Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of disability and consultation with a GP. However, little is known about what currently happens when patients with OA consult their GP. This review aims to compare existing literature reporting patient experiences of consultations in which OA is discussed with GP attitudes and beliefs regarding OA, in order to identify any consultation events that may be targeted for intervention. Methods After a systematic literature search, a narrative review has been conducted of literature detailing patient experiences of consulting with OA in primary care and GP attitudes to, and beliefs about, OA. Emergent themes were identified from the extracted findings and GP and patient perspectives compared within each theme. Results Twenty two relevant papers were identified. Four themes emerged: diagnosis; explanations; management of the condition; and the doctor-patient relationship. Delay in diagnosis is frequently reported as well as avoidance of the term osteoarthritis in favour of ‘wear and tear’. Both patients and doctors report negative talk in the consultation, including that OA is to be expected, has an inevitable decline and there is little that can be done about it. Pain management appears to be a priority for patients, although a number of barriers to effective management have been identified. Communication within the doctor patient consultation also appears key, with patients reporting a lack of feeling their symptoms were legitimised. Conclusions The nature of negative talk and discussions around management within the consultation have emerged as areas for future research. The findings are limited by generic limitations of interview research; to further understanding of the OA consultation alternative methodology such as direct observation may be necessary. PMID:24641214
Runhaar, Jos; Rozendaal, Rianne M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Bijlsma, Hans J W; Doherty, Michael; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Lohmander, L Stefan; McAlindon, Timothy; Zhang, Weiya; Bierma Zeinstra, Sita
To evaluate the effectiveness of oral glucosamine in subgroups of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on baseline pain severity, body mass index (BMI), sex, structural abnormalities and presence of inflammation using individual patient data. After a systematic search of the literature and clinical trial registries, all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of any oral glucosamine substance in patients with clinically or radiographically defined hip or knee OA were contacted. As a minimum, pain, age, sex and BMI at baseline and pain as an outcome measure needed to be assessed. Of 21 eligible studies, six (n=1663) shared their trial data with the OA Trial Bank. Five trials (all independent of industry, n=1625) compared glucosamine with placebo, representing 55% of the total number of participants in all published placebo-controlled RCTs. Glucosamine was no better than placebo for pain or function at short (3 months) and long-term (24 months) follow-up. Glucosamine was also no better than placebo among the predefined subgroups. Stratification for knee OA and type of glucosamine did not alter these results. Although proposed and debated for several years, open trial data are not widely made available for studies of glucosamine for OA, especially those sponsored by industry. Currently, there is no good evidence to support the use of glucosamine for hip or knee OA and an absence of evidence to support specific consideration of glucosamine for any clinically relevant OA subgroup according to baseline pain severity, BMI, sex, structural abnormalities or presence of inflammation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Individual patient data meta-analysis of trials investigating the effectiveness of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis: an OA Trial Bank protocol for a systematic review.
van Middelkoop, Marienke; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Doherty, Michael; Zhang, Weiya; Bijlsma, Johannes W; McAlindon, Timothy E; Lohmander, Stefan L; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A
Based on small to moderate effect sizes for the wide range of symptomatic treatments in osteoarthritis (OA), and on the heterogeneity of OA patients, treatment guidelines for OA have stressed the need for research on clinical predictors of response to different treatments. A meta-analysis to quantify the effect modified by the predictors using individual patient data (IPD) is suggested. The initiative to collect and analyze IPD in OA research is commenced by the OA Trial Bank. The study aims are therefore: to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids for knee or hip OA in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and (mild) inflammatory signs, over both short-term and long-term follow-up, using IPD from existing studies; to reach consensus on the rules for cooperation in a consortium; and to develop and explore the methodological issues of meta-analysis with individual OA patient data. For the current IPD analysis we will collect and synthesize IPD from randomized trials studying the effect of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with hip or knee OA. Subgroup analyses will be performed for the primary outcome of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up, in the subgroups of patients with and without severe pain and with and without inflammatory signs. This study protocol includes the first study of the OA Trial Bank, an international collaboration that initiates meta-analyses on predefined subgroups of OA patients from existing literature. This approach ensures a widely supported initiative and is therefore likely to be successful in data collection of existing trials. The collaboration developed (that is, the OA Trial Bank) may also lead to future IPD analyses on subgroups of patients with several intervention strategies applied in OA patients.
Tomi, Anne-Laurence; Sellam, Jérémie; Lacombe, Karine; Fellahi, Soraya; Sebire, Manuela; Rey-Jouvin, Caroline; Miquel, Anne; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Maheu, Emmanuel; Haugen, Ida K; Felson, David T; Capeau, Jacqueline; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Berenbaum, Francis; Meynard, Jean-Luc
To determine radiographic hand osteoarthritis (HOA) prevalence in patients with HIV-1 infection in comparison with the general population and to address whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) may increase the risk of HOA during HIV-1 infection. Patients with HIV-1 infection and MetS (International Diabetes Federation, IDF criteria) aged 45-65 years were matched by age and gender to HIV-1-infected subjects without MetS and underwent hand radiographs. Framingham OA cohort was used as general population cohort. Radiographic HOA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score ≥2 on more than one joint. Radiographic severity was assessed by global KL score and number of OA joints. HOA prevalence was compared with that found in the Framingham study, stratified by age and sex. Logistic and linear regression models were used to determine the risk factors of HOA in patients with HIV-1 infection. 301 patients (88% male, mean age 53.4±5.0 years) were included, 152 with MetS and 149 without it. Overall, HOA prevalence was 55.5% and was higher for those with MetS than those without it (64.5% vs 46.3%, p=0.002). When considering men within each age group, HOA frequency was greater in patients with HIV-1 infection than the general population (all ages: 55.8% vs 38.7%; p<0.0001), due to the subgroup with MetS (64.9%; p<0.0001), as well as the subgroup without MetS, although not significant (46.6%; p=0.09). Risk of HOA was increased with MetS (OR 2.23, 95% 95% CI 1.26% to 3.96%) and age (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25). HOA severity was greater for patients with MetS than those without. HOA was not associated with previous or current exposure to protease inhibitors or HIV infection-related markers. HOA frequency is greater in patients with HIV-1 infection, especially those with MetS, than the general population. NCT02353767. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
“Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)
Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge
Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific
He, B H; Christin, M; Mouchbahani-Constance, S; Davidova, A; Sharif-Naeini, R
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling and highly prevalent condition affecting millions worldwide. Pain is the major complaint of OA patients and is presently inadequately managed. It manifests as mechanical allodynia, a painful response to innocuous stimuli such as joint movement. Allodynia is due in part to the sensitization of articular nociceptors to mechanical stimuli. These nociceptors respond to noxious mechanical stimuli applied to their terminals via the expression of depolarizing high-threshold mechanosensitive ion channels (MSICs) that convert painful mechanical forces into electrical signals. In this study, we examined the contribution of MSICs to mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of OA. Sodium mono-iodoacetate (MIA) was injected in the left knee of adult male Trpv1:Cre; GFP mice. Primary mechanical allodynia was monitored using the knee-bend test. Single-channel patch clamp electrophysiology was performed on visually-identified knee-innervating nociceptors. Dorsal horn neuronal activation was assessed by Fos immunoreactivity. In examining the gating properties of MSICs of naïve and OA mice, we discovered that their activation threshold is greatly reduced, causing their opening at significantly lower stimuli intensities. Consequently, nociceptors are activated by mild mechanical stimuli. These channels are reversibly inhibited by the selective MSIC inhibitor GsMTx4, and the intra-articular injection of this peptide significantly reduced the activation of dorsal horn nociceptive circuits and primary mechanical allodynia in OA mice. These results suggest that MSICs are sensitized during OA and directly contribute to mechanical allodynia. They therefore represent potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of OA pain. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Middelkoop, M; Arden, N K; Atchia, I; Birrell, F; Chao, J; Rezende, M U; Lambert, R G W; Ravaud, P; Bijlsma, J W; Doherty, M; Dziedzic, K S; Lohmander, L S; McAlindon, T E; Zhang, W; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A
To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoids for knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and inflammatory signs using individual patient data (IPD) from existing trials. Randomized trials evaluating one or more IA glucocorticoid preparation in patients with knee or hip OA, published from 1995 up to June 2012 were selected from the literature. IPD obtained from original trials included patient and disease characteristics and outcomes measured. The primary outcome was pain severity at short-term follow-up (up to 4 weeks). The subgroup factors assessed included severe pain (≥70 points, 0-100 scale) and signs of inflammation (dichotomized in present or not) at baseline. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the magnitude of the effects in the subgroups with the individuals nested within each study. Seven out of 43 published randomized clinical trials (n = 620) were included. Patients with severe baseline pain had a significantly larger reduction in short-term pain, but not in mid- and long-term pain, compared to those with less severe pain at baseline (Mean Difference 13.91; 95% Confidence Interval 1.50-26.31) when receiving IA glucocorticoid injection compared to placebo. No statistical significant interaction effects were found between inflammatory signs and IA glucocorticoid injections compared to placebo and to tidal irrigation at all follow-up points. This IPD meta-analysis demonstrates that patients with severe knee pain at baseline derive more benefit from IA glucocorticoid injection at short-term follow-up than those with less severe pain at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E
This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire.
Urish, Kenneth L.; Keffalas, Matthew G; Durkin, John R.; Miller, David J.; Chu, Constance R.; Mosher, Timothy J
Objective There is an interest in using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to identify pre-radiographic changes in osteoarthritis (OA) and features that indicate risk for disease progression. The purpose of this study is to identify image features derived from MRI T2 maps that can accurately predict onset of OA symptoms in subjects at risk for incident knee OA. Methods Patients were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) control cohort and incidence cohort and stratified based on the change in total WOMAC score from baseline to three year follow-up (80 non-OA progression and 88 symptomatic OA progression patients). For each patient, a series of image texture features were measured from the baseline cartilage T2 map. A linear discriminant function and feature reduction method was then trained to quantify a texture metric, the T2 texture index of cartilage (TIC), based on 22 image features, to identify a composite marker of T2 heterogeneity. Results Statistically significant differences were seen in the baseline T2 TIC between the non-progression and symptomatic OA progression populations. The baseline T2 TIC differentiates subjects that develop worsening of their WOMAC score OA with an accuracy between 71% and 76%. The T2 TIC differences were predominantly localized to a dominant knee compartment that correlated with the mechanical axis of the knee. Conclusion Baseline heterogeneity in cartilage T2 as measured with the T2 TIC index is able to differentiate and predict individuals that will develop worsening of their WOMAC score at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23774471
Eckstein, F; Cicuttini, F; Raynauld, J-P; Waterton, J C; Peterfy, C
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a three-dimensional imaging technique with unparalleled ability to evaluate articular cartilage. This report reviews the current status of morphological assessment of cartilage with quantitative MRI (qMRI), and its relevance for identifying disease status, and monitoring progression and treatment response in knee osteoarthritis (OA). An international panel of experts in MRI of knee OA, with direct experience in the analysis of cartilage morphology with qMRI, reviewed the existing published and unpublished data on the subject, and debated the findings at the OMERACT-OARSI Workshop on Imaging technologies (December 2002, Bethesda, MA) with scientists and clinicians from academia, the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory agencies. This report reviews (1) MRI pulse sequence considerations for morphological analysis of articular cartilage; (2) techniques for segmenting cartilage; (3) semi-quantitative scoring of cartilage status; and (4) technical validity (accuracy), precision (reproducibility) and sensitivity to change of quantitative measures of cartilage morphology. Semi-quantitative scores of cartilage status have been shown to display adequate reliability, specificity and sensitivity, and to detect lesion progression at reasonable observation periods (1-2 years). Quantitative assessment of cartilage morphology (qMRI), with fat-suppressed gradient echo sequences, and appropriate image analysis techniques, displays high accuracy and adequate precision (e.g., root-mean-square standard deviation medial tibia=61 microl) for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in OA patients. Longitudinal studies suggest that changes of cartilage volume of the order of -4% to -6% occur per annum in OA in most knee compartments (e.g., -90 microl in medial tibia). Annual changes in cartilage volume exceed the precision errors and appear to be associated with clinical symptoms as well as with time to knee arthroplasty. MRI provides reliable
Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT OA is the most common degenerative joint disease , and ~12% of all OA are resulted...Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease , and ~12% of all OA are resulted from an acute trauma to the joint and are...intense physical demands of military-related activities or combat-related traumatic joint injuries. Either direct joint damage or limb amputation result
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT OA is the most common degenerative joint disease , and ~12% of all OA are resulted from an acute...Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease , and ~12% of all OA are resulted from an acute trauma to the joint and are referred to as...synovial inflammation triggers massive infiltration of activated macrophages. The idea of the combination macrophage-based adoptive gene therapy
Bang, Daisy; Xu, Jinfeng; Keenan, Robert; Pike, Virginia; Lehmann, Robert; Tenner, Craig; Crittenden, Daria; Pillinger, Michael; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana
Osteoarthritis (OA) and gout have each been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their relative impact is unknown. We compared CVD rates among patients with gout versus patients with OA and no gout (OA-only). We identified male patients at the VA New York Harbor Healthcare System with gout (with or without concur - rent OA) and with OA-only between August 2007 and August 2008. For each group, we collected baseline demographic data and CVD risk factors. The primary outcome was a composite index (CV4) of any diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), angina, myocardial infarction (MI), or coro- nary bypass surgery (CABG). Secondary outcomes included individual diagnoses within the CV4, CHF, and death. We subsequently divided the gout patients into those who did versus did not have concurrent diagnoses of OA (gout-only; gout+OA). Logistic regression was used to compare the associations of OA-only, gout-only, and gout+OA with CV outcomes. 1,280 gout subjects met inclusion criteria (983 gout- only and 297 gout+OA), along with 1,231 OA-only subjects. Gout subjects overall had more CVD risk factors at baseline, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease, versus OA-only. Compared with OA-only, gout subjects overall had increased rates of all outcomes except MI. Both the gout-only and gout+OA subgroups also had increased risk for all outcomes except MI, and CABG in the case of gout+OA subjects. After adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors, both gout-only and gout+OA subjects continued to have increased risk for multiple CVD outcomes. Gout+OA did not impart ad- ditional risk over gout-only for any outcome studied. Our data suggest that gout is associated with higher risk of CVD compared with OA, and that OA does not impart any additive CVD risk to patients who also have gout. Significance and Innovations: • In our dataset, gout subjects both with and without con- comitant OA had more cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk
Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.
