 18.2 +/-1.2 years) and of the UCLP bone graft sample (10 consecutive patients with a mean age of 18.7 +/-1.1 years) and a sample from the Oslo cleft lip and palate (CLP) centre sample (15 patients with a mean age of 18.1 +/-0.8 years). Alveolar ossification in the sample which had undergone ESGAP was evaluated through a sample of panoramic X-rays of UCLP in the permanent dentition. Alveolar bridging was assessed using a modified Bergland's scoring system. From the results it seems that ESGAP allows for an excellent alveolar ossification, but patients show an inhibition of maxillary growth compared with the secondary bone graft group and with the Oslo group. Although ESGAP allows for early repair of the alveolus together with palate repair, thus eliminating in all patients the need for secondary bone grafting, it seems to have an inhibiting influence on maxillary growth which increases the need for Le Fort I osteotomies. It is however fair to recall, that, even with an adjunctive Le Fort I osteotomy, ESGAP enables the total number of operations to be reduced to three, instead of most European protocols (4-5 procedures).

  3. Excessive substance use in bipolar disorder is associated with impaired functioning rather than clinical characteristics, a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lagerberg, Trine V; Andreassen, Ole A; Ringen, Petter A; Berg, Akiah O; Larsson, Sara; Agartz, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Melle, Ingrid

    2010-01-27

    There is a strong association between bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorder (SUD). The clinical and functional correlates of SUD in BD are still unclear and little is known about the role of excessive substance use that does not meet SUD criteria. Thus, the aims of the current study were to investigate lifetime rates of illicit substance use in BD relative to the normal population and if there are differences in clinical and functional features between BD patients with and without excessive substance use. 125 consecutively recruited BD in- and outpatients from the Oslo University Hospitals and 327 persons randomly drawn from the population in Oslo, Norway participated. Clinical and functional variables were assessed. Excessive substance use was defined as DSM-IV SUD and/or excessive use according to predefined criteria. The rate of lifetime illicit substance use was significantly higher among patients compared to the reference population (OR = 3.03, CI = 1.9-4.8, p < .001). Patients with excessive substance use (45% of total) had poorer educational level, occupational status, GAF-scores and medication compliance, with a trend towards higher suicidality rates, compared to patients without. There were no significant group differences in current symptom levels or disease course between groups. The percentage of patients with BD that had tried illicit substances was significantly higher than in the normal population. BD patients with excessive substance use clearly had impaired functioning, but not a worse course of illness compared to patients without excessive substance use. An assessment of substance use beyond SUD criteria in BD is clinically relevant.

  4. A leading nineteenth century instrument-maker in Norway and his astronomical and geodetic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjorn Ragnvald

    2004-12-01

    Christian Holberg Gran Olsen introduced the European continental standards of scientific instrument making into Norway in 1861, following a four-year tenure with A. & G. Repsold, Hamburg. This paper lists and discusses the major astronomical and geodetic instruments made by Olsen. The geodetic instruments are now in museums or in university storage. The first universal instrument was extensively used to carry out the Norwegian part of the European Geodetic Arc 1863-1878, both as a theodolite and as a transit instrument for astronomical observations at selected geodetic stations. Other instruments contributed to the mapping of Norway. Olsen's last model was used to determine the position of Fridtjof Nansen's polar ship Fram during its three-year expedition (1893-1896) in the Polar Sea. It was also used on other Norwegian polar expeditions during the next thirty years. A copy was made for the first winter expedition to Antarctica, with Belgica in 1897-1899. The first astronomical refractor by Olsen (with a 10.8-cm Steinheil objective lens) was made for Bergen Observatory in 1869. Its current whereabouts have been investigated, but the instrument has not been found. Two larger refractors have been successfully searched for. A 13.2-cm Merz refractor with mounting by Olsen, made for the University Observatory in Christiania (Oslo) in 1883, exists in refurbished condition. The largest refractor, with a 36.0-cm objective lens by Olsen (7 metres focal length), was the centrepiece in what appears to be the first astronomical observatory in Europe founded and operated exclusively for the public on a commercial basis. When erected in 1885, the refractor of the Peoples' Observatory in Oslo was unsurpassed in size in Scandinavia, even at professional observatories.

  5. Nuclear Level Density and gamma-ray Strength Function of 243Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplace, Thibault Andre

    The level density and gamma-ray strength function of 243Pu have been determined using the Oslo method. A 12 MeV deuteron beam from the University of Oslo cyclotron was used to populate excited states in the quasi-continuum of 243Pu using the 242Pu(d,p) reaction. The distribution of primary gamma-rays as function of the excitation energy has been extracted from particle-gamma coincidence data. Based on the Brink-Axel asumption that the primary gamma-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the gamma-ray transmission coefficient (which only depends on the transition energy) times the level density at the excitation energy of the final state. The gamma-ray strength function is calculated from the gamma-ray transmission coefficient assuming pure dipole radiation. Both, the level density and gamma-ray strength function, are normalized using available experimental data from libraries. The level density of 243Pu follows closely the constant-temperature level density formula. An enhancement of the gamma-ray strength function is seen at low energies that is similar to that previously measured in other actinides. This structure is interpreted as the M1 scissors resonance. Its centroid o=2.42(5) MeV and its total strength B =10.1(15) mu N2 are in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The measured level density and gamma-ray strength function were then used to calculate the 242Pu(n,gamma) cross section within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism.

  6. Appointments timed in proximity to annual milestones and compliance with screening: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bretthauer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether appointments for screening timed in proximity to annual milestones (birthdays, Christmas and New Year) may be used as a strategy to improve attendance for screening for colorectal cancer. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting City of Oslo (urban) and Telemark county (urban and rural), Norway. Participants 12 960 screened adults (64.7% of those invited). Main outcome measure Attendance rates for each week and month of assigned appointment. Results Attendance rates were significantly higher in December than the rest of the year (72.3% v 64.6%, P<0.001) in adults who received an invitation in the week of their birthday or were assigned to screening in the first or second week after their birthday (67.9% v 64.5%, P=0.007). This effect was most pronounced in the urban population of Oslo. In a multivariable logistic regression model, attendance improved in those who received an invitation in the week of their birthday or were assigned to screening in the first or second week after their birthday (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28) and those who were assigned to screening in December (odds ratio 1.45, 1.16 to 1.82). Conclusion Attendance rates for screening for colorectal cancer were higher in December and around attendees’ birthdays, the latter particularly in an urban population. Compliance with screening programmes may therefore be improved by timing invitations in proximity to annual milestones. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00119912. PMID:19091759

  7. Seasonal fluctuation in the secretion of the antioxidant melatonin is not associated with alterations in sperm DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Gunilla; Haugen, Trine B; Rylander, Lars; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    A high sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) is associated with reduced fertility. DFI is influenced by the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants. A circannual variation in melatonin, an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, could thus impact semen quality and fertility. The association between the major melatonin metabolite, urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and DFI was analyzed in 110 Oslo men (south of the Arctic Circle) and 86 Tromsoe men (north of the Arctic Circle). Two semen analyses, summer and winter, and four urine samples (early/late summer; early/late winter), were analyzed. The associations between aMT6s in urine and DFI were characterized in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner using correlation analysis and linear regression. Regardless of season and location, no significant correlations between aMT6s and DFI were observed. The correlation coefficients for associations between changes over time (early winter–early summer) in aMT6s and DFI were for the total cohort: rho = −0.08 (P = 0.322), for the Oslo cohort: rho = −0.07 (P = 0.485), and for the Tromsoe cohort: rho = −0.14 (P = 0.273), respectively. Similar results were seen when comparing late winter and late summer. There was no any statistically significant correlation between changes over time in aMT6s and DFI for men with DFI below and above the median value (10%), respectively. The seasonal variation in melatonin excretion seems not to have any impact on DFI. PMID:27748316

  8. Development of the Finse Alpine Research Station towards a platform for multi-disciplinary research on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments (LATICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, John F.; Decker, Sven; Filhol, Simon; Hulth, John; Nesje, Atle; Schuler, Thomas V.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2017-04-01

    The Finse Alpine Research Station provides convenient access to the Hardangervidda mountain plateau in Southern Norway (60 deg N, 1222 m asl). The station is located above the tree-line in vicinity to the west-eastern mountain water divide and is easily accessible by train from Bergen and Oslo. The station itself offers housing and basic laboratory facilities and has been used for ecological monitoring. Over the past years, studies on small-scale snow distribution and ground temperature have been performed and accompanied by a suite of meteorological measurements. Supported by strategic investments by the University of Oslo and ongoing research projects, these activities are currently expanded and the site is developed towards a mountain field laboratory for studies on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments, facilitated by the LATICE project (www.mn.uio.no/latice). Additional synergy comes from close collaborations with a range of institutions that perform operational monitoring close to Finse, including long-term time series of meteorological data and global radiation. Through our activities, this infrastructure has been complemented by a permanent tower for continuous Eddy-Covariance measurements along with associated gas fluxes. A second, mobile covariance system is in preparation and will become operational in 2017. In addition, a wireless sensor network is set up to grasp the spatial distributions of basic meteorological variables, snow depth and glacier mass balance on the nearby Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. While the research focus so far was on small scale processes (snow redistribution), this is now being expanded to cover hydrological processes on the catchment and regional scale. To this end, two discharge stations have been installed to gauge discharge from two contrasting catchments (glacier dominated and non-glacierized). In this presentation, we provide an overview over existing and planned infrastructure, field campaigns and research

  9. Frequent use of staff canteens is associated with unhealthy dietary habits and obesity in a Norwegian adult population.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Råberg; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    To explore socio-economic differences in use of staff canteens and whether frequent use of staff canteens is associated with different food patterns and obesity. Cross-sectional study using three self-administered questionnaires, two of them including food frequency questions. Factor analysis was used to explore food patterns. Oslo, Norway, 2000-2001. In total 8943 adult, working Oslo citizens. Frequent (≥3 times/week) use of staff canteens was most likely among men, younger workers and those in the highest education and income groups. However, after adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, those with highest education were least likely to use staff canteens frequently. Frequent eating in staff canteens was positively associated with a Western food pattern (based on fat-rich food, fast food and red meat) and inversely associated with a traditional food pattern (based on boiled potatoes and gravy, and less rice, pasta and oil) in multivariate analyses. Unadjusted, frequent eating in staff canteens was also inversely associated with a prudent food pattern (based on fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes and oil). The likelihood of being obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) increased significantly with frequent eating in staff canteens, also when adjusted for demographic and socio-economic variables. Adjustment for the food patterns attenuated this relationship, but it was still significant. Frequent eating in staff canteens was negatively related to socio-economic position and positively associated with unhealthy dietary habits. This partly explained higher odds for obesity among frequent users of staff canteens. Future research should assess the availability and food options of staff canteens.

