Blomdin, Robin; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Gribenski, Natacha; Caffee, Marc W.; Heyman, Jakob; Rogozhina, Irina; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Petrakov, Dmitry A.; Walther, Michael; Rudoy, Alexei N.; Zhang, Wei; Alexander, Orkhonselenge; Hättestrand, Clas; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Jansson, Krister N.
Spanning a northern sector of continental Central Asia, the Altai Mountains contains a rich record of glaciation. Still, there are few studies reconstructing the dynamics and timing of former glaciers in the region. We investigated the glacial history of two paleoglaciers, residing on opposite flanks of the Ikh-Turgen Mountains, straddling the border between Russia and Mongolia, using a combination of remote sensing, terrain analysis, field investigations and 10Be surface exposure dating. On the eastern side (Mongolia) of Ikh-Turgen, mean arithmetic exposure ages from a latero-frontal moraine indicate deglaciation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (45.3±2.7 ka, n=5) and MIS 2 (22.8±3.5 ka, n=4). These age constraints are consistent with other paleoclimate records from the region. Cold and wet conditions during early MIS 2 and MIS 3 likely triggered glacier expansions but the transition to a drier climate resulted in more restricted paleoglacier extents during MIS 2 than during MIS 3. Well-constrained MIS 3 glacier expansions in Central Asia are rare. We therefore speculate whether the climatic and topographic setting of the eastern flank of the Ikh-Turgen Mountains has allowed for a better preservation potential of these moraines, making them more suitable for surface exposure dating than other regions of Central Asia, or whether MIS 3 moraines occur more widespread but await to be robustly dated. Corresponding surface exposure ages, from the western side (Russia) of Ikh-Turgen, indicate a more complex story with large scatter ( 14-53 ka, n=8) making paleoclimate inference and comparison to other proxies difficult. Owing to their proximity, the paleoglaciers of Ikh-Turgen, should have responded similarly to climate forcing, yet they exhibited distinctly different behaviours. We discuss the connection between paleoglacier dynamics and style of moraine deposition and propose that differences in glacier dynamics caused differences in ice-marginal depositional
Nasanbat, Elbegjargal; Erdenebat, Erdenetogtokh; Chogsom, Bolorchuluun; Lkhamjav, Ochirkhuyag; Nanzad, Lkhagvadorj
The glacier is most important the freshwater resources and indicator of the climate change. The researchers noted that during last decades the glacier is melting due to global warming. The study calculates a spatial distribution of protentional change of glacier coverage in the Ikh Turgen mountain of Western Mongolia, and it integrates long-term climate data and satellite datasets. Therefore, in this experiment has tried to estimation three-dimensional surface area of the glacier. For this purpose, Normalized difference snow index (NDSI) was applied to decision tree approach, using Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+ and LC8 imagery for 1975-2016, a surface and slope for digital elevation model, precipitation and air temperature historical data of meteorological station. The potential volume area significantly changed glacier cover of the Ikh Turgen Mountain, and the area affected by highly variable precipitation and air temperature regimes. Between 1972 and 2016, a potential area of glacier area has been decreased in Ikh Turgen mountain region.
Zhuravel', A. V.
The overwhelming majority of Old-Russian dates are Julian, and this fact seems to prove that the Julian calendar gained a foothold after the baptism of Rus'. However, there are also about 10 lunar datings (mainly from the XV c.) in Russian chronicles. This fact corresponds to the words of Kirik (the Novgorod mathematician of the XII c.) who distinguished "heavenly" months from "literary" ones. The research shows that Kirik's words are true for the entire Medieval period of Russian history: the Julian calendar was really the "literary" one and people continued to count days by the Moon in their day-to-day life. Thus, lunar dating came up in Russian chronicles again and again. That is why attempts of recalculation into the Julian manner generated many mistakes (variant readings). If we take into account these "traces", we can reconstruct the initial lunar dating and determine more precisely the course of historical events.
