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Sample records for osmium 181

  1. Osmium in the rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M. |; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1997-12-01

    There is a large uncertainty in our understanding of the behavior of osmium during weathering and transport into deep oceans and the osmium budget of the oceans. The problem stems chiefly from the lack of osmium data on the dissolved load in the rivers and in the estuaries. In this study, the concentration and isotopic composition of osmium have been determined in three North American rivers (the Mississippi, the Columbia, and the Connecticut) and one river draining central Europe and flowing into the Baltic Sea (the Vistula). Osmium concentration in the Mississippi and the Vistula is about 45 femto mol kg{sup -1}; it is about 14 and 15 femto mol kg{sup -1} for the Connecticut and the Columbia, respectively. The {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratios estimated for the Mississippi and the Vistula are 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. For the Connecticut and the Columbia {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 8.8 and 14.4, respectively. Of all the rivers examined, the Mississippi is by far the largest, supplying {approximately}1.6% of the total annual world river flow. Its osmium isotopic composition is identical to the upper Mississippi valley loesses indicating (1) congruent dissolution of the bedrock and (2) little or no impact of anthropogenic sources on the osmium isotopic composition of the dissolved load. The latter observation indicates that the upper limit of the anthropogenic input in the dissolved osmium load of the Mississippi outflow is about 250 g yr{sup -1}. While the osmium concentration of the Vistula is high the isotopic composition does not appear to have been affected by substantial pollution. The river data can be used to put limits on the mean residence time of osmium in the oceans ({bar {tau}}{sub Os}) and on the osmium budget of the oceans. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Osmium Recycling in Subduction Zones

    PubMed

    Brandon; Creaser; Shirey; Carlson

    1996-05-10

    Peridotite xenoliths from the Cascade arc in the United States and in the Japan arc have neodymium and osmium isotopic compositions that are consistent with addition of 5 to 15 percent of subducted material to the present-day depleted mantle. These observations suggest that osmium can be partitioned into oxidized and chlorine-rich slab-derived fluids or melts. These results place new constraints on the behavior of osmium (and possibly other platinum group elements) during subduction of oceanic crust by showing that osmium can be transported into the mantle wedge.

  3. New osmium-based reagent for the dihydroxylation of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Harris, Robert M; Butterworth, Sam; Burrows, Jeremy N; Cowley, Andrew; Parker, Jeremy S

    2006-06-09

    The cis dihydroxylation of alkenes is most efficiently accomplished by reaction with osmium tetroxide. Recently, the expense and toxicity of osmium tetroxide have led to a number of attempts to harness alternative osmium-based reagents, including microencapsulation and solid support techniques. We describe here the development of a new nonvolatile, stable, and recoverable osmium-based reagent devised for the stoichiometric cis dihydroxylation of alkenes. Although attempts to make this new dihydroxylation work with catalytic amounts of this reagent were unsuccessful, we did develop a sensitive test for free osmium tetroxide leached from the reagent in situ: this test may well have uses in probing future applications of derivatized osmium reagents.

  4. Microencapsulation of osmium tetroxide in polyurea.

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V; Ramarao, Chandrashekar; Lee, Ai-Lan; Østergaard, Niels; Smith, Stephen C; Shirley, Ian M

    2003-01-23

    [reaction: see text] Osmium tetroxide has been microencapsulated in a polyurea matrix using an in situ interfacial polymerization approach. These microcapsules have been effectively used as recoverable and reusable catalysts in the dihydroxylation of olefins

  5. Development of anticancer agents: wizardry with osmium.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Babak, Maria V; Hartinger, Christian G

    2014-10-01

    Platinum compounds are one of the pillars of modern cancer chemotherapy. The apparent disadvantages of existing chemotherapeutics have led to the development of novel anticancer agents with alternative modes of action. Many complexes of the heavy metal osmium (Os) are potent growth inhibitors of human cancer cells and are active in vivo, often superior or comparable to cisplatin, as the benchmark metal-based anticancer agent, or clinically tested ruthenium (Ru) drug candidates. Depending on the choice of ligand system, osmium compounds exhibit diverse modes of action, including redox activation, DNA targeting or inhibition of protein kinases. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the development of osmium anticancer drug candidates and discuss their cellular mechanisms of action.

  6. The concentration and isotopic composition of osmium in the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    Osmium is one of the rarer elements in seawater. Analytical difficulties have previously prevented the direct measurement of the osmium concentration and isotopic composition in seawater. We report a chemical separation procedure that yields quantitative extraction of osmium standard and of osmium tracer by iron hydroxide precipitation from seawater doped with osmium standard, osmium tracer, and FeCl{sub 3}. The iron hydroxide precipitate is processed to extract osmium, using techniques developed for iron meteorites. Utilizing this procedure, water samples from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans were analyzed for osmium concentration and isotopic composition. Direct determination of the osmium concentration of seawater gives between 15 and 19 fM kg{sup -1}. Detailed experiments on different aliquots of one seawater sample from the North Atlantic Ocean, keeping the amounts of reagents constant, yield concentrations from 16 to 19 fM kg{sup -1}. The variability in concentration is outside the uncertainty introduced because of blanks and indicates a lack of full equilibration between the osmium tracer and seawater osmium. The most reliable osmium concentration of the North Atlantic deep ocean water is 19 fM kg {sup -1} with the {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio being 8.7{+-}2 (2{sigma}). Detailed experiments on one seawater sample from the Central Pacific Ocean indicate that the most reliable osmium concentration of the deep ocean water from the Central Pacific is 19 fM kg{sup -1} with the {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio being 8.7{+-}0.3 (2{sigma}). The directly measured osmium isotopic composition of the oceans is in good agreement with that obtained from the analysis of some rapidly accumulating organic rich sediments. A sample of ambient seawater around the Juan de Fuca Ridge gave {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 6.9{+-} 0.4. 42 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Butler, Thomas A.; Brihaye, Claude

    1987-01-01

    A generator system to provide iridium-191m for clinical imaging applications comprises an activated carbon adsorbent loaded with a compound containing the parent nuclide, osmium-191. The generator, which has a shelf-life in excess of two weeks and does not require a scavenger column, can be eluted with physiologically compatible saline.

  8. Osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.; Brihaye, C.

    1985-08-26

    A generator system to provide iridium-191m for clinical imaging applications comprises an activated carbon adsorbent loaded with a compound containing the parent nuclide, osmium-191. The generator, which has a shelf-life in excess of two weeks and does not require a scavenger column, can be eluted with physiologically compatible saline. 4 figs. 3 tabs.

  9. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  10. The concentration and isotopic composition of osmium in the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1997-08-01

    Osmium is one of the rarer elements in seawater. Analytical difficulties have previously prevented the direct measurement of the osmium concentration and isotopic composition in seawater. We report a chemical separation procedure that yields quantitative extraction of osmium standard and of osmium tracer by iron hydroxide precipitation from seawater doped with osmium standard, osmium tracer, and FeCl 3. The iron hydroxide precipitate is processed to extract osmium, using techniques developed for iron meteorites. Utilizing this procedure, water samples from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans were analyzed for osmium concentration and isotopic composition. Direct determination of the osmium concentration of seawater gives between 15 and 19 fM kg -1. Detailed experiments on different aliquots of one seawater sample from the North Atlantic Ocean, keeping the amounts of reagents constant, yield concentrations from 16 to 19 fM kg -1. The variability in concentration is outside the uncertainty introduced because of blanks and indicates a lack of full equilibration between the osmium tracer and seawater osmium. The most reliable osmium concentration of the North Atlantic deep ocean water is 19 fM kg -1 with the 187Os 186Os ratio being 8.7 ± 0.2 (2σ). Detailed experiments on one seawater sample from the Central Pacific Ocean indicate that the most reliable osmium concentration of the deep ocean water from the Central Pacific is 19 fM kg -1 with the 187Os 186Os ratio being 8.7 ± 0.3 (2σ). The directly measured osmium isotopic composition of the oceans is in good agreement with that obtained from the analysis of some rapidly accumulating organic rich sediments ( Ravizza and Turekian, 1992). A sample of ambient seawater around the Juan de Fuca Ridge gave 187Os 186Os= 6.9 ± 0.4. This is distinctly lower than the deep-sea water value and may reflect local hydrothermal activity or some analytical difficulty with this sample. The osmium isotopic composition of the deep oceans

  11. Anthropogenic forcings on the surficial osmium cycle.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Sebastien; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Kylander, Malin E; Weiss, Dominik J; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Heslop, David; Olid, Carolina; Mighall, Tim M; Hemond, Harold F

    2010-02-01

    Osmium is among the least abundant elements in the Earth's continental crust. Recent anthropogenic Os contamination of the environment from mining and smelting activities, automotive catalytic converter use, and hospital discharges has been documented. Here we present evidence for anthropogenic overprinting of the natural Os cycle using a ca. 7000-year record of atmospheric Os deposition and isotopic composition from an ombrotrophic peat bog in NW Spain. Preanthropogenic Os accumulation in this area is 0.10 +/- 0.04 ng m(-2) y(-1). The oldest strata showing human influence correspond to early metal mining and processing on the Iberian Peninsula (ca. 4700-2500 cal. BP). Elevated Os accumulation rates are found thereafter with a local maximum of 1.1 ng m(-2) y(-1) during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula (ca. 1930 cal. BP) and a further increase starting in 1750 AD with Os accumulation reaching 30 ng m(-2) y(-1) in the most recent samples. Osmium isotopic composition ((187)Os/(188)Os) indicates that recent elevated Os accumulation results from increased input of unradiogenic Os from industrial and automotive sources as well as from enhanced deposition of radiogenic Os through increased fossil fuel combustion and soil erosion. We posit that the rapid increase in catalyst-equipped vehicles, increased fossil fuel combustion, and changes in land-use make the changes observed in NW Spain globally relevant.

  12. Anticancer activity of osmium metalla-rectangles.

    PubMed

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Edafe, Fabio; Dyson, Paul J; Therrien, Bruno

    2010-03-21

    A series of cationic metalla-rectangles of the general formula [(p-cymene)(4)Os(4)(OO[intersection]OO)(2)(N[intersection]N)(2)](4+) have been obtained in methanol from the dinuclear arene osmium precursors [(p-cymene)(2)Os(2)(OO[intersection]OO)(2)Cl(2)] (OO[intersection]OO = 2,5-dioxydo-1,4-benzoquinonato (dhbq), 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinonato (dcbq)) by reaction with bipyridine linkers (N[intersection]N = 4,4'-bipyridine, 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) in the presence of AgCF(3)SO(3). All complexes were isolated as triflate salts and characterised by NMR, IR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The cytotoxicities of the dinuclear and tetranuclear osmium complexes were established using ovarian A2780 cancer cell lines. The most active metalla-rectangle, [(p-cymene)(4)Os(4)(dhbq)(2)(4,4'-bipyridine)(2)](4+), shows an IC(50) value of 5.7 microM (comparable to cisplatin) against A2780 cancer cells and 7.5 microM against the cisplatin resistant A2780cisR cells.

  13. Anthropogenic Osmium in Airborne Particles from Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Sen, I. S.; Geboy, N.

    2012-12-01

    The global geochemical cycle of osmium has been significantly disturbed by the introduction of automobile exhaust catalysts to convert noxious gas emissions into more benign forms. Anthropogenic osmium has been reported in rainwater, snow, and in the urban airborne particles from around the world to reveal global-scale osmium pollution [1, 2]. In this study, we report on the platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and osmium isotope ratios of airborne particles (PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal town in Massachusetts to better understand inputs of anthropogenic osmium to rural environments. We further investigate the use of osmium isotopes to track sources of airborne particles and support source apportionment studies on a continental scale. The samples used in this study were collected at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution over one year (2008-2009). From this collection twelve samples for which the backward air mass trajectories have been determined were selected for osmium isotope analyses. Our results show that the osmium and platinum concentrations are an order of magnitude lower when compared to downtown Boston [2]. The average Os, Pt and Ir concentrations are 0.006±0.012, 0.019±0.023, and 0.685±0.634 pg m-3, respectively. The 187Os/188Os of the aerosols range from 0.275 to 0.788. As continental crust is radiogenic (187Os/188Os >1) and PGE ore bodies generally have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os (~0.2), the unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signature of the aerosols indicates anthropogenic contributions. With 95% of the total osmium mobilization on land being attributed to human activities [3], it is clear that human imprint on airborne particles is not restricted to urban centers with high traffic flows, but also affects rural environments. Aerosol particles that have backward air mass trajectories from the Southwest, the densely populated and industrialized Eastern seaboard, are characterized by unradiogenic osmium, while air masses from the North

  14. Osmium coated diffraction grating in the Space Shuttle environment - Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Samples coated with osmium were flown on the early Shuttle test flights, and on the return of these samples, the osmium coating was found to have disappeared, evidently due to the oxidation of the material in the atomic oxygen atmosphere. An instrument flown on the Spacelab 1 mission comprised an array of five spectrometers covering the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to near-IR wavelengths. The EUV spectrometer contained an osmium-coated reflective grating located fairly deep within the instruments. Here, results of an assessment of the reflectivity and stability of the osmium surface over the course of the ten-day mission are reported. It is concluded that the osmium reflective coating remained stable relative to the spectrometer coated with MgF2 over the course of the mission. In addition, the ratio of sensitivity of these two spectrometers did not change in any major way from the time of the laboratory calibration until the time of flight two years later. Any changes are within the 50-percent calibration uncertainty.

  15. Osmium-labeled polynucleotides: reaction of osmium tetraoxide, with poly-1,N6-ethenoadenylic acid.

    PubMed

    Marzilli, L G; Hanson, B E; Kapili, L; Rose, S D; Beer, M

    1978-06-01

    Osmium tetraoxide, in the presence of ligands such as pyridine and bipyridine, adds across the etheno bridge of 1,N6-etheno-9-methyladenine and poly-1,N6-ethenoadenylic acid. The Os:P ratio in the labeled polynucleotide was approximately equal to 1 when bipyridine was used as the stabilizing ligand. A similar study with polycytidylic acid, which had been partially modified with chloroacetaldehyde so that some bases were converted to 3,N4-ethenocytosine, gave an OS:P ratio of approximately equal to 1.3. Calf-thymus DNA, in which the adenine and cytosine bases were modified by chloroacetaldehyde, gave an Os:P ratio of approximately equal to 1 after 24 h. These results suggest that 3,N4-ethenocytosine will add two Os labels.

  16. Discovery of tantalum, rhenium, osmium, and iridium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Improved microbial electrocatalysis with osmium polymer modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil A; Hasan, Kamrul; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2012-10-21

    Using the well-known exoelectrogen Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an osmium redox polymer modified anode exhibited ca. 4-fold increase in current generation. Additionally, a significant decrease in the start-up time for electrocatalysis was observed. The findings suggest that the inherent extracellular electron transfer capabilities of electrogens coupled with such polymers could enhance electrocatalysis.

  18. Osmium isotopic tracing of atmospheric emissions from an aluminum smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogot, Julien; Poirier, André; Boullemant, Amiel

    2015-09-01

    We present for the first time the use of osmium isotopic composition as a tracer of atmospheric emissions from an aluminum smelter, where alumina (extracted from bauxite) is reduced through electrolysis into metallic aluminum using carbonaceous anodes. These anodes are consumed in the process; they are made of petroleum coke and pitch and have high Re/Os elementary ratio. Due to the relatively large geological age of their source material, their osmium shows a high content of radiogenic 187Os produced from in situ187Re radioactive decay. The radiogenic isotopic composition (187Os/188Os ∼ 2.5) of atmospheric particulate emissions from this smelter is different from that of other typical anthropogenic osmium sources (that come from ultramafic geological contexts with unradiogenic Os isotopes, e.g., 187Os/188Os < 0.2) and also different from average eroding continental crust 187Os/188Os ratios (ca. 1.2). This study demonstrates the capacity of osmium measurements to monitor particulate matter emissions from the Al-producing industry.

  19. Osmium-187 enrichment in some plumes: Evidence for core-mantle interaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations with data for asteroidal cores indicate that Earth's outer core may have a rhenium/osmium ratio at least 20 percent greater than that of the chondritic upper mantle, potentially leading to an outer core with an osmium-187/osmium-188 ratio at least 8 percent greater than that of chondrites. Because of the much greater abundance of osmium in the outer core relative to the mantle, even a small addition of metal to a plume ascending from the D??? layer would transfer the enriched isotopic signature to the mixture. Sources of certain plume-derived systems seem to have osmium-187/osmium-188 ratios 5 to 20 percent greater than that for chondrites, consistent with the ascent of a plume from the core-mantle boundary.

  20. Osmium-187 Enrichment in Some Plumes: Evidence for Core-Mantle Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Morgan, John W.; Horan, Mary F.

    1995-08-01

    Calculations with data for asteroidal cores indicate that Earth's outer core may have a rhenium/osmium ratio at least 20 percent greater than that of the chondritic upper mantle, potentially leading to an outer core with an osmium-187/osmium-188 ratio at least 8 percent greater than that of chondrites. Because of the much greater abundance of osmium in the outer core relative to the mantle, even a small addition of metal to a plume ascending from the D'' layer would transfer the enriched isotopic signature to the mixture. Sources of certain plume-derived systems seem to have osmium-187/osmium-188 ratios 5 to 20 percent greater than that for chondrites, consistent with the ascent of a plume from the core-mantle boundary.

  1. Osmium isotope constraints on Earth's late accretionary history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Osmium isotope measurements reported by Alle??gre and Luck 1,2 indicate that terrestrial osmiridiums evolved in a mantle source region in which the osmium/rhenium ratio falls strictly within the range found in chondrites. This suggests that the highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle were introduced by a late influx of chondritic material and are not a result of endogenous processes. I have now examined the available data in more detail and conclude that the inferred Os/Re ratio of the Earth's mantle matches the E group and C3 chondrites, but that C1 and probably C2 chondrites were not major components of the material accreted in the late stages of mantle formation. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Elongated Dihydrogen versus Compressed Dihydride in Osmium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eguillor, Beatriz; Esteruelas, Miguel A; Lezáun, Virginia; Oliván, Montserrat; Oñate, Enrique

    2017-01-31

    Small modifications on the co-ligands of complexes containing two coordinated hydrogen atoms can determine the elongated dihydrogen versus compressed dihydride nature of these species and therefore their chemical behavior. 2,6-diphenylpyridine favors the formation of the osmium(IV) cation [OsH2 (C6 H4 pyPh)(PiPr3 )2 ](+) , whereas 2-phenoxy-6-phenylpyridine, which contains an oxygen atom between the heterocycle and one of the phenyl groups, stabilizes the osmium(II) elongated dihydrogen species [Os(C6 H4 pyOPh)(η(2) -H2 )(PiPr3 )2 ](+) . In contrast to the latter, the former shows a marked tendency to undergo reductive elimination of the heterocycle.

  3. Anticancer Organometallic Osmium(II)-p-cymene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Păunescu, Emilia; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Clavel, Catherine M; Scopelliti, Rosario; Griffioen, Arjan W; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Osmium compounds are attracting increasing attention as potential anticancer drugs. In this context, a series of bifunctional organometallic osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes functionalized with alkyl or perfluoroalkyl groups were prepared and screened for their antiproliferative activity. Three compounds from the series display selectivity toward cancer cells, with moderate cytotoxicity observed against human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cells, whereas no cytotoxicity was observed on non-cancerous human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and human endothelial (ECRF24) cells. Two of these three cancer-cell-selective compounds induce cell death largely via apoptosis and were also found to disrupt vascularization in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on these promising properties, these compounds have potential clinical applications.

  4. Isotopic determinations of rhenium and osmium in meteorites by using fusion, distillation and ion-exchange separations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A stable isotope-dilution method using resonance ionization mass spectrometry is suitable for the determination of rhenium and osmium abundances and osmium isotopic composition in carbonaceous chondrites and iron meteorites. The chemical procedure involves sodium peroxide fusion, followed by distillation of osmium from sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide and subsequent anion-exchange separation of rhenium from the same solution. ?? 1989.

  5. Methods for the separation of rhenium, osmium and molybdenum applicable to isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Golightly, D.W.; Dorrzapf, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Effective methods are described for the chemical separation of rhenium, osmium and molybdenum. The methods are based on distillation and anion-exchange chromatography, and have been the basis for rhenium-osmium isotope studies of ore deposits and meteorites. Successful anion-exchange separation of osmium requires both recognition and careful control of the osmium species in solution; thus, distillation of osmium tetroxide from a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide is preferred to anion-exchange. Distribution coefficients measured for perrhenate in sulfuric acid media are sufficiently high (Kd > 500) for rhenium to be directly loaded onto an ion-exchange column from a distillation residue and subsequently eluted with nitric acid. Polymerization of molybdenum species during elution is prevented by use of a solution that is 1M in hydrochloric acid and 1M in sodium chloride. ?? 1991.

  6. C-Cr-Fe (181)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'C-Cr-Fe (181)' with the content:

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  13. 46 CFR 201.181 - General matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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  14. 10 CFR 60.181 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in...