  10. Safety in numbers for cyclists-conclusions from a multidisciplinary study of seasonal change in interplay and conflicts.

    PubMed

    Fyhri, A; Sundfør, H B; Bjørnskau, T; Laureshyn, A

    2017-08-01

    In many European countries, it is a political goal that future growth in local travel should be absorbed by sustainable transport modes. Concerns that increased walking and cycling produce more accidents have been countered by the "safety in numbers" (SiN) argument. According to SiN, the more walkers/cyclists there are in a population, the lower their risk. SiN has been demonstrated in cross sectional and longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms behind the effect have yet to be proven. Previous studies have mostly relied on register data. The current study, carried out in 2013 and 2014 tests the existence of this effect in a more controlled manner. This is achieved through the use of three data sets: (1) roadside survey data with cyclists, pedestrians and car drivers from Oslo carried out at three time points in the cycling season (2) a panel study covering the same time period, and (3) video observations at four different locations in Oslo. By exploiting the natural seasonal variation in cycling frequency, and by using a repeated measures design we can further control for other factors suggested to lie behind the SiN mechanism, such as differences in infrastructure and traffic culture. The results suggest that bicyclists experience a short term Safety in Numbers effect through the season. Each individual cyclist experiences fewer occasions of being overlooked by cars and fewer safety critical situations (near-misses). Video observation data confirm this pattern. However, the SiN effect seems to be countered by another mechanism taking place at the same time: the influx of inexperienced and risk-taking cyclists through the season. Thus car drivers and pedestrians also report to find themselves being surprised by cyclists in traffic late in the season. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    PubMed

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  12. A Population-Based Study on Nighttime Road Traffic Noise and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Evandt, Jorunn; Oftedal, Bente; Hjertager Krog, Norun; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E; Marit Aasvang, Gunn

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate how nighttime road traffic noise relates to self-reported symptoms of insomnia and sleep medication use. We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-2010; n = 13019). The insomnia symptoms difficulties falling asleep, awakenings during the night, and waking up too early in the morning as well as self-reported sleep medication use were included as outcomes. Modeled noise levels (Lnight) were assigned to each participant's home address. For selecting covariates to the statistical model, we used a directed acyclic graph. The associations between noise and sleep were analyzed using logistic regression models. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.09) for the association between traffic noise and difficulties falling asleep, in the total study population. For the association between traffic noise and awakenings during the night, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and for waking up too early, the OR was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11). The effect estimates are given per 5-dB increase in traffic noise level (Lnight). Self-reported sleep medication use was not statistically significantly associated with traffic noise exposure. In an adult population from Oslo, traffic noise was associated with difficulties falling asleep and waking up too early. These findings indicate that sleep quantity may be compromised for individuals living in areas highly exposed to nighttime traffic noise.

  13. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  14. Antiviral sulfated steroids from the ophiuroid Ophioplocus januarii.

    PubMed

    Roccatagliata, A J; Maier, M S; Seldes, A M; Pujol, C A; Damonte, E B

    1996-09-01

    One new and three known sulfated steroidal polyols have been isolated from the ophiuroid Ophioplocus januarii, collected at San Antonio Oeste, Río Negro, Argentina. The four compounds possess 4 alpha,11 beta-dihydroxy-3 alpha,21-disulfoxy substituents and the A/B cis ring junction but differ in the side chain. The new compound has been characterized as (22E)-5 beta-24-norcholest-22-ene-3 alpha,4 alpha,11 beta,21-tetrol 3,21-disulfate (4). The structures of the four compounds were determined from spectral data and comparison with those of related steroidal polyols. The four compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect on the replication of one DNA and three RNA viruses. Compounds 2 and 4 were active against respiratory syncytial and polio viruses, and compound 3 inhibited Junin virus, responsible for Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

  15. Comparison of the free radical-scavenging activity of propolis from several regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

    2000-07-01

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from different regions of Argentina were prepared. The extracts were analysed for the determination of total flavonoid content (from 13.3 to 42.6 mg/g of propolis) by using the aluminum nitrate method, UV spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. All of them contained high total flavonoid content. It was also observed that all samples of ethanolic extracts of propolis showed free radical-scavenging activity in terms of scavenging of the radical DPPH but the highest activities were found for samples from Tucumán and Santiago del Estero. In all cases with 20 microg/ml of soluble principles, the percentage of DPPH degradation was different (Banda Oeste: 67.5%; Verónica: 45%; Forres: 35%; Saenz Peña: 20% and Juan José Castelli: 55%). These results may justify their use as a source of natural antioxidants.

  16. [Occurrence of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in coffee plantations of the Brazilian Amazonia].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Moisés S; Teixeira, César A D; Azevedo, Celso O; Costa, Valmir A; Costa, José N M

    2006-01-01

    Adults of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem were detected (in November 2003) during the sampling of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner berries damaged by Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Ouro Preto D'Oeste - Rondônia, Brazil (10 degrees 45'S and 62 degrees 15'W). From January to July 2004, the parasitoid was monthly sampled in 200 berries damaged by H. hampei. Probably, C. stephanoderis can already exert some parasitism pressure at the coffee berry borer population. The occurrence of this parasitoid in natural conditions points out to another alternative for the biological control of the H. hampei in Rondônia. This is the first record of C. stephanoderis in coffee plantations of the Brazilian Amazonia.

  17. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  18. Nematode parasites of the Chilean Flamingo, Phoenicopterus chilensis (Phoenicopteridae) from Central Argentina, with a description of a new species of Tetrameres (Tetrameridae).

    PubMed

    Núñez, Verónica; Drago, Fabiana B; Digiani, María Celina; Lunaschi, Lia I

    2017-06-01

    During the summer of 2013, several specimens of Phoenicopterus chilensis (Phoenicopteridae) were found dead from unknown causes, in lakes from the endorheic system "Encadenadas del Oeste", Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Two species of Nematoda were recovered from the proventriculus, one of them new for science. The tetramerid Tetrameres (Tetrameres) salina n. sp. is mainly characterized by having reduced pseudolabia, lips absent, six bifid teeth, males with lateral alae, four rows of somatic spines and length ratio of spicules 1:12-32, and large females with eggs lacking polar filaments. The acuariid, Echinuria skrjabinensis is described and illustrated, this finding represent the second report of this nematode in Argentina and the first record in flamingos. This is the first record of helminths parasitizing wild Chilean Flamingos, but it is not possible to ensure that they accomplish their life cycle in this system of lakes, because the migratory movements of the population of flamingos studied are unknown.

  19. The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows - What do the learner know about clouds, precipitation, wind and greenhouse effect; a short review of research from 1883 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, P. J. K.

    2009-09-01

    English environmental educators Edward Boyes and Martin Stanisstreet, staring up in 1992 and writing more than a dozen articles and book chapters - often together with researchers from other countries. Common features of Hansen, Boyes and Stanisstreet and many other researchers' discoveries up to present, are that students on all levels still exchange or confuse the greenhouse effect with the effects of the ozone layer, and many thinks that the greenhouse effect is not necessary for life on the Erath. The greenhouse effect and related topics came into secondary curriculum during the 1990-ies in many countries. The presentation will discuss some ideas of how to teach him accordingly at secondary education. Ausubel, D. P. 1968: Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. New York. Ausubel, D. P., J. D. Novak og H. Hanesian 1978: Educational Psychology. A Cognitive View. Second Edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas, Montreal, Toronto, London, Sydney. Hall, G. S. 1883: The Contents of Children's Minds. Princeton Review. Vol.XI, 1883, s.249-272. Piaget, J. 1930: The Child's Conception of Physical Causality. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.LTD, London. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company. Oversettelse av La causalité physique chez l'enfant fra 1927. Piaget, J. 1977: The Child's Conception of the World. 2. Edition. Paladin, London. Oversettelse av La représentation du monde chez l'enfant fra 1926. Boyes, E. og M. Stanisstreet 1992: Students' Perceptions of Global Warming. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 1992, Vol.42, s.287-300. Hansen, P. J. K. 1989: Spørsmål om vær og meteorologi til elever i 9.klasse i Oslo-området i 1989. Oslo lærerhøgskoles skriftserie. Hefte nr.2/92, Oslo (Nå Høgskolen i Oslo, Avdeling for lærerutdanning). 1.opplag 1989, Oslo lærerhøgskole, Oslo. Hansen, P. J. K. 2009: Knowledge about the greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer among Norwegian

  20. Land use and land cover change dynamics across the Brazilian Amazon: insights from extensive time-series analysis of remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Carreiras, João M B; Jones, Joshua; Lucas, Richard M; Gabriel, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the Amazon region, the age of forests regenerating on previously deforested land is determined, in part, by the periods of active land use prior to abandonment and the frequency of reclearance of regrowth, both of which can be quantified by comparing time-series of Landsat sensor data. Using these time-series of near annual data from 1973-2011 for an area north of Manaus (in Amazonas state), from 1984-2010 for south of Santarém (Pará state) and 1984-2011 near Machadinho d'Oeste (Rondônia state), the changes in the area of primary forest, non-forest and secondary forest were documented from which the age of regenerating forests, periods of active land use and the frequency of forest reclearance were derived. At Manaus, and at the end of the time-series, over 50% of regenerating forests were older than 16 years, whilst at Santarém and Machadinho d'Oeste, 57% and 41% of forests respectively were aged 6-15 years, with the remainder being mostly younger forests. These differences were attributed to the time since deforestation commenced but also the greater frequencies of reclearance of forests at the latter two sites with short periods of use in the intervening periods. The majority of clearance for agriculture was also found outside of protected areas. The study suggested that a) the history of clearance and land use should be taken into account when protecting deforested land for the purpose of restoring both tree species diversity and biomass through natural regeneration and b) a greater proportion of the forested landscape should be placed under protection, including areas of regrowth.