Guermazi, A; Eckstein, F; Hunter, D; Roemer, F
The 7th Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) International Workshop on Osteoarthritis Imaging was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, from July 9-12, 2014; attracting attendees from academia, pharmaceutical and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) industries, as well as a large number of young investigators. The Workshop program consisted of six modules, including imaging in osteoarthritis (OA), imaging and pain in OA, new techniques in imaging, risk factors and structural outcomes, anti-nerve growth factor (a-NGF) therapy, and joint replacement. A wealth of data was presented from OA researchers from all over the world and participants gained insightful knowledge on up-to-date research work focusing on imaging of OA. This paper presents a summary of the salient points from the workshop. Identifying the appropriate imaging modality and parameters will be critical for ensuring responsive, reproducible and reliable outcomes for clinical trials. Continued efforts from the OA research community are needed to establish the most effective use of imaging in OA clinical trials, including anti-NGF therapy and joint replacement trials, and to validate newer imaging techniques such as compositional MRI for use in the future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Collins, Jamie E.; Losina, Elena; Nevitt, Michael C.; Roemer, Frank W.; Guermazi, Ali; Lynch, John A.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Kraus, Virginia B.; Hunter, David J.
Objective To determine the association between changes in semi-quantitative knee MRI biomarkers over 24 months and radiographic and pain progression over 48 months in knees with mild to moderate osteoarthritis. Methods We undertook a nested case-control study as part of the Osteoarthritis Biomarkers Consortium Project. We built multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between change over 24 months in semi-quantitative MR imaging markers and knee OA radiographic and pain progression. MRIs were read according to the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) scoring system. We focused on changes in cartilage, osteophytes, meniscus, bone marrow lesions, Hoffa-synovitis, and synovitis-effusion. Results The most parsimonious model included changes in cartilage thickness and surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology (C-statistic =0.740). Subjects with worsening cartilage thickness in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.8-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 5.9) greater odds of being a case while subjects with worsening in cartilage surface area in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 4.4) greater odds of being a case. Having worsening in any region in meniscal morphology was associated with a 2.2-fold (95%CI: 1.3 – 3.8) greater odds of being a case. Worsening synovitis-effusion (OR=2.7) and Hoffa-synovitis (OR=2.0) were also associated with greater odds of being a case. Conclusion Twenty-four-month change in cartilage thickness, cartilage surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology were independently associated with OA progression, suggesting that they may serve as efficacy biomarkers in clinical trials of disease modifying interventions for knee OA. PMID:27111771
Cianflocco, A J
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a chronic and progressive disease that is the product of failure of the joint to repair cartilage breakdown and wear. This article reviews the physiologic properties and pathological changes in the synovial fluid that occur in patients with OA. Exogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) has analgesic, chondroprotective, and disease-modifying effects. Viscosupplements of HA are useful in the treatment of OA in conjunction with other methods of conservative treatment. Viscosupplementation may be better tolerated than oral medication, which can have significant side effects and drug interactions. Unlike other OA treatments, viscosupplements do not carry precautions for comorbidities, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A number of HA viscosupplements are available for intra-articular injection in the treatment of knee OA. These supplements vary in molecular weight, dosage per injection, residence time in the joint, and number of injections required for treatment.
Kang, I; Han, S W
We sought to determine the frequency of anserine bursitis (AB) in Koreans with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and its relationship to age, sex, and radiographic severity of OA, and to evaluate its response to various forms of therapy. In a retrospective study, we reviewed the charts of patients with OA of the knee and graded the radiographic severity by the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scheme. Of 62 patients, 29 had AB. No difference in age, sex, and radiographic severity was noticed between patients with AB and those without AB. Eleven of 12 patients who received a local injection of methylprednisolone plus lidocaine at the anserine bursa had relief, whereas 7 of 17 patients who received noninjection therapy for AB showed improvement. Anserine bursitis is commonly found in Koreans with OA of the knee, and its presence is unrelated to age, sex, and radiographic severity. Local injection at the anserine bursa is more effective than noninjection therapy.
Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.
Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane
Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Herman, Cassandra; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul
Objective To compare the gait of adults with unilateral and bilateral symptomatic and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether these subgroups can be treated similarly in the clinic and when recruiting for randomized clinical trials, and to use these data to generate future hypotheses regarding gait in these subsets of knee OA patients. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of patients with unilateral and bilateral knee OA on gait mechanics using 136 older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg.m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg.m−2; 82% female) with radiographic knee OA. Comparisons were made between the most affected side of the bilateral group (Bi) and the affected side of the unilateral group (Uni), and between symmetry indices of each group. Results There were no significant differences in any temporal, kinematic, or kinetic measures between the Uni and Bi cohorts. Comparison of symmetry indices between groups also revealed no significant differences. Conclusion The similarity in lower extremity mechanics between unilateral and bilateral knee OA patients is sufficiently robust to consider both subsets as a single cohort. We hypothesize that biomechanical adaptations to knee OA are at least partially systemic in origin and not based solely on the physiological characteristics of an affected knee joint. PMID:26706699
Ene, Răzvan; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Ene, Patricia; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela; Cîrstoiu, Florin Cătălin
The synovium is an intra-articular mesenchymal tissue and essential for the normal joint function. It is involved in many pathological characteristic processes and sometimes specific for this distinctive tissue. In this study, we refer to synovial proliferative disorders according to the stage of osteoarthritis (OA) disease. Forty-three patients with knee OA were treated in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, in the last two years. In all cases, we used at least five criteria for the knee OA: knee pain, knee joint tenderness, no palpable warmth over the knee, stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. In all the cases the synovial tissue was selected by the orthopedic surgeon. X-ray examination was taken in every case of the affected joint. Patients who were considered to have early OA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsy of the symptomatic joint. Synovial tissue samples from patients with late OA were obtained at the time of knee joint arthroplasty. Microscopic examination in early osteoarthritis revealed for more than half of patients with synovial biopsy through arthroscopic technique having synovitis lesions with mononuclear infiltrates, diffuse fibrosis, thickening of the lining layer, macrophages appearance and neoformation vessels also. The synovitis seen in advanced OA knees tends to be diffuse and is not mandatory localized to areas of chondral defects, although an association has been reported between chondral defects and associated synovitis in the knee medial tibio-femoral compartment. The overexpression of mediators of inflammation and the increased mononuclear cell infiltration were seen in early OA, compared with late OA.
Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.
Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K
Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.
Taş, Serkan; Güneri, Sinem; Baki, Aysun; Yıldırım, Tezel; Kaymak, Bayram; Erden, Zafer
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in temporospatial parameters in according to severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study included a total of 110 subjects with no orthopedic or neurologic disease that might affect gait were divided into three study and one control groups. Eighty subjects (mean age: 53.13 ± 6.78 years) were diagnosed with bilateral knee OA and divided into groups according to Kellgren-Lawrence radiologic scale: the Phase 1 group included 29 subjects, Phase 2, 28 subjects, and Phase 3, 23 subjects. The control group was composed of 30 healthy subjects (25 females, 5 males; mean age: 41.50 ± 5.79 years). Temporospatial gait data were evaluated using a gait analysis system. There were no significant differences in all temporospatial parameters between the control group and the Phase 1 and 2 OA groups (p>0.05). There was a significant decrease in cadence, gait velocity, stride length and step length (p<0.008) and a significant increase in stride time, double support time, step time, single support time and stance phase length in patients with Phase 3 knee OA compared to the other groups (p<0.008). Changes in temporospatial parameters of patients with Phase 3 knee OA may be correlated with loss of gait stabilization and increase in risk of falling. In subjects with knee OA, gait stabilization and balance loss must be examined and evaluated in terms of risk of falling and necessary precautions must be taken.
Zhou, Shi-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Xia; Liu, Jun
We aimed to detect neopterin concentrations in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to clarify their relationship with clinical severity of the disease. We cross-sectionally enrolled 176 knee OA patients and 63 age- and sex-matched controls. We measured neopterin concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and investigated the correlation between serum/SF neopterin concentrations and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades as well as Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores in OA patients. Our results demonstrated that increased SF neopterin concentrations were independently correlated with greater symptomatic and radiographic severity in OA patients. These results suggested a crucial role of neopterin activation in the development and progression of knee OA. Assessment of neopterin levels in SF is a potential biomarker to evaluate disease severity in OA patients.
Nirmal, Pallavi S; Jagtap, Suresh D; Narkhede, Aarti N; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri E; Harsulkar, Abhay M
Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is on rise on the global scale. At present there are no satisfactory pharmacological agents for treating OA. Our previous study showed that Sida cordifolia L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. had protective effect on cartilage. Here, we describe the effect of OA-F2, a herbal formulation prepared using combination of these two plants in alleviating OA associated symptoms in a rat model of collagenase-induced OA. OA was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II in wistar rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg) was used as a reference control. Rats (n = 6) were divided into 6 groups: Healthy control (HC), osteoarthritic control (OAC), diclofenac (DICLO), OA-F2L (135 mg/kg), OA-F2M (270 mg/kg) and OA-F2H (540 mg/kg). The effects of the 20 days treatment were monitored by parameters like knee diameter, paw volume, paw retraction; serum C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Radiography and histopathology of knee joint were also studied. Additionally, gene expression was studied from isolated synovium tissue proving anti-osteoarthritic potential of OA-F2. Oral administration of OA-F2 has significantly prevented knee swelling compared to OAC; OA-F2 and DICLO, significantly reduced paw volume compared to OAC. Paw latency was remarkably increased by OA-F2 compared to OAC. OA-F2L (-0.670, p < 0.001), M (-0.110, p < 0.05) and H (0.073) has markedly reduced levels of CRP compared to DICLO. OA-F2L (p < 0.05), M (p < 0.001) and H (p < 0.05) significantly reduced ALP levels, compared to DICLO. GAG release in the serum was also significantly lowered in OA-F2 treated group compared to DICLO. Radiological and histopathological observations showed cartilage protection by OA-F2. OA-F2 has upregulated SOD and GPx. Upregulated CAT expression was observed in OA-F2M and H. Considerable down-regulation of expression of MMP-3 and MMP-9 was observed in all the groups. Up-regulation of
Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Caine, Dennis J.
Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available, and scientific evidence is necessary for advising patients with OA on the optimal treatment strategy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild to moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, gender and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415
Bailey, J; Hawker, G A; Wood, R; Cappelleri, J C; Higgins, V; Joyce, N; Hsu, M-A
Physicians often classify patients' osteoarthritis (OA) severity subjectively. As treatment decisions are influenced by severity classifications, it is important to understand the factors that influence physicians' OA severity ratings. This research sought to empirically identify physician and patient characteristics that lead to a patient being perceived as having more severe OA. Data were analyzed from the OA IX Disease Specific Program, a large cross-sectional survey of OA physicians and patients in Germany, the UK, and USA between September 2011 and January 2012. Eligible, consenting physicians completed a Patient Record Form (PRF) for 10 consecutive OA patients. The PRF asked physicians to report the patient's demographics [age, gender, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity], their assessment of the patients' symptom severity, treatment, probability for surgery, to rate their overall OA severity (mild, moderate or severe) and the factors that had influenced the rating. Chi-squared tests and analysis of variance were used to identify patient characteristics that significantly impacted physicians' OA severity ratings. Controlling for the significant patient characteristics, we then examined the impact of physician specialty on physician's OA severity ratings. Finally, we investigated the differences in physician-reported factors that influenced the physicians' rating of patients' severity between physician specialties. Three hundred and sixty-three physicians [220 primary care physicians (PCPs), 48 rheumatologists, 95 orthopedic surgeons] recruited 3561 patients. Patients with greater age and BMI, worse symptoms and greater health care use were given higher OA severity ratings. Controlling for these factors, orthopedic surgeons rated their OA patients as more severe than PCPs and rheumatologists [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.4]. Specialists (rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons) were more likely than PCPs to use joint spaced
Vasilyeva, L V; Lakhin, D I
To estimate clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and in those with OA and metabolic syndrome (MS). 164 patients with OA were examined and divided into 2 groups of 82 people: a study group (patients with MS) and a control one (those without MS). OA was defined according to the diagnostic criteria described by R.D. Althmann (1995). MS was identified based on the criteria developed by the International Diabetes Federation (2005). The location of affected and swollen joints was determined according to the Richie index; the intensity of pain syndrome was measured by a visual analogue scale at rest and on movement; the WOMAC and Lequesne indexes were estimated in the patients. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were determined from laboratory data. In the MS group, the frequency of joint injuries at various sites, the prevalence of synovitis, and the intensity of pain and inflammation were significantly higher than in the non-MS group. The negative impact of MS on the clinical picture of OA can be inferred by the findings.
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; So, Kazutaka; Kuroda, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki
The ability to change directions while walking is an integral component of adaptive locomotor behavior. Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) experience prolonged hip dysfunction. Gait compensation adopted by the patients with hip OA may become more pronounced while they turn. The purposes of this study were to identify the turning strategy while walking in patients with hip OA, and to examine the relationship between the turning strategy and the patient's functional level. Fourteen patients with hip OA and 13 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments, and the foot progression angle were measured under three walking conditions (straight walking, 45° step turn, and 45° crossover turn), and the gait variables for each walking condition were compared between the 2 groups. The relationship between the increasing rate of knee and ankle joint moments in the turning to the straight walking and the functional point in the Harris hip score (HHS) was examined. The OA group showed decreased hip flexion, extension, and abduction angles, and hip flexion moment during the step turn, and decreased hip flexion, extension, and adduction angles, and hip abduction moment during the crossover turn. Furthermore, the ankle plantarflexion moment and the change in the foot angle during the stance phase were significantly increased during the crossover turn in the OA group. The increasing rate of the ankle plantarflexion moment correlated significantly with the functional point in the HHS. Patients with hip OA rely primarily on the ankle plantarflexors to compensate for the hip dysfunction while changing the walking direction.