  20. 46 CFR 181.610 - Fire bucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire bucket. 181.610 Section 181.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.610 Fire bucket. A vessel not required to have a power...

  1. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  2. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in...

  3. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in...

  4. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in...

  5. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  6. 46 CFR 181.610 - Fire bucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire bucket. 181.610 Section 181.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.610 Fire bucket. A vessel not required to have a power...

  7. 46 CFR 181.610 - Fire bucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire bucket. 181.610 Section 181.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.610 Fire bucket. A vessel not required to have a power...

  8. 46 CFR 181.610 - Fire bucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire bucket. 181.610 Section 181.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.610 Fire bucket. A vessel not required to have a power...

  9. 46 CFR 181.610 - Fire bucket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire bucket. 181.610 Section 181.610 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.610 Fire bucket. A vessel not required to have a power...

  10. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must...

  11. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in...

  12. 38 CFR 18.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 18.1 Section 18.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to effectuate...

  13. 28 CFR 18.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 18.1 Section 18.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS HEARING AND APPEAL PROCEDURES § 18.1 Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to implement the hearing and appeal procedures available to State block...

  14. 14 CFR 23.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dynamic stability. 23.181 Section 23.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short...

  15. 14 CFR 23.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability. 23.181 Section 23.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short...

  16. 14 CFR 23.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dynamic stability. 23.181 Section 23.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.181 Dynamic stability. Link to an...

  17. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  18. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  19. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  20. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  1. 5 CFR 550.181 - Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage. 550.181 Section 550.181 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.181 Coverage. (a) Each employee meeting the...

  2. 50 CFR 300.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 300.181 Section 300.181... International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.181 Definitions... definition. Entry number, for purposes of this subpart, means the unique number/identifier assigned...

  3. 19 CFR 181.132 - Disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disassembly. 181.132 Section 181.132 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.132 Disassembly. (a) Treated...

  4. 19 CFR 181.132 - Disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disassembly. 181.132 Section 181.132 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.132 Disassembly. (a) Treated...

  5. 19 CFR 181.63 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 181.63 Section 181.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Commercial Samples and Goods Returned After Repair or Alteration § 181.63...

  6. 19 CFR 181.32 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Filing procedures. 181.32 Section 181.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Post-Importation Duty Refund Claims § 181.32...

  7. 19 CFR 181.132 - Disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disassembly. 181.132 Section 181.132 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.132 Disassembly. (a) Treated...

  8. 19 CFR 181.32 - Filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing procedures. 181.32 Section 181.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Post-Importation Duty Refund Claims § 181.32...

  9. 19 CFR 181.132 - Disassembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disassembly. 181.132 Section 181.132 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of Origin § 181.132 Disassembly. (a) Treated...

  10. 49 CFR 37.181 - Applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability dates. 37.181 Section 37.181 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.181 Applicability dates. This subpart applies to...

  11. 49 CFR 37.181 - Applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability dates. 37.181 Section 37.181 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.181 Applicability dates. This subpart applies to...

  12. 49 CFR 37.181 - Applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability dates. 37.181 Section 37.181 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.181 Applicability dates. This subpart applies to...

  13. 49 CFR 37.181 - Applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability dates. 37.181 Section 37.181 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.181 Applicability dates. This subpart applies to...

  14. 49 CFR 37.181 - Applicability dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability dates. 37.181 Section 37.181 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.181 Applicability dates. This subpart applies to...

  15. 20 CFR 655.181 - Revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation. 655.181 Section 655.181 Employees... United States (H-2A Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.181 Revocation. (a) Basis for DOL revocation. The.... (b) DOL procedures for revocation. (1) Notice of Revocation. If the OFLC Administrator makes...

  16. 22 CFR 181.8 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication. 181.8 Section 181.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.8 Publication. (a) The following categories of international agreements will...

  17. 22 CFR 181.8 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication. 181.8 Section 181.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.8 Publication. (a) The following categories of international agreements will...

  18. 22 CFR 181.8 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication. 181.8 Section 181.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.8 Publication. (a) The following categories of international agreements will...

  19. 22 CFR 181.8 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication. 181.8 Section 181.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.8 Publication. (a) The following categories of international agreements will...

  20. 30 CFR 18.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 18.1 Section 18.1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General Provisions § 18.1 Purpose....

  1. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs... INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.24 Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit of addition to food, 0.005 percent)...

  2. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of...

  3. 27 CFR 44.181 - Packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 2013, § 44.181 was revised, effective Aug. 26, 2013 through Aug. 26, 2016. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packages. 44.181 Section 44.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 14 CFR 23.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability. 23.181 Section 23.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.181...

  5. 14 CFR 23.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dynamic stability. 23.181 Section 23.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.181...

  6. Incompressibility of osmium metal at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, Matt M.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-07-23

    Osmium is one of the most incompressible elemental metals, and is used as a matrix material for synthesis of ultrahard materials. To examine the behavior of osmium metal under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature, we measured the thermal equation of state of osmium metal at pressures up to 50 GPa and temperatures up to 3000 K. X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted in the laser heated diamond anvil cell at GeoSoilEnviroCARS and the High Pressure at the Advanced Photon Source and beamline 12.2.2 at the advanced light source. Ambient temperature data give a zero pressure bulk modulus of 421 (3) GPa with a first pressure derivative fixed at 4. Fitting to a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a room pressure thermal expansion of 1.51(0.06) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} with a first temperature derivative of 4.9(0.7) x 10{sup -9} K{sup -2} and the first temperature derivative of bulk modulus of be dK{sub 0}/dT = -0.055 (0.004). Fitting to a Mie-Grueneisen-Debye equation of state gives a Grueneisen parameter of 2.32 (0.08) with a q of 7.2 (1.4). A comparison of the high pressure, temperature behavior among Re, Pt, Os, shows that Os has the highest bulk modulus and lowest thermal expansion of the three, suggesting that Os-based ultrahard materials may be especially mechanically stable under extreme conditions.

  7. Osmium Metal Studied under High Pressure and Nonhydrostatic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger,M.; Tolbert, S.; Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in osmium as an ultra-incompressible material and as an analog for the behavior of iron at high pressure has inspired recent studies of its mechanical properties. We have measured elastic and plastic deformation of Os metal at high pressures using in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction in the radial geometry. We show that Os has the highest yield strength observed for any pure metal, supporting up to 10 GPa at a pressure of 26 GPa. Furthermore, our data indicate changes in the nonhydrostatic apparent c/a ratio and clear lattice preferred orientation effects at pressures above 15 GPa.

  8. Organometallic osmium arene complexes with potent cancer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Pizarro, Ana M; van Rijt, Sabine H; Healey, David J; Cooper, Patricia A; Shnyder, Steven D; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2010-11-25

    Iodido osmium(II) complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(XY)I](+) (XY = p-hydroxy or p-dimethylaminophenylazopyridine, arene = p-cymene or biphenyl) are potently cytotoxic at nanomolar concentrations toward a panel of human cancer cell lines; e.g., IC(50) = 140 nM for [Os(η(6)-bip)(azpy-NMe(2))I](+) toward A2780 ovarian cancer cells. They exhibit low toxicity and negligible deleterious effects in a colon cancer xenograft model, giving rise to the possibility of a broad therapeutic window. The most active complexes are stable and inert toward aquation. Their cytotoxic activity appears to involve redox mechanisms.

  9. Antagonizing STAT5B dimerization with an osmium complex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Juan; Wang, Wanhe; Kang, Tian-Shu; Liang, Jia-Xin; Liu, Chenfu; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Targeting STAT5 is an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and inflammation. Here, we present the novel osmium(II) complex 1 as the first metal-based inhibitor of STAT5B dimerization. Complex 1 exhibited superior inhibitory activity against STAT5B DNA binding compared to STAT5A DNA binding. Moreover, 1 repressed STAT5B transcription and blocked STAT5B dimerization via binding to the STAT5B protein, thereby inhibiting STAT5B translocation to the nucleus. Furthermore, 1 was able to selectively inhibit STAT5B phosphorylation without affecting the expression level of STAT5B. PMID:27853239

  10. New modes for the osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Timothy J; Lindsay-Scott, Peter J; Parker, Jeremy S; Callens, Cedric K A

    2010-03-05

    The osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of amino alcohol initiators formally derived from 1,4-dienes is an effective method for the construction of pyrrolidines, utilizing a novel reoxidant (4-nitropyridine N-oxide = NPNO). The cyclization of enantiopure syn- and anti-amino alcohols gives rise to enantiopure cis- and trans-2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, respectively. Moreover, the cyclization of bis-homoallylic amines bearing an exocyclic chelating group is shown to be a complementary method for trans-pyrrolidine formation.

  11. Osmium isotope constraints on ore metal recycling in subduction zones

    PubMed

    McInnes; McBride; Evans; Lambert; Andrew

    1999-10-15

    Veined peridotite xenoliths from the mantle beneath the giant Ladolam gold deposit on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, are 2 to 800 times more enriched in copper, gold, platinum, and palladium than surrounding depleted arc mantle. Gold ores have osmium isotope compositions similar to those of the underlying subduction-modified mantle peridotite source region, indicating that the primary origin of the metals was the mantle. Because the mantle is relatively depleted in gold, copper, and palladium, tectonic processes that enhance the advective transport and concentration of these fluid soluble metals may be a prerequisite for generating porphyry-epithermal copper-gold deposits.

  12. A quantitative link between recycling and osmium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Brügmann, Gerhard; Batanova, Valentina G; Kuzmin, Dmitry V

    2008-07-25

    Recycled subducted ocean crust has been traced by elevated 187Os/188Os in some studies and by high nickel and low manganese contents in others. Here, we show that these tracers are linked for Quaternary lavas of Iceland, strengthening the recycling model. An estimate of the osmium isotopic composition of both the recycled crust and the mantle peridotite implies that Icelandic Quaternary lavas are derived in part from an ancient crustal component with model ages between 1.1 _ 109 and 1.8 _ 109 years and from a peridotitic end-member close to present-day oceanic mantle.

  13. Osmium complexation of mismatched DNA: effect of the bases adjacent to mismatched 5-methylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-03-18

    The efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes is a key point for the design of sequence-specific detection of DNA methylation. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes changed depending on the type of 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine forming a mismatched base pair. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique "side reaction" was observed. However, the nature of the mismatched base pairs in the reaction site did not influence the selectivity of osmium complex formation with methylated DNA.

  14. Osmium tetroxide as a probe of RNA structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Danbin; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2017-04-01

    Structured RNAs have a central role in cellular function. The capability of structured RNAs to adopt fixed architectural structures or undergo dynamic conformational changes contributes to their diverse role in the regulation of gene expression. Although numerous biophysical and biochemical tools have been developed to study structured RNAs, there is a continuing need for the development of new methods for the investigation of RNA structures, especially methods that allow RNA structure to be studied in solution close to its native cellular conditions. Here we use osmium tetroxide (OsO4) as a chemical probe of RNA structure. In this method, we have used fluorescence-based sequencing technologies to detect OsO4 modified RNA. We characterized the requirements for OsO4 modification of RNA by investigating three known structured RNAs: the M-box, glycine riboswitch RNAs, and tRNA(asp) Our results show that OsO4 predominantly modifies RNA at uracils that are conformationally exposed on the surface of the RNA. We also show that changes in OsO4 reactivity at flexible positions in the RNA correlate with ligand-driven conformational changes in the RNA structure. Osmium tetroxide modification of RNA will provide insights into the structural features of RNAs that are relevant to their underlying biological functions.

  15. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  16. An osmium-DNA interstrand complex: application to facile DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Tainaka, Kazuki; Umemoto, Tadashi; Nomura, Akiko; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2007-11-21

    Nucleic acids often acquire new functions by forming a variety of complexes with metal ions. Osmium, in an oxidized state, also reacts with C5-methylated pyrimidines. However, control of the sequence specificity of osmium complexation with DNA is still immature, and the value of the resulting complexes is unknown. We have designed a bipyridine-attached adenine derivative for sequence-specific osmium complexation. Sequence-specific osmium complexation was achieved by hybridization of a short DNA molecule containing this functional nucleotide to a target DNA sequence and resulted in the formation of a cross-linked structure. The interstrand cross-link clearly distinguished methylated cytosines from unmethylated cytosines and was used to quantify the degree of methylation at a specific cytosine in the genome.

  17. Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Corbea, Javier Jesus Concepcion; Chen, Zoufeng; Jurss, Jonah Wesley; Templeton, Joseph L.; Hoertz, Paul; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

  18. Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Concepcion Corbea, Javier Jesus; Chen, Zuofeng; Jurss, Jonah Wesley; Templeton, Joseph L; Hoertz, Paul; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-10-28

    The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

  19. Ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as catalysts for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Corbea, Javier Jesus Concepcion; Chen, Zuofeng; Jurss, Jonah Wesley; Templeton, Joseph L.; Hoertz, Paul; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2013-09-03

    The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.

  20. Organometallic osmium(II) arene anticancer complexes containing picolinate derivatives.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Sabine H; Peacock, Anna F A; Johnstone, Russell D L; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J

    2009-02-16

    Chlorido osmium(II) arene [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Os(II)(X-pico)Cl] complexes containing X = Br (1), OH (2), and Me (3) as ortho, or X = Cl (4), CO(2)H (5), and Me (6) as para substituents on the picolinate (pico) ring have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal structures of 1 and 6 show typical "piano-stool" geometry with intermolecular pi-pi stacking of the biphenyl outer rings of 6. At 288 K the hydrolysis rates follow the order 2 > 6 > 4 > 3 > 5 > 1 with half-lives ranging from minutes to 4.4 h illustrating the influence of both electronic and steric effects of the substituents. The pK(a) values of the aqua adducts 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A were all in the range of 6.3-6.6. The para-substituted pico complexes 4-6 readily formed adducts with both 9-ethyl guanine (9EtG) and 9-ethyl adenine (9EtA), but these were less favored for the ortho-substituted complexes 1 and 3 showing little reaction with 9EtG and 9EtA, respectively. Density-functional theory calculations confirmed the observed preferences for nucleobase binding for complex 1. In cytotoxicity assays with A2780, cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human ovarian, A549 human lung, and HCT116 colon cancer cells, only complexes 4 (p-Cl) and 6 (p-Me) exhibited significant activity (IC(50) values < 25 microM). Both of these complexes were as active as cisplatin in A2780 (ovarian) and HCT116 (colon) cell lines, and even overcome cisplatin resistance in the A2780cis (ovarian) cell line. The inactivity of 5 is attributed to the negative charge on its para carboxylate substituent. These data illustrate how the chemical reactivity and cancer cell cytotoxicity of osmium arene complexes can be controlled and "fine-tuned" by the use of steric and electronic effects of substituents on a chelating ligand to give osmium(II) arene complexes which are as active as cisplatin but have a different mechanism of action.

  1. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  2. PNP pincer osmium polyhydrides for catalytic dehydrogenation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Marcello; Choualeb, Aldjia; Gusev, Dmitry G; Lough, Alan J; Major, Quinn; Moore, Brandon

    2011-09-21

    This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of a series of PNP pincer complexes of osmium OsH(3)Cl[HN(C(2)H(4)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (1), OsH(3)[N(C(2)H(4)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (2), OsH(4)[HN(C(2)H(4)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (3), and OsH(2)(PMe(3))[HN(C(2)H(4)P(i)Pr(2))(2)] (4). The tetrahydride 3 operates as an efficient catalyst at 0.1 mol% loading for the reactions of amination and dehydrogenative coupling of primary alcohols, producing secondary amines and symmetrical esters, respectively. The catalyst 3 is distinguished by outstanding stability, and it can be used in an aqueous environment at temperatures as high as 200 °C.

  3. 27 CFR 479.181 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalties. 479.181 Section 479.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  4. 27 CFR 479.181 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties. 479.181 Section 479.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  5. 27 CFR 479.181 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Penalties. 479.181 Section 479.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  6. 27 CFR 479.181 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties. 479.181 Section 479.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  7. 27 CFR 479.181 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Penalties. 479.181 Section 479.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  8. 40 CFR 63.181 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.181 Recordkeeping requirements. (a...: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the organic HAP's they handle. (2) A schematic of the... Section 63.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  9. 40 CFR 63.181 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.181 Recordkeeping requirements. (a...: (1) Identification of the process unit(s) and the organic HAP's they handle. (2) A schematic of the... Section 63.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  10. 40 CFR 436.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.181 Section 436.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory §...

  11. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  12. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 181.5 - Prior sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use of the ingredient, in order to prevent the adulteration of food in violation of section 402 of the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prior sanctions. 181.5 Section 181.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. 40 CFR 96.181 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General. 96.181 Section 96.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Opt-in...

  16. 12 CFR 303.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 303.181 Section 303.181 Banks and...) Comptroller means the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. (c) Eligible insured branch. An insured branch will be treated as an eligible depository institution within the meaning of § 303.2(r) if...

  17. 40 CFR 421.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 421.181 Section 421.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary...

  18. 40 CFR 421.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 421.181 Section 421.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary...

  19. 40 CFR 421.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 421.181 Section 421.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary...

  20. 40 CFR 421.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 421.181 Section 421.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary...

  1. 40 CFR 421.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 421.181 Section 421.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary...

  2. 40 CFR 436.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 436.181 Section 436.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory §...

  3. 33 CFR 181.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 181.3 Section 181.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY... accessory or equipment for, or appurtenance to, a boat; and (3) Any marine safety article, accessory,...

  4. 19 CFR 181.61 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability. 181.61 Section 181.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Commercial Samples and Goods Returned After Repair...

  5. 19 CFR 181.61 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability. 181.61 Section 181.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Commercial Samples and Goods Returned After Repair...

  6. 10 CFR 26.181 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 26.181 Section 26.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness... FFD policy and for making a determination of fitness....

  7. 10 CFR 26.181 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose. 26.181 Section 26.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness... FFD policy and for making a determination of fitness....

  8. 10 CFR 26.181 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose. 26.181 Section 26.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness... FFD policy and for making a determination of fitness....

  9. 10 CFR 26.181 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose. 26.181 Section 26.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness... FFD policy and for making a determination of fitness....

  10. 10 CFR 26.181 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 26.181 Section 26.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness... FFD policy and for making a determination of fitness....

  11. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  12. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  13. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  14. 21 CFR 181.24 - Antioxidants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antioxidants. 181.24 Section 181.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Antioxidants. Substances classified as antioxidants, when migrating from food-packaging material (limit...

  15. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED....97 at 25 °C, refractive index 1.400 to 1.404 at 25 °C). Linoleamide (linoleic acid amide)....

  16. Single-Site Osmium Catalysts on MgO: Reactivity and Catalysis of CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Zhang, Shengjie; Xu, Pinghong; Browning, Nigel D; Dixon, David A; Gates, Bruce C

    2017-02-21

    MgO-supported osmium dioxo species, described as Os(=O)2 {-Osupport }1 or 2 (the brackets denote O atoms of the MgO surface), formed from Os3 (CO)12 via supported Os(CO)2 , and characterized by spectroscopy, microscopy, and theory, react with ethylene at 298 K to form osmium glycol species or with CO to give osmium mono- and di-carbonyls. Os(=O)2 {-Osupport }1 or 2 is the precursor of a CO oxidation catalyst characterized by a turnover frequency of 4.0×10(-3) (molecules of CO)/(Os atom×s) at 473 K; the active species are inferred to be osmium monocarbonyls. The structures and frequencies calculated at the level of density functional theory with the B3LYP functional bolster the experimental results and facilitate structural assignments. The lowest-energy structures have various osmium oxidation and spin states. The results demonstrate not only new chemistry of the supported single-site catalysts but also their complexity and the value of complementary techniques used in concert to unravel the chemistry.

  17. Sequential separation and spectrophotometric determination of osmium and platinum with 5-chloro-2-hydroxythiobenzhydrazide.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Shakuntala S

    2009-06-01

    Osmium was determined spectrophotometrically after coprecipitation with 5-chloro-2-hydroxythiobenzhydrazide at room temperature in the pH range 2.5-5.0 and collection on microcrystalline naphthalene. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.8-14.4 ppm of osmium in a chloroform solution at 510 nm. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity were 1.056 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.018 ppm, respectively. Six replicate analyses of a solution containing 7.2 ppm of osmium gave a mean absorbance of 0.405 with a standard deviation of 0.013 and a relative standard deviation of 0.92%. The complex was stable for over 72 h. The metal-to-ligand ratio in the complex was 1:2. Interference from various ions was studied, and the method was applied to the determination of osmium in various synthetic mixtures containing commonly associated metals and corresponding to the alloy composition. The sequential separation and determination of osmium and platinum is reported.

  18. 40 CFR 98.181 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.181 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a lead production process and the facility meets...

  19. 40 CFR 98.181 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.181 Reporting threshold. You must report GHG emissions under this subpart if your facility contains a lead production process and the facility meets...

  20. 33 CFR 181.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Instruction Pamphlet for Personal Flotation Devices § 181.701 Applicability. This subpart applies to all personal flotation devices that are sold or offered for sale for...