  1. Tubestone microbialite association in the Ediacaran cap carbonates in the southern Paraguay Fold Belt (SW Brazil): Geobiological and stratigraphic implications for a Marinoan cap carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Sanchez, Evelyn Aparecida Mecenero; Morais, Luana; Boggiani, Paulo César; Fairchild, Thomas Rich

    2016-11-01

    The restriction of tubestone structures tomicrobialitic laminites in cap carbonates associated with the Marinoan glacial event in North and South America, Namibia, Australia and Oman makes them an important stratigraphic marker for the base of the Ediacaran system. This association has been recognized in the Mirassol D'Oeste Formation (635 Ma) adjacent to the northern Paraguay Fold Belt, and are reported here in isolated outcrops at Morraria do Sul and Forte de Coimbra in the southern Paraguay Fold Belt, west-central Brazil. The tubestone-microbialite associations at all localities reveal very similar macro- and microstructures, mineralogy, textures and fabrics. The microbialites consist of microbial laminites made up of dolomicrite clustered in microclots with dolospar-filled fenestrae. Lamination is defined by alternation in the relative abundance of these two components, suggestive of simple oscillations within a relatively uniform depositional environment and paleoecological setting. In the two new localities the tubestone fillings consist mainly of massive dolomicrite, although subordinate portions with concave lamination defined by concentrated very fine siliciclastic grains also occur. The presence of both massive and laminated tube fillings indicates variation in the processes responsible for their formation. These results extend the occurrence of the post-Marinoan tubestone-microbialite association at least 600 km southward from Mirassol D'Oeste in the north and document minor variations among the localities, which is what one would expect over such a broad distribution of this feature. The results also indicate that the isolated dolostones at Morraria do Sul and Forte de Coimbra do not belong to the Bocaina Formation (Corumbá Group), with which they have previously been correlated.

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change Dynamics across the Brazilian Amazon: Insights from Extensive Time-Series Analysis of Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Carreiras, João M. B.; Jones, Joshua; Lucas, Richard M.; Gabriel, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the Amazon region, the age of forests regenerating on previously deforested land is determined, in part, by the periods of active land use prior to abandonment and the frequency of reclearance of regrowth, both of which can be quantified by comparing time-series of Landsat sensor data. Using these time-series of near annual data from 1973–2011 for an area north of Manaus (in Amazonas state), from 1984–2010 for south of Santarém (Pará state) and 1984–2011 near Machadinho d’Oeste (Rondônia state), the changes in the area of primary forest, non-forest and secondary forest were documented from which the age of regenerating forests, periods of active land use and the frequency of forest reclearance were derived. At Manaus, and at the end of the time-series, over 50% of regenerating forests were older than 16 years, whilst at Santarém and Machadinho d’Oeste, 57% and 41% of forests respectively were aged 6–15 years, with the remainder being mostly younger forests. These differences were attributed to the time since deforestation commenced but also the greater frequencies of reclearance of forests at the latter two sites with short periods of use in the intervening periods. The majority of clearance for agriculture was also found outside of protected areas. The study suggested that a) the history of clearance and land use should be taken into account when protecting deforested land for the purpose of restoring both tree species diversity and biomass through natural regeneration and b) a greater proportion of the forested landscape should be placed under protection, including areas of regrowth. PMID:25099362

  3. Frequency of the Val1016Ile mutation on the kdr gene in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collet, M L; Frizzo, C; Orlandin, E; Rona, L D P; Nascimento, J C; Montano, M A E; Müller, G A; Wagner, G

    2016-11-21

    Recently, the number of Aedes aegypti foci has increased in west of Santa Catarina, south Brazil, which has increased concern regarding mosquito-borne disease outbreaks such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. Therefore, it is important to monitor genetic resistance to insecticides through "knockdown resistance". Homozygosity (Ile/Ile) at position 1016 in the coding region of a voltage-dependent sodium channel gene (Nav) may induce resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. We evaluated the frequency of these alleles in A. aegypti in west Santa Catarina. In total, 349 specimens were obtained from the microregions of Joaçaba (31), Concórdia (35), Chapecó (154), and São Miguel do Oeste (129). We found that 109 individuals (31.0%) were homozygous for Val/Val, 102 (29.0%) were heterozygous for Val/Ile, and 138 (40.0%) were homozygous for Ile/Ile. The allele frequencies were similar for Val (0.455) and Ile (0.545). Joaçaba and Concórdia had the highest mutant allele frequencies (0.825 and 0.685, respectively). Therefore, these populations should be monitored for increases in pyrethroid resistance. The São Miguel do Oeste and Chapecó populations had similar frequencies of Val and Ile and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that a selection pressure or other evolutionary force has occurred. In conclusion, the observed frequency of Ile/Ile homozygous individuals in the region studied requires attention, because the implementation of controls using pyrethroid may increase the frequency of the mutant allele through the selection of resistant populations.

  4. Obituary: Per E. Maltby, 1933-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldseth-Moe, Olav

    2007-12-01

    Professor Per Maltby, prominent Norwegian Solar Physicist at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Norway, died on 24 May 2006. Lung cancer was diagnosed in February, but he was expected to improve. Until the end of March he came to his office every day, got recent papers off the web, and followed his field closely as he had always done. Per Maltby was born in Oslo, Norway, on 3 November 1933. He started his studies at the University of Oslo in 1952 and took his candidate degree in 1957. Between 1955 and 1958 he was a research assistant at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo. In 1960 Maltby became an assistant professor (amanuensis) at the University of Bergen and from January 1963 he held a corresponding position at the University of Oslo. He became an associate professor in 1967, and from 1983 until he retired in 2003 he was a full Professor at the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo. Per Maltby is survived by his wife Elisabet (née Ruud), whom he married in 1956. They had two children. The daughter, Bente, is a medical doctor and gynecologist serving as a section head at the district hospital in Kristiansand in southern Norway. Their son, Lars, holds a doctoral degree in engineering, specializing in the properties of powders. He is currently managing director in the Norwegian division of the French multinational company Saint Gobain. As a father Per Maltby expressed pride in his children and was pleased with their progress in life. He also enjoyed his five grandchildren. As a scientist, Per Maltby was versatile and productive. In the early 1960s he visited the California Institute of Technology where he did pioneering studies of the distribution and time variation of the radio emission from active galaxies, using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. His work with Alan Moffet contributed to revealing the secrets of these remote objects. Their results drew attention and were indeed mentioned in the pages

  5. New insights into the structure of Norwegian continental margins from modern aeromagnetic compilations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbing, J.; Olesen, O.; Gernigon, L.; Skilbrei, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    implications for evaluating the petroleum potential in the Vøring Basin, Mid-Norway. A high-resolution survey of the Oslo Graben changed our understanding of this Permian Rift. The magnetic field data of the Oslo Graben area are unique since two surveys recorded at different flight altitudes (50 m above ground and 3400 m above sea level) exist. The magnetic anomaly reaches values up to 1500 nT over an elongated area of 75 by 30 km. Local structures, such as calderas, ring fracture zones and their associated circular-shaped magnetic anomalies are a first order feature in the aeromagnetic data. Analysis of the depth-to- bottom of the magnetic sources and forward modeling indicates the presence of a more than 15 km thick intrusion beneath the Oslo Graben. The intrusion is interpreted to indicate a differentiation series from base (gabbro) to top (granite). This petrological variation with depth is not detectable in the gravity anomaly because of the small density contrast to the surrounding crust.

  6. Dynamics of the Gong windstorm (Jan 2013) in the context of a 20-year high-resolution simulation of Iberian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Pedro M. A.; João Chinita, Maria; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Viterbo, Pedro; Pinto, Paulo; Mendes, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Portugal was affected by a number of windstorms associated with mid-latitude cyclones, some with significant impact on built infrastructures, namely on the electric grid. Two of those storms were particularly violent, the Oeste storm on the 23 December 2009, and the Gong storm on 19 January 2013. The Klaus storm, on the 23 January 2009, had some impact but only in the northern edge of Iberia, but the Xinthia storm, on the 27 February 2010, had extensive impact in the Portuguese territory. Considering impacts on the electric grid, these 4 storms are part of a set of about 10 storms per decade, although earlier storms didn't get a name. The relevance of these extreme events in recent climate motivated a case study analysis of the more relevant storms and its analysis in a continuous regional climate simulation of the Iberian climate. The RCM simulation used WRF at 9km resolution, with ERA-Interim boundary conditions initially for the period 1989-2008, here extended until 28 Feb 2013. The former simulations were extensively validated against Iberian gridded temperature and precipitation datasets (Soares et al 2012), and against Portuguese station data (Cardoso et al 2013). Results are here validated, in the extended 24 year period, also against standard 10-m wind observations. Case study analysis used the same boundary conditions and model (WRF), but at both 9 and 3 km horizontal resolutions, and also included sensitivity experiments to different parametrizations. While the WRF RCM simulation, forced by ERA-Interim, presents an overall excellent performance in the representation of both the mean climate (temperature, precipitation and wind), and also in the representation of high-rank precipitation quantiles, the two most extreme windstorm events are not well represented. However, the Gong storm is very well represented in the case study simulation, even at 9km resolution with exactly the same boundary conditions, but a somewhat different initial

  7. Pygmy resonance and low-energy enhancement in the γ-ray strength functions of Pd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, T. K.; Nyhus, H. T.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Ruud, I. E.; Siem, S.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wilson, J. N.

    2014-10-01

    Background: An unexpected enhancement in the γ-ray strength function, as compared to the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance (GDR), has been observed for Sc, Ti, V, Fe, and Mo isotopes for Eγ<4 MeV. This enhancement was not observed in subsequent analyses on Sn isotopes, but a pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) centered at Eγ≈8 MeV was however detected. The γ-ray strength functions measured for Cd isotopes exhibit both features over the range of isotopes, with the low-energy enhancement decreasing and PDR strength increasing as a function of neutron number. This suggests a transitional region for the onset of low-energy enhancement, and also that the PDR strength depends on the number of neutrons. Purpose: The γ-ray strength functions of Pd105-108 have been measured in order to further explore the proposed transitional region. Method: Experimental data were obtained at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory by using the charged particle reactions (He3,He3'γ) and (He3,αγ) on Pd106,108 target foils. Particle-γ coincidence measurements provided information on initial excitation energies and the corresponding γ-ray spectra, which were used to extract the level densities and γ-ray strength functions according to the Oslo method. Results: The γ-ray strength functions indicate a sudden increase in magnitude for Eγ>4 MeV, which is interpreted as a PDR centered at Eγ≈8 MeV. An enhanced γ-ray strength at low energies is also observed for Pd105, which is the lightest isotope measured in this work. Conclusions: A PDR is clearly identified in the γ-ray strength functions of Pd105-108, and a low-energy enhancement is observed for Pd105. Further, the results correspond and agree very well with the observations from the Cd isotopes, and support the suggested transitional region for the onset of low-energy enhancement with decreasing mass number. The neutron number dependency of the PDR strength is also evident.