Stiebel, Matthew; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Traumatic knee injury is common in young adults and strongly contributes to premature development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Post-traumatic knee OA poses a therapeutic dilemma to the physician, since no known therapy has an acceptable safety profile, effectively relieves joint pain, and enjoys reasonable patient acceptance. Consequently, these young patients will ultimately be faced with the decision to either undergo surgical intervention, despite prosthesis durability concerns, or to continue with ineffective nonsurgical treatment. Emerging therapies, such as biologics, disease-modifying drugs, partial joint resurfacings, and minimally invasive joint-unloading implants are currently being studied to fill this therapeutic void in the young patient with post-traumatic knee OA.
Horn, C A; Bradley, J D; Brandt, K D; Kreipke, D L; Slowman, S D; Kalasinski, L A
Since insulin is a potent growth factor for connective tissue, the present study was designed to investigate whether radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-resistant type II diabetes mellitus differ from those in nondiabetic controls with knee OA. Radiographs from 25 female patients with diabetes and knee OA were compared with those from 48 female controls who were similar with respect to age, weight, and duration of OA symptoms. Although the 2 groups were similar with respect to the frequency and severity of joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and geodes, osteophytes were less common in the patients with diabetes (P = 0.044), and spurring, when present, tended to be "marked" less often in the diabetic patients than in the controls. The data suggest that diminished availability of insulin at the cellular level or diabetic microvascular disease attenuates the chondro- and osteogenesis required for osteophyte formation in the joints of patients with OA.
Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.
To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…
Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.
To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Shinya, Masahiro; Oda, Shingo
Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) have difficulty with mediolateral postural control. Since the symptom of hip OA includes joint pain, which mostly occurs upon initial movement, patients with hip OA might have disabling problems with movement initiation. This study aimed to identify the movement strategy during the anticipatory postural adjustments in the lateral step motion in patients with hip OA. We studied 18 female subjects with unilateral hip OA and 10 healthy subjects, and measured temporal, kinetic, and kinematic variables. Patients with hip OA required a longer duration of anticipation phase than the control subjects, the total duration of lateral stepping was not different between the groups. Displacement of the center of mass to the supporting (affected) side during the anticipation phase was not different between the two groups. These findings suggest that, in patients with hip OA, the center of mass slowly moved to the affected side. Furthermore, patients with hip OA showed greater shift of the trunk to the supporting side than did the control subjects. These movement characteristics might contribute to the achievement of both protection of the affected hip joint and quickness in the subsequent lateral step in patients with hip OA.
With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...
Kraus, Virginia B; Hargrove, David E; Hunter, David J; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M
To establish reference intervals for osteoarthritis (OA)-related biomarkers used in the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) OA Biomarkers Consortium Project. A total of 129 'multijoint controls' were selected from 2722 African-American and Caucasian men and women in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. The majority (79%) of those eligible (with biospecimens and baseline data) also had one or more follow-up evaluations 5-15 years later. Multijoint controls were selected to be free of radiographic hand, hip, knee and lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA), to have no knee or hip symptoms, and minimal hand and spine symptoms at all available time points. Eighteen biomarkers were evaluated in serum (s) and/or urine (u) by ELISA. Reference intervals and partitioning by gender and race were performed with EP Evaluator software. Controls were 64% women, 33% African-Americans, mean age 59 years and mean body mass index 29 kg/m(2). Three biomarkers were associated with age: sHyaluronan (positively), sN-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (positively) and sCol2-3/4 C-terminal cleavage product of types I and II collagen (negatively). Exploratory analyses suggested that separate reference intervals may be warranted on the basis of gender for uC-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (uCTXII), sMatrix metalloproteinase-3, uNitrated type II collagen degradation fragment (uCol2-1 NO2) and sHyaluronan, and on the basis of race for uCTXII, sCartilage oligomeric matrix protein, sC-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and uCol2-1 NO2. To our knowledge, this represents the best and most stringent control group ever assayed for OA-related biomarkers. These well-phenotyped controls, representing a similar age demographic to that of the OA Initiative-FNIH main study sample, provide a context for interpretation of OA subject biomarker data. The freely available data set also provides a reference for future human studies. Published
Wang, Susanne X; Ganguli, Arijit X; Bodhani, Amit; Medema, Jeroen K; Reichmann, William M; Macaulay, Dendy
To compare healthcare resource utilization and costs between patients aged 18-64 years with osteoarthritis (OA) and matched controls without OA in a privately insured population. Patients with OA were selected from de-identified US-based employer claims (Q1:1999-Q3:2011). The index date was defined as the first OA diagnosis indicated by ICD-9-CM codes. One year before and after the index date were defined as the baseline and study periods, respectively. A second OA diagnosis during the study period was also required. Patients with OA were matched one-to-one on age, gender, index date, and minimum length of follow-up to controls without OA. Baseline characteristics and study period resource utilization and costs (2016 USD) were compared between cohorts. This study identified 199,539 patients with OA (knee: 87,271, hip: 19,953, hand: 15,670, spine: 12,496). The average age was 54 years, and 58% were female. OA patients had higher healthcare resource utilization than matched controls in inpatient, emergency room, and outpatient settings (p < .001 for all). Further, patients with OA had 4-times the excess total medical costs of their matched controls ($14,521 vs $3,629; p < .001). Patients with hip OA had the highest medical costs among all joint locations. Outpatient and pharmacy costs were similar among patients with knee, hip, and hand OA, but higher in patients with spine OA. In sub-group analyses, older patients (45-64 years old) had higher costs. This sample, obtained using claims data, only includes patients who were actively seeking care for OA and were likely symptomatic. Asymptomatic patients would likely not be captured in this analysis. Patients with OA incur greater healthcare resource utilization and costs than patients without OA, with substantial variation by joint location.
Catanzaro, Roberto; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Solimene, Umberto; Zerbinati, Nicola; Milazzo, Michele; Celep, Gulcip; Sapienza, Chiara; Italia, Angelo; Polimeni, Ascanio; Marotta, Francesco
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slow, chronic joint disease characterized by focal degeneration of articular cartilage and alterations of the chemical and mechanical articular function and also major cause of pain and physical disability. There is clinical evidence that increasing dietary n-3 relative to n-6 may be beneficial in terms of symptom management in humans but not all studies conclude that dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation is of benefit, in the treatment of OA. Our recent studies highlight the effect of a biomarine compound (LD-1227) on MMPs, collagen metabolism and on chondrocyte inflammatory markers. Thus, the aim of the present work was to test such bioactive compound versus a common nutraceutical intervention (glucosamine/chrondroitin sulfate) in knee osteoarthritis patients. The patients population consisted of 60 subjects with a recent diagnosis of knee osteoarthririts of mild-moderate severity. Patients were randomized in a double-blind study comparing LD-1227 (group A) versus a mixture of glucosamine (500 mg), chondroitin sulfate (400 mg) (group B). Patients were allowed their established painkillers on demand. At 4, 9 and 18 weeks patients were evaluated as for: VAS score assessing pain at rest, and during physical exercise, Lequesne index, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale and KOOS scale. Moreover, serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-β, CRP, TNF-sR1 and TNF-sR2 were assessed. As compared to GC treatment, LD-1227 yielded a quicker and higher degree of improvement of the whole clinical indexes and a lower NSAIDs use at the end of the study. LD-1227 brought about also a more significant downregulation of the tested cytokines cascade. Taken overall, these data suggest that LD-1227 has the potential to be included in the nutraceutical armamentarium in the management of OA.
Farr II, Jack; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Identification of therapies that improve HRQoL in patients with knee OA may mitigate the clinical, economic, and social burden of this disease. The purpose of this commentary is to report the impact of knee OA on HRQoL, describe the change in HRQoL attributable to common knee OA interventions, and summarize findings from clinical trials of a promising therapy. Nonsurgical therapies do not reliably modify HRQoL in knee OA patients given their general inability to alleviate physical manifestations of OA. Surgical knee OA interventions generally result in good to excellent patient outcomes. However, there are significant barriers to considering surgery, which limits clinical utility. Therapies that most effectively control OA-related pain with a low risk: benefit ratio will likely have the greatest benefit on HRQoL with greater rates of patient adoption. Initial clinical trial findings suggest that less invasive joint unloading implants hold promise in bridging the therapeutic gap between nonsurgical and surgical treatments for the knee OA patient. PMID:24285987
Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo
The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lems, Willem F; den Uyl, Debby
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common chronic disease leading to increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. Although exercise therapy has been shown to be beneficial for both pain and physical functioning, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. However, a recent study found an exercise-induced increase in interleukin-10 levels, to which anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties are ascribed, in the (peri-)synovial fluid of patients with knee OA. These interesting results provide more insight into the effects of exercise in OA and need to be validated and confirmed. Hopefully, the study offers a promising basis for further research.
Brereton, Nicholas; Pennington, Becky; Ekelund, Mats; Akehurst, Ronald
Celecoxib for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) was reviewed by the Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket-Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (TLV) in Sweden in late 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus a PPI in a Swedish setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK developed a health economic model as part of their 2008 assessment of treatments for OA. In this analysis, the model was reconstructed and adapted to a Swedish perspective. Drug costs were updated using the TLV database. Adverse event costs were calculated using the regional price list of Southern Sweden and the standard treatment guidelines from the county council of Stockholm. Costs for treating cardiovascular (CV) events were taken from the Swedish DRG codes and the literature. Over a patient's lifetime treatment with celecoxib plus a PPI was associated with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.006 per patient when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. There was an increase in discounted costs of 529 kr per patient, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 82,313 kr ($12,141). Sensitivity analysis showed that treatment was more cost effective in patients with an increased risk of bleeding or gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The results suggest that celecoxib plus a PPI is a cost effective treatment for OA when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. Treatment is shown to be more cost effective in Sweden for patients with a high risk of bleeding or GI complications. It was in this population that the TLV gave a positive recommendation. There are known limitations on efficacy in the original NICE model.
Orita, Sumihisa; Yamashita, Masaomi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Toshinori; Shigemura, Tomonori; Nishiyama, Hideki; Konno, Shin; Ohta, Hideyuki; Takaso, Masashi; Inoue, Gen; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzkuki, Miyako; Nakamura, Junichi; Furuya, Takeo; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sasho, Takahisa; Nakagawa, Koichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Purpose Pain from osteoarthritis (OA) is generally classified as nociceptive (inflammatory). Animal models of knee OA have shown that sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee are significantly damaged with destruction of subchondral bone junction, and induce neuropathic pain (NP). Our objective was to examine NP in the knees of OA patients using painDETECT (an NP questionnaire) and to evaluate the relationship between NP, pain intensity, and stage of OA. Materials and Methods Ninety-two knee OA patients were evaluated in this study. Pain scores using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), painDETECT, duration of symptoms, severity of OA using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) system, and amount of joint fluid were evaluated and compared using a Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test. Results Our study identified at least 5.4% of our knee OA patients as likely to have NP and 15.2% as possibly having NP. The painDETECT score was significantly correlated with the VAS and WOMAC pain severity. Compared with the painDETECT score, there was a tendency for positive correlation with the KL grade, and tendency for negative correlation with the existence and amount of joint fluid, but these correlations were not significant. Conclusion PainDETECT scores classified 5.4% of pain from knee OA as NP. NP tended to be seen in patients with less joint fluid and increased KL grade, both of which corresponded to late stages of OA. It is important to consider the existence of NP in the treatment of knee OA pain. PMID:22665349
van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost
The aims of the study were to (i) determine the prevalence and course of self-reported knee instability at 2-year follow-up and (ii) identify factors predictive of retention of self-reported knee instability among patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA). Among 201 patients from the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort, demographic characteristics, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, proprioception, pain, and physical function were assessed at baseline and at 2 years. Exercise over the past 2 years was assessed by evaluating the medical files. The course of self-reported knee instability was determined in patients reporting instability at baseline. Baseline predictors of self-reported knee instability were determined by uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. At baseline, 123 (61 %) patients reported knee instability, and of these, 85 (64 %) patients reported instability 2 years later, while 38 (29 %) reported no instability 2 years later. Poor proprioception and high pain assessed at baseline predicted retention of self-reported knee instability at 2 years among patients with self-reported instability at baseline. Knee instability is highly prevalent among patients with knee osteoarthritis. In patients with self-reported knee instability, the majority retained instability over 2 years. Poor proprioception and high pain predicted retention of self-reported knee instability over time.
Mero, Anna; Campisi, Monica; Favero, Marta; Barbera, Carlo; Secchieri, Cynthia; Dayer, Jean M; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Pasut, Gianfranco
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic degeneration of joints, involving mainly the articular cartilage and the underlying bone, and severely impairing the quality of life of the patient. Although with limited efficacy, currently available pharmacological treatments for OA aim to control pain and to retard disease progression. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is a drug which has been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis by inhibiting both bone turnover and cartilage degradation and reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is used as a lubricant in OA therapy, and, interestingly, HA polymers may normalize the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -13. We demonstrated that sCT rapidly clears from the knee joint of rat animal model, after intra-articular (i.a.) administration, and it induces systemic effects. Here, sCT was conjugated to HA (200kDa) with the aim of prolonging the residence time of the polypeptide in the joint space by reducing its clearance. An aldehyde derivative of HA was used for N-terminal site-selective coupling of sCT. The activity of sCT was preserved, both in vitro and in vivo, after its conjugation and the i.a. injection of HA-sCT did not trigger any systemic effects in rats. The efficacy of HA-sCT treatment was tested in a rabbit OA model and clear chondro-protective effect was proven by macro- and microscopic assessments and histological findings. Our results indicate that HAylation of sCT increases the size of the polypeptide in a stable covalent manner and delays its passage into the blood stream. We conclude that HA conjugation prolongs the anti-catabolic effects of sCT in joint tissues, including the synovial membrane and cartilage.
Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B
Background and purpose - Recent evidence has questioned the effect of arthroscopic knee surgery for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal tears with or without concomitant radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the prevalence of early or more established knee OA and patients' characteristics in a cohort of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear. Patients and methods - 641 patients assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus tear were consecutively recruited from February 2013 through January 2015. Of these, 620 patients (mean age 49 (18-77) years, 57% men) with full datasets available were included in the present study. Prior to surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding onset of symptoms, duration of symptoms, and mechanical symptoms along with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). At arthroscopy, the operating surgeon recorded information about meniscal pathology and cartilage damage. Early or more established knee OA was defined as the combination of self-reported frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and the presence of degenerative meniscal tissue. Results - 43% of patients (269 of 620) had early or more established knee OA. Of these, a large proportion had severe cartilage lesions with almost half having a severe cartilage lesion in at least 1 knee compartment. Interpretation - Based on a definition including frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and degenerative meniscal tissue, early or more established knee OA was present in 43% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal tear.
Toktas, Hasan; Dundar, Umit; Adar, Sevda; Solak, Ozlem; Ulasli, Alper Murat
The aim of this study was to assess the ultrasonographic (US) findings of pes anserinus tendon and bursa in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with or without clinical pes anserinus tendinitis bursitis syndrome (PATBS). A total of 157 female patients with the diagnosis of knee OA on both knees (314 knees), and 30 age, and body mass index- matched healthy female controls without knee pain (60 knees), were included in the study. PATBS was clinically diagnosed. US evaluation parameters were the measurement of the thickness of pes anserinus tendon insertion region (PA) and examination of the morphologic intratendinous PA tissue characteristics and pes anserinus bursitis (PAB). Radiographic knee osteoarthritis graded I-IV according to Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) for each knee was recorded. Pain and functional status were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). There were 183 PATBS (58.3%) clinical diagnoses among the 314 knees with OA. The mean thickness of PA in the patients with knee OA graded 1,2,3,4 with/without PATBS was significantly greater than the controls (p = 0.001). The mean thickness of PA in knees with OA KL graded 3 and 4 with/without PATBS, was greater than knees with OA KL graded 1 and 2 with/without PATBS (p < 0,05) (except knee OA KL graded 2 with PATBS versus knee OA KL graded 4 without PATBS).The knee OA KL graded 1,2,3,4 with PATBS had significantly more PAB and less loss of normal fibrillar echotexture of PA compared to controls and knees with OA KL graded 1,2,3,4 without PATBS (p < 0.05). The VAS scores of knees with OA KL graded 3, 4 with PATBS were significantly greater than those of knees with OA KL graded 3,4 without PATBS (p < 0.05). PA thickness was significantly associated with the KL grade (r: 0.336, p:0.001) and PATBS (r: 0.371, p < 0.001). It is concluded that the mean thickness of PA in knees with OA with/without PATBS was significantly greater than the
Neu, C P; Reddi, A H; Komvopoulos, K; Schmid, T M; Di Cesare, P E
To quantify the concentration of superficial zone protein (SZP) in the articular cartilage and synovial fluid of patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) and to further correlate the SZP content with the friction coefficient, OA severity, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Samples of articular cartilage and synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. Additional normal samples were obtained from donated body program and tissue bank sources. Regional SZP expression in cartilage obtained from the femoral condyles was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visualized by immunohistochemistry. Friction coefficient measurements of cartilage plugs slid in the boundary lubrication system were obtained. OA severity was graded using histochemical analyses. The concentrations of SZP and proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid were determined by ELISA. A pattern of SZP localization in knee cartilage was identified, with load-bearing regions exhibiting high SZP expression. SZP expression patterns were correlated with friction coefficient and OA severity; however, SZP expression was observed in all samples at the articular surface, regardless of OA severity. SZP expression and aspirate volume of synovial fluid were higher in OA patients than in normal controls. Expression of cytokines was elevated in the synovial fluid of some patients. Our findings indicate a mechanochemical coupling in which physical forces regulate OA severity and joint lubrication. The findings of this study also suggest that SZP may be ineffective in reducing joint friction in the boundary lubrication mode at an advanced stage of OA, where other mechanisms may dominate the observed tribological behavior.
Moss, A S; Murphy, L B; Helmick, C G; Schwartz, T A; Barbour, K E; Renner, J B; Kalsbeek, W; Jordan, J M
Estimate annual incidence rates (IRs) of hip symptoms and three osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes (radiographic, symptomatic, and severe radiographic) overall and by race, sociodemographic characteristics, and hip OA risk factors. Analyze baseline (1991-1997) and first follow-up (1999-2003) data (n = 1446) from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project, a population-based, prospective study of adults ≥45 years in North Carolina. Hip symptoms were pain, aching, and/or stiffness on most days, or groin pain. Radiographic and severe radiographic OA were Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades ≥2 and ≥3, respectively. Symptomatic OA was radiographic OA with symptoms in the same hip. Sociodemographics were age, gender, race, highest attained education, and annual household income. Hip OA risk factors were self-reported body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years, clinically measured BMI at baseline, and history of hip injury. Annual IRs (median = 5.5 years follow-up) were 37, 23, 13, and 2.9 per 1000 person-years for hip symptoms, and radiographic, symptomatic, and severe radiographic hip OA, respectively. We found low IRs of radiographic and symptomatic hip OA among African Americans and high IRs of hip symptoms among the obese and the very poor. Across outcomes, IRs were highest for those with hip injury. No prior studies have reported IRs of hip symptoms; IRs of radiographic and severe radiographic hip OA were similar to, and the IR of symptomatic hip OA was higher than, previous estimates. Prevention efforts should target low socioeconomic status (SES) populations and obese adults; interventions for hip OA and hip symptoms are imperative for those with hip injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.
Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183
Yang, Fei; Zhou, Song; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Yan; Li, Huiwu; Wang, You; Zhu, Zhenan; Tang, Jian; Yan, Mengning
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the synovial joint. The synovial membrane is responsible for the inflammatory reaction leading to the secretion of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. Suppressing IL-6 over-expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) is a promising method to prevent OA development and progression, in which the prerequisite is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 over-expression in SF. Currently, there are few reports concerning epigenetic modifications in IL-6 in OA SF. In the present study, we attempted to investigate this phenomenon. SF over-expressing IL-6 was collected from OA patients. DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions in OA SF compared with normal SF. No differences in the status of H3K9 di-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation and H3K4 tri-methylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions between normal and OA SF. DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) overexpression and anacardic acid (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor) treatment increased DNA methylation and decreased histone acetylation in the IL-6 promoter, and IL-6 over-expression in OA SF was suppressed. These observations provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of OA and can be used to design new drugs and develop new therapeutic methods to treat OA.
Yang, Fei; Zhou, Song; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Yan; Li, Huiwu; Wang, You; Zhu, Zhenan; Tang, Jian; Yan, Mengning
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the synovial joint. The synovial membrane is responsible for the inflammatory reaction leading to the secretion of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. Suppressing IL-6 over-expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) is a promising method to prevent OA development and progression, in which the prerequisite is the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 over-expression in SF. Currently, there are few reports concerning epigenetic modifications in IL-6 in OA SF. In the present study, we attempted to investigate this phenomenon. SF over-expressing IL-6 was collected from OA patients. DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions in OA SF compared with normal SF. No differences in the status of H3K9 di-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation and H3K4 tri-methylation were observed in the IL-6 promoter regions between normal and OA SF. DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (Dnmt3a) overexpression and anacardic acid (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor) treatment increased DNA methylation and decreased histone acetylation in the IL-6 promoter, and IL-6 over-expression in OA SF was suppressed. These observations provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of OA and can be used to design new drugs and develop new therapeutic methods to treat OA. PMID:28262826
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of disability in the USA, affecting up to 32.8% of patients over the age of sixty. Treatment of shoulder OA is often controversial and includes both nonoperative and surgical modalities. Nonoperative modalities should be utilized before operative treatment is considered, particularly for patients with mild-to-moderate OA or when pain and functional limitations are modest despite more advanced radiographic changes. If conservative options fail, surgical treatment should be considered. Although different surgical procedures are available, as in other joints affected by severe OA, the most effective treatment is joint arthroplasty. The aim of this work is to give an overview of the currently available treatments of shoulder OA. PMID:23365745
Flugsrud, Gunnar B; Nordsletten, Lars; Reinholt, Finn P; Risberg, May Arna; Rydevik, Karin; Uhlig, Till
Osteoarthritis is among the most common causes of functional disability and severe pain, and the prevalence of arthritic symptoms among adults is more than 50%. The article discusses epidemiology, pathology and treatment options. The review is based on a non-systematic search in PubMed and the authors' experience with treating this patient group. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease which leads to loss of joint functioning. Symptoms usually present in the hip, hands and knees. Women are affected more often than men and the prevalence increases with increasing age. Some families have an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis, but the genetic etiology is not clear. Mechanic conditions such as overweight and heavy physical work explain some of the pathogenesis, but non-mechanical factors are probably involved as well. Loss of weight is likely to have a preventive effect, and surgical correction of mechanic conditions such as hip dysplasia and varus deformity can prevent development of osteoarthritis. Treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis includes educating the patient and continues with stretching, physical exercise, weight reduction, technical aids (supporting braces, walking sticks) and analgesics. Subsequent options are treatment with paracetamol, NSAIDs and possibly opiates and finally insertion of an artificial joint. Many patients with disabling osteoarthritis function much better and have markedly less pain with an artificial joint. Current treatment options alleviate but do not cure arthritic symptoms; preventive actions should be instigated when possible. Treatment of osteoarthritis involves many medical specialties and treatment modalities.
Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B
Background and purpose — Recent evidence has questioned the effect of arthroscopic knee surgery for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal tears with or without concomitant radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the prevalence of early or more established knee OA and patients’ characteristics in a cohort of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear. Patients and methods — 641 patients assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus tear were consecutively recruited from February 2013 through January 2015. Of these, 620 patients (mean age 49 (18–77) years, 57% men) with full datasets available were included in the present study. Prior to surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding onset of symptoms, duration of symptoms, and mechanical symptoms along with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). At arthroscopy, the operating surgeon recorded information about meniscal pathology and cartilage damage. Early or more established knee OA was defined as the combination of self-reported frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and the presence of degenerative meniscal tissue. Results — 43% of patients (269 of 620) had early or more established knee OA. Of these, a large proportion had severe cartilage lesions with almost half having a severe cartilage lesion in at least 1 knee compartment. Interpretation — Based on a definition including frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and degenerative meniscal tissue, early or more established knee OA was present in 43% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal tear. PMID:27798972
Costa, Renata Alqualo; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhaes; Watanabe, Sandra Hiroko; Jones, Anamaria; Natour, Jamil
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the difference in isokinetic strength of hip muscles between patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and matched healthy controls, and to establish the correlation between this isokinetic strength and pain and function in patients with knee OA. METHODS: 25 patients with a diagnosis of unilateral knee OA, 25 patients with bilateral knee OA, and 50 matched controls were evaluated using the visual analog scale for pain, knee Lequesne index, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities questionnaire and an isokinetic test. RESULTS: The groups were matched for age, gender and body mass index. The results of the isokinetic test revealed lower peak torque of the hip in patients with OA of the knee than in the control group for all movements studied. Strong correlations were found between the peak torque, visual analog scale and function. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OA of the knee exhibit lower isokinetic strength in the hip muscles than healthy control subjects. Strengthening the muscles surrounding the hip joint may help to decrease pain in people with knee OA. Some correlations between pain/function and peak torque were found. PMID:21340212
Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Song Joo; Zhang, Li-Qun
Background The external knee adduction moment (EKAM) is closely associated with the presence, progression, and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is a lack of convenient and practical method to estimate and track in real-time the EKAM of patients with knee OA for clinical evaluation and gait training, especially outside of gait laboratories. New Method A real-time EKAM estimation method was developed and applied to track and investigate the EKAM and other knee moments during stepping on an elliptical trainer in both healthy subjects and a patient with knee OA. Results Substantial changes were observed in the EKAM and other knee moments during stepping in the patient with knee OA. Comparison with Existing Method(s) This is the first study to develop and test feasibility of real-time tracking method of the EKAM on patients with knee OA using 3-D inverse dynamics. Conclusions The study provides us an accurate and practical method to evaluate in real-time the critical EKAM associated with knee OA, which is expected to help us to diagnose and evaluate patients with knee OA and provide the patients with real-time EKAM feedback rehabilitation training. PMID:24361759
Odole, Adesola C; Ojo, Oluwatobi D
This study assessed the effects of a 6-week telephone based intervention on the pain intensity and physical function of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and compared the results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. Fifty randomly selected patients with knee OA were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a clinic group (CG) and a tele-physiotherapy group (TG). The CG received thrice-weekly physiotherapist administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises in the clinic for six weeks. The TG received structured telephone calls thrice-weekly at home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises. Participants' pain intensity and physical function were assessed at baseline, two, four, and six weeks, in the clinic environment. Within group comparison showed significant improvements across baseline, and at weeks two, four, and six for both TG and CG's pain intensity and physical function. Between-group comparison of CG and TG's pain intensity and physical function at baseline and weeks two, four, and six showed no significant differences. This study demonstrated that a six-week course of structured telephone calls thrice-weekly to patients at their home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises for patients with knee OA (i.e., tele-physiotherapy) achieved comparable results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic.
Odole, Adesola C.; Ojo, Oluwatobi D.