  1. 33 CFR 181.701 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Instruction Pamphlet for Personal Flotation Devices § 181.701 Applicability. This subpart applies to all personal flotation devices that are sold or offered for sale for...

  2. 15 CFR 922.181 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.181... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary consists of the submerged lands and waters off the coast of...

  3. 15 CFR 922.181 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.181... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary consists of the submerged lands and waters off the coast of...

  4. 15 CFR 922.181 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.181... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary consists of the submerged lands and waters off the coast of...

  5. 15 CFR 922.181 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.181... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary consists of the submerged lands and waters off the coast of...

  6. 40 CFR 18.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.1 Definitions. As used in this... delegated. An Environmental Protection Research Fellowship is one which requires the performance of...

  7. 40 CFR 18.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.1 Definitions. As used in this... delegated. An Environmental Protection Research Fellowship is one which requires the performance of...

  8. 40 CFR 18.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.1 Definitions. As used in this... delegated. An Environmental Protection Research Fellowship is one which requires the performance of...

  9. 40 CFR 18.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.1 Definitions. As used in this... delegated. An Environmental Protection Research Fellowship is one which requires the performance of...

  10. 40 CFR 18.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.1 Definitions. As used in this... delegated. An Environmental Protection Research Fellowship is one which requires the performance of...

  11. 40 CFR 417.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.181 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  12. 40 CFR 417.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.181 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  13. 40 CFR 417.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.181 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  14. 40 CFR 417.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.181 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  15. 40 CFR 417.181 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.181 Specialized definitions. For the purpose of this subpart: (a) Except...

  16. 27 CFR 18.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Scope § 18.1 Scope. The regulations in... for the manufacture of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate (essence). The regulations in this part...

  17. 27 CFR 18.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Scope § 18.1 Scope. The regulations in... for the manufacture of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate (essence). The regulations in this part...

  18. 14 CFR 61.181 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.181 Applicability. This subpart prescribes the requirements for the... sport pilot rating), the conditions under which those certificates and ratings are necessary, and...

  19. 15 CFR 922.181 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.181... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary consists of the submerged lands and waters off the coast of...

  20. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio (187Os/188Osi) of ∼0.477 to unradiogenic values of ∼0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3–7.8 km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater 187Os/188Os ratios in the Late Triassic. PMID:24036603

  1. Osmium isotope stratigraphy of a marine ferromanganese crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemm, V.; Levasseur, S.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Halliday, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts provide records of long term change in ocean circulation and continental weathering. However, calibrating their age prior to 10 Ma has been entirely based on empirical growth rate models using Co concentrations, which have inherently large uncertainties and fail to detect hiatuses and erosional events. We present a new method for dating these crusts by measuring their osmium (Os) isotope record and matching it to the well-known marine Os isotope evolution of the past 80 Ma. The well-characterised crust CD29-2 from the central Pacific, was believed to define a record of paleooceanographic change from 50 Ma. Previous growth rate estimates based on the Co method are consistent with the new Os isotope stratigraphy but the dating was grossly inaccurate due to long hiatuses that are now detectable. The new chronology shows that it in fact started growing prior to 70 Ma in the late Cretaceous and stopped growing or was eroded between 13.5 and 47 Ma. With this new technique it is now possible to exploit the full potential of the oceanographic and climatic records stored in Fe-Mn crusts. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Osmium isotope evidence for a large Late Triassic impact event.

    PubMed

    Sato, Honami; Onoue, Tetsuji; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Anomalously high platinum group element concentrations have previously been reported for Upper Triassic deep-sea sediments, which are interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event. Here we report the osmium (Os) isotope fingerprint of an extraterrestrial impact from Upper Triassic chert successions in Japan. Os isotope data exhibit a marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio ((187)Os/(188)Osi) of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a platinum group element-enriched claystone layer, indicating the input of meteorite-derived Os into the sediments. The timing of the Os isotope excursion coincides with both elevated Os concentrations and low Re/Os ratios. The magnitude of this negative Os isotope excursion is comparable to those found at Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sites. These geochemical lines of evidence demonstrate that a large impactor (3.3-7.8 km in diameter) produced a global decrease in seawater (187)Os/(188)Os ratios in the Late Triassic.

  3. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of eight carbonaceous chondrites, one LL3 ordinary chondrite, and two iron meteorites were determined by resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Iron meteorite 187Re/186Os and 187OS/186Os ratios plot on the previously determined iron meteorite isochron, but most chondrite data plot 1 to 2 percent above this meteorite isochron. This suggests either that irons have significantly younger Re-Os closure ages than chondrites or that chondrites were formed from precursor materials with different chemical histories from the precursors of irons. Some samples of Semarkona (LL3) and Murray (C2M) meteorites plot 4 to 6 percent above the iron meteorite isochron, well above the field delineated by other chondrites. Murray may have lost Re by aqueous leaching during its preterrestrial history. Semarkona could have experienced a similar loss of Re, but only slight aqueous alteration is evident in the meteorite. Therefore, the isotopic composition of Semarkona could reflect assembly of isotopically heterogeneous components subsequent to 4.55 billion years ago or Os isotopic heterogeneities in the primordial solar nebula.

  4. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of carbonaceous chondrites.

    PubMed

    Walker, R J; Morgan, J W

    1989-01-27

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and Os isotopic compositions of eight carbonaceous chondrites, one LL3 ordinary chondrite, and two iron meteorites were determined by resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Iron meteorite (187)Re/(186)Os and (l87)Os/(l86)Os ratios plot on the previously determined iron meteorite isochron, but most chondrite data plot 1 to 2 percent above this meteorite isochron. This suggests either that irons have significantly younger Re-Os closure ages than chondrites or that chondrites were formed from precursor materials with different chemical histories from the precursors of irons. Some samples of Semarkona (LL3) and Murray (C2M) meteorites plot 4 to 6 percent above the iron meteorite isochron, well above the field delineated by other chondrites. Murray may have lost Re by aqueous leaching during its preterrestrial history. Semarkona could have experienced a similar loss of Re, but only slight aqueous alteration is evident in the meteorite. Therefore, the isotopic composition of Semarkona could reflect assembly of isotopically heterogeneous components subsequent to 4.55 billion years ago or Os isotopic heterogeneities in the primordial solar nebula.

  5. Rhenium-osmium-isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Walker, R. J.; Grossman, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately +/-31 million years for meteorites about 4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of Re-187, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  6. Rhenium-osmium isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately ??31 million years for meteorites ???4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of 187Re, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  7. Conduction electron g-factors in ruthenium and osmium from de Haas-van Alphen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, V. E.; Coleridge, P. T.; Templeton, I. M.; Fawcett, E.; Muir, C.; Perz, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Conduction electron g-factors have been deduced from de Haas-van Alphen line shapes in the hexagonal group VIII 4 d transition metal ruthenium and the electronically analogous 5 d metal osmium. The values for orbits normal to [0001] are 1.8±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 for the ellipsoids centered on the line LM in ruthenium and osmium, respectively, and 1.9±0.2 for the Γ-centered ellipsoid in ruthenium. The more marked suppression of the g-factor in osmium, where spin-orbit coupling is stronger, is consistent with recent theoretical studies of transition metal g-factor trends.

  8. Alpha decay of {sup 181}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Henderson, D.J.; Hermann, R.

    1995-08-01

    The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 181}Pb was measured as 7211(10) keV and 7044(15). In the first study the isotope was produced in {sup 90}Zr bombardments of {sup 94}Mo and, after traversing a velocity filter, implanted in a position-sensitive Si detector; no half life for {sup 181}Pb was reported. In the second study the isotope was produced in {sup 40}Ca bombardments of {sup 144}Sm and transported to a position in front of a Si(Au) surface barrier detector with a fast He-gas-jet capillary system; an estimate of 50 ms was determined for the {sup 181}Pb half life. Recently we investigated {sup 181}Pb {alpha} decay at ATLAS as part of a survey experiment in which a l-pnA beam of 400-MeV {sup 92}Mo was used to irradiate targets of {sup 89}Y, {sup 90,92,94}Zr, and {sup 92}Mo to examine yields for one- and two-nucleon evaporation products from symmetric cold-fusion reactions. Recoiling nuclei of interest were passed through the Fragment Mass Analyzer and implanted in a double-sided silicon strip detector for {alpha}-particle assay. With the {sup 90}Zr target we observed a group at 7065(20) keV which was correlated with A = 181 recoils and had a half life of 45(20) ms. Our new results for {sup 181}Pb therefore agreed with those of the second study. There was no indication in the {sup 90}Zr + {sup 92}Mo data of the 7211(10)-keV {alpha} particles seen by Keller et al. The interested reader is referred to the 1993 atomic mass evaluation wherein the input {alpha}-decay energies and resultant masses of the light Pb isotopes (including {sup 181}Pb) are discussed.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Mitsuru; Kamino, Shinichiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Takada, Shingo; Mitani, Shota; Yanagihara, Rika; Asano, Mamiko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide was accomplished with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone (MCPF) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In the determination of hydrogen peroxide based on the fading of the color of osmium(VIII)-MCPF complex, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 20-406 ng mL-1, with an effective molar absorption coefficient (at 580 nm) of 5.21 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and a relative standard deviation of 0.33% (n = 6). Further, we performed the characterization of MCPF and obtained the crystal structure.

  10. Chitosan-cross-linked osmium polymer composites as an efficient platform for electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Jirimali, Harishchandra Digambar; Nagarale, Rajaram Krishna; Lee, Jong Myung; Saravanakumar, Durai; Shin, Woonsup

    2013-07-22

    A new family of chitosan-cross-linked osmium polymer composites was prepared and its electrochemical properties were examined. The composites were prepared by quaternization of the poly(4-vinylpyridine) osmium bipyridyl polymer (PVP-Os) which was then cross-linked with chitosan, yielding PVP-Os/chitosan. Films made of the composites showed improved mass and electron transport owing to the porous and hydrophilic structure which is derived from the cross-links between the Os polymer and chitosan. The rate for glucose oxidation was enhanced four times when glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on PVP-Os/chitosan compared immobilization on PVP-Os.

  11. Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Herzig, H.; Osantowski, J. F.; Toft, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of samples of optical thin film materials were flown on Shuttle flight STS-8 as part of an experiment to evaluate their interaction with residual atomic oxygen in low earth orbit. Osmium was selected because of its usefulness as a reflective optical coating for far-UV instruments and for confirmation of results from previous Shuttle flights in which such coatings disappeared. Reflectance data and photographic evidence are presented to support the hypothesis that the osmium disappearance is due to reaction with oxygen to form a volatile oxide. Platinum and iridium, which were included for comparison, fared much better.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Mitsuru; Kamino, Shinichiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Takada, Shingo; Mitani, Shota; Yanagihara, Rika; Asano, Mamiko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-03

    Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide was accomplished with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone (MCPF) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In the determination of hydrogen peroxide based on the fading of the color of osmium(VIII)-MCPF complex, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 20-406 ng mL(-1), with an effective molar absorption coefficient (at 580 nm) of 5.21×10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 0.33% (n=6). Further, we performed the characterization of MCPF and obtained the crystal structure.

  13. Wiring of pyranose dehydrogenase with osmium polymers of different redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Tasca, Federico; Boland, Susan; Kujawa, Magdalena; Patel, Ilabahen; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2010-11-01

    In this study, five different flexible osmium based redox polymers were investigated for their ability to efficiently "wire" the oxidoreductase pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH, EC 1.1.99.29) from Agaricus meleagris, on graphite electrodes for possible applications in biofuel cells. A series of newly synthesised osmium based redox polymers covering the potential range between -270 and +160 mV vs. Ag|AgCl (0.1M KCl) was used. The performance of the redox polymers for enzyme wiring was investigated using glucose as substrate. The optimal operational conditions such as pH and potential were investigated.

  14. Conductive polymers derived from iron, ruthenium, and osmium metalloporphyrins: The shish-kebab approach

    PubMed Central

    Collman, James P.; McDevitt, John T.; Yee, Gordon T.; Leidner, Charles R.; McCullough, Laughlin G.; Little, William A.; Torrance, Jerry B.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of pyrazine-bridged polymers of iron(II/III), ruthenium(II/III), and osmium(II/III) octaethylporphyrin (dubbed “shish-kebab” polymers) are presented. Optical and dc conductivity measurements reveal that the ruthenium and osmium polymers, when partially oxidized, are highly conductive. Electrochemical and ESR results are presented that indicate the existence of an interesting metal-centered conduction pathway. Unlike most of the previously reported porphyrinic molecular metals in which the conduction electrons are macrocyclic-based, electron transport in these materials proceeds exclusively along the metal-pyrazine backbone. PMID:16593717

  15. Osmium isotopic evidence for ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the kerguelen islands, southern indian ocean

    PubMed

    Hassler; Shimizu

    1998-04-17

    Upper mantle xenoliths found in ocean island basalts are an important window through which the oceanic mantle lithosphere may be viewed directly. Osmium isotopic data on peridotite xenoliths from the Kerguelen Islands, an archipelago that is located on the northern Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, demonstrate that pieces of mantle of diverse provenance are present beneath the Islands. In particular, peridotites with unradiogenic osmium and ancient rhenium-depletion ages (to 1.36 x 10(9) years old) may be pieces of the Gondwanaland subcontinental lithosphere that were incorporated into the Indian Ocean lithosphere as a result of the rifting process.

  16. 19 CFR 181.122 - Disclosure to government authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Information § 181.122 Disclosure to government authorities. Nothing in § 181.121 of this part shall...

  17. Facile synthesis of hydroxymethylcytosine-containing oligonucleotides and their reactivity upon osmium oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sugizaki, Kaori; Ikeda, Shuji; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2011-06-07

    DNA strands containing a 5-hydroxymethylcytosine ((hm)C), which have recently been found in neuron cells and embryonic stem cells, were synthesized through a facile synthetic technique. The (hm)C-containing strands were efficiently oxidized at (hm)C using an osmium oxidation assay. The (hm)C was oxidized as easily as 5-methylcytosine, which can be distinguished from unmethylated cytosine.

  18. DNA-osmium complexes: recent developments in the operative chemical analysis of DNA epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2014-09-01

    The development of a reaction for the detection of one epigenetic modification in a long DNA strand is a chemically and biologically challenging research subject. Herein, we report and discuss the formation of 5-methylcytosine-osmium complexes that are used as the basis for a bisulfite-free chemical assay for DNA methylation analysis. Osmium in the oxidized state reacts with C5-methylated pyrimidines in the presence of a bipyridine ligand to give a stable ternary complex. On the basis of this reaction, an adenine derivative with a tethered bipyridine moiety has been designed for sequence-specific osmium complex formation. Osmium complexation is then achieved by hybridization of a short DNA molecule containing this functional nucleotide to a target DNA sequence and results in the formation of a cross-linked structure. This novel concept of methylation-specific reaction, based on a straightforward chemical process, expands the range of methods available for the analysis of epigenetic modifications. Advantages of the described method include amplification-insensitive detection, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine complexation, and visualization through methylation-specific in situ hybridization.

  19. Synthesis and antitumor activity of a series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing quinolinolato ligands.

    PubMed

    Tang, Quan; Ni, Wen-Xiu; Leung, Chi-Fai; Man, Wai-Lun; Lau, Kenneth King-Kwan; Liang, Yimin; Lam, Yun-Wah; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Peng, Shie-Ming; Liu, Gui-Jian; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2013-11-04

    A series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes supported by quinolinolato ligands have been prepared and they exhibit promising in vitro anti-cancer activities. These results establish that Os(VI)≡N is a potentially versatile and promising platform for the design of a variety of high-valent anti-cancer drugs.

  20. Electrical wiring of live, metabolically enhanced Bacillus subtilis cells with flexible osmium-redox polymers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Vasile; Gustavsson, Tobias; Finkelsteinas, Arnonas; von Wachenfeldt, Claes; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2009-11-11

    The present study explores genetic engineering of the respiratory chain and the application of two different flexible osmium redox polymers to achieve efficient electric communication between the gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis and an electrode. Poly(1-vinylimidazole)(12)-[Os-(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)(2)Cl(2)](+/2+) (osmium redox polymer I) and poly(vinylpyridine)-[Os-(N,N'-methylated-2,2'-biimidazole)(3)](2+/3+) (osmium redox polymer II) were investigated for efficient electrical "wiring" of viable gram-positive bacterial cells to electrodes. Using a B. subtilis strain that overproduces succinate/quinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex II), we were able to improve the current response several fold using succinate as substrate, in both batch and flow analysis modes, and using gold and graphite electrodes. The efficiency of the osmium redox polymer, working as electron transfer mediator between the cells and the electrode, was compared with that of a soluble mediator (hexacyanoferrate). The results demonstrated that mediators did not have to pass the cytosolic membrane to bring about an efficient electronic communication between bacterial cells with a thick cell wall and electrodes.

  1. Osmium-catalyzed vicinal oxyamination of alkenes by N-(4-toluenesulfonyloxy)carbamates.

    PubMed

    Masruri; Willis, Anthony C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2012-10-05

    N-(4-toluenesulfonyloxy)carbamates based on a range of common amine protecting groups serve as preformed nitrogen sources in the intermolecular osmium-catalyzed oxyamination reaction of a variety of mono-, di-, and trisubstituted alkenes. The reactions occur with low catalyst loadings and good yields and afford high regioselectivity for unsymmetrically substituted alkenes.

  2. Anthropogenic osmium in rain and snow reveals global-scale atmospheric contamination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cynthia; Sedwick, Peter N; Sharma, Mukul

    2009-05-12

    Osmium is one of the rarer elements in seawater, with typical concentration of approximately 10 x 10(-15) g g(-1) (5.3 x 10(-14) mol kg(-1)). The osmium isotope composition ((187)Os/(188)Os ratio) of deep oceans is 1.05, reflecting a balance between inputs from continental crust (approximately 1.3) and mantle/cosmic dust (approximately 0.13). Here, we show that the (187)Os/(188)Os ratios measured in rain and snow collected around the world range from 0.16 to 0.48, much lower than expected (>1), but similar to the isotope composition of ores (approximately 0.2) that are processed to extract platinum and other metals to be used primarily in automobile catalytic converters. Present-day surface seawater has a lower (187)Os/(188)Os ratio (approximately 0.95) than deep waters, suggesting that human activities have altered the isotope composition of the world's oceans and impacted the global geochemical cycle of osmium. The contamination of the surface ocean is particularly remarkable given that osmium has few industrial uses. The pollution may increase with growing demand for platinum-based catalysts.

  3. Anthropogenic osmium in rain and snow reveals global-scale atmospheric contamination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cynthia; Sedwick, Peter N.; Sharma, Mukul

    2009-01-01

    Osmium is one of the rarer elements in seawater, with typical concentration of ≈10 × 10−15 g g−1 (5.3 × 10−14 mol kg−1). The osmium isotope composition (187Os/188Os ratio) of deep oceans is 1.05, reflecting a balance between inputs from continental crust (≈1.3) and mantle/cosmic dust (≈0.13). Here, we show that the 187Os/188Os ratios measured in rain and snow collected around the world range from 0.16 to 0.48, much lower than expected (>1), but similar to the isotope composition of ores (≈0.2) that are processed to extract platinum and other metals to be used primarily in automobile catalytic converters. Present-day surface seawater has a lower 187Os/188Os ratio (≈0.95) than deep waters, suggesting that human activities have altered the isotope composition of the world's oceans and impacted the global geochemical cycle of osmium. The contamination of the surface ocean is particularly remarkable given that osmium has few industrial uses. The pollution may increase with growing demand for platinum-based catalysts. PMID:19416862

  4. 49 CFR 572.181 - General description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.181 General description. (a) The ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test... Pelvis Assembly 175-6000 Leg Assembly, Left 175-7000-1 Leg Assembly, Right 175-7000-2 Neoprene Body...

  5. 40 CFR 61.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.181 Definitions. All terms used... section as follows: Arsenic kitchen means a baffled brick chamber where inorganic arsenic vapors...

  6. 40 CFR 61.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.181 Definitions. All terms used... section as follows: Arsenic kitchen means a baffled brick chamber where inorganic arsenic vapors...

  7. 40 CFR 61.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.181 Definitions. All terms used... section as follows: Arsenic kitchen means a baffled brick chamber where inorganic arsenic vapors...

  8. 40 CFR 61.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.181 Definitions. All terms used... section as follows: Arsenic kitchen means a baffled brick chamber where inorganic arsenic vapors...

  9. 40 CFR 61.181 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.181 Definitions. All terms used... section as follows: Arsenic kitchen means a baffled brick chamber where inorganic arsenic vapors...

  10. 19 CFR 181.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT § 181.0 Scope. This part implements the duty preference and related Customs provisions applicable to imported goods under the North American Free Trade Agreement (the NAFTA) entered into on December 17, 1992, and under the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation...

  11. 19 CFR 181.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT § 181.0 Scope. This part implements the duty preference and related Customs provisions applicable to imported goods under the North American Free Trade Agreement (the NAFTA) entered into on December 17, 1992, and under the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation...