Harada, Tasuku; Momoeda, Mikio
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an ultra-low-dose oral contraceptive (NPC-01; 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethisterone) in subjects with dysmenorrhea. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Clinical trial sites. Two hundred fifteen subjects with dysmenorrhea. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive NPC-01, placebo, or IKH-01 (0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethisterone) for four cycles. Total dysmenorrhea score (verbal rating scale) assessing pain on the basis of limited ability to work and need for analgesics. The reductions of total dysmenorrhea score and visual analog scale score after the treatment were significantly higher in the NPC-01 group than in the placebo group. Furthermore, the efficacy of NPC-01 was comparable to that of IKH-01. The overall incidence of side effects was significantly higher in the NPC-01 group than in the placebo group. All side effects that occurred in the NPC-01 group were previously reported in patients receiving IKH-01. No serious side effects occurred. The ultra-low-dose contraceptive NPC-01 relieved dysmenorrhea as effectively as IKH-01. Thus, NPC-01 could represent a new option for long-term treatment of dysmenorrhea. NCT01129102. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Demografiya vrachebnykh kadrov i potrebnost’ v poslediplomnom ikh obuchenii [ Demography of Physician Personnel and Need for Their...chief of Demography Department^ Scientific Research Institute of the USSR Central Statistical Administration/ /Text/ A sampling sociodemographic...statisticians and social hygienists in studying the pressing problems of demography and social hygiene. COPYRIGH: "Zdravookhraneniye Rössiyskoy
Ghosh, Arunabha; Banerjee, Indraneel; Morris, Andrew A M
Hypoglycaemia is frequent in children and prompt management is required to prevent brain injury. In this article we will consider hypoglycaemia in children after the neonatal period. The most common causes are diabetes mellitus and idiopathic ketotic hypoglycaemia (IKH) but a number of endocrine disorders and inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) need to be excluded. Elucidation of the diagnosis relies primarily on investigations during a hypoglycaemic episode but may also involve biochemical tests between episodes, dynamic endocrine tests and molecular genetics. Specific treatment such as cortisol replacement and pancreatic surgery may be required for endocrine causes of hypoglycaemia, such as adrenal insufficiency and congenital hyperinsulinism. In contrast, in IKH and most IEMs, hypoglycaemia is prevented by limiting the duration of fasting and maintaining a high glucose intake during illnesses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ekernas, L Stefan; Sarmento, Wesley M; Davie, Hannah S; Reading, Richard P; Murdoch, James; Wingard, Ganchimeg J; Amgalanbaatar, Sukh; Berger, Joel
In arid regions of the developing world, pastoralists and livestock commonly inhabit protected areas, resulting in human-wildlife conflict. Conflict is inextricably linked to the ecological processes shaping relationships between pastoralists and native herbivores and carnivores. To elucidate relationships underpinning human-wildlife conflict, we synthesized 15 years of ecological and ethnographic data from Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia's Gobi steppe. The density of argali (Ovis ammon), the world's largest wild sheep, at Ikh Nart was among the highest in Mongolia, yet livestock were >90% of ungulate biomass and dogs >90% of large-carnivore biomass. For argali, pastoral activities decreased food availability, increased mortality from dog predation, and potentially increased disease risk. Isotope analyses indicated that livestock accounted for >50% of the diet of the majority of gray wolves (Canis lupus) and up to 90% of diet in 25% of sampled wolves (n = 8). Livestock composed at least 96% of ungulate prey in the single wolf pack for which we collected species-specific prey data. Interviews with pastoralists indicated that wolves annually killed 1-4% of Ikh Nart's livestock, and pastoralists killed wolves in retribution. Pastoralists reduced wolf survival by killing them, but their livestock were an abundant food source for wolves. Consequently, wolf density appeared to be largely decoupled from argali density, and pastoralists had indirect effects on argali that could be negative if pastoralists increased wolf density (apparent competition) or positive if pastoralists decreased wolf predation (apparent facilitation). Ikh Nart's argali population was stable despite these threats, but livestock are increasingly dominant numerically and functionally relative to argali. To support both native wildlife and pastoral livelihoods, we suggest training dogs to not kill argali, community insurance against livestock losses to wolves, reintroducing key native prey species