This study assessed the effects of a 6-week telephone based intervention on the pain intensity and physical function of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and compared the results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. Fifty randomly selected patients with knee OA were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a clinic group (CG) and a tele-physiotherapy group (TG). The CG received thrice-weekly physiotherapist administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises in the clinic for six weeks. The TG received structured telephone calls thrice-weekly at home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises. Participants’ pain intensity and physical function were assessed at baseline, two, four, and six weeks, in the clinic environment. Within group comparison showed significant improvements across baseline, and at weeks two, four, and six for both TG and CG’s pain intensity and physical function. Between-group comparison of CG and TG’s pain intensity and physical function at baseline and weeks two, four, and six showed no significant differences. This study demonstrated that a six-week course of structured telephone calls thrice-weekly to patients at their home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises for patients with knee OA (i.e., tele-physiotherapy) achieved comparable results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. PMID:25945214
Yamamoto, Yuri; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wingstrand, Hans; Englund, Martin
To determine the rate ratios of hip and distal radius fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hip osteoarthritis (OA), and knee OA. Cohort study using healthcare data (1998-2012) covering the entire population of the Skåne region of Sweden. We found an increased rate of hip fracture in both female [standardized fracture rate ratio (SFR) 1.54, 95% CI 1.40-1.70] and male patients with RA (SFR 1.81, 95% CI 1.51-2.17). The hip fracture rate in female OA was reduced by 10-20%, and trochanteric fracture tended to have a higher rate ratio compared with the cervical. The 50-80% increased rate of hip fracture adds to the total burden of RA while the shifted distribution of cervical/trochanteric fractures in OA is in support of subchondral bone alterations.
... joints most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis include stiffness, swelling, and pain, which make it ... are also common sites of osteoarthritis. As with knee osteoarthritis, symptoms of hip osteoarthritis include pain and stiffness ...
Hurley, M.; Scott, D.; Rees, J.; Newham, D.
OBJECTIVE—Muscles are essential components of our sensorimotor system that help maintain balance and perform a smooth gait, but it is unclear whether arthritic damage adversely affects muscle sensorimotor function. Quadriceps sensorimotor function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated, and whether these changes were associated with impairment of functional performance. METHODS—Quadriceps strength, voluntary activation, and proprioceptive acuity (joint position sense acuity) were assessed in 103 patients with knee OA and compared with 25 healthy control subjects. In addition, their postural stability, objective functional performance (the aggregate time for four activities of daily living), and disabilities (Lequesne index) were also investigated. RESULTS—Compared with the control subjects, the patients with knee OA had weaker quadriceps (differences between group mean 100N, CI 136, 63N), poorer voluntary activation (20% CI 13, 25%) that was associated with quadriceps weakness, and impaired acuity of knee joint position sense (1.28°, CI 0.84, 1.73°). As a group the patients were more unstable (p=0.0017), disabled (10, CI 7, 11), and had poorer functional performance (19.6 seconds, CI 14.3, 24.9 seconds). The most important predictors of disability were objective functional performance and quadriceps strength. CONCLUSIONS—In patients with knee OA, articular damage may reduce quadriceps motoneurone excitability, which decreases voluntary quadriceps activation thus contributing to quadriceps weakness, and diminishes proprioceptive acuity. The arthrogenic impairment in quadriceps sensorimotor function and decreased postural stability was associated with reduced functional performance of the patients. PMID:9462165
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Behshid, Mozhgan; Irajpoor, Alireza; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin
Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for pain management in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), personal biases in the selection, administration, and continuation of pharmacotherapy challenge the proper management of symptoms and the effectiveness of the therapy. This study was conducted to carry out an in-depth examination of the experiences of patients with OA about their use of pharmacotherapy for the OA pain management and the existing challenges. The present qualitative study was conducted on 17 patients with OA, 5 of their family members and 8 healthcare personnel using a conventional content analysis approach. Data were collected through 35 interviews, which were unstructured at first but became semi-structured later on. Data collection continued until data saturation and analyzed simultaneously. The criteria used to determine the rigor of the study included the credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability of the data. The analysis of the data revealed 3 main categories and 8 subcategories. The main categories including preference for non-pharmacological modalities, preference for symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SySADOAs) and preference for vitamins and minerals. Briefing the patients on the therapeutic goals, participating them in the clinical decision-making process, modifying drug administration patterns through prescribing the minimum effective dosage and substituting alternative therapies whenever possible, consistently monitoring the therapeutic responses and any unexpected complications and use of complementary treatments, makes up strategies that can help improve OA pain management.
Argoff, Charles E; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Ed; Ortiz, Marie; Pauer, Lynne; Clair, Andrew
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain disorder with patients frequently suffering from comorbid conditions, including osteoarthritis (OA). Data on how FM patients with comorbid OA respond to recommended therapies (such as pregabalin) could help their treatment. This was a pooled exploratory analysis of three randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of pregabalin in FM patients to assess the impact of comorbid OA on the response to pregabalin. Patients were divided into those with and without comorbid OA. Difference in change in least squares (LS) mean pain score at endpoint (assessed by 0-10 numeric rating scale, controlled for baseline pain score) with pregabalin (300 mg/day and 450 mg/day) vs placebo was assessed. Changes in Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) responders and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total score were also assessed. There were 1665 patients in the analysis set (558, placebo; 552, pregabalin 300 mg/day; 555, pregabalin 450 mg/day), including 296 with comorbid OA. Pregabalin 450 mg/day significantly improved the LS mean (95% confidence interval) difference in pain score vs placebo in patients with (0.99 [0.44, 1.55], P < 0.001), and without (0.64 [0.39, 0.89], P < 0.001) OA. Improvements with pregabalin 300 mg/day with (0.31 [-0.25, 0.86], P = 0.276) and without (0.51 [0.25, 0.76], P < 0.001) OA were not consistently significant. Improvements in PGIC and FIQ total score were observed in patients with and without comorbid OA. FM patients with or without comorbid OA respond to treatment with pregabalin 450mg/day with significant improvements in pain intensity scores. These data could provide guidance to healthcare professionals treating these patients. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Chuang, Shih-Hung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Chen, Tien-Wen; Weng, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chin-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hsin
Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) find that use of elastic knee sleeves gives them partial pain relief and a greater sense of joint stability. However, the scientific effects of knee OA patients wearing braces are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of knee sleeves on static and dynamic balance in knee OA patients. Fifty patients with knee OA were enrolled in the study and all subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Initially, subjects in group A did not wear a neoprene sleeve while receiving balance tests but then wore them to be re-tested. Subjects in group B did just the reverse procedure. In this investigation, an instrument (KAT 2000; Breg Inc., Vista, CA, USA), which quantified motor control performance of the lower extremities was used and balance scores from the KAT 2000 software were obtained. The results revealed that the scores of patients wearing braces were significantly lower than those of patients without braces (p < 0.05).The finding of this study demonstrated that knee OA patients wearing knee sleeves could experience increased balance ability in both static and dynamic conditions. The improvement might prevent knee OA patients from falling down and increase their sense of security during physical activities.
Sharma, Anirudh; Kudesia, Prtha; Shi, Qian; Gandhi, Rajiv
Background Anxiety and depression are common psychological comorbidities that impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients. In this systematic review, we 1) determined the impact of anxiety and depression on outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 2) summarized unique challenges these comorbidities present to current OA management. Patients and methods A systematic literature search was performed using the OVID Medline and EMBASE databases until April 2016. Full-text research articles published in English from the year 2000 onward with a sample size of >100 were included in this review. Eligible research articles were reviewed and the following data were extracted: study author(s), year of publication, study design, and key findings. Results A total of 38 studies were included in the present review. The present study found that both anxiety and/or depression were highly prevalent among patients with OA. Patients with OA diagnosed with these comorbidities experienced more pain, had frequent hospital visits, took more medication, and reported less optimal outcomes. Management strategies in the form of self-care, telephone support, audio/video education programs, and new pharmacotherapies were reported with favorable results. Conclusion Anxiety and depression adversely impact the QoL of patients with OA. Physicians/caregivers are highly recommended to consider these comorbidities in patients with OA. Ultimately, a holistic individualized management approach is necessary to improve patient outcomes. PMID:27843376
Toussirot, Eric; Michel, Fabrice; Béreau, Matthieu; Dehecq, Barbara; Gaugler, Béatrice; Wendling, Daniel; Grandclément, Emilie; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles
We conducted the present study to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines (leptin, total and high molecular adiponectin, resistin), a marker of cartilage breakdown (C2C), and ghrelin together with body composition in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty patients and 50 sex-matched healthy subjects (HS) were evaluated. Knee OA was scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade. Body composition parameters including lean mass and measurements of fat mass (total fat, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, visceral fat and trunk/legs fat ratio) were obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most of the recruited patients (88%) had advanced knee OA with KL grade 3 or 4. The patients had higher body mass index than HS (p < 0.0001). Serum leptin, high molecular adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin levels did not differ between patients and HS. Total adiponectin was higher in women with OA compared to women from the HS group (p = 0.004). Total fat mass, adiposity and measurements of central adiposity (fat in the android region, trunk/lower limbs fat ratio and visceral fat) were increased in patients with knee OA (all p < 0.05). Total adiponectin was borderline associated with the severity of OA. Our results show that total adiponectin is significantly increased in women with advanced knee OA. Independently of gender, patients with severe knee OA were characterized by a significant excess of fat with a distribution toward the visceral region. This abnormal body composition may contribute to the cardiometabolic profile that is described in patients with knee OA.
Allen, Kelli D.; Yancy, William S.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Datta, Santanu K.; McDuffie, Jennifer; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Oddone, Eugene Z.
Background Management of osteoarthritis (OA) requires both medical and behavioral strategies, but there is low use of some recommended therapies. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of a combined patient and provider intervention for improving OA outcomes. Design Cluster randomized clinical trial with assignment to OA Intervention and Usual Care arms. Setting Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VA) in Durham, NC, USA. Participants 30 providers (clusters) and 300 outpatients with symptomatic hip and / or knee OA Interventions The telephone-based patient intervention focused on weight management, physical activity, and cognitive behavioral pain management. The provider intervention involved delivery of patient-specific OA treatment recommendations to primary care providers through the electronic medical record. Measurements Primary outcome: Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score (range: 0-96) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes: WOMAC function subscale (range: 0-68), WOMAC pain subscale (0-20), physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8). Linear mixed models adjusted for clustering of providers assessed the difference in improvement in outcomes between arms. Results At 12-month follow-up, WOMAC scores were 4.1 points lower (indicating improvement) in the OA Intervention arm vs. Usual Care [95% confidence interval (CI) = −7.2, −1.1; p=0.009]. The WOMAC function subscale was 3.3 points lower in the intervention arm [95% CI = −5.7, −1.0; p=0.005]. There was no difference in WOMAC pain subscale scores between arms (p=0.126). Physical performance and depressive symptoms did not differ between the two arms. Limitations The study was conducted in one VA medical center. Conclusions The combined patient and provider intervention resulted in modest improvement in self-reported physical function in patients with hip and knee OA
van der Esch, Martin; Knoop, Jesper; van der Leeden, Marike; Voorneman, Ramon; Gerritsen, Martijn; Reiding, Dick; Romviel, Suzanne; Knol, Dirk L; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost; Roorda, Leo D
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. A cohort of 248 patients diagnosed with knee OA was examined. Self-reported knee instability was defined as the perception of any episode of buckling, shifting, or giving way of the knee in the past 3 months. Knee pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale, and knee extensor and flexor strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Activity limitations were measured by using the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function questionnaire, the timed Get Up and Go, and the timed stair climbing and three questionnaires evaluating walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair. Other potential determinants of activity limitations were also collected, including joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), disease duration, and radiographic disease severity. Regression analyses evaluated the effect of adding self-reported knee instability to knee pain and muscle strength, when examining associations with the activity limitations measures. Self-reported knee instability was common (65 %) in this cohort of patients with knee OA. Analyses revealed that self-reported knee instability is significantly associated with activity limitations, even after controlling for knee pain and muscle strength. Joint proprioception, joint laxity, age, sex, BMI, duration of complaints, and radiographic severity did not confound the associations. In conclusion, self-reported knee instability is associated with activity limitations in patients with knee OA, in addition to knee pain and muscle strength. Clinically, self-reported knee instability should be assessed in addition to knee pain and muscle strength.
Wei, Bo; Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Yan, Junwei; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming
This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA.