  12. 19 CFR 181.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT § 181.0 Scope. This part implements the duty preference and related Customs provisions applicable to imported goods under the North American Free Trade Agreement (the NAFTA) entered into on December 17, 1992, and under the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation...

  13. 19 CFR 181.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT § 181.0 Scope. This part implements the duty preference and related Customs provisions applicable to imported goods under the North American Free Trade Agreement (the NAFTA) entered into on December 17, 1992, and under the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation...

  14. 26 CFR 1.181-5 - Examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... basis, is a producer of films. X is the owner (within the meaning of § 1.181-1(a)(2)) of film ABC. X incurs production costs in year 1, but does not commence principal photography for film ABC until year 2. In year 1, X reasonably expects, based on all of the facts and circumstances, that film ABC will...

  15. 26 CFR 1.181-5 - Examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... basis, is a producer of films. X is the owner (within the meaning of § 1.181-1(a)(2)) of film ABC. X incurs production costs in year 1, but does not commence principal photography for film ABC until year 2. In year 1, X reasonably expects, based on all of the facts and circumstances, that film ABC will...

  16. 26 CFR 1.181-5 - Examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... basis, is a producer of films. X is the owner (within the meaning of § 1.181-1(a)(2)) of film ABC. X incurs production costs in year 1, but does not commence principal photography for film ABC until year 2. In year 1, X reasonably expects, based on all of the facts and circumstances, that film ABC will...

  17. 14 CFR 25.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short period... allowable speed appropriate to the configuration of the airplane must be heavily damped with the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short period... allowable speed appropriate to the configuration of the airplane must be heavily damped with the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short period... allowable speed appropriate to the configuration of the airplane must be heavily damped with the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short period... allowable speed appropriate to the configuration of the airplane must be heavily damped with the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.181 - Dynamic stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.181 Dynamic stability. (a) Any short period... allowable speed appropriate to the configuration of the airplane must be heavily damped with the...

  2. Dinuclear osmium(II) probes for high-resolution visualisation of cellular DNA structure using electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ashley; Gill, Martin R; Hill, Christopher J; Su, Xiaodi; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Smythe, Carl; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-12-04

    Two dinuclear osmium polypyridyl complexes function as convenient, easy to handle TEM contrast agents and facilitate the high-resolution visualisation of intracellular structure, particularly sub-nuclear detail.

  3. On line vapor generation of osmium based on solution cathode glow discharge for the determination by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Huang, Chunying; He, Qian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Zhifu; Zhang, Suicheng; Hu, Shenghong

    2013-03-15

    A novel plasma induced vapor generation method is proposed to determine osmium in solutions. Without any chemical oxidizing agents, osmium ion can be readily converted to volatile osmium tetraoxide vapor in the solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) system. The generated osmium vapor is then transported to inductively coupled plasma for determination by optical emission spectrometry. The influences of background electrolyte, carrier gas flow rate, sample flow rate, ICP power and discharge current were investigated. The analytical performances of this proposed technique were evaluated under optimized conditions. The detection limit of Os was calculated to be 0.51 ng mL(-1). The reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation (n=11) of a 2.0 μg mL(-1) standard solution, was 1.9%. This SCGD induced vapor generation is sensitive and simple, oxidation reagents free, providing an alternative analytical method for measuring Os in geological or environmental water samples.

  4. An Entry to Stable Mixed Phosphine-Osmium-NHC Polyhydrides.

    PubMed

    Buil, María L; Cardo, Juan J F; Esteruelas, Miguel A; Fernández, Israel; Oñate, Enrique

    2016-05-16

    An entry to mixed phosphine-osmium-NHC polyhydride complexes is described, starting from the five-coordinate hydrido-alkylidyne compounds [OsHCl(≡CPh)(IPr)(PR3)]OTf (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-disopropylphenyl)imidazolylidene; OTf = CF3SO3; PR3 = P(i)Pr3 (1), PPh3 (2)). The experimental procedure involves the borylation of the Os-C triple bond of 1 and 2 with NaBH4 and the subsequent alcoholysis of the borylation products OsH2Cl(η(2)-H-BCH2Ph)(IPr)(PR3) (PR3 = P(i)Pr3 (3), PPh3 (4)) or OsH2(η(2):η(2):H2BCH2Ph)(IPr)(P(i)Pr3) (5). Stirring of 3 in 2-propanol affords the five coordinate chloride-trihydride OsH3Cl(IPr)(P(i)Pr3)2 (6), which reacts with NaBH4 to give OsH3(κ(2)-H2BH2)(IPr)(P(i)Pr3) (7). This trihydride-tetrahydrideborate derivative and its PPh3 counterpart OsH3(κ(2)-H2BH2)(IPr)(PPh3) (8) can be also obtained in a one-pot procedure, starting from 1 and 2 and using methanol at -60 °C instead of 2-propanol as alcoholysis agent. The bonding situation in 7 and 8, analyzed by DFT calculations using AIM and NBO methods, resembles that found in B2H6 and contrasts with the bonding situation in the bis-σ-borane derivative 5. Stirring of 7 and 8 in 2-propanol leads to the corresponding d(2)-hexahydride derivatives OsH6(IPr)(PR3) (PR3 = P(i)Pr3 (9), PPh3 (10)), which reduce the C≡N triple bond of benzonitrile and promote the subsequent chelate-assisted ortho-CH bond activation of the resulting phenylmethanimine, to form the trihydride compounds OsH3{κ(2)-N,C-(NH═CH-C6H4)}(IPr)(PR3)2 (PR3 = P(i)Pr3 (11), PPh3 (12)), containing a stabilized orthometalated aldimine.

  5. New method for the measurement of osmium isotopes applied to a New Zealand Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Wilson, S.M.; Brooks, R.R.; Reeves, R.D.; Holzbecher, J.; Ryan, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of osmium content and isotopic abundances in geological materials has received increasing attention in recent years following the proposal of Alvarez et al.1 that mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period were caused by the impact of a large (???10km) meteorite which left anomalously high iridium levels as a geochemical signature in the boundary shales. Here we report a new and simple method for measuring osmium in geological materials, involving fusion of the sample with sodium peroxide, distillation of the osmium as the tetroxide using perchloric acid, extraction into chloroform, and absorption of the chloroform extract onto graphite powder before instrumental neutron activation analysis. In a variant of this technique, the chloroform extract is back-extracted into an aqueous phase and the osmium isotopes are determined by plasma-source mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We have used this method on the Woodside Creek (New Zealand) Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and have obtained the first osmium content (6g ng g-1) for this material. The 187Os/186Os ratio is 1.12??0.16, showing a typical non-crustal signature. This combined distillation-extraction- ICPMS method will prove to be useful for measuring osmium isotopes in other geological materials. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. 26 CFR 1.181-4T - Special rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to § 1.181-2T(d). (2) Principal photography not commencing prior to January 1, 2009. If a taxpayer claims a deduction under section 181 with respect to a production for which principal photography...

  7. 26 CFR 1.181-4T - Special rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to § 1.181-2T(d). (2) Principal photography not commencing prior to January 1, 2009. If a taxpayer claims a deduction under section 181 with respect to a production for which principal photography...

  8. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  9. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  10. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  11. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  12. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  13. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

  14. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  15. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  16. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  17. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  18. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  19. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  20. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  1. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  2. 46 CFR 181.310 - Fire main and hydrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire main and hydrants. 181.310 Section 181.310 Shipping...) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.310 Fire main and hydrants. (a) A vessel that has a power driven fire pump must have a sufficient number of fire hydrants to reach any part of the...

  3. 46 CFR 181.500 - Required number, type, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required number, type, and location. 181.500 Section 181... 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Portable Fire Extinguishers § 181.500 Required number, type, and location. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher on a vessel must be of an approved type. The...

  4. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security...

  5. 47 CFR 0.181 - The Defense Commissioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Defense Commissioner. 0.181 Section 0.181..., Defense and Emergency Preparedness Functions § 0.181 The Defense Commissioner. The Defense Commissioner is designated by the Commission. The Defense Commissioner directs the homeland security, national security...

  6. 19 CFR 181.43 - Eligible goods subject to drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible goods subject to drawback. 181.43 Section 181.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...-Deferral Programs § 181.43 Eligible goods subject to drawback. Except as otherwise provided in this...

  7. 19 CFR 181.49 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of records. 181.49 Section 181.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Programs § 181.49 Retention of records. All records required to be kept by the exporter,...

  8. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  9. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  10. 49 CFR 192.181 - Distribution line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution line valves. 192.181 Section 192.181... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.181 Distribution line valves. (a) Each high-pressure distribution system must have valves spaced so as to reduce...

  11. 22 CFR 181.7 - Transmittal to the Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmittal to the Congress. 181.7 Section 181.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.7 Transmittal to the Congress. (a) International agreements other than treaties shall be transmitted by...

  12. 50 CFR 18.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose of regulations. 18.1 Section 18.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 18.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations...

  13. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  14. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  15. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  16. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  17. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  18. 33 CFR 181.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and applicability. 181.1 Section 181.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS General § 181.1 Purpose and applicability. This part...

  19. 33 CFR 181.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation by reference. 181.4 Section 181.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS General § 181.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain...

  20. 33 CFR 181.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose and applicability. 181.1 Section 181.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS General § 181.1 Purpose and applicability. This part...

  1. 33 CFR 181.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation by reference. 181.4 Section 181.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS General § 181.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) Certain...

  2. 19 CFR 181.82 - Exceptions to application of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exceptions to application of penalties. 181.82 Section 181.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Penalties § 181.82 Exceptions...

  3. 19 CFR 181.82 - Exceptions to application of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to application of penalties. 181.82 Section 181.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Penalties § 181.82 Exceptions...

  4. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.95 Oral...

  5. 19 CFR 181.101 - Publication of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of decisions. 181.101 Section 181.101 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.101 Publication...

  6. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.95 Oral...

  7. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.95 Oral...

  8. 19 CFR 181.101 - Publication of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication of decisions. 181.101 Section 181.101 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.101 Publication...

  9. 19 CFR 181.82 - Exceptions to application of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exceptions to application of penalties. 181.82 Section 181.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Penalties § 181.82 Exceptions...

  10. 19 CFR 181.82 - Exceptions to application of penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exceptions to application of penalties. 181.82 Section 181.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Penalties § 181.82 Exceptions...

  11. 19 CFR 181.101 - Publication of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication of decisions. 181.101 Section 181.101 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.101 Publication...

  12. 19 CFR 181.101 - Publication of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication of decisions. 181.101 Section 181.101 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.101 Publication...

  13. 19 CFR 181.95 - Oral discussion of issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral discussion of issues. 181.95 Section 181.95 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.95 Oral...

  14. 19 CFR 122.181 - Definition of Customs security area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of Customs security area. 122.181 Section 122.181 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.181 Definition...

  15. 19 CFR 181.114 - Customs response to request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs response to request. 181.114 Section 181.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Decisions § 181.114 Customs response to request. (a) Time for response. The port director will issue...

  16. 49 CFR 173.181 - Pyrophoric materials (liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pyrophoric materials (liquids). 173.181 Section 173.181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.181 Pyrophoric materials (liquids). When the § 172.101 table specifies that a...

  17. 49 CFR 173.181 - Pyrophoric materials (liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pyrophoric materials (liquids). 173.181 Section 173.181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.181 Pyrophoric materials (liquids). When the § 172.101 table specifies that a...

  18. 19 CFR 181.101 - Publication of decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication of decisions. 181.101 Section 181.101 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures § 181.101 Publication...

  19. 21 CFR 820.181 - Device master record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device master record. 820.181 Section 820.181 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.181 Device master record. Each manufacturer shall...

  20. 31 CFR 18.1 - Designation of First Assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of First Assistants. 18.1 Section 18.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury OFFICIALS DESIGNATED TO PERFORM THE FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES OF CERTAIN OFFICES IN CASE OF ABSENCE, DISABILITY, OR VACANCY § 18.1 Designation of First Assistants. Except...

  1. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  2. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  3. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  4. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  5. 46 CFR 108.181 - Ventilation for enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for enclosed spaces. 108.181 Section 108.181... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Ventilation § 108.181 Ventilation for enclosed spaces. (a) Each enclosed space must be vented or ventilated. (b) There must be a means to close each vent...

  6. First-principles study of structural and thermodynamic properties of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; He, Duan-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Hai-Hua

    2011-08-01

    We employ the first-principles plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory method to calculate the equilibrium lattice parameters of osmium and the thermodynamic properties of hcp structure osmium. The obtained lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data investigated up to 58.2 GPa using radial X-ray diffraction (RXRD) together with lattice strain theory in a diamond-anvil cell and the available theoretical data of others. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the dependencies of the normalized lattice parameters a/ a0 and c/ c0 on pressure P, the normalized primitive volume V/V0 on pressure P, the Debye temperature ΘD and the heat capacity CV on pressure P and temperature T, as well as the variation of the thermal expansion α with temperature and pressure are obtained successfully.

  7. Bidentate ligands on osmium(VI) nitrido complexes control intracellular targeting and cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Johnstone, Timothy C; Bruno, Peter M; Lin, Wei; Hemann, Michael T; Lippard, Stephen J

    2013-09-25

    The cellular response evoked by antiproliferating osmium(VI) nitrido compounds of general formula OsN(N^N)Cl3 (N^N = 2,2'-bipyridine 1, 1,10-phenanthroline 2, 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 3, or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4) can be tuned by subtle ligand modifications. Complex 2 induces DNA damage, resulting in activation of the p53 pathway, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. In contrast, 4 evokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to the upregulation of proteins of the unfolded protein response pathway, increase in ER size, and p53-independent apoptotic cell death. To the best of our knowledge, 4 is the first osmium compound to induce ER stress in cancer cells.

  8. Use of an osmium complex as a universal luminescent probe for enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Virel, Ana; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose; Saa, Laura; García, Ana Carla; Pavlov, Valeri

    2009-06-15

    The water-soluble bis(bipyridine)chloro(4-picolinic acid) osmium complex, [Os(III)(bpy)2Cl(PyCOOH)]2+ (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, Py=pyridine), is fluorescent in aqueous solution, whereas the reduced form of the complex, [Os(II)(bpy)2Cl(PyCOOH)]+, shows no significant fluorescence under the same conditions. Such reversible redox control of the fluorescence of the complex can be easily adapted to follow any enzymatic reaction to yield oxidising or reducing products that are capable of interacting with [Os(III)(bpy)2Cl(PyCOOH)]2+ or [Os(II)(bpy)2Cl(PyCOOH)]+. Based on the redox reaction between products of biocatalytic reactions and the osmium complex, we have designed a simple bioanalytical assay for the detection of nerve gases, alpha-ketoglutarate, hydrogen peroxide and glucose.

  9. Electrochemical communication between microbial cells and electrodes via osmium redox systems.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Patil, Sunil A; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical communication between micro-organisms and electrodes is the integral and fundamental part of BESs (bioelectrochemical systems). The immobilization of bacterial cells on the electrode and ensuring efficient electron transfer to the electrode via a mediator are decisive features of mediated electrochemical biosensors. Notably, mediator-based systems are essential to extract electrons from the non-exoelectrogens, a major group of microbes in Nature. The advantage of using polymeric mediators over diffusible mediators led to the design of osmium redox polymers. Their successful use in enzyme-based biosensors and BFCs (biofuel cells) paved the way for exploring their use in microbial BESs. The present mini-review focuses on osmium-bound redox systems used to date in microbial BESs and their role in shuttling electrons from viable microbial cells to electrodes.

  10. Rhenium-osmium concentration and isotope systematics in group IIAB iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium abundances, and osmium isotopic compositions were measured by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry in thirty samples, including replicates, of five IIA and eight IIB iron meteorites. Log plots of Os vs. Re abundances for IIA and IIB irons describe straight lines that approximately converge on Lombard, which has the lowest Re and Os abundances and highest 187Re/188Os measured in a IIA iron to date. The linear IIA trend may be exactly reproduced by fractional crystallization, but is not well fitted using variable partition coefficients. The IIB iron trend, however, cannot be entirely explained by simple fractional crystallization. One explanation is that small amounts of Re and Os were added to the asteroid core during the final stages of crystallization. Another possibility is that diffusional enrichment of Os may have occurred in samples most depleted in Re and Os. -from Authors

  11. Osmium polypyridyl complexes and their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Swetha, T; Reddy, K Raveendranath; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received much attention in recent years owing to their efficient conversion of sunlight to electricity. DSSCs became successful alternatives to silicon photovoltaic devices by virtue of their low fabrication costs and easy preparation methods. In DSSCs the dye plays the key role. This review summarizes the applications of osmium sensitizers in DSSCs. We also briefly discussed their synthesis and the effect of various electrolyte systems on device efficiencies.

  12. MCDHF calculations of isotope shifts of even-parity fine-structure levels in neutral osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Bouazza, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations have been carried out in order to determine the isotope shifts of all the fine-structure levels belonging to the even-parity configurations (5d+6s)8 in neutral osmium, Os I. The theoretical predictions have been compared to laser spectroscopy measurements available in the literature showing a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  13. DNA photocleavage by an osmium(II) complex in the PDT window.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujie; Joyce, Lauren E; Dickson, Nicole M; Turro, Claudia

    2010-09-28

    The extended pi-delocalization of dppn (benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2,3-c]phenazine) results in a (3)pipi* state as the lowest triplet excited state in [Os(bpy)(2)(dppn)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), which generates a (1)O(2) quantum yield of 0.42. Together with its (3)MLCT absorption, this new osmium complex shows efficient DNA cleavage under irradiation of lambda(irr) > or = 645 nm.

  14. Isotopic signature and impact of car catalysts on the anthropogenic osmium budget.

    PubMed

    Poirier, André; Gariépy, Clement

    2005-06-15

    Higher osmium concentrations and lower 187Os/188Os ratios in sediments from urban areas have been linked to anthropogenic osmium sources. Automobile catalytic converters that use platinum group metals (PGM) are a potential source for this Os pollution. We present the first direct Os concentrations and isotopic measurements of catalytic converters for major automobile brands to test the assumption that car catalysts release Os with a distinct signature in the environment. The analysis of four new catalytic converters yields similar low 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1-0.2), suggesting a similar source for the PGM. The Os concentrations measured are in the ppt range (6-228 ppt). From our results, the osmium contribution of the car catalysts to the environment through attrition (wearing and grinding down of the catalyst by friction) is predicted to be low, <0.2 pg Os/m2/year in highly urbanized environment. We show that Os loss from catalysts as volatile OsO4 is important at car catalyst operating temperatures. Moreover, we estimate that car catalysts may be responsible for up to approximately 120 pg Os/m2 deposited per year in urban areas and that part of it may be exported to sedimentary sinks. Car catalytic converters are thus an important anthropogenic osmium source in densely populated areas. The NIST car catalyst standard (SRM-2557, made from recycled used catalysts) yields higher concentrations (up to 721 ppt Os) and a more radiogenic isotopic composition (approximately 0.38), perhaps indicative of Os contamination during its preparation.

  15. Ligand-free osmium clusters supported on MgO. A density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Goellner, J.F.; Neyman, K.M.; Mayer, M.; Noertemann, F.; Gates, B.C.; Roesch, N.

    2000-03-21

    The interactions of Os{sub 4}, Os{sub 5}, and Os{sub 5}C clusters with various sites of a MgO(001) support were investigated theoretically with the aid of a scalar-relativistic density functional cluster model method. Adsorption geometries of C{sub 4{upsilon}} clusters centered above a magnesium cation and the Os atoms oriented either to the nearest surface oxygen anions (A) or between them (B) were considered. The influence of surface V{sub s} and V{sub s}{sup 2{minus}} defects on the adsorption of the clusters was also investigated. The calculated base Os-Os distances in supported Os{sub 5} and Os{sub 5}C square-pyramidal clusters are at most 0.1 {angstrom} longer (2.5--2.6{angstrom}) than the values calculated for the corresponding free osmium cluster but about 0.4{angstrom} (or more) shorter than the values determined by EXAFS spectroscopy for MgO-powder-supported clusters formed by decarbonylation of [Os{sub 5}C(CO){sub 14}]{sup 2{minus}} and shown to retains the Os{sub 5}C frame. The experimental Os-Os distances characterizing the supported clusters are close to the experimental and calculated bond lengths for coordinatively saturated osmium carbonyl clusters; the result favors the suggestion that the supported clusters characterized by EXAFS spectroscopy were not entirely ligand-free. The models reported here are inferred to be too simplified to capture all the pertinent structural details of MgO-powder-supported osmium clusters, but they are sufficient to indicate a significant role of defect sites in the adsorption of supported osmium clusters and, the authors infer, other transition metal clusters.