  8. Simultaneous grayscale and subharmonic ultrasound imaging on a modified commercial scanner

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbrey, J. R.; Dave, J. K.; Halldorsdottir, V. G.; Merton, D. A.; Machado, P.; Liu, J. B.; Miller, C.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Park, S.; Dianis, S.; Chalek, C. L.; Thomenius, K.E.; Brown, D. B.; Navarro, V.; Forsberg, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous dual fundamental grayscale and subharmonic imaging on a modified commercial scanner. Motivation The ability to generate signals at half the insonation frequency is exclusive to ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). Thus, subharmonic imaging (SHI; transmitting at f0 and receiving at f0/2) provides improved visualization of UCA within the vasculature via suppression of the surrounding tissue echoes. While this capability has proven useful in a variety of clinical applications, the SHI suppression of surrounding tissue landmarks (which are needed for sonographic navigation) also limits it use as a primary imaging modality. In this paper we present results using a commercial ultrasound scanner modified to allow imaging in both grayscale (f0 = 4.0 MHz) and SHI (f0 = 2.5 MHz, f0/2 = 1.25 MHz) modes in real time. Methods A Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) with a 4C curvilinear probe was modified to provide this capability. Four commercially available UCA (Definity, Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA; Optison, GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ; SonoVue Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy; and Sonazoid GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway) were all investigated in vitro over an acoustic output range of 3.34 MPa. In vivo the subharmonic response of Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway) was investigated in the portal veins of 4 canines (open abdominal cavity) and 4 patients with suspected portal hypertension. Results In vitro, the four UCA showed an average maximum subharmonic amplitude of 44.1 ± 5.4 dB above the noise floor with a maximum subharmonic amplitude of 48.6 ± 1.6 dB provided by Sonazoid. The average in vivo maximum signal above the noise floor from Sonazoid was 20.8 ± 2.3 dB in canines and 33.9 ± 5.2 dB in humans. Subharmonic amplitude as a function of acoustic output in both groups matched the S-curve behavior if the agent observed in vitro. The dual grayscale imaging provided easier

  9. The importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known of the importance of social support in the associations between psychological distress and somatic health problems and socio-economic factors among older adults living at home. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations of social support, somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress. We also examined changes in the association of somatic health problems and socio-economic factors with psychological distress after adjusting for social support. Methods A random sample of 4,000 persons aged 65 years or more living at home in Oslo was drawn. Questionnaires were sent by post, and the total response was 2,387 (64%). Psychological distress was assessed using Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-10) and social support with the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3). A principal component analysis (PCA) included all items of social support and psychological distress. Partial correlations were used, while associations were studied by logistic regression. Results After adjusting for socio-demographics and somatic health problems, we reported a statistically significant association between psychological distress and social support: “Number of close friends”, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; “Concern and interest”, OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84. A strong association between lack of social support and psychological distress, irrespective of variables adjusted for, indicated a direct effect. The associations between psychological distress and physical impairments were somewhat reduced when adjusted for social support, particularly for hearing, whereas the associations between somatic diagnoses and psychological distress were more or less eliminated. Income was found to be an independent determinant for psychological distress. Conclusions Lack of social support and somatic health problems were associated with psychological distress in elders. Social support acted as a mediator, implying that the

  10. Exercise programme with telephone follow-up for people with hand osteoarthritis – protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal diseases in an adult population and may have a large influence on an individual’s functioning, health-related quality of life and participation in society. Several studies have demonstrated that exercises may reduce pain and improve functioning in people with knee OA, with a similar effect suggested for hip OA. For hand OA, available research is very limited and shows conflicting results, and high-quality randomised controlled trials are warranted. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that aims to determine the effect of an exercise intervention on self-reported hand activity performance in people with hand OA. Methods Participants with physician-confirmed hand OA according to the ACR clinical criteria are being recruited from two Norwegian OA cohorts: the population-based “Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker Study” (MUST) OA cohort, and the hospital-based Oslo Hand OA cohort. Participants are randomised into an intervention- or control group. The control group receives “usual care”, whereas the intervention group receives a 12-week exercise intervention. The intervention group attends four group sessions and is instructed to perform the exercise program three times a week at home. Adherence will be captured using self-report. During the eight weeks with no group sessions, the intervention group receives a weekly telephone call. The assessments and group sessions are being conducted locally in Ullensaker Municipality and at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo. Outcomes are collected at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is self-reported hand activity performance at 3 months post-randomisation, as measured by the Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis (FIHOA); and a patient-generated measure of disability, the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS). Secondary outcome measures are self-reported OA symptoms (e.g. pain

  11. Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentrations in the Finnish Arctic over Five Decades: Comparisons between measurements and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, L.; Dutkiewicz, V. A.; Dejulio, A.; Laing, J.; Hopke, P. K.; Skeie, R. B.; Viisanen, Y.; Paatero, J.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon particles (BC) strongly absorb solar radiation and may be the second largest contributor to global warming after greenhouses gases. However, the magnitude of the climate forcing by BC is quite uncertain, with a global average value estimated up to + 1.1Wm2. There is limited long term BC field data that can be used to validate global models to estimate the radiative forcing. Here we report (1) the measurements of BC concentrations, [BC], on filters collected weekly over 47 years, from 1964 to 2010 at Kevo, Finland (69o 45' N, 27o 02' E), (2) the se-asonal and long term trends, (3) the relative impact of potential source regions of BC and (4) compare the [BC] with the values calculated by the OsloCTM3model that simulates BC transport and removal rates and emission inventories as input. BC Concentrations were determined in weekly aerosol samples collected on Whatman 42 or Glass fiber filters using optical and/or thermal optical methods. The data so obtained provides the longest record of BC measurements. The highest annual mean concentrations were observed in 1965-1966, 670ng m-3 (local wood burning may have contributed at that time). Concentrations decreased sharply, averaging ~300 ng m-3 during 1967-80, ~250 ng m-3 for 1981- 90, ~140 for 1991-2000, and ~100 ng m-3 for 2001-10. From 1970 to 2010 the concentration decreased by 78% or 1.8% per yr. The highest concentrations were observed in winter, and the lowest in summer. Model calculations using the OsloCTM3 yield BC values ~4 times lower than those observed between 1998 and 2008, however the time-trend is reproduced quite faithfully. The model underestimates BC for the earlier periods as well. There are limitations in global models to reproduce Arctic surface concentration, but the comparison of model and observations might also indicate that the emissions in source regions are underestimated. It can be used to improve historical emission inventories for the regions affecting the surface concentration

  12. Oral infection, regular alcohol drinking pattern, and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Håheim, Lise Lund; Olsen, Ingar; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-12-01

    Oral infections have been associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Conversely, low, regular alcohol consumption is associated with a lower association of CVD. The objective was to test the novel hypothesis that oral infections are modified by regular alcohol drinking which has the effect of lowering the incidence of MI's. The effect has been observed where tooth extractions where carried out due to infections and compared with extractions unconnected to infections. Oral infections and in particular periodontal infections impose an infectious load on the health in many people. In its advanced forms (periodontal pockets ≥ 6mm) periodontitis affects ∼10-15% of adults. The infection runs a chronic course with exacerbations. The bacteria cause local infection destructive to the supporting tissues of the teeth and have been detected in systemic diseases through bacterial products and bacteria entering the circulation. The often persistent, long term history of chronic periodontal infection in individuals is a challenge to the immune system. Over 700 oral bacteria and other microorganisms have been identified, many of which are virulent. Control of the level of oral microbiota is through well known oral hygiene measures. Alcohol by being bactericidal is a factor that may reduce the bacterial level in the oral cavity. If this effect truly exists, it should be observed through reduction of infections in the mouth. Tooth extraction is the ultimate consequence of periodontal and dental infections and a reduction of tooth extraction due to infections should therefore be observed. The hypothesis was tested using the screening data of the Oslo II-study in a cross sectional analysis. The Oslo-study included men aged 48-67 years. The main finding was that the effect of a drinking pattern of 2-7 times per week reduced the risk of MI among men who had a history of tooth extractions due to infections versus tooth

  13. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hensing, Gunnel; Andersson, Lena; Brage, Sören

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000). All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years). Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women. Few regional differences

  14. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  15. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  16. A recently developed MRI scoring system for hand osteoarthritis: its application in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Ramonda, Roberta; Favero, Marta; Vio, Stefania; Lacognata, Carmelo; Frallonardo, Paola; Belluzzi, Elisa; Campana, Carla; Lorenzin, Mariagrazia; Ortolan, Augusta; Angelini, Federico; Piccoli, Antonio; Oliviero, Francesca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to apply the recently proposed Oslo hand osteoarthritis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system to evaluate MRI findings in a cohort of patients affected by long-standing erosive hand osteoarthritis (EHOA). Eleven female EHOA patients (median 59 [interquartile range 62-52] years, disease duration 9.5 [interquartile range 13-3.75] years) underwent MRI (1.5 T) of the dominant hand, and synovitis, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), joint space narrowing, osteophytes, cysts, malalignment, and erosions were scored using the Oslo scoring system. Intra- and inter-reader reliability were assessed. The patients also underwent X-ray examination, and bone features were evaluated using the same scoring system. Pain and tenderness were assessed during a physical examination. Spearman's non-parametric test was used to analyze the correlations between variables. MRI intra- and inter-reader reliability were found between good and moderate for many features. No statistical differences were found between the radiographs and MRI with regard to detection of JSN, malalignment, and bone erosions. Synovitis was detected in 39.8 % of the 80 joints examined (in a mild form in 80 %), erosions were found in 51.1 %, and BMLs were identified in 20.5 and 23.9 % at the distal and the proximal side, respectively. BMLs at both the proximal and distal ends were correlated with tender joints (BML distal p = 0.0013, BML proximal p = 0.012). The presence of synovitis was correlated with tenderness (p = 0.004) and erosions at both the distal and proximal joints (p = 0.004). The presence of erosions correlated with tender joints (p < 0.01) and the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score (distal p = 0.03, proximal p = 0.01). Synovitis and BMLs were correlated with clinical symptoms in our patients affected with long-standing EHOA.