Wei, Bo; Gu, Qiangrong; Li, Dong; Yan, Junwei; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Xu, Yan; Zang, Fengchao; Wang, Liming
This study investigated the cellular and molecular changes which occur in cartilage from adults with femoral neck fracture (FNF) and osteoarthritis (OA), and explored the similarities in hip cartilage obtained from elderly patients and patients with early OA. Femoral heads were retrieved from 23 female patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This group included 7 healthy patients with FNF (hFNF), 8 elderly adults with FNF (eFNF), and 8 elderly patients with hip OA (OA). After high-field MRI T2 mapping, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the weight-bearing area of femoral heads for subsequent macroscopic, histologic, and immunochemical evaluation. Additionally, the contents of cartilage matrix were analyzed, and gene expression was detected. The surface of cartilage from hFNF and eFNF patients appeared smooth, regular, and elastic, whereas it showed irregularities, thinning, and defects in OA patients. Elevated T2 values and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were detected in cartilage from eFNF patients. Furthermore, type I collagen accumulation was slightly increased and type X collagen concentration was obviously elevated in eFNF patients; however, type II collagen distribution and the contents and anisotropy of collagen fibrils in eFNF patients showed no significant changes. Consistent with histology and immunohistochemical results, aggrecan was downregulated and type X collagen was upregulated, while collagens types I and II showed no significant changes in eFNF patients. The cellular and molecular characteristics of hip cartilage in eFNF patients who showed no symptoms of OA were similar to those in patients with mild OA. Thus, eFNF cartilage can serve as a comparative specimen for use in studies investigating early OA. PMID:25400727
de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost
Background Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Method Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Results Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (P<0.05) and clinically relevant improvements in activity limitations and pain. Conclusion Comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA were developed, providing guidance in clinical reasoning with regard to diagnostics and treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line
de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost
Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (P<0.05) and clinically relevant improvements in activity limitations and pain. Comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA were developed, providing guidance in clinical reasoning with regard to diagnostics and treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line with our protocols, a randomized clinical
Favre, Julien; Jolles, Brigitte M.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and incapacitating disease affecting a large portion of the elderly population, for which no cure exists. There is a critical need to enhance our understanding of OA pathogenesis, as a means to improve therapeutic options. Knee OA is a complex disease influenced by many factors, including the loading environment. Analysing knee biomechanics during walking - the primary cyclic load-bearing activity - is therefore particularly relevant. There is evidence of meaningful differences in the knee adduction moment, flexion moment and flexion angle during walking between non-OA individuals and patients with medial knee OA. Furthermore, these kinetic and kinematic gait variables have been associated with OA progression. Gait analysis provides the critical information needed to understand the role of ambulatory biomechanics in OA development, and to design therapeutic interventions. Multidisciplinary research is necessary to relate the biomechanical alterations to the structural and biological components of OA. Cite this article: Favre J, Jolles BM. Analysis of gait, knee biomechanics and the physiopathology of knee osteoarthritis in the development of therapeutic interventions. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:368-374. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000051. PMID:28461915
Ward, Celine; Contino, Krysta; Patel, Akshar; Mbei, Eben Eno; Roy, Satyajeet; Hunter, Krystal; Gandhi, Shivani
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and osteoarthritis (OA) are commonly found in patients followed up in a primary care office. Clear evidence to support the link between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and OA is lacking. To describe the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in patients with OA in the primary care office. We reviewed the records of 1,455 patients seen in our primary care office between November 2013 and October 2014. All patients were older than 18 years and had a diagnosis of OA. Demographic characteristics as well as 25(OH)D levels and comorbidities were analyzed. Levels of 25(OH)D were available in 1,222 patients with OA. Fifty-one percent of the patients had a low 25(OH)D level. Patients with OA and low 25(OH)D were on an average 5 years younger than patients with OA and normal 25(OH)D (P < 0.001). African Americans (71.7%) and Hispanics (63.1%) had a higher prevalence of low 25(OH)D compared to Whites (42.9%) and other races (49.1%) (P < 0.001). There were significantly more smokers (15.4%) and patients with type 2 diabetes (27.6%) in the group of patients with osteoarthritis and low 25(OH)D (P < 0.001). A lower prevalence of hypothyroidism (18.5% versus 27.4%) and higher body mass index (BMI) were also noted in the group of interest. Patients with low levels of 25(OH)D and OA are younger than their counterparts with low 25(OH)D level. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between 25(OH)D level and OA.
Reginato, Anthony M; Riera, Humberto; Vera, Mariflor; Torres, Adrian R; Espinosa, Rolando; Esquivel, Jorge A; Felipe, Oscar Jair; Blas, Jorge Roman; Rillo, Oscar; Papasidero, Silvia; Souto, Renee; Rossi, Cesar; Molina, José F; Ballesteros, Francisco; Radrigan, Francisco; Guibert, Marlene; Chico, Araceli; Gil, María L; Camacho, Walter; Urioste, Lorena; Garcia, Abraham K; Iraheta, Isa; Gutierrez, Carmen E; Duarte, Margarita; Castañeda, Oswaldo; Coimbra, Ibsen; Muñoz Louis, Roberto; Reveille, John; Quintero, Maritza
Latin America is a heterogeneous region made up of different populations, cultures, latitudes, altitudes, and immigrants from different areas and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic profile of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) evaluated by a selected group of rheumatologists in 13 Latin American countries. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 Latin American countries of patients with symptomatic OA. Data were collected over a 3-month period using an ad hoc questionnaire to evaluate the clinical and demographic features of OA seen by rheumatologists. Among the 3040 patients, their average age was 62.5 years, and female-to-male ratio was 4.8:1. Patients with body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m or obesity was found in 38.2%. Approximately 88% had primary OA. Joints with OA were as follows: knee 31.2%, hand 9.5%, hand and knee 22.9%, proximal and distal interphalangeal joints (erosive OA) 6.5%, axial 6.6%, and hip 1.3%. Approximately 88.5% had radiographic severity of grade 2 or 3 on Kellgren-Lawrence scale (0-4). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the predominant OA treatment included in combinations with glucosamine sulfate/chondroitin and viscosupplementation. Associated comorbidities included hypertension (39%), obesity (36.3%), diabetes mellitus (12%), and without comorbidity (12.7%). This is 1 of the largest population studies that evaluated the characteristics of OA in 3040 patients evaluated by rheumatologists in 13 Latin American countries. This study provides important data for each Latin American country to develop new health care planning in management of OA.
Wylde, Vikki; Hewlett, Sarah; Learmonth, Ian D; Cavendish, Victoria J
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability. Numerous tools are available to assess this, but they fail to place a patient value upon disability. In rheumatoid arthritis, research has shown patients have different importance values for similar disabilities, and these individual values can be used to weight disability levels, creating a measure of personal impact. Firstly, to determine if the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) can be used as the basis for an importance value scale by assessing if it includes activities considered important by OA patients. Secondly, to determine if the weights used for the value scale should be based on population, healthcare professional or patient values. Twenty-five OA patients, 25 healthy controls and 25 healthcare professionals rated the importance of the items on the HAQ and shortened Modified HAQ (MHAQ). Prior to completing the HAQ, patients generated a list of activities that were important to them. The HAQ contained 69% of items that patients considered important. No items were consistently deemed unimportant by patients. There was low agreement within and between groups about the importance of the items on the HAQ and MHAQ. The HAQ is a suitable basis for a value scale for an OA disability impact score. Importance values for function differed for patients, healthcare professionals and the general population; therefore individual patient weightings need to be used. Further work is under way to validate a measure of the personal impact of disability in patients with lower limb OA. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shan, Yuxing; Qi, Changlin; Liu, Yijun; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Ding; Jiang, Yanfang
An aberrant immune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the role of peripheral blood follicular helper T (TFH) cells in the pathogenesis of OA has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of TFH cells and serum interleukin-21 (IL-21) in the pathogenesis of OA. Frequency of peripheral blood inducible costimulator (ICOS)+, programmed death 1 (PD-1)+, and IL-21+ CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in 40 patients with OA and 13 healthy controls (HCs) were examined by flow cytometry. The disease state in individual patients was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Concentrations of serum IL-21, interferon-γ (INF-γ), IL-4, IL-17A, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured. The percentages of CXCR5+CD4+ cells, PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+, ICOS+CXCR5+CD4+ and IL-21+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in OA patients were significantly higher than those in the HCs. Furthermore, serum IL-21, IL-17A and IFN-γ levels in OA patients were significantly higher than those in HCs. Expression of IL-21+TFH cells in OA patients demonstrated a positive correlation with OA disease activity, CRP levels and WOMAC. TFH cells and IL-21 appear to serve an important role in the progression of OA. IL-21+TFH cells may prove to be a marker of OA disease activity. PMID:28112376
Shan, Yuxing; Qi, Changlin; Liu, Yijun; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Ding; Jiang, Yanfang
An aberrant immune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the role of peripheral blood follicular helper T (TFH) cells in the pathogenesis of OA has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of TFH cells and serum interleukin‑21 (IL‑21) in the pathogenesis of OA. Frequency of peripheral blood inducible costimulator (ICOS)+, programmed death 1 (PD‑1)+, and IL‑21+ CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in 40 patients with OA and 13 healthy controls (HCs) were examined by flow cytometry. The disease state in individual patients was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Concentrations of serum IL‑21, interferon‑γ (INF‑γ), IL‑4, IL‑17A, and C‑reactive protein (CRP) were determined, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured. The percentages of CXCR5+CD4+ cells, PD‑1+CXCR5+CD4+, ICOS+CXCR5+CD4+ and IL‑21+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in OA patients were signiﬁcantly higher than those in the HCs. Furthermore, serum IL‑21, IL‑17A and IFN‑γ levels in OA patients were significantly higher than those in HCs. Expression of IL‑21+TFH cells in OA patients demonstrated a positive correlation with OA disease activity, CRP levels and WOMAC. TFH cells and IL‑21 appear to serve an important role in the progression of OA. IL‑21+TFH cells may prove to be a marker of OA disease activity.
Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To determine the presence and frequency of factors for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Overview of Literature OA of the hip joint (hip OA) in Japanese patients is associated with a high incidence of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DS). However the associated factors for DS in patients with hip OA are unclear. Methods The study included 518 patients (59 men and 459 women) with a mean age of 63.8 years who underwent total hip arthroplasty for hip OA at our hospital between January 2004 and May 2014. The presence of DS was assessed using preoperative standing lateral radiographs of the hip joint including the lower lumbar spine. To identify the associated factors for DS in patients with hip OA, multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted in which the presence or absence of DS was used as a dependent variable, and age, female sex, body mass index (BMI), sacral slope (SS), Crowe classification, and primary OA (P-OA) not associated with acetabular dysplasia were independent variables. Results Patients with DS accounted for 114 (22.0%) of 518 cases. In multiple logistic regression analysis to identify associated factors for DS in patients with hip OA, the odds ratio for age was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.08), female sex was 2.48 (95% CI, 1.11–5.54), BMI was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02–1.14), SS was 1.07 (95% CI, 1.04–1.09), Crowe classification was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.40–0.91), and P-OA was 1.90 (95% CI, 1.20–3.75). Conclusions Age, female sex, BMI, SS, low Crowe classification, and P-OA are independently associated factors for DS in patients with hip OA. PMID:27790324
Nüesch, Corina; Huber, Cora; Pagenstert, Geert; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Valderrabano, Victor
Asymmetric osteoarthritis (OA) is a common type of OA in the ankle joint. OA also influences the muscles surrounding a joint, however, little is known about the muscle activation in asymmetric ankle OA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the patients' muscle activation during isometric ankle torque measurements and level walking. Surface electromyography (EMG) was measured of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), tibialis anterior (TA), and peroneus longus (PL) in 12 healthy subjects and 12 ankle OA patients. To obtain time and frequency components of the EMG power a wavelet transformation was performed. Furthermore, entropy was introduced to characterize the homogeneity of the wavelet patterns. Patients produced lower plantar- and dorsiflexion torques and their TA wavelet spectrum was shifted towards lower frequencies. While walking, the patients' muscles were active with a lower intensity and over a broader time-frequency region. In contrast to controls and varus OA patients, maximal GM activity of valgus OA patients lagged behind the activity of GL and SO. In both tasks, PL of the valgus patients contained more low frequency power. The results of this study will help to assess whether surgical interventions of ankle OA can reestablish the muscle activation patterns.
Eitzen, Ingrid; Fernandes, Linda; Nordsletten, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
The Sit-To-Stand (STS) transition is a mechanically demanding task that may pose particular challenges for individuals with lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). Biomechanical features of STS have been investigated in patients with OA, but not in patients with early stage hip OA. The purpose of this study was to explore inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetries (WBA) and selected kinematic and kinetic variables during STS in patients with mild-to-moderate hip OA compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one hip OA patients and 23 controls were included in the study. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with two force plates embedded in the floor. There were no distinctive biomechanical alterations in sagittal or frontal plane kinematics or kinetics, movement time, or time to reach peak ground reaction force (GRF) in hip OA patients compared with controls. However, the hip OA patients revealed a distinct pattern of WBA compared with the controls, in unloading their involved limb by 18.4% at peak GRF. These findings indicate that patients with early stage hip OA are not yet forced into a stereotypical movement strategy for STS; however, the observed pattern of WBA requires clinical attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jamtvedt, Gro; Dahm, Kristin Thuve; Holm, Inger; Flottorp, Signe
Background Patients with knee osteoarthritis [OA] are commonly treated by physiotherapists in primary care. Measuring physiotherapy performance is important before developing strategies to improve quality. The purpose of this study was to measure physiotherapy performance in patients with knee OA by comparing clinical practice to evidence from systematic reviews. Methods We developed a data-collection form and invited all private practitioners in Norway [n = 2798] to prospectively collect data on the management of one patient with knee OA through 12 treatment session. Actual practice was compared to findings from an overview of systematic reviews summarising the effect of physiotherapy interventions for knee OA. Results A total of 297 physiotherapists reported their management for patients with knee OA. Exercise was the most common treatment used, provided by 98% of the physiotherapists. There is evidence of high quality that exercise reduces pain and improves function in patients with knee OA. Thirty-five percent of physiotherapists used acupuncture, low-level laser therapy or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There is evidence of moderate quality that these treatments reduce pain in knee OA. Patient education, supported by moderate quality evidence for improving psychological outcomes, was provided by 68%. Physiotherapists used a median of four different treatment modalities for each patient. They offered many treatment modalities based on evidence of low quality or without evidence from systematic reviews, e.g. traction and mobilisation, massage and stretching. Conclusion Exercise was used in almost all treatment sessions in the management of knee OA. This practice is desirable since it is supported by high quality evidence. Physiotherapists also provide several other treatment modalities based on evidence of moderate or low quality, or no evidence from systematic reviews. Ways to promote high quality evidence into physiotherapy practice should be
Jamtvedt, Gro; Dahm, Kristin Thuve; Holm, Inger; Flottorp, Signe
Patients with knee osteoarthritis [OA] are commonly treated by physiotherapists in primary care. Measuring physiotherapy performance is important before developing strategies to improve quality. The purpose of this study was to measure physiotherapy performance in patients with knee OA by comparing clinical practice to evidence from systematic reviews. We developed a data-collection form and invited all private practitioners in Norway [n = 2798] to prospectively collect data on the management of one patient with knee OA through 12 treatment session. Actual practice was compared to findings from an overview of systematic reviews summarising the effect of physiotherapy interventions for knee OA. A total of 297 physiotherapists reported their management for patients with knee OA. Exercise was the most common treatment used, provided by 98% of the physiotherapists. There is evidence of high quality that exercise reduces pain and improves function in patients with knee OA. Thirty-five percent of physiotherapists used acupuncture, low-level laser therapy or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There is evidence of moderate quality that these treatments reduce pain in knee OA. Patient education, supported by moderate quality evidence for improving psychological outcomes, was provided by 68%. Physiotherapists used a median of four different treatment modalities for each patient. They offered many treatment modalities based on evidence of low quality or without evidence from systematic reviews, e.g. traction and mobilisation, massage and stretching. Exercise was used in almost all treatment sessions in the management of knee OA. This practice is desirable since it is supported by high quality evidence. Physiotherapists also provide several other treatment modalities based on evidence of moderate or low quality, or no evidence from systematic reviews. Ways to promote high quality evidence into physiotherapy practice should be identified and evaluated.
Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning
Impulsive forces in the knee joint have been suspected to be a co-factor in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. We thus evaluated the impulsive sagittal ground reaction forces (iGRF), shock waves and lower extremity joint kinematics at heel strike during walking in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and compared them to those in healthy subjects. We studied 9 OA patients and 10 healthy subjects using three-dimensional gait analyses concentrated on the heel strike. Impulse GRF (iGRF) was measured together with peak accelerations (PA) at the tibial tuberosity and sacrum. Sagittal lower extremity joint angles at heel strike were extracted from the gait analyses. As OA is painful and pain might alter movement strategies, the patient group was also evaluated following pain relief by intraarticular lidocaine injections. The two groups showed similar iGRF, similar tibial and sacral PA, and similar joint angles at heel strike. Following pain relief, the OA patients struck the ground with more extended hip and knee joints and lower tibial PA compared to the painful condition. Although such changes occurred after pain relief, all parameters were within their normal ranges. OA patients and healthy subjects show similar impulse-forces and joint kinematics at heel strike. Following pain relief in the patient group, changes in tibial PA and in hip and knee joint angles were observed but these were still within the normal range. Our findings make us question the hypothesis that impulse-forces generated at heel strike during walking contribute to progression of OA.
Ozen, Gulsen; Kamen, Diane L; Mikuls, Ted R; England, Bryant R; Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb
To profile osteoporosis (OP) care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over the past decade. Patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA) were followed from 2003 through 2014. OP care was defined as receipt of OP treatment (with exception of calcium/vitamin D) or screening (OPTS). Adjusted trends over follow-up, and the factors associated with OP care were examined using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards. OPTS was reported in 67.4% of 11,669 RA and 64.6% of 2,829 OA patients during a median (IQR) 5.5 (2-9) years follow-up. In patients for whom treatment was recommended by the 2010 ACR glucocorticoid-induced OP (GIOP) guidelines (48.4% of RA and 17.6% of OA patients), ~55% overall reported OP medication use. RA patients were not more likely to undergo OPTS compared to OA patients, HR (95%CI) 1.04 (0.94-1.15). Adjusted models showed a stable trend for OPTS between 2004 and 2008 compared to 2003 with a significant downward trend after 2008 both in RA and OA patients. Factors associated with receipt of OP care in RA patients were older age, postmenopausal state, prior fragility fracture or diagnosis of OP, any duration of glucocorticoid treatment, and biologic use. About half of RA patients for whom treatment was indicated never received a OP medication. OP care in RA patients was not better than OA patients, and the relative risk of application of this care has been decreasing in RA and OA patients since 2008 without improvement after the release of the 2010 ACR GIOP guideline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Moe, Rikke H; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Grotle, Margreth; Steen, Eldri; Kjeken, Ingvild; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Uhlig, Till
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent progressive musculoskeletal disorder, leading to pain and disability. Patient information and education are considered core elements in treatment guidelines for OA; however, there is to our knowledge no evidence-based recommendation on the best approach, content or length on educational programmes in OA. to develop a brief, patient oriented disease specific multidisciplinary education programme (MEP) to enhance self-management in patients with OA. Twelve persons (80% female mean age 59 years) diagnosed with hand, hip or knee OA participated in focus group interviews. In the first focus group, six participants were interviewed about their educational needs, attitudes and expectations for the MEP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thereafter condensed.Based on results from focus group interviews, current research evidence, clinical knowledge and patients' experience, a multidisciplinary OA team (dietist, nurse, occupational therapist, pharmacist, physical therapist and rheumatologist) and a patient representative developed a pilot-MEP after having attended a work-shop in health pedagogics. Finally, the pilot-MEP was evaluated by a second focus group consisting of four members from the first focus group and six other experienced patients, before final adjustments were made. The focus group interviews revealed four important themes: what is OA, treatment options, barriers and coping strategies in performing daily activities, and how to live with osteoarthritis. Identified gaps between patient expectations and experience with the pilot-programme were discussed and adapted into a final MEP. The final MEP was developed as a 3.5 hour educational programme provided in groups of 6-9 patients. All members from the multidisciplinary team are involved in the education programme, including a facilitator who during the provision of the programme ensures that the individual questions are addressed. As part of an ongoing process, a
Keefe, Francis J.; And Others
Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…
Keefe, Francis J.; And Others
Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…
Rabini, A; De Sire, A; Marzetti, E; Gimigliano, R; Ferriero, G; Piazzini, D B; Iolascon, G; Gimigliano, F
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by pain, stiffness and functional limitations. According to the OsteoArthritis Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations, patients with knee OA should undertake regular quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises. Whole body vibration (WBV) proved its effectiveness in strengthening of the quadriceps muscles and improving balance in chronic knee OA patients. To date, there are no published studies that investigated the effects of focal muscle vibration (FMV) in these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of FMV on physical functioning in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, University Hospital. Men and women aged 60 years or older with radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderate monolateral knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II or III) and chronic knee pain. Patients were randomized in two groups (treatment group and placebo control group). The treatment group received FMV treatment, according to the "repeated muscle vibration" protocol. The control group received a sham treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcome measures were the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Follow up evaluations were done at 3 and 6 months. Fifty patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either the study or control group. There was a statistical significant difference between the two groups both for primary (WOMAC) and secondary (SPPB and POMA) outcomes. In this study, FMV therapy has proven to be effective and safe in improving functioning of patients affected by mild to moderate chronic knee OA. The use of FMV therapy might be an additional and safe tool in the conservative management of knee OA.
Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Miyagawa, Hirofumi; Shiro, Yukiko; Arai, Young-Chang Park; Akao, Machiko; Murotani, Kenta; Ushida, Takahiro; Deie, Masataka
To investigate the correlations between clinical outcomes and biopsychological variables in female patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Seventy-seven patients with symptomatic knee OA were enrolled in this study. We investigated the age, body mass index (BMI), pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and radiographic severity of bilateral knees using a Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grading system of the subjects. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression was conducted to determine which variables best correlated with main outcomes of knee OA, which were pain severity, moving capacity by measuring timed-up-and-go test and Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). We found that the significant contributor to pain severity was PCS (β = 0.555) and BMI (β = 0.239), to moving capacity was K-L grade (β = 0.520) and to PCS (β = 0.313), and to a JKOM score was PCS (β = 0.485) and K-L grade (β = 0.421), respectively. The results suggest that pain catastrophizing as well as biological factors were associated with clinical outcomes in female patients with knee OA, irrespective of radiographic severity.
Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Miyagawa, Hirofumi; Shiro, Yukiko; Arai, Young-Chang Park; Akao, Machiko; Murotani, Kenta; Ushida, Takahiro; Deie, Masataka
AIM To investigate the correlations between clinical outcomes and biopsychological variables in female patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS Seventy-seven patients with symptomatic knee OA were enrolled in this study. We investigated the age, body mass index (BMI), pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and radiographic severity of bilateral knees using a Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grading system of the subjects. Subsequently, a multiple linear regression was conducted to determine which variables best correlated with main outcomes of knee OA, which were pain severity, moving capacity by measuring timed-up-and-go test and Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). RESULTS We found that the significant contributor to pain severity was PCS (β = 0.555) and BMI (β = 0.239), to moving capacity was K-L grade (β = 0.520) and to PCS (β = 0.313), and to a JKOM score was PCS (β = 0.485) and K-L grade (β = 0.421), respectively. CONCLUSION The results suggest that pain catastrophizing as well as biological factors were associated with clinical outcomes in female patients with knee OA, irrespective of radiographic severity. PMID:28361021
Knoop, Jesper; van Tunen, Joyce; van der Esch, Martin; Roorda, Leo D; Dekker, Joost; van der Leeden, Marike; Lems, Willem F
Although analgesics are widely recommended in current guidelines, underuse and inadequate prescription of analgesics seem to result in suboptimal treatment effects in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed (i) to describe the use of analgesics; and (ii) to determine factors that are related to analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center. A cross-sectional study with data from 656 patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center (Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort) was conducted. Self-reported use of analgesic (yes/no) was administered and subdivided into acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including coxibs) and opioids. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the association between analgesic use and disease-related, predisposing and enabling factors. Analgesic use was reported by 63% of the patients, with acetaminophen, NSAIDs and opioid use reported by 50, 30 and 12%, respectively. Factors related to analgesic use were higher pain severity, longer duration of symptoms, higher radiographic hip OA severity, overweight/obesity and psychological distress. These factors explained 21% of the variance of analgesic use. More than one-third of patients with established knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center did not use any analgesics. Although multiple, mostly disease-related associated factors were found, analgesic use remained predominantly unexplained. Our study seems to indicate that prescription of analgesics should be guided more dominantly by clinical symptoms and needs, and preceded by a thorough shared decision-making process between patient and physician.
Luna-Gómez, Carlos D.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.
Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in the world. Knee pain is the most disabling symptom in the disease, the prediction of pain is one of the targets in preventive medicine, this can be applied to new therapies or treatments. Using the magnetic resonance imaging and the grading scales, a multivariate model based on genetic algorithms is presented. Using a predictive model can be useful to associate minor structure changes in the joint with the future knee pain. Results suggest that multivariate models can be predictive with future knee chronic pain. All models; T0, T1 and T2, were statistically significant, all p values were < 0.05 and all AUC > 0.60.
Czyżewska, Anna; Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Krawczak, Karolina; Cabaj, Dominika; Górecki, Andrzej
The World Health Organization (WHO) claimed osteoarthritis as a civilization-related disease. The effectiveness of preoperative physiotherapy among patients suffering hip osteoarthritis (OA) at the end of their conservative treatment is rarely described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and musculoskeletal health status of patients who received preoperative physiotherapy before total hip replacement (THR) surgery within a year prior to admission for a scheduled THR and those who did not. Forty-five patients, admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Locomotor System for elective total hip replacement surgery, were recruited for this study. The assessment consisted of a detailed interview using various questionnaires: the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), as well as physical examination. Patients were assigned to groups based on their attendance of preoperative physiotherapy within a year prior to surgery. Among patients who received preoperative physiotherapy a significant improvement was found for pain, daily functioning, vitality, psychological health, social life, and (active and passive) internal rotation (p < 0.05). Patients are not routinely referred to physiotherapy within a year before total hip replacement surgery. This study confirmed that pre-operative physiotherapy may have a positive influence on selected musculoskeletal system status indicators and quality of life in hip osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery.
Czyżewska, Anna; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Krawczak, Karolina; Cabaj, Dominika; Górecki, Andrzej
Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) claimed osteoarthritis as a civilization-related disease. The effectiveness of preoperative physiotherapy among patients suffering hip osteoarthritis (OA) at the end of their conservative treatment is rarely described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and musculoskeletal health status of patients who received preoperative physiotherapy before total hip replacement (THR) surgery within a year prior to admission for a scheduled THR and those who did not. Material and methods Forty-five patients, admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Locomotor System for elective total hip replacement surgery, were recruited for this study. The assessment consisted of a detailed interview using various questionnaires: the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), as well as physical examination. Patients were assigned to groups based on their attendance of preoperative physiotherapy within a year prior to surgery. Results Among patients who received preoperative physiotherapy a significant improvement was found for pain, daily functioning, vitality, psychological health, social life, and (active and passive) internal rotation (p < 0.05). Conclusions Patients are not routinely referred to physiotherapy within a year before total hip replacement surgery. This study confirmed that pre-operative physiotherapy may have a positive influence on selected musculoskeletal system status indicators and quality of life in hip osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery. PMID:25395951
Aşkın, Ayhan; Özkan, Ayten; Tosun, Aliye; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; İsnaç, Fethi
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropathic pain component of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain, disease stage, functional state, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. This study included 60 patients with knee OA. All demographic data and radiological results were recorded. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Timed Up and Go Test, Chair Stand Test, Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), PainDETECT questionnaire, DN4 questionnaire, Short form-36 questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were performed for each patient. Neuropathic pain was detected in 66.7% of patients based on the PainDETECT scale and in 46.7% of patients based on DN4 scale. VAS-resting, OA grade, WOMAC scores, and SF-scores showed a significant difference in patients that detected neuropathic pain with PainDETECT (p<0.05). Based on the DN4 scale, patients with neuropathic pain had significantly higher WOMAC scores and significantly lower SF-36 scores (p<0.05). The PainDETECT questionnaire scores showed positive correlations with Timed Up-and-go Test, VAS-resting, WOMAC scores, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale scores, and a negative correlation with all SF-36 scores (p<0.05). DN4 questionnaire scores showed a negative correlation with SF-36 scores and positive correlation with WOMAC scores (p<0.05). To conclude, it should be kept in mind that patients with knee OA who describe intense pain may have a neuropathic component involved in the clinical condition. Quality of life and functional capacity are adversely affected in patients with knee OA who have neuropathic pain. This should be taken into account while planning the treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients.