  16. Osmium(II)--versus ruthenium(II)--arene carbohydrate-based anticancer compounds: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Nazarov, Alexey A; Hartinger, Christian G; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Dyson, Paul J; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2010-08-21

    The synthesis and in vitro anticancer activity of Os(II)-arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite co-ligands are reported. The compounds were characterized by standard methods and the molecular structure of dichlorido(eta(6)-p-cymene)(3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranoside)osmium(II) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Complexes with chlorido leaving groups undergo hydrolysis by consecutive formation of aqua compounds, followed by cleavage of a P-O bond of sugar phosphite ligands, as demonstrated by NMR studies. These observations are similar to those of analogous Ru(II)-arene complexes; however the rate of hydrolysis is very slow for osmium compounds. The complexes with oxalato leaving groups resist hydrolysis; no hydrolytic species were detected by (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy over several days. Within this series of Os compounds, in vitro anticancer activity is highest for the most lipophilic chlorido complex dichlorido(eta(6)-p-cymene)(3,5,6-bicyclophosphite-1,2-O-cyclohexylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranoside)osmium(II).

  17. Osmium and neodymium isotopic constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of Siberian flood basalt sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    Picrites from the Gudchikhinsky suite, the oldest rocks examined, have ??Os of +5.3 to +6.1 and ??Nd of +3.7 to +4.0. The osmium and neodymium isotopic compositions of these rocks are similar to some modern ocean-island basalts (OIB), consistent with their derivation from an mantle plume. Picrites from the stratigraphically higher Tuklonsky suite have similar ??Os of +3.4 to +6.5, but ??Nd of -0.9 to -2.6. The similar ??Os, but lower ??Nd , suggest that some magmas from the same OIB-type, mantle source were contaminated by lithospheric components. A differentiated ankaramite flow, associated with the top of the stratigraphically higher Morongovsky suite, has ??Os of +9.8 to +10.2 and ??Nd of +1.3 to +1.4. The higher ??Os may indicate that the plume source was heterogeneous with respect to osmium isotopic composition, consistent with osmium isotopic measurements in rocks from other plume sources. Mg-rich, alkaline rocks (meymechites) from the Guli area that erupted much nearer the end of the flood-basalt event have ??Os of -1.2 to -2.6 and ??Nd of +3.7 to +4.9. These rocks were probably produced by low degrees of partial melting of mantle after the main stages of flood-basalt production. -from Authors

  18. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Kazunari

    2016-04-15

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO{sub 3}, LiOsO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal–insulator transition in NaOsO{sub 3}, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO{sub 3}, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca{sub 2}FeOsO{sub 6} may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices. - Graphical Abstract: Flux-grown crystals of NaOsO{sub 3} under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in a belt-type apparatus. The crystal shows a magnetically driven metal–insulator transition at a temperature of 410 K. - Highlights: • Short review of high-pressure crystal growth of solid-state osmium oxides. • Wide variety of magnetic properties of solid-state osmium oxides. • Perovskite and related dense structures stabilized at 3–17 GPa.

  19. hsa-mir-181a and hsa-mir-181b function as tumor suppressors in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Cheng, Zihao; Zhang, Junxia; Li, Rui; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Zhen; You, Yongping

    2008-10-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate protein expression by cleaving or repressing the translation of target mRNAs. In mammal animals, their function mainly represses the target mRNAs transcripts via imperfectly complementary to the 3' UTR of target mRNAs. Several miRNAs have been recently reported to be involved in modulation of glioma development, especially some up-regulated miRNA, such as hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-221. However, here we reported that the down-regulated hsa-miR-181a and hsa-miR-181b of hsa-miR-181 family were also involved in oncogenesis of glioma. Our studies showed that hsa-miR-181a and hsa-miR-181b functioned as tumor suppressors which triggered growth inhibition, induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion in glioma cells. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressive effect of hsa-miR-181b in glioma cells was more apparent than the effect of hsa-miR-181a. These findings suggest aberrantly down-regulated hsa-miR-181a and hsa-miR-181b may be critical factors that contribute to malignant appearance in human gliomas.

  20. Osmium-catalyzed tethered aminohydroxylation of glycals: a stereodirected access to 2- and 3-aminosugars.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Stefania; Cardona, Francesca; Goti, Andrea

    2015-02-06

    The osmium-catalyzed aminohydroxylation of glycals has been achieved with complete regio- and stereocontrol by taking advantage of the Donohoe tethering approach. Glucals and galactals showed complementary reactivity in dependence of the stage at which the reaction was performed, i.e., directly or after double-bond shift consequent to a Ferrier rearrangement (that is, on the 1,2 or 2,3-unsaturated sugar), allowing access to both classes of 2-amino (mannosamine) and 3-amino (talosamine) sugar derivatives, respectively.

  1. Features of the band structure for semiconducting iron, ruthenium, and osmium monosilicides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, V. L. Migas, D. B.; Borisenko, V. E.; Dorozhkin, N. N.

    2009-02-15

    The pseudopotential method has been used to optimize the crystal lattice and calculate the energy band spectra for iron, ruthenium and, osmium monosilicides. It is found that all these compounds are indirect-gap semiconductors with band gaps of 0.17, 0.22, and 0.50 eV (FeSi, RuSi, and OsSi, respectively). A distinctive feature of their band structure is the 'loop of extrema' both in the valence and conduction bands near the center of the cubic Brillouin zone.

  2. Photocurrent generation from thylakoid membranes on osmium-redox-polymer-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hassan; Hasan, Kamrul; Emek, Sinan Cem; Dilgin, Yusuf; Åkerlund, Hans-Erik; Albertsson, Per-Åke; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2015-03-01

    Thylakoid membranes (TMs) are uniquely suited for photosynthesis owing to their distinctive structure and composition. Substantial efforts have been directed towards use of isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (PRCs) for solar energy harvesting, however, few studies investigate the communication between whole TMs and electrode surfaces, due to their complex structure. Here we report on a promising approach to generate photosynthesis-derived bioelectricity upon illumination of TMs wired with an osmium-redox-polymer modified graphite electrode, and generate a photocurrent density of 42.4 μA cm(-2).

  3. Proton-coupled electron transfer and multielectron oxidations in complexes of ruthenium and osmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dovletoglou, A.

    1992-01-01

    This doctoral research concerns the mechanism of proton-coupled electron transfer over an extended pH range. These processes between ruthenium and osmium complexes and hydroquinones have been studied using spectrophotometric methods and cyclic voltammetry. Elucidation of the mechanistic details has been attempted by using isotopic labelling, kinetic analysis, and numerical simulation of complex kinetic schemes. The coordination and redox chemistry of polypyridyl-acetylacetonato and -oxalato complexes of ruthenium and the role of ancillary ligands in defining the properties of Ru[sup IV]O complexes were explored. These studies represent the first attempt to probe possible 2e[sup [minus

  4. Direct radiometric dating of hydrocarbon deposits using rhenium-osmium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Selby, David; Creaser, Robert A

    2005-05-27

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) data from migrated hydrocarbons establish the timing of petroleum emplacement for the giant oil sand deposits of Alberta, Canada, at 112 +/- 5.3 million years ago. This date does not support models that invoke oil generation and migration for these deposits in the Late Cretaceous. Most Re-Os data from a variety of deposits within the giant hydrocarbon system show similar characteristics, supporting the notion of a single source for these hydrocarbons. The Re-Os data disqualify Cretaceous rocks as the primary hydrocarbon source but suggest an origin from older source rocks. This approach should be applicable to dating oil deposits worldwide.

  5. Osmium(II) polypyridyl polyarginine conjugate as a probe for live cell imaging; a comparison of uptake, localization and cytotoxicity with its ruthenium(II) analogue.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Dolan, Ciarán; Moriarty, Roisin D; Martin, Aaron; Neugebauer, Ute; Forster, Robert J; Davies, Anthony; Volkov, Yuri; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-08-28

    A first investigation into the application of a luminescent osmium(ii) bipyridine complex to live cell imaging is presented. Osmium(ii) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline was prepared and conjugated to octaarginine, a cell penetrating peptide. The photophysics, cell uptake and cytotoxicity of this osmium complex conjugate were performed and compared with its ruthenium analogue. Cell uptake and distribution of both ruthenium and osmium conjugates were very similar with rapid transmembrane transport of the osmium probe (complete within approx. 20 min) and dispersion throughout the cytoplasm and organelles. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of the osmium complex (λmax 726 nm) coincides well with the biological optical window and this facilitated luminescent and luminescence lifetime imaging of the cell which was well resolved from cell autofluorescence. The large Stokes shift of the emission also permitted resonance Raman mapping of the dye within CHO cells. Rather surprisingly, the osmium conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity when incubated both in the dark and under visible irradiation. This was attributed to the remarkable stability of this complex which was reflected by the complete absence of photo-bleaching of the complex even under extended continuous irradiation. In addition, when compared to its ruthenium analogue its luminescence was short-lived in water therefore rendering it insensitive to O2.

  6. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by §...

  7. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by §...

  8. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by §...

  9. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by §...

  10. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by §...

  11. 19 CFR 10.181-10.182 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 10.181-10.182 Section 10.181-10.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Watches and Watch...

  12. 19 CFR 10.181-10.182 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 10.181-10.182 Section 10.181-10.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Watches and Watch...

  13. 19 CFR 10.181-10.182 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 10.181-10.182 Section 10.181-10.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Watches and Watch...

  14. 19 CFR 10.181-10.182 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 10.181-10.182 Section 10.181-10.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Watches and Watch...

  15. 19 CFR 10.181-10.182 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 10.181-10.182 Section 10.181-10.182 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Watches and Watch...

  16. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  17. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  18. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  20. 19 CFR 181.81 - Applicability to NAFTA transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability to NAFTA transactions. 181.81... to NAFTA transactions. Except as otherwise provided in § 181.82 of this part, all criminal, civil or... violations of the laws and regulations relating to the NAFTA....

  1. 19 CFR 181.81 - Applicability to NAFTA transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability to NAFTA transactions. 181.81... to NAFTA transactions. Except as otherwise provided in § 181.82 of this part, all criminal, civil or... violations of the laws and regulations relating to the NAFTA....

  2. 19 CFR 181.81 - Applicability to NAFTA transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability to NAFTA transactions. 181.81... to NAFTA transactions. Except as otherwise provided in § 181.82 of this part, all criminal, civil or... violations of the laws and regulations relating to the NAFTA....

  3. 19 CFR 181.81 - Applicability to NAFTA transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability to NAFTA transactions. 181.81... to NAFTA transactions. Except as otherwise provided in § 181.82 of this part, all criminal, civil or... violations of the laws and regulations relating to the NAFTA....

  4. 19 CFR 181.81 - Applicability to NAFTA transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability to NAFTA transactions. 181.81... to NAFTA transactions. Except as otherwise provided in § 181.82 of this part, all criminal, civil or... violations of the laws and regulations relating to the NAFTA....

  5. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  6. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  7. 33 CFR 181.703 - Information pamphlet: Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information pamphlet: Contents. 181.703 Section 181.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Instruction Pamphlet for Personal Flotation...

  8. 33 CFR 181.703 - Information pamphlet: Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information pamphlet: Contents. 181.703 Section 181.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Instruction Pamphlet for Personal Flotation...

  9. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Completion of claim for drawback. 181.47 Section 181.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... advertising brochure from the supplier, the basis for which the order was placed, and copy of a letter...

  10. 27 CFR 41.181 - Records of large cigars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records of large cigars. 41.181 Section 41.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  11. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  12. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  13. 19 CFR 181.13 - Failure to comply with requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Failure to comply with requirements. 181.13 Section 181.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Export Requirements §...

  14. 19 CFR 181.122 - Disclosure to government authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  15. 19 CFR 181.62 - Commercial samples of negligible value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples of negligible value. 181.62 Section 181.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Commercial Samples and...

  16. 19 CFR 181.75 - Issuance of origin determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Issuance of origin determination. 181.75 Section 181.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications...

  17. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of confidentiality. 181.121 Section 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  18. 19 CFR 181.75 - Issuance of origin determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance of origin determination. 181.75 Section 181.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications...

  19. 19 CFR 181.13 - Failure to comply with requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to comply with requirements. 181.13 Section 181.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Export Requirements §...

  20. 19 CFR 181.13 - Failure to comply with requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to comply with requirements. 181.13 Section 181.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Export Requirements §...

  1. 19 CFR 181.75 - Issuance of origin determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of origin determination. 181.75 Section 181.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications...

  2. 19 CFR 181.94 - Nonconforming requests for advance rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. 181.94 Section 181.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures §...

  3. 19 CFR 181.122 - Disclosure to government authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  4. 19 CFR 181.49 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention of records. 181.49 Section 181.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and...

  5. 19 CFR 181.75 - Issuance of origin determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance of origin determination. 181.75 Section 181.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications...

  6. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maintenance of confidentiality. 181.121 Section 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  7. 19 CFR 181.43 - Eligible goods subject to drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible goods subject to drawback. 181.43 Section 181.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and...

  8. 19 CFR 181.49 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 181.49 Section 181.49 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and...

  9. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance of confidentiality. 181.121 Section 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  10. 19 CFR 181.122 - Disclosure to government authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  11. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maintenance of confidentiality. 181.121 Section 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  12. 19 CFR 181.13 - Failure to comply with requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to comply with requirements. 181.13 Section 181.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Export Requirements §...

  13. 19 CFR 181.122 - Disclosure to government authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of...

  14. 19 CFR 181.94 - Nonconforming requests for advance rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. 181.94 Section 181.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures §...

  15. 19 CFR 181.62 - Commercial samples of negligible value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial samples of negligible value. 181.62 Section 181.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Commercial Samples and...

  16. 19 CFR 181.94 - Nonconforming requests for advance rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. 181.94 Section 181.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures §...

  17. 19 CFR 181.94 - Nonconforming requests for advance rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonconforming requests for advance rulings. 181.94 Section 181.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Advance Ruling Procedures §...

  18. 19 CFR 181.43 - Eligible goods subject to drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible goods subject to drawback. 181.43 Section 181.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and...

  19. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  20. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  1. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  2. 19 CFR 181.33 - Customs processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs processing procedures. 181.33 Section 181.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF....33 Customs processing procedures. (a) Status determination. After receipt of a post-importation...

  3. 26 CFR 1.181-6T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... first day of principal photography for which occurs on or after February 9, 2007, and before January 1...-between animation” in place of “principal photography”. Productions involving both animation and live-action photography may use either standard. (2) The applicability of §§ 1.181-1T through 1.181-5T...

  4. 49 CFR 173.181 - Pyrophoric materials (liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pyrophoric materials (liquids). 173.181 Section... Class 7 § 173.181 Pyrophoric materials (liquids). When the § 172.101 table specifies that a hazardous... pyrophoric liquids may not exceed two-thirds of the rated capacity of the outer drum. For example, a 220...

  5. 49 CFR 173.181 - Pyrophoric materials (liquids).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pyrophoric materials (liquids). 173.181 Section... Class 7 § 173.181 Pyrophoric materials (liquids). When the § 172.101 table specifies that a hazardous... pyrophoric liquids may not exceed two-thirds of the rated capacity of the outer drum. For example, a 220...

  6. 9 CFR 319.181 - Cheesefurters and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheesefurters and similar products. 319.181 Section 319.181 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  7. 27 CFR 70.181 - Disposition of seized property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of seized property. 70.181 Section 70.181 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection of Excise and Special...

  8. 19 CFR 181.11 - Certificate of Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificate of Origin. 181.11 Section 181.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... such other medium or format as approved by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration for...

  9. 19 CFR 181.115 - Intervention in importer's protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intervention in importer's protest. 181.115 Section 181.115 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... employer number assigned by Revenue Canada, Customs and Excise; in the case of a Mexican exporter...

  10. 19 CFR 181.12 - Maintenance and availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 181.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... chapter in the case of U.S. importer records. (2) To the Canadian or Mexican customs administration. If a... the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under Article 506 of the NAFTA (see § 181.74(e) of...

  11. 19 CFR 181.12 - Maintenance and availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 181.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... chapter in the case of U.S. importer records. (2) To the Canadian or Mexican customs administration. If a... the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under Article 506 of the NAFTA (see § 181.74(e) of...

  12. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Person entitled to receive drawback. 181.48 Section 181.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Canadian or Mexican customs manifest, cargo manifest, or certified copies of these documents, shall...

  13. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Person entitled to receive drawback. 181.48 Section 181.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Canadian or Mexican customs manifest, cargo manifest, or certified copies of these documents, shall...

  14. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Person entitled to receive drawback. 181.48 Section 181.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Canadian or Mexican customs manifest, cargo manifest, or certified copies of these documents, shall...

  15. 19 CFR 181.12 - Maintenance and availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 181.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... chapter in the case of U.S. importer records. (2) To the Canadian or Mexican customs administration. If a... the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under Article 506 of the NAFTA (see § 181.74(e) of...

  16. 19 CFR 181.11 - Certificate of Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificate of Origin. 181.11 Section 181.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... such other medium or format as approved by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration for...

  17. 19 CFR 181.11 - Certificate of Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificate of Origin. 181.11 Section 181.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... such other medium or format as approved by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration for...

  18. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Person entitled to receive drawback. 181.48 Section 181.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Canadian or Mexican customs manifest, cargo manifest, or certified copies of these documents, shall...

  19. 19 CFR 181.12 - Maintenance and availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 181.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... chapter in the case of U.S. importer records. (2) To the Canadian or Mexican customs administration. If a... the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under Article 506 of the NAFTA (see § 181.74(e) of...

  20. 19 CFR 181.11 - Certificate of Origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificate of Origin. 181.11 Section 181.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... such other medium or format as approved by the Canadian or Mexican customs administration for...

  1. 19 CFR 181.48 - Person entitled to receive drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Person entitled to receive drawback. 181.48 Section 181.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., Canadian or Mexican customs manifest, cargo manifest, or certified copies of these documents, shall...

  2. 19 CFR 181.115 - Intervention in importer's protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intervention in importer's protest. 181.115 Section 181.115 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... employer number assigned by Revenue Canada, Customs and Excise; in the case of a Mexican exporter...

  3. 19 CFR 181.12 - Maintenance and availability of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 181.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... chapter in the case of U.S. importer records. (2) To the Canadian or Mexican customs administration. If a... the Canadian or Mexican customs administration under Article 506 of the NAFTA (see § 181.74(e) of...

  4. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... acrylonitrile monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of...

  5. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... acrylonitrile monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of...

  6. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  7. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  8. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  9. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  10. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  11. 46 CFR 181.115 - Applicability; preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability; preemptive effect. 181.115 Section 181... effect. (a) Except as otherwise required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an existing vessel... regulations in this part. (d) The regulations in this part have preemptive effect over State or...

  12. 46 CFR 181.115 - Applicability; preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability; preemptive effect. 181.115 Section 181... effect. (a) Except as otherwise required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an existing vessel... regulations in this part. (d) The regulations in this part have preemptive effect over State or...

  13. 26 CFR 1.181-6 - Effective/applicability date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....181-1 through 1.181-5 apply to productions the first day of principal photography for which occurs on... principal photography or in-between animation occurs on or after December 7, 2012. (b) Pre-effective date... applies and for which the first day of principal photography (or in-between animation) occurred...

  14. 26 CFR 1.181-6 - Effective/applicability date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....181-1 through 1.181-5 apply to productions the first day of principal photography for which occurs on... principal photography or in-between animation occurs on or after December 7, 2012. (b) Pre-effective date... applies and for which the first day of principal photography (or in-between animation) occurred...

  15. 26 CFR 1.181-6T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... first day of principal photography for which occurs on or after February 9, 2007, and before January 1...-between animation” in place of “principal photography”. Productions involving both animation and live-action photography may use either standard. (2) The applicability of §§ 1.181-1T through 1.181-5T...

  16. 27 CFR 9.181 - McMinnville.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false McMinnville. 9.181 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.181 McMinnville. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “McMinnville.”...

  17. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  18. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  19. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  20. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  1. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  7. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  8. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  9. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  10. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on...

  11. 22 CFR 181.9 - Internet Web site publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Internet Web site publication. 181.9 Section... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.9 Internet Web site publication. The Office of the Assistant... responsible for making publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department of State each treaty...

  12. 22 CFR 181.9 - Internet Web site publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Internet Web site publication. 181.9 Section... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.9 Internet Web site publication. The Office of the Assistant... responsible for making publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department of State each treaty...

  13. 22 CFR 181.9 - Internet Web site publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internet Web site publication. 181.9 Section... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.9 Internet Web site publication. The Office of the Assistant... responsible for making publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department of State each treaty...

  14. 22 CFR 181.9 - Internet Web site publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Internet Web site publication. 181.9 Section... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.9 Internet Web site publication. The Office of the Assistant... responsible for making publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department of State each treaty...

  15. 22 CFR 181.9 - Internet Web site publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Internet Web site publication. 181.9 Section... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.9 Internet Web site publication. The Office of the Assistant... responsible for making publicly available on the Internet Web site of the Department of State each treaty...