Dospinescu, Ciprian; Widmer, Hélène; Rowe, Iain; Wainwright, Cherry; Cruickshank, Stuart F
Hypoxia contracts the pulmonary vein, but the underlying cellular effectors remain unclear. Utilizing contractile studies and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we report for the first time a hypoxia-sensitive K(+) current in porcine pulmonary vein smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). Hypoxia induced a transient contractile response that was 56 ± 7% of the control response (80 mM KCl). This contraction required extracellular Ca(2+) and was sensitive to Ca(2+) channel blockade. Blockade of K(+) channels by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) reversibly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated contraction. Single-isolated PVSMC (typically 159.1 ± 2.3 μm long) had mean resting membrane potentials (RMP) of -36 ± 4 mV with a mean membrane capacitance of 108 ± 3.5 pF. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings identified a rapidly activating, partially inactivating K(+) current (I(KH)) that was hypoxia, TEA, and 4-AP sensitive. I(KH) was insensitive to Penitrem A or glyburide in PVSMC and had a time to peak of 14.4 ± 3.3 ms and recovered in 67 ms following inactivation at +80 mV. Peak window current was -32 mV, suggesting that I(KH) may contribute to PVSMC RMP. The molecular identity of the potassium channel is not clear. However, RT-PCR, using porcine pulmonary artery and vein samples, identified Kv(1.5), Kv(2.1), and BK, with all three being more abundant in the PV. Both artery and vein expressed STREX, a highly conserved and hypoxia-sensitive BK channel variant. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that hypoxic inhibition of I(KH) would contribute to hypoxic-induced contraction in PVSMC.
A lubricant additive composition IKhP (2.6% BFK, a Ba salt of a CH2O- alkylphenol condensation product; 1.4% SB-3, a Ba sulfonate; 1.2% IN-KhP-21, a...Ba salt of a CH2O-NH3- alkylphenol condensation product; 0.005% PMS-200A; and 0. 5% AzNII) is discussed in relationship to its use as an automobile oil
Ovsyannikova, Varvara S.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia G.; Altunina, Lyubov K.; Filatov, Dmitry A.
The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on the biodegradation of different oil compositions from the Usinskoye oil field in the presence of systems for enhanced oil recovery. It is shown that the oil-displacing IKhN-PRO system could be an optimal stimulating substrate to activate the biooxidation of oil with a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, while the maximum conversion of oil with a high content of n-alkanes is observed in the presence of the oil-displacing sol-forming NINKA 3 system. A stimulating effect of the systems on the hydrocarbon-oxidizing native microflora of the oil reservoir, promoting its growth and increasing the level of oil biodegradation, could be used to enhance oil recovery, in addition to physicochemical methods.
Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai
Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.
Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.
Dimitriou, Christopher J; McKinley, Gareth H
Guided by a series of discriminating rheometric tests, we develop a new constitutive model that can quantitatively predict the key rheological features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized by a complex thixotropic and yielding behavior that strongly depends on the shear history of the sample. We then outline the development of an appropriate preparation protocol for carrying out rheological measurements, to ensure consistent and reproducible initial conditions. We use RheoPIV measurements of the local kinematics within the fluid under imposed deformations in order to validate the selection of a particular protocol. Velocimetric measurements are also used to document the presence of material instabilities within the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result of the underlying non-monotonic steady flow curve of the material. Three distinct deformation histories are then used to probe the material's constitutive response. These deformations are steady shear, transient response to startup of steady shear with different aging times, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). The material response to these three different flows is used to motivate the development of an appropriate constitutive model. This model (termed the IKH model) is based on a framework adopted from plasticity theory and implements an additive strain decomposition into characteristic reversible (elastic) and irreversible (plastic) contributions, coupled with the physical processes of isotropic and kinematic hardening. Comparisons of experimental to simulated response for all three flows show good quantitative agreement, validating the chosen approach for developing constitutive models for this class of materials.