  17. The evolution of paleostress fields in the Central European Basin System reconstructed from fault-slip data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, J.; Saintot, A.; Heeremans, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Central European Basin System (CEBS) reveals a complex structure resulting from a polyphase deformation history since the Permian. The basin system is framed by two major NW-striking fault systems, the Elbe Fault System (EFS) in the south and the Tornquist Zone (TZ) in the north. We investigate the kinematics of faults on the outcrop scale to estimate the diversity of paleostress states responsible for the observed strain. The method used to estimate the reduced stress tensors for the measured fault populations integrates graphical and numerical approaches of fault-slip analysis. This technique facilitates the separation of heterogeneous data sets and guarantees each estimated stress state to fulfil both the criterion of low misfit angles and the criterion of high shear-to-normal stress ratios. For the basin-wide reconstruction of paleostress fields, the orientations of more than 850 faults with known slip directions have been sampled from outcrops across the EFS, where Upper Carboniferous, Upper Permian, Middle Triassic, Upper Jurassic, and Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed. In addition, more than 4600 fault-slip data from the Oslo Graben area north of the TZ have been sampled from rocks of Precambrian to Permian ages. For both study areas, a polyphase paleostress history is established. The most prominent paleostress field reconstructed for the EFS is characterised by a horizontal N-S- to NE-SW-directed maximum compression combined with a relatively low stress ratio. This stress field can clearly be assigned to a phase of basin inversion which is known to have affected the entire CEBS in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary. The signs of earlier phases of deformation are widely overprinted in the study area. On the contrary, the most prominent paleostress field reconstructed for the Oslo Graben area corresponds to radial tension and is related to the phase of rifting and graben formation during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian. The distribution of

  18. Highlights from the SoilCAM project: Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Toscano, G.

    2012-04-01

    The SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7-212663) is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. At two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway and the Trecate site in Italy, a number of geophysical techniques, lysimeter and other soil and water sampling techniques as well as numerical flow and transport modelling have been combined at different scales in order to characterise flow transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments have provided data on physical and bio-geo-chemical parameters for use in models and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and also conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. The geophysical surveys showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport show infiltration patterns during snowmelt and are used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The Orchestra model is used to describe the complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D profile along the runway. The presence of installations such as a membrane along the runway highly affects the flow pattern and challenges the capacity of the numerical code. Smaller scale field site measurements have revealed the increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. The use of Nitrate to increase red-ox potential was tested, but results have not been analysed yet. So far it cannot be concluded that degradation process can be quantified indirectly by geophysical monitoring. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical

  19. Five-year outcomes after laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic duodenal switch in patients with body mass index of 50 to 60: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Risstad, Hilde; Søvik, Torgeir T; Engström, My; Aasheim, Erlend T; Fagerland, Morten W; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Kristinsson, Jon A; le Roux, Carel W; Bøhmer, Thomas; Birkeland, Kåre I; Mala, Tom; Olbers, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    There is no consensus as to which bariatric procedure is preferred to reduce weight and improve health in patients with a body mass index higher than 50. To compare 5-year outcomes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (duodenal switch). Randomized clinical open-label trial at Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were recruited between March 17, 2006, and August 20, 2007, and included 60 patients aged 20 to 50 years with a body mass index of 50 to 60. The current study provides the 5-year follow-up analyses by intent to treat, excluding one participant accepted for inclusion who declined being operated on prior to knowing to what group he was randomized. Laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic duodenal switch. Body mass index and secondary outcomes including anthropometric measures, cardiometabolic risk factors, pulmonary function, vitamin status, gastrointestinal symptoms, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Sixty patients were randomly assigned and operated on with gastric bypass (n = 31) and duodenal switch (n = 29). Fifty-five patients (92%) completed the study. Five years after surgery, the mean reductions in body mass index were 13.6 (95% CI, 11.0-16.1) and 22.1 (95% CI, 19.5-24.7) after gastric bypass and duodenal switch, respectively. The mean between-group difference was 8.5 (95% CI, 4.9-12.2; P < .001). Remission rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and changes in blood pressure and lung function were similar between groups. Reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater after duodenal switch compared with gastric bypass. Serum concentrations of vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly reduced after duodenal switch compared with gastric bypass. Duodenal switch was associated

  20. Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B; Silva-Antunes, Ilce; Morgado, Adilson de Aguiar; Menz, Ingrid; Palatnik, Marcos; Lavor, Carlile

    2009-06-02

    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We demonstrate here that vaccination with Leishmune does not interfere with the serological control campaign (110,000 dogs). Only 1.3% of positivity (76 among 5860) was detected among Leishmune uninfected vaccinees. We also analyzed the possible additive effect of Leishmune vaccination over dog culling, on the decrease of the incidence of CVL and VL in two Brazilian endemic areas, from 2004 to 2006. In Araçatuba, a 25% of decline was seen in CVL with a 61% decline in human cases, indicating the additive effect of Leishmune vaccination of 5.7% of the healthy dogs (1419 dogs), on regular dog culling. In Belo Horizonte (BH), rising curves of canine and human incidence were observed in the districts of Barreiro, Venda Nova and Noroeste, while the canine and human incidence of Centro Sul, Leste, Nordeste, Norte, Pampulha and Oeste, started to decrease or maintained a stabilized plateau after Leishmune vaccination. Among the districts showing a percent decrease of human incidence (-36.5%), Centro Sul and Pampulha showed the highest dog vaccination percents (63.27% and 27.27%, respectively) and the lowest dog incidence (-3.36% and 1.89%, respectively). They were followed by Oeste, that vaccinated 25.30% of the animals and experienced an increase of only 12.86% of dog incidence and by Leste and Nordeste, with lower proportions of vaccinees (11.72% and 10.76%, respectively) and probably because of that, slightly higher canine incidences (42.77% and 35.73%). The only exception was found in Norte district where the reduced human and canine incidence were not correlated to Leishmune vaccination. Much lower proportions of dogs were vaccinated in Venda Nova (4.35%), Noroeste (10.27%) and Barreiro (0.09%) districts, which according to that exhibited very

  1. Six NSF-NATO postdocs go to geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six Earth scientists will study in the United Kingdom, Norway, and Italy on postdoctoral fellowships administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of a program sponsored by the North American Treaty Organization (NATO). In all, 57 NSF-NATO postdoctoral fellowships in science were awarded in March 1988 for study abroad for up to 12 months.The six students that received fellowships for study in geosciences are Henry N. (Spike) Berry (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Oslo, Norway; Marcus I. Bursik (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), to study geology at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K.; Mary S. Hubbard (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Leicester, Leicester, U. K.); Paul R. Lundgren (Northwestern University, Chicago, III.), to study geophysics at the National Institute of Geophysics, Rome; James Webster (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.), to study experiment petrology at the University of Edinburgh, U.K.; and Joseph R. Pawlik (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), to study biological oceanography at the Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge, U.K.

  2. Recognition and reciprocity in encounters with women with chronic muscular pain.

    PubMed

    Steihaug, Sissel; Malterud, Kirsti

    2002-09-01

    Experiences from 11 treatment groups for women with chronic muscular pain showed that recognition had a major impact on the way the participants benefited from treatment. In this article, based on Anne-Lise Løvlie Schibbye's psychological theories, we explore and analyse how recognising interaction can be enacted in practice. Qualitative action research design. Ongoing treatment groups in Stovner/Oslo for women with chronic muscular pain. A total of 31 women took part in 3 treatment groups with movement training and group discussions. Video recordings from six group discussions were analysed using Part Process Analysis (PPA), a qualitative research method addressing interaction on a micro-level. PPA demonstrates how recognition is expressed by specific types of behaviour, and how recognition can lead to change and development of the participants in the treatment groups. Schibbye's recognition model, with emphasis on a fundamental respect for the experience perspective of the opposite party, may also help the doctor to understand the patient better, particularly in difficult relationships where there seem to be insurmountable differences between the doctor's and patient's perspectives.

  3. Cardiopulmonary Disease Development in Anti-RNA Polymerase III-positive Systemic Sclerosis: Comparative Analyses from an Unselected, Prospective Patient Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Vold, Anna-Maria; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Tennøe, Anders H; Garen, Torhild; Lund, May Brit; Aaløkken, Trond M; Andreassen, Arne K; Elhage, Fadi; Brunborg, Cathrine; Taraldsrud, Eli; Molberg, Øyvind

    2017-04-01

    Extensive skin disease and renal crisis are hallmarks of anti-RNA polymerase III (RNAP)-positive systemic sclerosis (SSc), while lung and heart involvement data are conflicting. Here, the aims were to perform time-course analyses of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the RNAP subset of a prospective unselected SSc cohort and to use the other autoantibody subsets as comparators. The study cohort included 279 patients with SSc from the observational Oslo University Hospital cohort with complete data on (1) SSc-related autoantibodies, (2) paired, serial analyses of lung function and fibrosis by computed tomography, and (3) PH verified by right heart catheterization. RNAP was positive in 33 patients (12%), 79% of which had diffuse cutaneous SSc. Pulmonary findings were heterogeneous; 49% had no signs of fibrosis while 18% had > 20% fibrosis at followup. Forced vital capacity at followup was < 80% in 39% of the RNAP subset, comparable to the antitopoisomerase subset (ATA; 47%), but higher than anticentromere (ACA; 13%). Accumulated frequency of PH in the RNAP subset (12%) was lower than in ACA (18%). At 93% and 78%, the 5- and 10-year survival rates in RNAP were comparable to the ATA and ACA subsets. In this cohort, the RNAP subset was marked by cardiopulmonary heterogeneity, ranging from mild ILD to development of severe ILD in 18%, and PH development in 12%. These data indicate that cardiopulmonary risk stratification early in the disease course is particularly important in RNAP-positive SSc.

  4. Metabolic changes in urine during and after pregnancy in a large, multiethnic population-based cohort study of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Daniel; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Rise, Frode; Piehler, Armin P; Berg, Jens Petter

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify novel markers for gestational diabetes (GDM) in the biochemical profile of maternal urine using NMR metabolomics. It also catalogs the general effects of pregnancy and delivery on the urine profile. Urine samples were collected at three time points (visit V1: gestational week 8-20; V2: week 28±2; V3 10-16 weeks post partum) from participants in the STORK Groruddalen program, a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of 823 healthy, pregnant women in Oslo, Norway, and analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolites were identified and quantified where possible. PCA, PLS-DA and univariate statistics were applied and found substantial differences between the time points, dominated by a steady increase of urinary lactose concentrations, and an increase during pregnancy and subsequent dramatic reduction of several unidentified NMR signals between 0.5 and 1.1 ppm. Multivariate methods could not reliably identify GDM cases based on the WHO or graded criteria based on IADPSG definitions, indicating that the pattern of urinary metabolites above micromolar concentrations is not influenced strongly and consistently enough by the disease. However, univariate analysis suggests elevated mean citrate concentrations with increasing hyperglycemia. Multivariate classification with respect to ethnic background produced weak but statistically significant models. These results suggest that although NMR-based metabolomics can monitor changes in the urinary excretion profile of pregnant women, it may not be a prudent choice for the study of GDM.

  5. Low-energy enhancement in the γ -ray strength functions of Ge,7473

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renstrøm, T.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Schwengner, R.; Goriely, S.; Larsen, A. C.; Filipescu, D. M.; Gheorghe, I.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Glodariu, T.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Lui, Y.-W.; Negi, D.; Ruud, I. E.; Shima, T.; Siem, S.; Takahisa, K.; Tesileanu, O.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Wiedeking, M.