  16. C-H bond activation of the methyl group of the supporting ligand in an osmium(III) complex upon reaction with H2O2: formation of an organometallic osmium(IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Ashikari, Kenji; Itoh, Shinobu

    2013-01-18

    Oxidation of the hydroxoosmium(III) complex resulted in C-H bond activation of the methyl group of the supporting ligand (N,N'-dimethyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane). The product was an osmium(IV) complex exhibiting a seven-coordinate structure with an additional Os-CH(2) bond.

  17. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  18. Ruthenium- and osmium-arene-based paullones bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit as potential anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Arion, Vladimir B; Dobrov, Anatolie; Göschl, Simone; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rapta, Peter

    2012-09-04

    A modified paullone ligand bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit (HL) and its ruthenium(II) and osmium(II)-arene complexes [M(p-cymene)(HL)Cl]Cl·nH(2)O (M = Ru, Os) exhibit high antiproliferative activity in human cancer cell lines.

  19. Three-Dimensional Structural Analysis of MgO-Supported Osmium Clusters by Electron Microscopy with Single-Atom Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, C.; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2013-05-10

    Size, shape, nuclearity: Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the 3D structures of MgO-supported Os3, Os4, Os5, and Os10 clusters, which have structures nearly matching those of osmium carbonyl compounds with known crystal structures. The samples are among the best-defined supported catalysts.

  20. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, Kazunari

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO3, LiOsO3, and Na2OsO4, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal-insulator transition in NaOsO3, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO3, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca2FeOsO6 may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices.

  1. Homogeneous electrochemical detection of hippuric acid in urine based on the osmium-antigen conjugate.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2013-07-22

    A homogeneous electrochemical immunoassay is based on the interaction of osmium-antigen conjugate with its antibody. The novelty presented herein is the direct conjugation of the osmium complex to a small antigen and the application of the quantitative analysis of the antigen and its antibody as the electrical signal for homogeneous immunoassay. The small antigen chosen is hippuric acid (HA), a major urinary metabolite in toluene-exposed humans. As a redox mediator, [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(4-aminomethylpyridine-HA)Cl](+/2+) (Os-HA antigen) has been synthesized and characterized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The synthesized Os-HA antigen shows reversible redox peaks at E(½)=0.056 V versus Ag/AgCl. The homogeneous competitive immunoassay relies on the interaction between Os-HA antigen conjugate and free antigen to its antibody, which can generate electrical signals linearly proportional to the free antigen monitored by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry in the range of 10 μg mL(-1) to 5.12 mg mL(-1). The cutoff concentration of HA in urine samples is 2.0 mg mL(-1), so the method can be used to develop a HA immunosensor. Moreover, the proposed homogeneous electrochemical immunoassay method can be applied to detect low concentrations of small antigens found in the healthcare area.

  2. Electrochemical communication between heterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus with electrodes mediated by an osmium redox polymer.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Patil, Sunil A; Górecki, Kamil; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2013-10-01

    The metabolically versatile purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus was investigated to check its possible applicability in biofuel cells and electrochemical microbial biosensors. The wild type strain ATCC 17015 and mutant strain 37b4 lacking the lipopolysaccharide capsule was compared for their ability to communicate with electrodes modified with an osmium redox polymer. In this work, aerobic heterotrophically grown R. capsulatus were used to screen for efficient cell-electrode communication for later implementation using photoheterotrophically grown bacteria. The bacterial cells embedded in the osmium polymer matrix demonstrated efficient electrical "wiring" with the electrodes and were able to generate a noticeable current with succinate as substrate. Interestingly, at 2mM succinate the wild type strain showed much better bioelectrocatalytic current generation (4.25 μA/cm(2)) than the strain lacking capsule (1.55 μA/cm(2)). The wild type strain also exhibited a stable current response for longer time, demonstrating that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide in fact enhances the stability of the polymer matrix layer of the modified electrode. Control experiments with R. capsulatus without any mediator did not show any current irrespective of the capsule presence. This demonstrates that development of photosensors and other light driven bioelectrochemical devices could be feasible using R. capsulatus and will be at focus for future studies.

  3. Osmium-Based Pyrimidine Contrast Tags for Enhanced Nanopore-Based DNA Base Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Henley, Robert Y; Vazquez-Pagan, Ana G; Johnson, Michael; Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-01-01

    Nanopores are a promising platform in next generation DNA sequencing. In this platform, an individual DNA strand is threaded into nanopore using an electric field, and enzyme-based ratcheting is used to move the strand through the detector. During this process the residual ion current through the pore is measured, which exhibits unique levels for different base combinations inside the pore. While this approach has shown great promise, accuracy is not optimal because the four bases are chemically comparable to one another, leading to small differences in current obstruction. Nucleobase-specific chemical tagging can be a viable approach to enhancing the contrast between different bases in the sequence. Herein we show that covalent modification of one or both of the pyrimidine bases by an osmium bipyridine complex leads to measureable differences in the blockade amplitudes of DNA molecules. We qualitatively determine the degree of osmylation of a DNA strand by passing it through a solid-state nanopore, and are thus able to gauge T and C base content. In addition, we show that osmium bipyridine reacts with dsDNA, leading to substantially different current blockade levels than exhibited for bare dsDNA. This work serves as a proof of principle for nanopore sequencing and mapping via base-specific DNA osmylation.

  4. Hydrolysis and cytotoxic properties of osmium(II)/(III)-DMSO-azole complexes. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Egger, Alexander; Cebrián-Losantos, Berta; Stepanenko, Iryna N; Krokhin, Artem A; Eichinger, Rene; Jakupec, Michael A; Arion, Vladimir B; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2008-08-01

    The antiproliferative properties of the osmium(II) complexes cis,fac-[Os(II)Cl(2)(DMSO)(3)(L)] and trans,cis,cis-[Os(II)Cl(2)(DMSO)(2)(L)(2)] (L = 1H-pyrazole, 1H-imidazole) were studied in three human cancer cell lines, namely 41M (ovary), SK-BR-3 (breast), and SW480 (colon). Their activities were compared with those of osmium(III) and ruthenium(III) NAMI-A type complexes on HT-29 (colon) and SK-BR-3 cancer cell lines. While IC(50) values of all the Os(II) complexes were found to be >1000 microM in all cell lines, Os and Ru-NAMI-A type complexes showed remarkable antiproliferative activity. The marginal in vitro cytotoxicity of the Os(II) compounds is presumably attributed to their resistance to hydrolysis. However, the Os-NAMI-A complexes, which are also kinetically stable in aqueous solution, showed reasonable antiproliferative activity in vitro when compared with the analogous Ru compounds and with the Os(II)-DMSO-azole species, indicating that hydrolysis might be not a prerequisite for the antitumor activity of Os-NAMI-A type complexes.

  5. Magneto-Transport Studies of Molecular Beam Epitaxial Grown Osmium Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottier, Ryan; Zhao, Wei; Amir, Fatima; Hossain, Khalid; Anibou, Noureddine; Donner, Wolfgang; Golding, Terry

    2006-03-01

    Semiconducting transition metal silicides present a possible solution to on-chip integration of optical and electronic Si-based circuitry. Two phases of osmium silicide (OsSi2 and Os2Si3) are predicted to have promising optical characteristics but require additional development to fully determine their feasibility for high-quality devices. This study has been motivated by reports that OsSi2 has a bandgap between 1.4--1.8eV [1, 2] and Os2Si3 may have a direct bandgap of 0.95 eV [3] or 2.3 eV [1]. In this paper we will present temperature dependent (20 < T < 300 K) magneto Hall measurements of molecular beam epitaxial grown osmium silicide thin films. Os and Si were coevaporated onto Si(100) substrates at varying growth rates and temperatures. XRD was performed in order to identify the silicide phases present. We will discuss our results in relation to the known phase diagrams and our growth parameters. [1] L. Schellenberg et al., J. Less-Common Met. 144, 341 (1988). [2] K. Mason and G. Müller-Vogt, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 34 (1983). [3] A. B. Filonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16494 (1999).

  6. Iridium- and Osmium-decorated Reduced Graphenes as Promising Catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Shan; Sofer, Zdeněk; Toh, Rou Jun; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Luxa, Jan; Pumera, Martin

    2015-06-22

    Renewable energy sources are highly sought after as a result of numerous worldwide problems concerning the environment and the shortage of energy. Currently, the focus in the field is on the development of catalysts that are able to provide water splitting catalysis and energy storage for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). While platinum is an excellent material for HER catalysis, it is costly and rare. In this work, we investigated the electrocatalytic abilities of various graphene-metal hybrids to replace platinum for the HER. The graphene materials were doped with 4f metals, namely, iridium, osmium, platinum and rhenium, as well as 3d metals, namely, cobalt, iron and manganese. We discovered that a few hybrids, in particular iridium- and osmium-doped graphenes, have the potential to become competent electrocatalysts owing to their low costs and-more importantly-to their promising electrochemical performances towards the HER. One of the more noteworthy observations of this work is the superiority of these two hybrids over MoS2 , a well-known electrocatalyst for the HER.

  7. Coupling osmium complexes to epoxy-functionalised polymers to provide mediated enzyme electrodes for glucose oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ó Conghaile, Peter; Pöller, Sascha; MacAodha, Domhnall; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Leech, Dónal

    2013-05-15

    Newly synthesised osmium complex-modified redox polymers were tested for potential application as mediators in glucose oxidising enzyme electrodes for application to biosensors or biofuel cells. Coupling of osmium complexes containing amine functional groups to epoxy-functionalised polymers of variable composition provides a range of redox polymers with variation possible in redox potential and physicochemical properties. Properties of the redox polymers as mediators for glucose oxidation were investigated by co-immobilisation onto graphite with glucose oxidase or FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase using a range of crosslinkers and in the presence and absence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Electrodes prepared by immobilising [P20-Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl].PF6, carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase exhibit glucose oxidation current densities as high as 560μAcm(-2) for PBS containing 100mM glucose at 0.45V vs. Ag/AgCl. Films prepared by crosslinking [P20-Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl].PF6, an FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, and carbon nanotubes achieve current densities of 215μAcm(-2) in 5mM glucose at 0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl, showing some promise for application to glucose oxidising biosensors or biofuel cells.

  8. A New Lifshitz Transition and the Equation of State of Osmium

    SciTech Connect

    Occelli, F; Aracne, C M; Teter, D M; Hanfland, M; Canny, B; Couzinet, B; Chervin, J; Badro, J; Farber, D L

    2003-11-05

    We have measured the equation of state (EoS) of osmium to 75 GPa under hydrostatic conditions at room temperature using angle dispersive x-ray diffraction. A least-squares fit of the data using a third order Birch-Murnaghan EoS yields K{sub 0} = 411 {+-} 6 GPa and K'{sub 0} = 4.0 {+-} 0.2, showing osmium is in fact more compressible than diamond. Most importantly, we have documented an anomaly in the compressibility at 20.3 GPa associated with a large discontinuity in the first pressure derivative of the c/a ratio. This discontinuity likely arises from the collapse of the small hole-ellipsoid in the Fermi surface near the L point. There has been much interest in the possibility of a Lifshitz [1] or electronic topological transition (ETT) in zinc at high-pressure near 10 GPa. Interestingly, while the experimental data remain somewhat ambiguous [2-5], most simulations suggest the ETT exists in this pressure range [6-8]. Recently, Steinle-Neumann et al. [8] have shown that the transition arises from changes in the band structure near the high-symmetry point K where three bands cross the Fermi surface upon compression. Thus one might expect that other hcp metals should exhibit similar phenomena. The hcp 4d and 5d transition elements Re, Os and Ru are known to be among the densest and stiffest metals [9,10] suggesting that these might in fact be poor candidates in which to look for such effects. In osmium however, experimental and theoretical results [11,12] have shown the existence of small local maxima in the band structure just above the Fermi energy near the high-symmetry point L on the zone boundary [11]. These structures might potentially fall below the Fermi energy upon compression and give rise to an ETT. Osmium is of further interest as recent EoS measurements by Cynn et al. [13] have suggested that Os (K{sub 0} = 462 GPa and K'{sub 0} = 2.4) has the lowest known compressibility, lower even than diamond (K{sub 0} = 446 GPa and K'{sub 0} = 3) [14]. This

  9. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  10. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  11. 33 CFR 181.702 - Information pamphlet: requirement to furnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Flotation Devices § 181.702 Information pamphlet: requirement to furnish. (a) Each manufacturer of a Type I, II, III, IV, or V personal flotation device (PFD) must furnish with each PFD that is sold or...

  12. 33 CFR 181.702 - Information pamphlet: requirement to furnish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Flotation Devices § 181.702 Information pamphlet: requirement to furnish. (a) Each manufacturer of a Type I, II, III, IV, or V personal flotation device (PFD) must furnish with each PFD that is sold or...

  13. 19 CFR 181.33 - Customs processing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Post-Importation Duty Refund Claims § 181... or dutiability of the good is filed in the Court of International Trade, the port director...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... furnish the Board with an annual report by a certified public accountant of all funds remitted to such....181 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 50 CFR 18.1 - Purpose of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 18.1 Purpose of regulations. The regulations contained in this part implement the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1361-1407), which among... importing of marine mammals....

  16. 26 CFR 1.181-4 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... before computing gain or loss from the disposition. (2) Principal photography not commencing prior to the... for which principal photography does not commence prior to the date of expiration of section 181,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.181-4 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... before computing gain or loss from the disposition. (2) Principal photography not commencing prior to the... for which principal photography does not commence prior to the date of expiration of section 181,...

  18. 26 CFR 1.181-4 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... before computing gain or loss from the disposition. (2) Principal photography not commencing prior to the... for which principal photography does not commence prior to the date of expiration of section 181,...

  19. Osmium isotopes in Ivory Coast tektites: Confirmation of a meteoritic component and rhenium depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    The sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry method was used for the measurement of concentrations and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium in four Ivory Coast tektites. These tektites have crustal major and trace element composition, as well as large negative epsilon(sub Nd)(-20) and positive epsilon(sub Sr)(+260 to +300) which are characteristic for old continental crust. Os concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.30 ppb were found, clearly much higher than average crustal values, Os-187/Os-186 ratios of about 1.2-1.7, and low Re-187/Os-186 ratios. These results show unambiguously the existence of a meteoritic component (on the order of 0.06%) in the Ivory Coast tektites. Low Re abundances are the result of fractionation of Re during the impact.

  20. A breast cancer stem cell-selective, mammospheres-potent osmium(VI) nitrido complex.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lin, Wei; Johnstone, Timothy C; Bruno, Peter M; Zheng, Yao-Rong; Hemann, Michael T; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-10-15

    The effect of a newly developed osmium(VI) nitrido complex, 1, on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) is reported. The complex displays selective toxicity for HMLER breast cancer cells enriched with CD44-positive, CSC-like cells over the same cells having reduced CSC character. Remarkably, 1 also reduces the proportion of CSCs within a heterogeneous breast cancer cell population and irreversibly inhibits the formation of free-floating mammospheres to an extent similar to that of salinomycin, a natural product that targets CSCs. Detailed mechanistic studies reveal that in breast cancer cells 1 induces DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress, the latter being responsible for the CSC selectivity. The anti-CSC properties of 1 provide a strong impetus for the development of new metal-based compounds to target CSCs and to treat chemotherapy-resistant and relapsed tumors.

  1. Polynuclear ruthenium, osmium and gold complexes. The quest for innovative anticancer chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, Christian G; Phillips, Andrew D; Nazarov, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    Polynuclear compounds are a relatively new and successful approach in metal-based cancer chemotherapy as typified by the trinuclear Pt compound BBR3464 which was evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss newer developments of polynuclear ruthenium, osmium and gold complexes, focusing on their anticancer activity. The compounds presented are often supposed to exert their anticancer activity by different modes of action as compared to established drugs, including newly proposed mechanisms such as enzyme inhibition, crosslinking of biomacromolecules or through photo-activation, though many of the examples are also capable of binding to DNA nucleobases. Important metabolization and chemical characteristics of such compounds are discussed, and if the appropriate data is available, molecular modes of action are highlighted.

  2. Striking difference in antiproliferative activity of ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Novak, Maria; Meier, Samuel M; Jakupec, Michael A; Cuzan, Olesea; Turta, Constantin; Tommasino, Jean-Bernard; Jeanneau, Erwann; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B

    2013-06-03

    Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (Hind) (1c), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (Hpz) (2c), (cation)(+) = (H2bzim)(+), Hazole = 1H-benzimidazole (Hbzim) (3c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (Him) (4c) and (cation)(+)[trans-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (1t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (2t), as well as osmium analogues of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (n-Bu4N)(+), Hazole =1H-indazole (5c), 1H-pyrazole (6c), 1H-benzimidazole (7c), 1H-imidazole (8c), (cation)(+) = Na(+); Hazole =1H-indazole (9c), 1H-benzimidazole (10c), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11c), (cation)(+) = H2pz(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (13c), and (cation)(+)[trans-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = n-Bu4N(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (5t), 1H-pyrazole (6t), (cation)(+) = Na(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (9t), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12t), have been synthesized. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis, 1D and 2D NMR) and X-ray crystallography (1c·CHCl3, 1t·CHCl3, 2t, 3c, 6c, 6t, 8c). The antiproliferative activity of water-soluble compounds (1c, 1t, 3c, 4c and 9c, 9t, 10c, 11c, 11t, 12c, 12t, 13c) in the human cancer cell lines A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma) has been assayed. The effects of metal (Ru vs Os), cis/trans isomerism, and azole heterocycle identity on cytotoxic potency and cell line selectivity have been elucidated. Ruthenium complexes (1c, 1t, 3c, and 4c) yielded IC50 values in the low micromolar concentration range. In contrast to most

  3. A Crossover from High Stiffness to High Hardness: The Case of Osmium and Its Borides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yongming; Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Anhu; Liang, Yongcheng

    2016-09-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are currently raising great expectations for hard and superhard materials. Using the widely attracting osmium (Os) and its borides (OsB, Os2B3 and OsB2) as prototypes, we demonstrate by first-principles calculations that heavy transition metals, which possess high stiffness but low hardness, can be converted into highly hard materials by incorporating of light elements to form compounds. Such a crossover is a manifestation that the underlying sources of high stiffness and high hardness are fundamentally different. The stiffness is related to elastic deformation that is closely associated with valence electron density, whereas the hardness depends strongly on plastic deformation that is determined by bonding nature. Therefore, the incorporation of light atoms into transition metal should be a valid pathway of designing hard and superhard materials. This strategy is in principle also applicable to other transition-metal borides, carbides, and nitrides.

  4. Borinium cations as sigma-B-H ligands in osmium complexes.

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; Fernández-Alvarez, Francisco J; López, Ana M; Mora, Malka; Oñate, Enrique

    2010-04-28

    The complex OsH(2)Cl(2)(P(i)Pr(3))(2) reacts with pinacolborane, Me(2)NH-BH(3), and (t)BuNH(2)-BH(3) to give the complexes OsH(2)Cl{eta(2)-HBOC(CH(3))(2)C(CH(3))(2)OBpin}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) and OsH(2)Cl(eta(2)-HBNR(1)R(2))(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (R(1) = R(2) = Me; R(1) = H, R(2) = (t)Bu) containing monosubstituted alkoxy- and amidoborinium cations coordinated as sigma-B-H ligands. The process is proposed to take place via the electrophilic 14-valence-electron fragment OsHCl(P(i)Pr(3))(2), which promotes hydride transfer from the corresponding borane to the osmium atom.

  5. Structure-activity relationships for organometallic osmium arene phenylazopyridine complexes with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Basri, Aida M B H; Braddick, Darren; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-10-28

    We report the synthesis and characterisation of 32 half sandwich phenylazopyridine Os(II) arene complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(phenylazopyridine)X](+) in which X is chloride or iodide, the arene is p-cymene or biphenyl and the pyridine and phenyl rings contain a variety of substituents (F, Cl, Br, I, CF(3), OH or NO(2)). Ten X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Cytotoxicity towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells ranges from high potency at nanomolar concentrations to inactivity. In general the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group (e.g. F, Cl, Br or I) at specific positions on the pyridine ring significantly increases cytotoxic activity and aqueous solubility. Changing the arene from p-cymene to biphenyl and the monodentate ligand X from chloride to iodide also increases the activity significantly. Activation by hydrolysis and DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action since both the highly active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(2-F-azpy)I]PF(6) (9) and the moderately active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(3-Cl-azpy)I]PF(6) (23) are very stable and inert towards aquation. Studies of octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) and subcellular distributions of osmium in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells suggested that cell uptake and targeting to cellular organelles play important roles in determining activity. Although complex 9 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, the ROS level did not appear to play a role in the mechanism of anticancer activity. This class of organometallic osmium complexes has new and unusual features worthy of further exploration for the design of novel anticancer drugs.