Research about Automatic Adjustment Solution of the Advance Force at the Perffusion Drills Using Fluid Elements / Badanie Systemu Automatycznej Regulacji SIŁY Posuwu W Wiertnicach Udarowych Z Wykorzystaniem ELEMENTÓW PŁYNOWYCH
Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae
This paper presents the actual solution used by Secoma Company and part of research regarding a personal solution concerning the implementation of the digital devices in the pressing strength's control of a pneumatic rotating drill, which is included in the structure of the drilling installation. The monostable fluidic element, which was proposed to be used, is a special device, with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. The fluidic command proposed solution presents superior advantages given the existing variants and the automation solutions with electronic components. This is due to the higher security in hostile work environments (moist environment, with high methane gas contents, with fire danger, with high temperature) of their high feasibility and maintenance. For the practical achievement of the automated regulation with fluidic elements, of the type tested in the experimental plan, it is necessary to choose a monostabile fluidic amplifier for the prototype device, which respects several clear conditions regarding wall attachment angle and geometrical parameters. W pracy przedstawiono rozwiązanie stosowane przez firmę Secoma oraz omówiono część badań dotyczących rozwiązań w dziedzinie implementacji urządzeń cyfrowych do regulacji siły naporu w obrotowych wiertnicach pneumatycznych będących częścią urządzenia wiertniczego. Zaproponowano użycie mono-stabilnego elementu płynowego, będącego specjalnym urządzeniem zawierającym płyn nieściśliwy jako strugę zasilająca i płyn ściśliwy jako strugę sterującą. Rozwiązanie z wykorzystaniem elementu płynowego daje dodatkowe korzyści w odniesieniu do obecnie stosowanych rozwiązań zawierających komponenty elektryczne, przyczyniając się do poprawy bezpieczeństwa pracy w środowisku niebezpiecznym (w warunkach wysokiej wilgotności, wysokich stężeń metanu, zagrożenia pożarowego, wysokich temperatur), ponadto są one łatwe w użyciu i
Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya
Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ñ over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to
Borodavko, P. S.
cane sedges and horsetails dominant. The benthic fauna is poor, and only single pecimens of molluscs and amphipods are met. The ichtyofauna is represented by Oreoleuciscus Pewzowi. Previous and modern investigations of these lakes, their morphologies and deposits, allow to specify periods of extension of the lakes and palaeogeographical conditions. Two clear extension periods can be determined in the Mongolian Great Lakes Basin, corresponding to Mid-and Late Pleistocene transgressions. During the Mid-Pleistocene transgression the current Lakes Har-Us Nur, Dorgon Nur, Hara Nur, Airag Nur and Hyargas were integrated to a united lake, with a maximal level at 1265 m. and total water area about 23 158 km2 . The maximal thickness of Mid-Pleistocene lake deposits is 70 m. Late Pleistocene lake sediments are investigated in sections near Dzabhan River and Hyargas Nuur shorelines. They consist of laminated sand, clay and gravel with cryogenic structures at the base and upper part of sections. The mean thickness of Late Pleistocene lake deposits is 20-35 m. The main characteristics of Late Pleistocene lake features are represented by a very bright "lake relief" — obvious steps of shorelines, gravel bands, bars and spits. The specific structure of Late Pleistocene lake cross-sections allows to separate two transgressions within this period. In the first half of the Holocene a minor regression of several meters occurred. Elements of the modern time aeolian relief were still inundated on the north shore of Lake Har-Us Nur. Researches funded by RFBR (Grant 08-05-00037-a) References 1. Geomorfologiya Mongol'skoi Narodnoi Respubliki (Geomorphology of the Mongolian People Republic). M.: Nauka, pp. 135-148. 2. Ozera MNR i ikh mineral'nye resursy (Lakes of MPR and their mineral resources), 1991. Moscow, Nauka, 136 p. 3. Sevastyanov, D.V., Shuvalov, V.F. and Neustrueva, I. Yu. (Eds.), 1994. Limnologiya i paleolimnologiya Mongolii (Limnology and Palaeolimnology of Mongolia). St