    2016-06-01

    The γ -ray strength functions and level densities of Ge,7473 have been extracted up to the neutron-separation energy Sn from particle-γ coincidence data using the Oslo method. Moreover, the γ -ray strength function of 74Ge above Sn has been determined from photoneutron measurements; hence these two experiments cover the range of Eγ≈1 -13 MeV for 74Ge. The obtained data show that both Ge,7473 display an increase in strength at low γ energies. The experimental γ -ray strength functions are compared with M 1 strength functions deduced from average B (M 1 ) values calculated within the shell model for a large number of transitions. The observed low-energy enhancements in Ge,7473 are adopted in the calculations of the Ge,7372(n ,γ ) cross sections, where there are no direct experimental data. Calculated reaction rates for more neutron-rich germanium isotopes are shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of the low-energy enhancement.

  6. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M; Mayer, Philipp; Roberts, Cindy A; Ahrens, Lutz; Allan, Ian J; Brant, Jan; Jones, Lisa; Kraus, Uta R; Larsen, Martin M; Lepom, Peter; Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Roose, Patrick; Schäfer, Sabine; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Vorkamp, Katrin; Whitehouse, Paul

    2016-01-05

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.

  7. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    PubMed

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  8. Safety-in-numbers: Estimates based on a sample of pedestrian crossings in Norway.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2016-06-01

    Safety-in-numbers denotes the tendency for the risk of accident for each road user to decline as the number of road users increases. Safety-in-numbers implies that a doubling of the number of road users will be associated with less than a doubling of the number of accidents. This paper investigates safety-in-numbers in 239 pedestrian crossings in Oslo and its suburbs. Accident prediction models were fitted by means of negative binomial regression. The models indicate a very strong safety-in-numbers effect. In the final model, the coefficients for traffic volume were 0.05 for motor vehicles, 0.07 for pedestrians and 0.12 for cyclists. The coefficient for motor vehicles implies that the number of accidents is almost independent of the number of motor vehicles. The safety-in-numbers effect found in this paper is stronger than reported in any other study dealing with safety-in-numbers. It should be noted that the model explained only 21% of the systematic variation in the number of accidents. It therefore cannot be ruled out that the results are influenced by omitted variable bias. Any such bias would, however, have to be very large to eliminate the safety-in-numbers effect.

  9. A prospective survey of critical care procedures performed by physicians in helicopter emergency medical service: is clinical exposure enough to stay proficient?

    PubMed

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Bredmose, Per P; Nakstad, Anders R; Sandberg, Mårten

    2015-06-11

    Physicians in prehospital care must be proficient in critical care procedures. Procedure proficiency requires a combination of training, experience and continuous clinical exposure. Most physicians in helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in Norway are well-trained and experienced anaesthesiologists, but we know little about their exposure to critical care procedures in the prehospital arena. This knowledge is required to plan clinical training and in-hospital practice to maintain core competences for a HEMS physician. We collected survey data on critical care procedures performed by physicians at three HEMS bases in Norway for a one-year period. To correct for differences in duty time between physicians, the expected number of procedures performed in a full time engagement at each HEMS base was calculated. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and expected procedure volume at each base was compared using one-way between group analysis of variance. We received data from 82.7 % of the duty hours in the study period. Physicians at Oslo University Hospital HEMS had the highest volume of procedures in most categories and were expected to perform a majority of the procedures at least once a year. There were significant differences in procedure volume between the bases in 25 procedures. Physicians in Norwegian HEMS perform critical care procedures with variable frequencies. The low procedure volume in some cases and variance between bases indicate the need for a tailored procedure maintenance training and relevant in-hospital clinical practice.

  10. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  11. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport.

  12. Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season: POLDER/AeroCom Comparison Above Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Peers, F.; Bellouin, N.; Waquet, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Mollard, J.; Myhre, G.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tanré, D.; Thieuleux, F.; Zhang, K.

    2016-04-21

    Aerosol properties above clouds have been retrieved over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season 2006 using satellite observations from POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances). From June to October, POLDER has observed a mean Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Thickness (ACAOT) of 0.28 and a mean Above-Clouds Single Scattering Albedo (ACSSA) of 0.87 at 550nm. These results have been used to evaluate the simulation of aerosols above clouds in 5 AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) models (GOCART, HadGEM3, ECHAM5-HAM2, OsloCTM2 and SPRINTARS). Most models do not reproduce the observed large aerosol load episodes. The comparison highlights the importance of the injection height and the vertical transport parameterizations to simulate the large ACAOT observed by POLDER. Furthermore, some models overestimate the ACSSA. In accordance with recent recommendations of the black carbon refractive index, a higher prescription of the imaginary part allows a better comparison with POLDER’s ACSSA.

  13. Latent classes of posttraumatic stress and growth.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; Blix, Ines; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Potentially traumatic events may lead to different patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth. The objective of the present study was to identify subgroups with different patterns of posttraumatic reactions, and to determine whether these subgroups differed in terms of personal and social resources and indicators of adjustment. This study used survey data collected 10 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack to investigate patterns of reactions among ministerial employees (N=1970). We applied latent class analyses with covariates to extract subgroups of individuals. Three classes of individual reactions were extracted, and these were similar among those who were and those who were not physically proximate to the bombing attack: "High stress/high growth" (27% and 11%, respectively), "Low stress/high growth" (74% and 42%, respectively), and "Low stress/low growth" (only among the not physically proximate: 47%). The classes differed in terms of gender, neuroticism, and social support as well as life satisfaction and daily functioning. Heterogeneous patterns of posttraumatic reactions were found. Physical proximity is not necessary to experience posttraumatic stress or growth after political violence. Among individuals with low stress, posttraumatic growth may not encompass higher life satisfaction or functioning.

  14. Self reported skin morbidity and ethnicity: a population-based study in a Western community.

    PubMed

    Dalgard, Florence; Holm, Jan Øivind; Svensson, Ake; Kumar, Bernadette; Sundby, Johanne

    2007-06-29

    Recent studies have shown ethnic differences concerning cardio-vascular disease, diabetes and mental health. Little is known about ethnic differences in skin morbidity. The purpose of this study was to describe possible ethnic differences in self-reported skin morbidity in a Western urban community. The design was cross sectional. 40,888 adults in Oslo, Norway, received a postal questionnaire providing information on socio-demographic factors and self-reported health, including items on skin complaints. 18,770 individuals answered the questionnaire. In the sample 84% were from Norway. The largest immigrant group was from Western countries (5%) and the Indian Subcontinent (3%). Itch was the most prevalent reported skin symptom (7%), and was significantly more reported by men from East Asia (18%) and Middle East/North Africa (13%). The same observations were seen for reported dry and sore skin. Hair loss was a dominating complaint for men from the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East/North Africa (23% and 25%) and for women from the same ethnic groups. Women from Sub-Saharan Africa reported significantly more pimples than in the other groups (17%). The study showed that there were significant differences in self-reported skin complaints among ethnic groups. Issues concerning the cultural value of some skin symptoms should be examined further.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for psychological distress and functional disability in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Jafri, Farhat; Tomenson, Barbara; Surhand, Ishaq; Mirza, Ilyas; Chaudhry, Imran B

    2014-01-01

    There is a close association between poor mental health status and both poor physical health and decreased productivity. An evidence base on the risk factors for psychological distress in low-income countries is lacking and is much needed to help develop appropriate interventions. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress in urban Pakistan and identify associated risk factors and functional disability. This was a population-based study of 18-75-year-olds in urban Pakistan. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was offered to 1000 adults to measure psychological distress. The Life Events Checklist, Oslo-3 for Social Support and Brief Disability Questionnaires were used to establish social stressors, support and functional disability. Questionnaires were completed by 880 (94%) eligible participants, of whom 41% of women and 19% of men scored 9 or more on the SRQ (possible range 0-20). Low educational status was associated with high rates of psychological distress. Women had significantly higher levels of distress than men and were less likely to receive practical support. The prevalence of psychological distress was lower in urban Karachi than that reported previously for rural Punjab province, Pakistan. However, in urban Karachi, as in rural Punjab, socioeconomic status seemed to have more of an impact on the mental health of women than that of men.

  16. Forty-seven years of weekly atmospheric black carbon measurements in the Finnish Arctic: Decrease in black carbon with declining emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; DeJulio, Anthony M.; Ahmed, Tanveer; Laing, James; Hopke, Philip K.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Viisanen, Yrjö; Paatero, Jussi; Husain, Liaquat

    2014-06-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric black carbon, [BC], were determined from filter samples collected weekly at Kevo, Finland (69°45'N, 27°02'E), from 1964 to 2010 using optical and thermal optical methods. The data provide the longest record of directly measured [BC] in the Arctic. The mean winter, spring, summer, and autumn [BC] based on the entire data set were 339, 199, 127, and 213 ng m-3, respectively. Annual mean [BC] decreased from 300 in 1970 to 82 ng m-3 in 2010. [BC] data sets from other Arctic sites show similar trends, but concentrations at Kevo are generally higher. From 1970 to 2010 the [BC] decreased by 1.8% yr-1. However, [BC] did not decrease monotonically. Instead, cyclical peaks occurred around 1976-1977, 1985-1987, and 1999. During such periods, nickel concentrations were well correlated with [BC]. This suggests that emissions from extensive ore smelting on the Kola Peninsula were significant contributors of particulate matter observed at Kevo. Simulations of [BC] at Kevo using the OsloCTM3 model using different emission inventories and meteorological data sets were performed. Modeled concentrations were lower than observed by a factor of 4. The results indicated that circulation changes can explain year to year variability, but the downward trend in the observations is mostly explained by emissions. Emission inventories in Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union are poorly constrained and appear to need revision in order to match observed trends in BC atmospheric concentrations.

  17. Screening of Feral Pigeon (Colomba livia), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Graylag Goose (Anser anser) Populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxovirus

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, A; Jonassen, C Monceyron; Bergsjø, B; Hofshagen, M; Tharaldsen, J; Nesse, LL; Handeland, K

    2005-01-01

    A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway. PMID:16398331

  18. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway.

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Götsch, Arntraut; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Langset, Magdalene; Fangel, Kirstin; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood. We analyzed samples of fulmars from Norwegian waters and compared the POP concentrations in their liver and muscle tissue with the corresponding concentrations in the loads of ingested plastic in their stomachs, grouped as "no", "medium" (0.01-0.21 g; 1-14 pieces of plastic), or "high" (0.11-0.59 g; 15-106 pieces of plastic). POP concentrations in the plastic did not differ significantly between the high and medium plastic ingestion group for sumPCBs, sumDDTs, and sumPBDEs. By combining correlations among POP concentrations, differences in tissue concentrations of POPs between plastic ingestion subgroups, fugacity calculations, and bioaccumulation modeling, we showed that plastic is more likely to act as a passive sampler than as a vector of POPs, thus reflecting the POP profiles of simultaneously ingested prey.