  6. Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium in silicates and chromite from the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gijbels, R.h.; Millard, H.T.; Desborough, G.A.; Bartel, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium contents were determined in eight ortho pyroxene, seven plagioclase, and three chromite mineral separates from the eastern Bushveld Complex. Neutron activation analysis was used to measure the platinum metals, and uranium was determined by a fission track technique. The platinum metals were found to be present within each mine??ral in the proportions Os:Ru:Ir = 1:7:1, while the concentrations of these metals in the minerals are in the ratios orthopyroxene:plagioclase:chromite = 1:16:700. The concentration of uranium was found to range from 11 to 66 ppb (parts per billion) and not to vary significantly from mineral to mineral. The data for the platinum metals are consistent with a model in which the eastern Bushveld Complex was formed by the fractional crystallization of two separately injected magmas. A computer fit of this model to these data indicates that the initial concentrations of Os, Ru and Ir in the first magma were 0.24, 2.0 and 0.21 ppb and in the second magma were 0.16, 1.1 and 0.18 ppb, respectively. The fit also yields the distribution coefficients for the partitioning between the liquid and cumulus orthopyroxene, cumulus plagioclase and cumulus chromite. These coefficients (mineral/liquid) for osmium are 4.5, 66 and 2700; for ruthenium, they are 5, 65 and 2700; and for iridium, they are 4, 60 and 1600. To make this fit, it was necessary to hypothesize the existence of two types of chromite: one type with a large distribution coefficient, presumably formed as a cumulus phase at high temperature, and another, more prevalent type with a smaller distribution coefficient, which may have been formed by postcumulus growth at a lower temperature. This hypothesis is supported by data for coexisting chromite-silicate pairs, which indicate that the chromite grains expelled these platinum metals as they cooled. ?? 1974.

  7. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    The organometallic "half-sandwich" compound [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance.

  8. An osmium(III)/osmium(V) redox couple generating Os(V)(O)(OH) center for cis-1,2-dihydroxylation of alkenes with H2O2: Os complex with a nitrogen-based tetradentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Kitayama, Kazuhiro; Mori, Seiji; Itoh, Shinobu

    2012-11-21

    For the synthesis of the 1,2-diols, cis-1,2-dihydroxylation of alkenes catalyzed by osmium(VIII) tetroxide (OsO(4)) is a powerful method. However, OsO(4) is quite toxic due to its highly volatile and sublimable nature. Thus, the development of alternative catalysts for cis-1,2-dihydroxylation of alkenes is highly challenging. Our approach involves the use of a nitrogen-based tetradentate ligand, tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa), for an osmium center to develop a new osmium catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as a cheap and environmentally benign oxidant. The new Os-tpa complex acts as a very efficient turnover catalyst for syn-selective dihydroxylation of various alkenes (turnover number ∼1000) in aqueous media, and H(2)O(2) oxidant is formally incorporated into the products quantitatively (100% atom efficiency). The reaction intermediates involved in the catalytic cycle have been isolated and characterized crystallographically as [Os(III)(OH)(H(2)O)(tpa)](2+) and [Os(V)(O)(OH)(tpa)](2+) complexes. The observed syn-selectivity, structural characteristics of the intermediates, and kinetic studies have suggested a concerted [3 + 2]-cycloaddition mechanism between [Os(V)(O)(OH)(tpa)](2+) and alkenes, which is strongly supported by DFT calculations.

  9. Ligand-incorporation site in 5-methylcytosine-detection probe modulating the site of osmium complexation with the target DNA.

    PubMed

    Sugizaki, Kaori; Nakamura, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2012-09-01

    ICON Probes, short DNA strands containing an adenine linked to a bipyridine ligand, formed an interstrand cross-link with 5-methylcytosine located opposite the modified adenine in the presence of an osmium oxidant. The location of a bipyridine-tethered adenine in the probes varied the selectivity of the reactive base. An ICON probe where the modified adenine was located at the probe center showed a 5-methylcytosine-selective osmium complexation, whereas an ICON probe with the modified adenine at the strand end exhibited high reactivity towards thymine as well as 5-methylcytosine. The modulation of reactive bases by the incorporation of a bipyridine-tethered adenine site made facilitates design of ICON probes for the fluorometric detection of 5-methylcytosine.

  10. Dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-containing half-sandwich complexes of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium: biological relevance and synthetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Sadler, Peter J

    2012-04-21

    This review describes how the incorporation of dicarba-closo-dodecarboranes into half-sandwich complexes of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium might lead to the development of a new class of compounds with applications in medicine. Such a combination not only has unexplored potential in traditional areas such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy agents, but also as pharmacophores for the targeting of biologically important proteins and the development of targeted drugs. The synthetic pathways used for the syntheses of dicarba-closo-dodecarboranes-containing half-sandwich complexes of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium and iridium are also reviewed. Complexes with a wide variety of geometries and characteristics can be prepared. Examples of addition reactions on the metal centre, B-H activation, transmetalation reactions and/or direct formation of metal-metal bonds are discussed (103 references).

  11. An osmium-free method of epon embedment that preserves both ultrastructure and antigenicity for post-embedding immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Phend, K D; Rustioni, A; Weinberg, R J

    1995-03-01

    Immunocytochemistry for amino acids with post-embedding gold is compatible with glutaraldehyde fixation, osmication, and embedding in epoxy-based plastics, but immunogold detection of larger molecules in the central nervous system commonly requires special procedures, e.g. minimizing exposure to glutaraldehyde, eliminating osmium, cryosectioning, and/or embedding in acrylic plastics. These make samples more difficult to prepare and view and may compromise structural preservation. We report a new technique, fixing with high levels of glutaraldehyde, replacing osmium with tannic acid followed by other heavy metals and p-phenylenediamine, and embedding in Epon. This method optimizes antigenicity while retaining the structural preservation and convenient handling of standard embedding techniques. Compared to standard Epon embedment, labeling for neuropeptides in brain and spinal cord is improved. Moreover, the present method yields excellent labeling of glutamate receptors (difficult to identify with traditional post-embedding techniques) and enables simultaneous visualization of associated neurotransmitters.

  12. Sensitive voltammetric detection of DNA damage at carbon electrodes using DNA repair enzymes and an electroactive osmium marker.

    PubMed

    Havran, Ludek; Vacek, Jan; Cahová, Katerina; Fojta, Miroslav

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach to electrochemical sensing of DNA damage, using osmium DNA markers and voltammetric detection at the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique is based on enzymatic digestion of DNA with a DNA repair enzyme exonuclease III (exoIII), followed by single-strand (ss) selective DNA modification by a complex of osmium tetroxide with 2,2'-bipyridine. In double-stranded DNA possessing free 3'-ends, the exoIII creates ss regions that can accommodate the electroactive osmium marker. Intensity of the marker signal measured at the pyrolytic graphite electrode responded well to the extent of DNA damage. The technique was successfully applied for the detection of (1) single-strand breaks (ssb) introduced in plasmid DNA by deoxyribonuclease I, and (2) apurinic sites generated in chromosomal calf thymus DNA upon treatment with the alkylating agent dimethyl sulfate. The apurinic sites were converted into the ssb by DNA repair endonuclease activity of the exoIII enzyme. We show that the presented technique is capable of detection of one lesion per approximately 10(5) nucleotides in supercoiled plasmid DNA.

  13. Atomically Resolved Site-Isolated Catalyst on MgO: Mononuclear Osmium Dicarbonyls formed from Os3(CO)12

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Ceren; kulkarni, Apoorva; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    Supported triosmium clusters, formed from Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on MgO, were treated in helium at 548 K for 2 h, causing fragmentation of the cluster frame and the formation of mononuclear osmium dicarbonyls. The cluster breakup and the resultant fragmented species were characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and the fragmented species were imaged by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The spectra identify the surface osmium complexes as Os(CO){sub 2}{l_brace}O{sub support}{r_brace}{sub n} (n = 3 or 4) (where the braces denote support surface atoms). The images show site-isolated Os atoms in mononuclear osmium species on MgO. The intensity analysis on the images of the MgO(110) face showed that the Os atoms were located atop Mg columns. This information led to a model of the Os(CO){sub 2} on MgO(110), with the distances approximated as those determined by EXAFS spectroscopy, which are an average over the whole MgO surface; the results imply that these complexes were located at Mg vacancies.

  14. Wiring microbial biofilms to the electrode by osmium redox polymer for the performance enhancement of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Shin, Hyosul; Kang, Chan; Kim, Sunghyun

    2016-04-01

    An osmium redox polymer, PAA-PVI-[Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2Cl]+/2+ that has been used in enzymatic fuel cells and microbial sensors, was applied for the first time to the anode of single-chamber microbial fuel cells with the mixed culture inoculum aiming at enhancing performance. Functioning as a molecular wire connecting the biofilm to the anode, power density increased from 1479 mW m(-2) without modification to 2355 mW m(-2) after modification of the anode. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic activity of an anodic biofilm was greatly enhanced in the presence of an osmium redox polymer, indicating that electrons were more efficiently transferred to the anode via co-immobilized osmium complex tethered to wiring polymer chains at the potential range of -0.3 V-+0.1 V (vs. SCE). The optimum amount of the redox polymer was determined to be 0.163 mg cm(-2).

  15. Atomically Resolved Site-Isolated Catalyst on MgO: Mononuclear Osmium Dicarbonyls formed from Os3(CO)12.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ceren; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D; Gates, Bruce C

    2012-07-19

    Supported triosmium clusters, formed from Os3(CO)12 on MgO, were treated in helium at 548 K for 2 h, causing fragmentation of the cluster frame and the formation of mononuclear osmium dicarbonyls. The cluster breakup and the resultant fragmented species were characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and the fragmented species were imaged by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The spectra identify the surface osmium complexes as Os(CO)2{Osupport}n (n = 3 or 4) (where the braces denote support surface atoms). The images show site-isolated Os atoms in mononuclear osmium species on MgO. The intensity analysis on the images of the MgO(110) face showed that the Os atoms were located atop Mg columns. This information led to a model of the Os(CO)2 on MgO(110), with the distances approximated as those determined by EXAFS spectroscopy, which are an average over the whole MgO surface; the results imply that these complexes were located at Mg vacancies.

  16. The cyro-thermochromatographic separator (CTS): A new detectionand separation system for highly volatile osmium and hassium (element108) tetroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kirbach, U.W.; Folden III, C.M.; Ginter, T.N.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Ninov, V.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Patin, J.B.; Seward, N.K.; Strellis,D.A.; Sudowe, R.; Wilk, P.A.; Zielinski, P.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nitsche, H.

    2002-03-08

    We implemented a new concept for heavy element chemistry research using an ion separator to separate the desired products from the beam, transfer products and other undesirable by-products prior to chemical studies. First, a Recoil product Transfer Chamber (RTC) was designed and attached to the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) to collect and transfer the recoiling products to the chemical separation system. The RTC consists of a wire-grid-supported thin mylar foil ({le}) 200 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} that separates the BGS detector chamber, at 1.3 mbar pressure, from the chemistry system at different pressures ranging from 480 mbar to 2000 mbar. The overall transport efficiency ranged between 30% and 15%, compared to the activity measured in the focal plane detector of the BGS. The CTS was designed as a separation and {alpha}-decay detection system for the highly volatile tetroxides of osmium and hassium, element 108. The CTS, shown in figure 1, consists of two rows of 32-{alpha} detectors arranged along a negative temperature gradient. The tetroxides adsorb on the surface of one of the silicone photodiodes at a certain deposition temperature, and the nuclide is then identified by the {alpha}-decay. To test the CTS with the expected hassium homologue osmium, different {alpha}-active osmium isotopes were produced using the nuclear reactions {sup 118}Sn({sup 56}Fe, 4,5n) {sup 170,169}Os and {sup 120}Sn({sup 56}Fe, 4,5n) {sup 172,171}Os. After preseparation in the BGS, a mixture of 90% helium and 10% oxygen was used to transport the osmium to a quartz tube heated to 1225 K, where OsO{sub 4} was formed. The negative temperature gradient in the CTS ranged from 248 K to 173 K. Using a flow rate of 500 mL/min, most of the osmium activity was adsorbed at a temperature of about 203 K. From the measured {alpha}-activity distribution, an adsorption enthalpy of 40 {+-} 1 kJ/mol for OsO{sub 4} on the detector surface was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The results show

  17. Backscattered electron image of osmium-impregnated/macerated tissues as a novel technique for identifying the cis-face of the Golgi apparatus by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Koga, D; Bochimoto, H; Watanabe, T; Ushiki, T

    2016-07-01

    The osmium maceration method with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled to demonstrate directly the three-dimensional (3D) structure of membranous cell organelles. However, the polarity of the Golgi apparatus (that is, the cis-trans axis) can hardly be determined by SEM alone, because there is no appropriate immunocytochemical method for specific labelling of its cis- or trans-faces. In the present study, we used the osmium impregnation method, which forms deposits of reduced osmium exclusively in the cis-Golgi elements, for preparation of specimens for SEM. The newly developed procedure combining osmium impregnation with subsequent osmium maceration specifically visualised the cis-elements of the Golgi apparatus, with osmium deposits that were clearly detected by backscattered electron-mode SEM. Prolonged osmication by osmium impregnation (2% OsO4 solution at 40°C for 40 h) and osmium maceration (0.1% OsO4 solution at 20°C for 24 h) did not significantly impair the 3D ultrastructure of the membranous cell organelles, including the Golgi apparatus. This novel preparation method enabled us to determine the polarity of the Golgi apparatus with enough information about the surrounding 3D ultrastructure by SEM, and will contribute to our understanding of the global organisation of the entire Golgi apparatus in various differentiated cells.

  18. Origin of platinum-group mineral assemblages in a mantle tectonite at Unst deduced from mineral chemistry and osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Lord, Richard A.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-04-01

    This study assesses textural and mineral chemistry data, whole-rock and mineral separate Os-isotope compositions for distinct platinum-group mineral (PGM) inclusion assemblages in an isolated chromitite pod at Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland. The investigation employed a multi-technique approach and utilized a number of analytical techniques, including electron microprobe analysis, ID ICP-MS after high pressure acid digestion, and LA MC-ICP-MS. Two distinct PGM assemblages have been recognized. They comprise a 'primary' euhedrally shaped (up to 15 μm in size) PGM assemblage, which occur as inclusions in chromite, and a modified 'secondary' subeuhedral to anhedral PGM assemblage (up to 100 μm) associated with Ru-rich pentlandite observed in cracks filled by chlorite or serpentine, interstitially to chromite grains. A 'primary' PGM assemblage is represented by solitary grains of laurite or iridian osmium and composite grains that display well defined phase boundaries between two or three distinct PGM. The latter are dominated by laurite and iridian osmium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200 - 1250° C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07. The inconsistent grouping of different primary PGM grains argues against an origin by subsolidus exsolution from the chromite host, providing useful information on conditions of their genesis. The 'secondary' PGM assemblage is polyphase, with dominant laurite, intimately intergrown with native osmium, irarsite and Ru-rich pentlandite. This

  19. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanje, Sunil B.; Kokare, Arjun N.; Suryavanshi, Vishal J.; Waghmode, Duryodhan P.; Joshi, Sunil S.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2016-12-01

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8 mol L- 1 HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10 mL of chloroform with a 5 min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440 nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25 μg mL- 1, the optimum concentration range was 10-20 μg mL- 1 of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94 × 103 L mol- 1 cm- 1 and 0.021 μg cm- 2, respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%.

  20. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample.

    PubMed

    Zanje, Sunil B; Kokare, Arjun N; Suryavanshi, Vishal J; Waghmode, Duryodhan P; Joshi, Sunil S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2016-12-05

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8molL(-1) HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10mL of chloroform with a 5min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25μgmL(-1), the optimum concentration range was 10-20μgmL(-1) of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94×10(3)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.021μgcm(-2), respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%.

  1. Complete sequence of the IncT-type plasmid pT-OXA-181 carrying the blaOXA-181 carbapenemase gene from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Villa, Laura; Carattoli, Alessandra; Nordmann, Patrice; Carta, Claudio; Poirel, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The gene encoding the carbapenemase OXA-181 (an OXA-48 variant) was identified from a Citrobacter freundii isolate coproducing NDM-1. The whole sequence of plasmid pT-OXA-181 bearing the blaOXA-181 gene was determined and revealed a 84-kb mobilizable but non-self-conjugative IncT-type plasmid. It totally differs from the 7.6-kb ColE-type and blaOXA-181-bearing plasmid recently identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. However, in both plasmids, insertion sequence ISEcp1 might have played a role in acquisition of the blaOXA-181 gene.

  2. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  3. Amide-Directed Formation of Five-Coordinate Osmium Alkylidenes from Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The amide-directed synthesis of five-coordinate osmium alkylidene derivatives from alkynes is reported. These types of complexes, which have been elusive until now because of the tendency of osmium to give hydride alkylidyne species, are prepared by reaction of the dihydride OsH2Cl2(PiPr3)2 (1) with terminal alkynes containing a distal amide group. Complex 1 reacts with N-phenylhex-5-ynamide and N-phenylhepta-6-ynamide to give OsCl2{=C(CH3)(CH2)nNH(CO)Ph}(PiPr3)2 (n = 3 (2), 4 (3)). The relative position of carbonyl and NH groups in the organic substrates has no influence on the reaction. Thus, treatment of 1 with N-(pent-4-yn-1-yl)benzamide leads to OsCl2{=C(CH3)(CH2)3NHC(O)Ph}(PiPr3)2 (4). The new compounds are intermediate species in the cleavage of the C–C triple bond of the alkynes. Under mild conditions, they undergo the rupture of the Cα–CH3 bond of the alkylidene, which comes from the alkyne triple bond, to afford six-coordinate hydride–alkylidyne derivatives. In dichloromethane, complex 2 gives a 10:7 mixture of OsHCl2{≡C(CH2)3C(O)NHPh}(PiPr3)2 (5) and OsHCl2{≡CCH(CH3)(CH2)2C(O)NHPh}(PiPr3)2 (6). The first complex contains a linear separation between the alkylidyne Cα atom and the amide group, whereas the spacer is branched in the second complex. In contrast to the case for 2, complex 4 selectively affords OsHCl2{≡C(CH2)3NHC(O)Ph}(PiPr3)2 (7). In spite of their instability, these compounds give the alkylidene–allene metathesis, being a useful entry to five-coordinate vinylidene complexes, including the dicarbon-disubstituted OsCl2(=C=CMe2)(PiPr3)2 (8) and the monosubstituted OsCl2(=C=CHCy)(PiPr3)2 (9). PMID:26877575

  4. 33 CFR 181.15 - Contents of labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SKILL REQUIRED MAY EXCEED THE ABILITIES OF SOME OPERATORS. ... labels. (a) Each label required by § 181.7 must contain: (1) The name and address of the manufacturer or... addition to the information required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, display on...

  5. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  6. 13 CFR 120.181 - Status of Lenders and CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Status of Lenders and CDCs. 120....181 Status of Lenders and CDCs. Lenders, CDCs and their contractors are independent contractors that... wrongful action taken by a Lender, CDC or an employee, agent, or contractor of a Lender or CDC....

  7. 13 CFR 120.181 - Status of Lenders and CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Status of Lenders and CDCs. 120....181 Status of Lenders and CDCs. Lenders, CDCs and their contractors are independent contractors that... wrongful action taken by a Lender, CDC or an employee, agent, or contractor of a Lender or CDC....

  8. 13 CFR 120.181 - Status of Lenders and CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Status of Lenders and CDCs. 120....181 Status of Lenders and CDCs. Lenders, CDCs and their contractors are independent contractors that... wrongful action taken by a Lender, CDC or an employee, agent, or contractor of a Lender or CDC....

  9. 13 CFR 120.181 - Status of Lenders and CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Status of Lenders and CDCs. 120....181 Status of Lenders and CDCs. Lenders, CDCs and their contractors are independent contractors that... wrongful action taken by a Lender, CDC or an employee, agent, or contractor of a Lender or CDC....

  10. 13 CFR 120.181 - Status of Lenders and CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Status of Lenders and CDCs. 120....181 Status of Lenders and CDCs. Lenders, CDCs and their contractors are independent contractors that... wrongful action taken by a Lender, CDC or an employee, agent, or contractor of a Lender or CDC....

  11. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statement with narrative information management deems important. The availability of this information is... AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.1 Purpose and OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of...

  12. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statement with narrative information management deems important. The availability of this information is... AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.1 Purpose and OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of...

  13. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statement with narrative information management deems important. The availability of this information is... AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.1 Purpose and OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of...

  14. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statement with narrative information management deems important. The availability of this information is... AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.1 Purpose and OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of...

  15. 12 CFR 18.1 - Purpose and OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statement with narrative information management deems important. The availability of this information is... AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.1 Purpose and OMB control number. (a) Purpose. The... public confidence in the national banking system. (b) OMB control number. The collection of...

  16. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  17. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  18. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  19. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  20. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  1. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 181.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  2. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 181.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... appropriate completed drawback entry form, evidence of exportation (a copy of the Canadian or Mexican customs... the Canadian or Mexican importer as to the amount of duties paid. Each drawback entry form filed...

  3. 19 CFR 181.76 - Application of origin determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 181.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Aduanera or the applicable provision of Mexican law related to advance rulings under Article 509 of the NAFTA; and (2) “Consistent treatment” means the established application by the Canadian or...

  4. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 181.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  5. 19 CFR 181.76 - Application of origin determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 181.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Aduanera or the applicable provision of Mexican law related to advance rulings under Article 509 of the NAFTA; and (2) “Consistent treatment” means the established application by the Canadian or...

  6. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 181.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... appropriate completed drawback entry form, evidence of exportation (a copy of the Canadian or Mexican customs... the Canadian or Mexican importer as to the amount of duties paid. Each drawback entry form filed...

  7. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 181.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  8. 19 CFR 181.76 - Application of origin determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 181.76 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Aduanera or the applicable provision of Mexican law related to advance rulings under Article 509 of the NAFTA; and (2) “Consistent treatment” means the established application by the Canadian or...

  9. 19 CFR 181.45 - Goods eligible for full drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 181.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Canadian or Mexican originating good that is dutiable and is imported into the United States is eligible... goods will continue to receive full drawback as they cross NAFTA borders for successive stages...

  10. 19 CFR 181.45 - Goods eligible for full drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 181.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Canadian or Mexican originating good that is dutiable and is imported into the United States is eligible... goods will continue to receive full drawback as they cross NAFTA borders for successive stages...

  11. 19 CFR 181.47 - Completion of claim for drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 181.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... appropriate completed drawback entry form, evidence of exportation (a copy of the Canadian or Mexican customs... the Canadian or Mexican importer as to the amount of duties paid. Each drawback entry form filed...

  12. 19 CFR 181.45 - Goods eligible for full drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 181.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Canadian or Mexican originating good that is dutiable and is imported into the United States is eligible... goods will continue to receive full drawback as they cross NAFTA borders for successive stages...

  13. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 181.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  14. 19 CFR 181.45 - Goods eligible for full drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 181.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Canadian or Mexican originating good that is dutiable and is imported into the United States is eligible... goods will continue to receive full drawback as they cross NAFTA borders for successive stages...

  15. 19 CFR 181.73 - Notification of verification visit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 181.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... receipt, to the address of the Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer whose premises are to be visited... Canadian or Mexican exporter or producer of the good, or producer of the material, whose premises are to...

  16. 18 CFR 367.1810 - Account 181, Unamortized debt expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1810 Account 181, Unamortized debt..., Unamortized debt expense. 367.1810 Section 367.1810 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  17. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  18. 19 CFR 181.93 - Submission of advance ruling requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... English language and in the form of a letter. For any subject matter specified in § 181.92(b)(6)(i), (v... quasi-judicial body in Canada or Mexico; (2) A verification of origin performed in the United States, Canada or Mexico; (3) An administrative appeal in the United States, Canada or Mexico; or (4) A...

  19. 33 CFR 181.31 - Manufacturer identification code assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer identification code... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.31 Manufacturer... request a manufacturer identification code in writing from the Recreational Boating Product...

  20. 26 CFR 1.181-5T - Examples (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Example 1. X, a corporation using a calendar taxable year, is a producer of films. X is the owner (within the meaning of § 1.181-1T(a)(2)) of film ABC. X incurs production costs in year 1, but does not commence principal photography for film ABC until year 2. In year 1, X reasonably expects, based on all...

  1. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  2. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  3. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  4. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  5. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  6. OXA-181-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae establishing in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae are becoming a major public health concern globally, however, relatively little is known about the molecular and clinical epidemiology of these organisms in many parts of the world. Methods As part of a laboratory surveillance programme, 96 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical samples from patients in seven hospitals were referred for investigation for carbapenemases. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for a collection of genes encoding carbapenemases, 33 of 96 (34.5%) isolates were confirmed as carbapenemase producers. NDM-1 producers were the most prevalent at 64% (21/33) whilst OXA-181 was the second most common carbapenemase constituting 24.5% (8/33) of the carbapenemase producing isolates. Seven of these eight OXA-181 positive isolates underwent further characterisation with screening for other transmissible antimicrobial resistance determinants using PCR. Clonal relatedness was explored using Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmid characterisation was performed including restriction analysis and transfer by conjugation or transformation. Results In addition to the OXA-181 gene, all contained other transmissible resistance determinants including extended spectrum β-lactamases, oxacillinases or 16S rRNA methylase genes, but none contained metallo-β-lactamases or serine carbapenemases. All isolates had a multidrug resistant phenotype with two isolates being resistant to every antibiotic tested including colistin. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed five isolates belonged to ST17 and two to ST14, with those belonging to the same sequence type having identical PFGE profiles. The OXA-181 gene was typically carried on large plasmids which were mostly non-conjugative. Conclusions OXA-181 carbapenemase appears to be an important and probably under-recognised cause of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in

  7. High-pressure radial X-ray diffraction study of osmium to 58 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; He, D.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Peng, F.; Li, Z.; Wang, J.; Bai, L.

    2010-02-01

    Nonhydrostatic compression behavior of osmium (Os) was investigated up to 58.2 GPa using radial X-ray diffraction (RXRD) together with lattice strain theory in a diamond-anvil cell. The apparent bulk modulus of Os derived from RXRD data varies from 262 GPa to 413 GPa, depending on Ψ, the orientation of the diffraction planes with respect to the loading axis. Fitting to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the RXRD data obtained at Ψ = 54.7° yields a bulk modulus K0 = 390 ± 6 GPa with pressure derivative K' 0 fixed at 4. The ratio of differential stress to shear modulus t/G ranges from 0.024 to 0.029 at the pressures of 15.7-58.2 GPa. The yield strength was observed to increase with compression and reach the value of 11.7 GPa at the highest pressure. This confirms that Os is the strongest known pure metallic material compared with the reported stiff elemental metals such as W, Mo and Re. It was found that the apparent c/a ratio changed with the nonhydrostatic compression, as well as the orientation Ψ in our experiments. Moreover, the aggregate moduli of Os at high pressure were determined from the RXRD measurements.

  8. Alkyl Chain Growth on a Transition Metal Center: How Does Iron Compare to Ruthenium and Osmium?

    PubMed

    Sainna, Mala A; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-09-28

    Industrial Fischer-Tropsch processes involve the synthesis of hydrocarbons usually on metal surface catalysts. On the other hand, very few homogeneous catalysts are known to perform a Fischer-Tropsch style of reaction. In recent work, we established the catalytic properties of a diruthenium-platinum carbene complex, [(CpRu)₂(μ²-H) (μ²-NHCH₃)(μ³-C)PtCH₃(P(CH₃)₃)₂](CO)n⁺ with n=0, 2 and Cp=η⁵-C₅(CH₃)₅, and showed it to react efficiently by initial hydrogen atom transfer followed by methyl transfer to form an alkyl chain on the Ru-center. In particular, the catalytic efficiency was shown to increase after the addition of two CO molecules. As such, this system could be viewed as a potential homogeneous Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. Herein, we have engineered the catalytic center of the catalyst and investigated the reactivity of trimetal carbene complexes of the same type using iron, ruthenium and osmium at the central metal scaffold. The work shows that the reactivity should increase from diosmium to diruthenium to diiron; however, a non-linear trend is observed due to multiple factors contributing to the individual barrier heights. We identified all individual components of these reaction steps in detail and established the difference in reactivity of the various complexes.

  9. Rapid adaptation of some phytoplankton species to osmium as a result of spontaneous mutations.

    PubMed

    Marvá, Fernando; García-Balboa, Camino; Baselga-Cervera, Beatriz; Costas, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    To understand the vulnerability of individual species to anthropogenic contamination, it is important to evaluate the different abilities of phytoplankton to respond to environmental changes induced by pollution. The ability of a species to adapt, rather than its initial tolerance, is the basis for survival under rapidly increasing levels of anthropogenic contamination. High doses of osmium (Os) cause massive destruction of diverse phytoplankton groups. In this study, we found that the coastal chlorophyte Tetraselmis suecica and the continental chlorophyte Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides were able to adapt to a lethal dose of Os. In these species, Os-resistant cells arose as a result of rare spontaneous mutations (at rates of approximately 10(-6) mutants per cell division) that occurred before exposure to Os. The mutants remained in the microalgal populations by means of mutation-selection balance. The huge size of phytoplankton populations ensures that there are always enough Os-resistant mutants to guarantee the survival of the population under Os pollution. In contrast, we observed that neither a haptophyte species from open ocean regions nor a cyanobacterium from continental freshwater were able to adapt to the lethal Os dose. Adaptation of phytoplankton to Os contamination is relevant because industrial activities are leading to a rapid increase in Os pollution worldwide.

  10. Rapid and direct determination of fructose in food: a new osmium-polymer mediated biosensor.

    PubMed

    Antiochia, Riccarda; Vinci, Giuliana; Gorton, Lo

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the development and performance of a new rapid amperometric biosensor for fructose monitoring in food analysis. The biosensor is based on the activity of fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) immobilised into a carbon nanotube paste electrode according to two different procedures. The direct wiring of the FDH in a highly original osmium-polymer hydrogel was found to offer a better enzyme entrapment compared to the immobilisation of the enzyme in an albumin hydrogel. The optimised biosensor required only 5U of FDH and kept the 80% of its initial sensitivity after 4months. During this time, the biosensor showed a detection limit for fructose of 1μM, a large linear range between 0.1 and 5mM, a high sensitivity (1.95μAcm(-2)mM), good reproducibility (RSD=2.1%) and a fast response time (4s). Finally, the biosensor was applied for specific determination of fructose in honey, fruit juices, soft and energy drinks. The results indicated a very good agreement with those obtained with a commercial reference kit. No significant interference was observed with the proposed biosensor.

  11. Lattice strain of osmium diboride under high pressure and nonhydrostatic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kavner, Abby; Weinberger, Michelle B.; Shahar, Anat; Cumberland, Robert W.; Levine, Jonathan B.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    The lattice strain behavior of osmium diboride—a member of a group of third-row transition metal borides associated with hard/superhard behavior—has been studied using radial diffraction in a diamond anvil cell under high pressure and non-hydrostatic stress. We interpret the average values of the measured lattice strains as a lower-bound to the lattice-plane dependent yield strengths using existing estimates for the elastic constants of OsB2, with a yield strength of 11 GPa at 27.5 GPa of hydrostaticpressure. The measured differential lattice strains show significant plane-dependent anisotropy, with the (101) lattice plane showing the largest differential strain and the (001) lattice plane showing the least strain. At the highest pressure, the a-axis develops a larger compressive strain and supports a larger differential strain than either the b or c axes. This causes an increase in the c/a ratio and a decrease in the a/b ratio especially in the maximum stress direction. The large strength anisotropy of this material points to possible ways to modulate directional mechanical properties by taking advantage of the interplay between aggregate polycrystalline texture with directional mechanical properties.

  12. Emissive osmium(II) complexes with tetradentate bis(pyridylpyrazolate) chelates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Han; Chang, Chun-Fu; Liao, Jia-Ling; Chi, Yun; Zhou, Dong-Ying; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Jiang, Tzung-Ying; Chou, Tsao-Pei; Li, Elise Y; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2013-05-20

    A tetradentate bis(pyridylpyrazolate) chelate, L, is assembled by connecting two bidentate 3-(trifluoromethyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole chelates at the 6 position of the pyridyl fragment with a phenylamido appendage. This chelate was then utilized in the synthesis of three osmium(II) complexes, namely, [Os(L)(CO)2] (4), [Os(L)(PPh2Me)2] (5), and [Os(L)(PPhMe2)2] (6). Single-crystal X-ray structural analyses were executed on 4 and 5 to reveal the bonding arrangement of the L chelate. Phosphine-substituted derivatives 5 and 6 are highly emissive in both solution and the solid state, and their photophysical properties were measured and discussed on the basis of computational approaches. For application, fabrication and analysis of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were also carried out. The OLEDs using 5 and 6 as dopants exhibit saturated red emission with maximum external quantum efficiencies of 9.8% and 9.4%, respectively, which are higher than that of the device using [Ir(piq)3] as a red-emitting reference sample. Moreover, for documentation, 5 and 6 also achieve a maximum brightness of 19540 cd·m(-2) at 800 mA·cm(-2) (11.6 V) and 12900 cd·m(-2) at 500 mA·cm(-2) (10.5 V), respectively.

  13. Towards Water Soluble Mitochondria-Targeting Theranostic Osmium(II) Triazole-Based Complexes.

    PubMed

    Omar, Salem A E; Scattergood, Paul A; McKenzie, Luke K; Bryant, Helen E; Weinstein, Julia A; Elliott, Paul I P

    2016-10-18

    The complex [Os(btzpy)₂][PF₆]₂ (1, btzpy = 2,6-bis(1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine) has been prepared and characterised. Complex 1 exhibits phosphorescence (λem = 595 nm, τ = 937 ns, φem = 9.3% in degassed acetonitrile) in contrast to its known ruthenium(II) analogue, which is non-emissive at room temperature. The complex undergoes significant oxygen-dependent quenching of emission with a 43-fold reduction in luminescence intensity between degassed and aerated acetonitrile solutions, indicating its potential to act as a singlet oxygen sensitiser. Complex 1 underwent counterion metathesis to yield [Os(btzpy)₂]Cl₂ (1(Cl)), which shows near identical optical absorption and emission spectra to those of 1. Direct measurement of the yield of singlet oxygen sensitised by 1(Cl) was carried out (φ (¹O₂) = 57%) for air equilibrated acetonitrile solutions. On the basis of these photophysical properties, preliminary cellular uptake and luminescence microscopy imaging studies were conducted. Complex 1(Cl) readily entered the cancer cell lines HeLa and U2OS with mitochondrial staining seen and intense emission allowing for imaging at concentrations as low as 1 μM. Long-term toxicity results indicate low toxicity in HeLa cells with LD50 >100 μM. Osmium(II) complexes based on 1 therefore present an excellent platform for the development of novel theranostic agents for anticancer activity.

  14. Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the stillwater complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, D.D.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Shirey, S.B.; Carlson, R.W.; Zientek, M.L.; Koski, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Isotopic data for the Stillwater Complex, Montana , which formed about 2700 Ma (million years ago), were obtained to evaluate the role of magma mixing in the formation of strategic platinum-group element (PGE) ore deposits. Neodymium and osmium isotopic data indicate that the intrusion formed from at least two geochemically distinct magmas. Ultramafic affinity (U-type) magmas had initial ??Nd of -0.8 to -3.2 and a chondritic initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???0.88, whereas anorthositic affinity (A-type) magmas had ??Nd of -0.7 to +1.7 and an initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???1.13. These data suggest that U-type magmas were derived from a lithospheric mantle source containing recycled crustal materials whereas A-type magmas originated either by crustal contamination of basaltic magmas or by partial melting of basalt in the lower crust. The Nd and Os isotopic data also suggest that Os, and probably the other PGEs in ore horizons such as the J-M Reef, was derived from A-type magmas. The Nd and Os isotopic heterogeneity observed in rocks below the J-M Reef also suggests that A-type magmas were injected into the Stillwater U-type magma chamber at several stages during the development of the Ultramafic series.

  15. Anticancer osmium complex inhibitors of the HIF-1α and p300 protein-protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wanhe; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been considered to be an attractive anti-cancer target. One strategy to inhibit HIF activity is through the disruption of the HIF-1α–p300 protein-protein interaction. We report herein the identification of an osmium(II) complex as the first metal-based inhibitor of the HIF-1α–p300 interaction. We evaluated the effect of complex 1 on HIF-1α signaling pathway in vitro and in cellulo by using the dual luciferase reporter assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, and immunoblot assay. Complex 1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of HRE-driven luciferase activity, with an IC50 value of 1.22 μM. Complex 1 interfered with the HIF-1α–p300 interaction as revealed by a dose-dependent reduction of p300 co-precipitated with HIF-1α as the concentration of complex 1 was increased. Complex 1 repressed the phosphorylation of SRC, AKT and STAT3, and had no discernible effect on the activity of NF-κB. We anticipate that complex 1 could be utilized as a promising scaffold for the further development of more potent HIF-1α inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:28225008

  16. Development of the osmium-191 yields iridium-191m radionuclide generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treves, S.; Packard, A. B.

    1985-04-01

    The use of Ir-191m in radionuclide angiography has been the subject of increasing interest in recent years. The Os-191-Ir-191m generator that has been used for these studies suffers, however, from Ir-191m yield (10%/ml) and higher than desirable Os-191 breakthrough (5 x 10 to the -3%). Ir generator has been developed that has higher yield (25 to 30%/ml) and lower breakthrough ( x 10 to the -4 power %) when eluted with an eluent (0.001 M oxalic acid/0.9% saline that does not require buffering prior to injection. Studies within the last year have shown the eluate of this generator to be nontoxic at up to 100 times the expected human dose and work is in progress to obtain approval for human use of this system. While a significant improvement over past generator designs, the yield of this generator is still modest and the evaluation of new osmium complexes for use on the generator has continued. Clinical studies involving the use of Ir-191m for first pass angiography in adults and children have continued.

  17. Coronary wall imaging in mice using osmium tetroxide and micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Megan; Donohue, Danielle; Chen, Marcus; Daniels, Mathew; Connelly, Patricia; Jeffries, Kenneth; Clevenger, Randall; Wen, Han H.; Pai, Vinay M.

    2011-07-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death in the United States and results from the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of the heart. Plaques accumulate as the result of the retention of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the sub-endothelium of the arterial wall. In mouse aorta, these lesions form primarily at the branching sites or bifurcations. However, in the coronary system, data has shown that late-stage plaque formation occurs throughout the proximal segments of the arteries. In order to better understand plaque formation in the coronary arteries, we have developed an osmium tetroxide (OsO4) stained coronary wall imaging protocol performed using microcomputed tomography (microCT). OsO4 is a heavy metal contrast agent that readily binds to lipids. Our data in 3- to 25-week old C57BL6 wild-type mice shows that the coronary vessel walls are highlighted by the use of the contrast agent. We expect that this combination of OsO4 and microCT will allow us to investigate the coronary artery wall in atherogenesis models of mice to characterize plaque formation.

  18. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cijsouw, Tony; Weber, Jens P.; Broeke, Jurjen H.; Broek, Jantine A.C.; Schut, Desiree; Kroon, Tim; Saarloos, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Munc18-1 is a soluble protein essential for synaptic transmission. To investigate the dynamics of endogenous Munc18-1 in neurons, we created a mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged Munc18-1 from the endogenous munc18-1 locus. We show using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in hippocampal neurons that the majority of Munc18-1 trafficked through axons and targeted to synapses via lateral diffusion together with syntaxin-1. Munc18-1 was strongly expressed at presynaptic terminals, with individual synapses showing a large variation in expression. Axon–synapse exchange rates of Munc18-1 were high: during stimulation, Munc18-1 rapidly dispersed from synapses and reclustered within minutes. Munc18-1 reclustering was independent of syntaxin-1, but required calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Importantly, a PKC-insensitive Munc18-1 mutant did not recluster. We show that synaptic Munc18-1 levels correlate with synaptic strength, and that synapses that recruit more Munc18-1 after stimulation have a larger releasable vesicle pool. Hence, PKC-dependent dynamic control of Munc18-1 levels enables individual synapses to tune their output during periods of activity. PMID:24590174

  19. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cijsouw, Tony; Weber, Jens P; Broeke, Jurjen H; Broek, Jantine A C; Schut, Desiree; Kroon, Tim; Saarloos, Ingrid; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2014-03-03

    Munc18-1 is a soluble protein essential for synaptic transmission. To investigate the dynamics of endogenous Munc18-1 in neurons, we created a mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged Munc18-1 from the endogenous munc18-1 locus. We show using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in hippocampal neurons that the majority of Munc18-1 trafficked through axons and targeted to synapses via lateral diffusion together with syntaxin-1. Munc18-1 was strongly expressed at presynaptic terminals, with individual synapses showing a large variation in expression. Axon-synapse exchange rates of Munc18-1 were high: during stimulation, Munc18-1 rapidly dispersed from synapses and reclustered within minutes. Munc18-1 reclustering was independent of syntaxin-1, but required calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Importantly, a PKC-insensitive Munc18-1 mutant did not recluster. We show that synaptic Munc18-1 levels correlate with synaptic strength, and that synapses that recruit more Munc18-1 after stimulation have a larger releasable vesicle pool. Hence, PKC-dependent dynamic control of Munc18-1 levels enables individual synapses to tune their output during periods of activity.

  20. A Metallacycle Fragmentation Strategy for Vinyl Transfer from Enol Carboxylates to Secondary Alcohol C-H Bonds via Osmium- or Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung Y; Luong, Tom; Sato, Hiroki; Krische, Michael J

    2015-06-24

    A strategy for catalytic vinyl transfer from enol carboxylates to activated secondary alcohol C-H bonds is described. Using XPhos-modified ruthenium(0) or osmium(0) complexes, enol carboxylate-carbonyl oxidative coupling forms transient β-acyloxy-oxametallacycles, which eliminate carboxylate to deliver allylic ruthenium(II) or osmium(II) alkoxides. Reduction of the metal(II) salt via hydrogen transfer from the secondary alcohol reactant releases the product of carbinol C-H vinylation and regenerates ketone and zero-valent catalyst.