  19. Assessing prescription drug abuse using functional principal component analysis (FPCA) of wastewater data.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Stefania; Røislien, Jo; Baz-Lomba, Jose A; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The weekly pattern of each drug was extracted by fitting of generalized additive models, using trigonometric functions to model the cyclic behaviour. From the weekly component, the main temporal features were then extracted using functional principal component analysis. Results are presented through the functional principal components (FPCs) and corresponding FPC scores. Clinically, the most important weekly feature of the wastewater-based epidemiology data was the second FPC, representing the difference between average midweek level and a peak during the weekend, representing possible recreational use of a drug in the weekend. Estimated scores on this FPC indicated recreational use of methylphenidate, with a high weekend peak, but not for methadone and oxazepam. The functional principal component analysis uncovered clinically important temporal features of the weekly patterns of the use of prescription drugs detected from wastewater analysis. This may be used as a post-marketing surveillance method to monitor prescription drugs with abuse potential. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Obituary: Einar A. Tandberg-Hanssen (1921-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, G.; Emslie, A.; Hathaway, David; Moore, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Einar Andreas Tandberg-Hanssen was born on 6 August 1921, in Bergen, Norway, and died on July 22, 2011, in Huntsville, AL, USA, due to complications from ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease). His parents were administrator Birger Tandberg-Hanssen (1883-1951) and secretary Antonie "Mona" Meier (1895-1967). He married Erna Rönning (27 October 1921 - 22 November 1994), a nurse, on 22 June 1951. She was the daughter of Captain Einar Rönning (1890-1969) and Borghild Lyshaug (1897-1980). Einar and Erna had two daughters, Else Biesman (and husband Allen of Rapid City, SD, USA) and Karin Brock (and husband Mike of Gulf Shores, AL, USA). At the time of his death Einar had eight grandchildren and eight great-grandchildren. Dr. Tandberg-Hanssen was an internationally-known member of the solar physics community, with over a hundred published scientific papers and several books, including Solar Activity (1967), Solar Prominences (1974), The Physics of Solar Flares (1988) and The Nature of Solar Prominences (1995). Einar grew up in Langesund and Skien, Norway, where he took the qualifying exams at Skien High School in 1941. After the war he studied natural sciences at the University of Oslo and received his undergraduate degree in astronomy in 1950. He worked as a research assistant in the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Oslo for three intervals in the 1950s, interspersed by fellowships at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris, Caltech in Pasadena, CA, the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, CO, and the Cavendish Laboratory in the UK (at the invitation of British radio-astronomer Sir Martin Ryle). He earned a doctorate in astrophysics at the University in Oslo in 1960 with a dissertation titled "An Investigation of the Temperature Conditions in Prominences with a Special Study of the Excitation of Helium." From 1959-61, Tandberg-Hanssen was a professor at the University in Oslo. He then traveled back to

  1. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes.

  2. Admission level and students' performance at a Norwegian dental school.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, N

    1987-12-01

    Data on students' performance at the Oslo Dental Faculty for 1977-86 were divided in two 5-year periods and analyzed in accordance with admission levels, largely on the basis of academic performance in junior college. During these years admission level decreased considerably, whereas the frequency of 'not passed', 'dropouts', and candidates using prolonged student time increased. The dental school grade average and the distribution of high- and low-performance candidates varied with the admission level. This trend was visible most clearly in the first 5-year period, when the admission point range included a considerable number of high admission level students. However, the admission level was not a good predictor of students' performance in the large middle or low admission level groups prominent in the second 5-year period. Poor preclinical results were not compensated for by clinical skills. All comparison of students' performance gave results in favor of the female students, but no sex-related differences were statistically significant. Most dropouts left dental school during the 1st year without visible examination difficulties. Students with several 'not passed' tended to repeat examinations, dropping out at a later stage or graduating after prolonged student time with poor results. With low interest in odontology, selection of students on the basis of minute differences in academic performance in the lower admission point scale is of limited value as a predictor of students' performance.

  3. Bulk Properties of Iron Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvannluvsan, U; Belgya, T; Bernstein, L; Brune, C; Chankova, R; Garrett, P; Grimes, S; Guttormsen, M; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Hornish, M; Johnson, C; Massey, T; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Younes, W

    2006-07-27

    Nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions (RSF) in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe were measured using the {sup 57}Fe({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}) and {sup 57}Fe({sup 3}He, {sup 3}He{prime}{gamma}) reactions, respectively, at Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. A low-energy enhancement in the RSF below 4 MeV energy was observed. This finding cannot be explained by common theoretical models. In a second experiment, two-step cascade intensities with soft primary transitions from the {sup 56}Fe(n,2{gamma}) reaction were measured. The agreement between the two experiments confirms the low-energy enhancement in the RSF. In a third experiment, the neutron evaporation spectrum from the {sup 55}Mn(dn,N){sup 56}Fe reaction was measured at 7-MeV deuteron energy at John Edwards Accelerator Laboratory at Ohio University. Comparison of the level density of {sup 56}Fe obtained from the first and third experiments gives an overall good agreement. Furthermore, observed enhancement for soft {gamma} rays is supported by the last experiment.

  4. Reusable Oxidation Catalysis Using Metal-Monocatecholato Species in a Robust Metal–Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Honghan; Shin, JaeWook; Meng, Ying Shirley; Adelhardt, Mario; Sutter, Jörg; Meyer, Karsten; Cohen, Seth M.

    2014-04-02

    An isolated metal-monocatecholato moiety has been achieved in a highly robust metal–organic framework (MOF) by two fundamentally different postsynthetic strategies: postsynthetic deprotection (PSD) and postsynthetic exchange (PSE). Compared with PSD, PSE proved to be a more facile and efficient functionalization approach to access MOFs that could not be directly synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Metalation of the catechol functionality residing in the MOFs resulted in unprecedented Fe-monocatecholato and Cr-monocatecholato species, which were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ⁵⁷Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The resulting materials are among the first examples of Zr(IV)-based UiO MOFs (UiO = University of Oslo) with coordinatively unsaturated active metal centers. Importantly, the Cr-metalated MOFs are active and efficient catalysts for the oxidation of alcohols to ketones using a wide range of substrates. Catalysis could be achieved with very low metal loadings (0.5–1 mol %). Unlike zeolite-supported, Cr-exchange oxidation catalysts, the MOF-based catalysts reported here are completely recyclable and reusable, which may make them attractive catalysts for ‘green’ chemistry processes.

  5. International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Tan, Chay Hoon; Nagai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mariko; Lee, Min-Soo; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-Yu; Si, Tainmei; Sim, Kang; Wei, Hao; Ling, He Yan; Nishimura, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshichika; Edwards, Glen; Sartorius, Norman; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the prescription patterns of antidepressants in different countries in East Asia. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan from October 2003 to March 2004 using the unified research protocol and questionnaire. Twenty teaching hospitals and major psychiatric hospitals participated and a total of 1898 patients receiving antidepressants were analyzed. The survey provided a number of interesting characteristics on the prescription patterns of antidepressant in East Asia. Out of 56 antidepressants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) index by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology (Oslo), only 26 antidepressants were prescribed in participating countries in East Asia. On average 38.4% of prescriptions of antidepressants were for patients with diagnoses other than depressive disorders. The availability and commonly prescribed antidepressants varied greatly by country. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other newer antidepressants were prescribed in approximately 77.0% of all cases. At the time of the survey, only two SSRI medications were available in Japan. However, five types of SSRI were available and were often prescribed in Korea.

  6. Global Governance for Health: how to motivate political change?

    PubMed

    McNeill, D; Ottersen, O P

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we address a central theme that was discussed at the Durham Health Summit: how can politics be brought back into global health governance and figure much more prominently in discussions around policy? We begin by briefly summarizing the report of the Lancet - University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health: 'The Political Origins of Health Inequity' Ottersen et al. In order to provide compelling evidence of the central argument, the Commission selected seven case studies relating to, inter alia, economic and fiscal policy, food security, and foreign trade and investment agreements. Based on an analysis of these studies, the report concludes that the problems identified are often due to political choices: an unwillingness to change the global system of governance. This raises the question: what is the most effective way that a report of this kind can be used to motivate policy-makers, and the public at large, to demand change? What kind of moral or rational argument is most likely to lead to action? In this paper we assess the merits of various alternative perspectives: health as an investment; health as a global public good; health and human security; health and human development; health as a human right; health and global justice. We conclude that what is required in order to motivate change is a more explicitly political and moral perspective - favouring the later rather than the earlier alternatives just listed. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension: Dead, alive or surviving?

    PubMed

    Al-Fakhouri, Ahmad; Efeovbokhan, Nephertiti; Nakhla, Rami; Khouzam, Rami N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common chronic clinical problems encountered by physicians. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is estimated at 9% in the US. Patients with resistant hypertension have been shown to be at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular events, hence the need for greater efforts in improving the treatment of hypertension. The renal sympathetic nerves play an important role in the development of hypertension, mediated via sodium and water retention, increased renin release and alterations in renal blood flow. The proximity of the afferent and efferent renal sympathetic nerves to the adventitia of the renal arteries suggested the feasibility of an endovascular, selective, minimally invasive approach to renal denervation; a potential treatment option for resistant hypertension. While the RAPID, Reduce-HTN, EnligHTN, DENERHTN and Symplicity HTN-1 and -2 studies showed significant benefit of renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension, the results of Oslo RDN, Prague-15 and Symplicity HTN-3 were not so favorable. Future well-designed clinical trials are needed to ascertain the benefits or otherwise of renal denervation in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  8. Lipoproteins and the progression/regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barth, J D

    1995-10-01

    Lipoproteins and the impact of lipid lowering on progression and regression of coronary artery disease are discussed. Angiographically assessed regression studies are reviewed (NHLBI, LIT, LHT, CLAS I and II, FATS, POSCH, Heidelberg, STARS, SCRIP, MAAS, PLAC I, HARP, UC-SF), as are B-mode ultrasound studies (ACAPS, PLAC II) and survival studies (Oslo diet-smoking study, SSSS, Pravastatin, Oxford). Although study populations and the interventions are different in the studies, I have come to the following conclusions. Regression of atherosclerosis correlates well with reduction in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. Although overall improvement in the severity and extent of the disease was modest, reduction of clinical events was impressive. Lipid modulation may stabilize existing lesions by improving the stability of the lesion cap and/or promoting loss of cholesterol content from within the plaque. Survival studies indicate that lipid lowering lowers morbidity and increases longevity in patients with established coronary heart disease. The B-mode ultrasound studies using the carotid artery as surrogate for the change in atherosclerosis in the coronary seems extremely promising. The atherosclerotic process as well as complications may be studied at an early stage using noninvasive methods.

  9. Cannabis use is associated with 3years earlier onset of schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a naturalistic, multi-site sample (N=1119).

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor-Ketil; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Andreassen, Ole A; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Joa, Inge; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and substance use may have an earlier onset of illness compared to those without substance use. Most previous studies have, however, too small samples to control for confounding variables and the effect of specific types of substances. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between substance use and age at onset, in addition to the influence of possible confounders and specific substances, in a large and heterogeneous multisite sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The patients (N=1119) were recruited from catchment areas in Oslo, Stavanger and Bergen, Norway, diagnosed according to DSM-IV and screened for substance use history. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between substance use and age at onset of illness. Patients with substance use (n=627) had about 3years earlier age at onset (23.0years; SD 7.1) than the abstinent group (n=492; 25.9years; SD 9.7). Only cannabis use was statistically significantly related to earlier age at onset. Gender or family history of psychosis did not influence the results. Cannabis use is associated with 3years earlier onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Political Imprisonment and Adult Functioning: A Life Event History Analysis of Palestinians.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2015-06-01

    Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    PubMed

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  12. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·01). After adjustment for energy intake, consumption of most food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  13. Perception of risk regarding the use of medications and other exposures during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nordeng, Hedvig; Ystrøm, Eivind; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-02-01

    Perception of risk may impact a woman's decision to take a needed drug during pregnancy. There is a paucity of research on this topic in the literature. (1) To evaluate the perception of risk of 17 commonly used drugs and other substances by pregnant women. (2) To investigate which sources of information regarding exposures during pregnancy were most commonly used by women. A questionnaire was developed through the University of Oslo's website for Internet surveys and posted on four Web pages used by pregnant women and mothers, from mid-September 2008 through October 2008. The inclusion criteria included women who were (1) pregnant or 2) a mother of a child less than 5 years old. A total of 1,793 eligible women completed the questionnaire. Most women overestimated the teratogenic risk associated with all the drugs during pregnancy. Characteristics of the women that were associated with a high perception of risk were primiparity, higher age, higher education, and choosing not to use a drug during pregnancy. More than 80% of the women had used drugs during pregnancy, mostly paracetamol, penicillins and reflux medications. The physician, the product information leaflet and the pharmacist were the three most frequently used sources of information. Women overestimate the risk of drug use and other exposures during pregnancy. Therefore, it is important for health care providers to use evidence-based information, to reduce unnecessary anxiety, and to ensure safe and appropriate treatment during pregnancy.

  14. The Jurassic of Svalbard, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koevoets, Maayke; Hammer, Øyvind

    2014-05-01

    During the Mesozoic the landmass now known as Svalbard drifted from 45oN to 65oN. The average global temperature was significantly higher, disabling the formation of icecaps at the poles, resulting in a higher sea-level. At the time the location now known as Svalbard was covered by a shallow ocean and mostly marine, organic rich, black shales, interrupted by possibly deltaic sediments were deposited. These sediments are rich in invertebrate fossils. A general description of the Agardhfjellet formation, spanning the middle to upper Jurassic, was made by Dypvik in 1991. Wierzbowski (1989) described some ammonites in detail from the Kimmeridgian. It is not known if the fauna extends further up or down in the formation. Since 2004 the Museum of Natural History of Oslo has been active in Spitsbergen Svalbard. Extensive and detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic research was never conducted as the focus lay on vertebrate fossils. A detailed sedimentological analysis, description and correlation to other Jurassic Formations (such as the Kimmeridge Shales, Hekkingen Formation and draupne Formation) is essential to better understand the circumstances where the black organic-rich shales (a highly potential source rock) were deposited in and to be able to predict their occurrences. Included in this description is taxonomy, taphonomy and the stratigraphic development of invertebrate fauna to pinpoint the age of the sediments.

  15. Fog chemistry at three sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Zhang, Jinwei; Marcotte, Aurelie R.; Karl, Matthias; Dye, Christian; Herckes, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Fog composition was investigated at three sites in Norway, one in suburban Oslo and two coastal sites in the area of the Mongstad refinery. Overall fog frequency during the study periods was low. Fog pH was around 5 with slightly lower values at Hakadal, the suburban site, compared to the coastal sites, which were slightly above 5. Major ions at the coastal sites were sodium and chloride consistent with the marine environment. The ion chemistry at the suburban site was dominated by ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, consistent with fogs in anthropogenically impacted environments. Overall concentrations of major ions were very low, orders of magnitude lower than those in polluted urban fogs. Organic matter concentrations were also low (< 3 mgC/L) consistent with limited anthropogenic impact and little biogenic activity in the winter months. Selected amine concentrations were determined and ranged from nanomolar concentrations for ethylamines to several hundred nanomolar concentrations for dimethylamine, the most abundant amine investigated. While N-nitrosodimehylamine was detected in fog, the concentrations were very low in the fogs.

  16. Redescription of Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) with the first description of the male

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, Sybille; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2010-03-01

    Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 is described from samples collected in the course of a colonisation experiment in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (2003-2005). The male of B. typica, the type-species of the genus is described for the first time. B. typica can be distinguished from its congeners by its caudal rami (1.4 times longer than wide) and by its P5 (exopod longer than wide, inner terminal seta of exopod longest, inner seta of baseoendopod longer than outer one and surface seta rigid and curved). Variability within the species is rather small as only the length of some setae is slightly different. B. cladiofera Lang, 1965, B. congenera Sars, 1920, B. minutiseta Soyer, 1973 and B. pugiochaeta Arlt, 1983 are closely related to B. typica. Some details of the morphology, such as the body ornamentation and the longer hair-like pinnules on the spines of the swimming legs, are very difficult to observe even with maximum magnification. With certainty, B. typica is distributed near the Norwegian coast (Oslo Fjord to Trondheim Fjord), the Swedish coast (Skagerak to Öresund), around Spitsbergen and around the polar islands north of Grinnelland (Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Baffin Bay). Records of B. typica from the Kara Sea (near Novaya Zemlya), near Franz Joseph Land, Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles and from deep waters of the North Sea have to be confirmed.

  17. Air quality trends in Europe over the past decade: a first multi-model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, A.; Granier, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Jakobs, H.; Maurizi, A.; Nyiri, A.; Bessagnet, B.; D'Angiola, A.; D'Isidoro, M.; Gauss, M.; Meleux, F.; Memmesheimer, M.; Mieville, A.; Rouïl, L.; Russo, F.; Solberg, S.; Stordal, F.; Tampieri, F.

    2011-07-01

    We discuss the capability of current state-of-the-art chemistry and transport models to reproduce air quality trends and inter annual variability. Documenting these strengths and weaknesses on the basis of historical simulations is essential before the models are used to investigate future air quality projections. To achieve this, a coordinated modelling exercise was performed in the framework of the CityZEN European Project. It involved six regional and global chemistry-transport models (Bolchem, Chimere, Emep, Eurad, OsloCTM2 and Mozart) simulating air quality over the past decade in the Western European anthropogenic emissions hotspots. Comparisons between models and observations allow assessing the skills of the models to capture the trends in basic atmospheric constituents (NO2, O3, and PM10). We find that the trends of primary constituents are well reproduced (except in some countries - owing to their sensitivity to the emission inventory) although capturing the more moderate trends of secondary species such as O3 is more challenging. Apart from the long term trend, the modelled monthly variability is consistent with the observations but the year-to-year variability is generally underestimated. A comparison of simulations where anthropogenic emissions are kept constant is also investigated. We find that the magnitude of the emission-driven trend exceeds the natural variability for primary compounds. We can thus conclude that emission management strategies have had a significant impact over the past 10 yr, hence supporting further emission reductions strategies.

  18. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Haight, Robert Cameron; Jandel, Marian; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.; Becker, John A.; Wu, Ching-Yen; Krticka, Milan

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  19. Revolution or evolution: the challenges of conceptualizing patient and public involvement in a consumerist world

    PubMed Central

    Tritter, Jonathan Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Changing the relationship between citizens and the state is at the heart of current policy reforms. Across England and the developed world, from Oslo to Ontario, Newcastle to Newquay, giving the public a more direct say in shaping the organization and delivery of healthcare services is central to the current health reform agenda. Realigning public services around those they serve, based on evidence from service user’s experiences, and designed with and by the people rather than simply on their behalf, is challenging the dominance of managerialism, marketization and bureaucratic expertise. Despite this attention there is limited conceptual and theoretical work to underpin policy and practice. Objective  This article proposes a conceptual framework for patient and public involvement (PPI) and goes on to explore the different justifications for involvement and the implications of a rights‐based rather than a regulatory approach. These issues are highlighted through exploring the particular evolution of English health policy in relation to PPI on the one hand and patient choice on the other before turning to similar patterns apparent in the United States and more broadly. Conclusions  A framework for conceptualizing PPI is presented that differentiates between the different types and aims of involvement and their potential impact. Approaches to involvement are different in those countries that adopt a rights‐based rather than a regulatory approach. I conclude with a discussion of the tension and interaction apparent in the globalization of both involvement and patient choice in both policy and practice. PMID:19754691

  20. A meridional profile of the chemical composition of submicrometre particles over the East Atlantic Ocean: regional and hemispheric variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, C.; Heintzenberg, J.; Engardt, M.

    2002-09-01

    Within the framework of SWEDARP (Swedish Antarctic Program) 92/93 an aerosol sampling program was carried out on board of M/S Polarbjörn which carried staff and material to the Nordic Antarctic field exercises during the Austral summer 1992/1993. The cruise started 11 November 1992 from Oslo, went via Cape Town to Antarctica, and then back to Cape Town where the ship arrived on 4 January 1993. During the cruise, a meridional profile of physical and chemical submicrometre aerosol properties was derived covering the East Atlantic Ocean from 60°N to 70°S. The multicomponent aerosol data set combined with a trajectory analysis revealed a systematic meridional distribution of aerosol sources over the Atlantic that covered European and African continental plumes and, south of 15°S, a largely biologically controlled marine aerosol. Median number concentrations calculated over the whole cruise spanned a factor of 20 between 2000 and 100cm-3, while total analyzed mass concentrations ranged between 7800 and 40ngm3. From the biologically dominated subset of the data in the southern hemisphere, relationships were developed that allowed an apportionment of the observed sulfate and ammonium concentration to biogenic and anthropogenic sources over the whole meridional aerosol profile.