Objectives One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Conclusions Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients. PMID:28115779
Whitchelo, Tara; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E
People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) report ongoing limitations in climbing stairs, even after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the available evidence of factors affecting stair climbing ability in patients with knee OA before and after TKA. A systematic search was conducted of common electronic databases. All English language abstracts where stair-climbing was assessed in patients with either knee OA or at least 6 months after TKA, and a relationship to any physical, psychological or demographic factors was reported. Thirteen studies were included in the final review, nine investigated a knee OA population, and four investigated a TKA population. For patients with knee OA there was consistent and convincing evidence that greater stair-climbing ability was related to stronger lower limb muscles and less knee pain. For patients with TKA there was much less research, and no conclusions could be reached. For people with knee OA there is evidence that some physical, demographic and psychosocial factors are related to stair-climbing ability. However, the evidence for similar relationships in the TKA population is scarce and needs more extensive research. Implications for Rehabilitation People with knee osteoarthritis experience difficulty when climbing stairs, and this remains challenging even after knee replacement. For people with knee osteoarthritis, a range of physical, demographic and psychosocial factors contribute to stair-climbing ability, however, evidence for similar relationships in the TKA population is scarce. Rehabilitation that is multi-faceted may be the best approach to improve stair-climbing in people with knee osteoarthritis.
Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alshraideh, Mohammad A; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M; Salah, Imad K; Holm, Margo B; Otom, Ali H
To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee OA were entered into the MDSS. Demographic variables in the model were age and sex. Clinical variables entered into the model were height, weight, BMI, affected side, severity of knee OA, and severity of pain. All patients in the study received one of three treatment protocols for patients with knee OA: (a) hot packs, followed by electrotherapy and exercise, (b) ice packs, followed by ultrasound and exercise and (c) exercise alone. The resilient back propagation artificial neural network algorithm was used, with a ten-fold cross-validation. It was estimated that the MDSS is able to accurately predict the treatment prescribed by the physician for 87% of the patients. We developed an artificial neural network-based decision support system that can viably aid physicians in determining which treatment protocol would best match the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients with knee OA.
Yeh, Huan-Jui; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Yang, Nan-Ping; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Huang, Nicole
To provide empirical evidence on the effect of early physical therapy (PT) within the first year of osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis on reduction in OA-related comorbidities in patients with OA. Retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 1 million National Health Insurance enrollees. Newly diagnosed patients with OA (N=13,545). One-to-one propensity score matching was used to match patients who received PT within the first year of OA diagnosis (PT group; n=3403) with an equal number of patients with OA who did not receive PT (non-PT group). Not applicable. The 4-year cumulative risk of comorbidities including coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal tract ulcer, and renal failure was estimated. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify the dose-response relation between the PT dosage and the risk of OA-related comorbidities. A total of 3403 patients (25.1%) received PT within the first year of OA diagnosis. The PT group had a significantly lower 4-year cumulative risk of dyslipidemia (P=.05) and a potentially lower 4-year cumulative risk of CAD (P=.09). After adjusting for other potential confounders, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that patients with OA who received a high PT dosage had a low risk of CAD and dyslipidemia. Patients with OA who received PT had a lower risk of OA-related comorbidities such as dyslipidemia or CAD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herranz, Eva; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Mucientes, Arkaitz; Abásolo, Lydia; Marco, Fernando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Lamas, José Ramón
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by altered homeostasis of joint cartilage and bone, whose functional properties rely on chondrocytes and osteoblasts, belonging to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). WNT signaling acts as a hub integrating and crosstalking with other signaling pathways leading to the regulation of MSC functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a differential signaling between Healthy and OA-MSCs during osteogenesis. Methods MSCs of seven OA patients and six healthy controls were isolated, characterised and expanded. During in vitro osteogenesis, cells were recovered at days 1, 10 and 21. RNA and protein content was obtained. Expression of WNT pathway genes was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Functional studies were also performed to study the MSC osteogenic commitment and functional and post-traslational status of β-catenin and several receptor tyrosine kinases. Results Several genes were downregulated in OA-MSCs during osteogenesis in vitro. These included soluble Wnts, inhibitors, receptors, co-receptors, several kinases and transcription factors. Basal levels of β-catenin were higher in OA-MSCs, but calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic genes was similar between Healthy and OA-MSCs. Interestingly an increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling node was present in OA-MSCs. Conclusion Our results point to the existence in OA-MSCs of alterations in expression of Wnt pathway components during in vitro osteogenesis that are partially compensated by post-translational mechanisms modulating the function of other pathways. We also point the relevance of other signaling pathways in OA pathophysiology suggesting their role in the maintenance of joint homeostasis through modulation of MSC osteogenic potential. PMID:26352263
Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W; Allison, Stephen C; Hando, Benjamin R; Rochino, Duneley A
The combination of manual physical therapy and exercise provides important benefit for more than 80% of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective was to determine predictor variables for patients unlikely to respond to these interventions. We used a retrospective combined cohort study design to develop a preliminary clinical prediction rule (CPR). To determine useful predictors of nonsuccess, we used an extensive set of 167 baseline variables. These variables were extracted from standardized examination forms used with 101 patients(64 women and 37 men with a mean age of 60.5}11.8 and 63.6}9.3 years, respectively) in 2 previously published clinical trials. We classified patients based on whether they achieved a clinically meaningful benefit of at least 12%improvement in Western Ontario MacMaster(WOMAC) scores after 4 weeks of treatment using the smallest and most efficient subset of predictors. The variables of patellofemoral pain, anterior cruciate ligament laxity, and height >1.71 m (5’7’’) comprise the CPR. Patients with at least 2 positive tests yield eda posttest probability of 88% for nonsuccess with this treatment (positive likelihood ratio=36.7). The overall prognostic accuracy of the CPR was 96%. Most patients with knee OA will benefit from a low-risk, cost-effective program of manual physical therapy and supporting exercise.1,2 The few patients who may not benefit from such a program are identifiable by a simple (preliminary) CPR. After validation,this rule could improve primary patient management,allowing more appropriate referrals and choices in intervention.
Kazemi, Behrooz; Ashraf, Alireza; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Zarei, Fariba; Foruzi, Shima
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the causes of pain and disability. The hair graying characteristic correlates strictly with chronological aging and take places to varying degrees in all individuals, disregarding gender or race. Aims: Comparison of the degrees of clinical and radiologic severity of the knee OA in individuals with early hair graying compared to ordinary individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with knee OA and similar demographic characteristics were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified in to 3 age subgroups in each of the case and control groups (30-40 year, 41-50 year, 51-60 year). In the case group, the patients must had early hair graying, too. Knee OA were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was applied to assess clinical severity of the knee OA. Results: The mean ± SD of WOMAC index in the case group was 60.7 ± 15.9 and in the control group was 55.3 ± 15.3 (P = 0.1). The mean rank of KL scale in case group was 35.3 and in the control group was 25.6 (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Even at the same age of OA onset, the rate of progression of radiological findings and the grade of joint destruction in individuals with early hair graying are greater than normal individuals. However, clinical and functional relevant remain unclear. PMID:24403769
Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Kanehiro; Sakuma, Daisuke; Setoguchi, Takao; Nagano, Satoshi; Kawamura, Ichiro; Maeda, Shingo; Komiya, Setsuro
As elderly patients with hip osteoarthritis aged, acetabular dysplasia parameters decreased (Sharp's angle, acetabular roof obliquity angle, and acetabular head index) and the incidence of the atrophic type increased. Vertebral body fracture was more frequent in the atrophic type, suggesting the involvement of osteoporosis at the onset of hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased bone formation at a local site. However, excessive bone resorption has also been found to occur in the early stages of OA. Osteoporosis may be involved in the onset of OA in elderly patients. We conducted a cross-sectional radiographic study of patients with hip OA and examined the association between age and factors of acetabular dysplasia (Sharp's angle, acetabular roof obliquity angle, and acetabular head index) as well as the osteoblastic response to determine the potential involvement of osteoporosis. This study included 366 patients (58 men, 308 women) who had undergone total hip arthroplasty for the diagnosis of hip OA. We measured the parameters of acetabular dysplasia using preoperative frontal X-ray images and evaluated each patient according to Bombelli classification of OA (hypertrophic, normotrophic, or atrophic type). As the patients aged, the parameters of acetabular dysplasia decreased. The incidence of the atrophic type of OA was significantly higher in older patients. Vertebral body fractures were more frequent in the atrophic type than in the other types. Additionally, the index of acetabular dysplasia was lower in the atrophic type. By contrast, the hypertrophic type was present in relatively younger patients and was associated with an increased index of acetabular dysplasia. In elderly patients with hip OA, the parameters of acetabular dysplasia decreased and the incidence of the atrophic type increased as the patients aged. The frequency of vertebral body fracture was high in patients with the atrophic type, suggesting the involvement of
Matzkin, Elizabeth G; Curry, Emily J; Kong, Qingwu; Rogers, Miranda J; Henry, Michael; Smith, Eric L
Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are often used for short-term pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigates the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in patients with symptomatic knee OA and factors that affect treatment response. This prospective, multicentered cohort study had 100 participants with radiographic evidence of knee OA enrolled. Participants received one corticosteroid injection into the affected knee and were evaluated before the injection (baseline) and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the injection. Participants' Visual Numeric Scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores improved at all time points except for the Visual Numeric Scale score at 6 months, compared with baseline scores (P < 0.001). Participants with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1 or 2 OA saw clinical improvement in the WOMAC scores at all time points, compared with the baseline score (P < 0.01). Compared with all other subgroups, obese patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 or 4 OA had significantly worse WOMAC scores at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Our findings validate previously established guidelines for nonsurgical management of knee OA and suggest that intra-articular corticosteroid injections may be an acceptable short-term management option in patients unwilling or unable to undergo surgical treatment. Obesity and OA severity affect the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Patients receiving intra-articular corticosteroid injections had improved pain and function. Clinicians should expect less improvement in patients with obesity and/or advanced arthritis. Clinical benefits of intra-articular injections in these patients are less predictable.
Xu, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping
The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern in synovial fluid from patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after treatment with intra-articular injection of hyaluronan (HA). Twelve OA patients were enrolled in accordance with the Kellgren-Lawrence classification of knee OA. All patients received intra-articular injection of HA once a week for 5 weeks and were evaluated with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index at baseline. TaqMan miRNA assay profiling was performed on synovial fluid RNAs extracted from OA patients pre-injection and after 5 weeks of treatment with HA. Validation was performed using independent samples, including ten healthy controls and ten matched OA patients. Forty-three miRNAs (21 overexpressed miRNAs and 22 underexpressed miRNAs) were differentially expressed in OA patients before and after treatment with HA (P < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). Further bioinformatics prediction by mirPath indicated that the differential miRNA signatures in synovial fluid extracted from the OA patients demonstrated primarily upregulation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, regulation of autophagy, mRNA surveillance pathway, and B cell receptor signaling pathway. In addition, TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for validation on miR-146a, miR-155, let-7a, miR-181a, miR-454, and let-7b, which were significantly changed in abundance, using an independent cohort of ten healthy controls and ten OA patients as compared with those with intra-articular injection of HA. Our results demonstrated that dysregulation in miRNAs in synovial fluid from OA patients and their affected biologic cellular processes might play important role in OA pathogenesis and HA-mediated therapeutics.
Teslenko, Iu V
The aim of the study was to optimize standard therapy in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and obesity through a combined, concomitant therapy of OA and obesity. To address this goal, on a background of standard therapy of stable angina was carried concomitant therapy of osteoarthritis and obesity, which included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a selective COX-2 inhibitors, chondro-protective agents, anti-diabetic drug from the group of biguanides (metformin), a drug that affects the centers of hunger and reduces appetite in obese patients "Tsefamadar" (active ingredient Trituration Madara D4 - 250 mg), as well as diet with reduced energetic properties, number 8, and its modification: 8a (for obese patients with I-II degree), 80 (for obese patients III degree). As a result of the proposed method of treatment had improved the clinical course of CCH due to lower body weight, body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity indexes (AOI), which were characterized by decreasing the duration and frequency of angina attacks, reducing the number of nitroglycerin tablets taken, and also increased exercise tolerance (ET). Correction of carbohydrate metabolism on the background of metformin treatment, helped to improve lipid metabolism, suggesting greater efficiency of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in patients with SAP on a background of the proposed method. The decrease in CRP levels in patients with SAP, combined with OA and obesity with concomitant therapy by the proposed method, indicates a decrease in systemic inflammation.
Chen, Weiqiang; Foo, Suan-Sin; Li, Rachel W; Smith, Paul N; Mahalingam, Suresh
Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have caused widespread outbreaks of chronic polyarthritis. The inflammatory responses in alphavirus-induced arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA) share many similar features, which suggests the possibility of exacerbated alphavirus-induced bone pathology in individuals with pre-existing OA. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of osteoblasts (OBs) from OA patients to RRV infection and dissected the immune mechanisms elicited from infection. Primary hOBs obtained from trabecular bone of healthy donors and OA patients were infected with RRV. Infectivity and viral replication were determined using flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to determine expression kinetics of type I interferon (IFN)-related immune mediators and osteotropic factors. OA hOBs showed enhanced RRV infectivity and replication during infection, which was associated with delayed induction of IFN-β and RIG-I expression. Enhanced susceptibility of OA hOBs to RRV was associated with a more pronounced increase in RANKL/OPG ratio and expression of osteotropic factors (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and CCL2) in comparison to RRV-infected healthy hOBs. Delayed activation of type I IFN-signalling pathway may have contributed to enhanced susceptibility to RRV infection in hOBs from OA patients. RRV-induced increases in RANKL/OPG ratio and expression of osteotropic factors that favour bone resorption, which may be exacerbated during osteoarthritis. This study provides the novel insight that osteoarthritis may be a risk factor for exacerbated arthritogenic alphaviral infection.
Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Malfait, Bart; Baert, Isabel; van der Leeden, Marike; van Dieën, Jaap; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine
To compare the knee joint kinematics, kinetics and EMG activity patterns during a stepping-down task in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with control subjects. 33 women with knee OA (early OA, n=14; established OA n=19) and 14 female control subjects performed a stepping-down task from a 20cm step. Knee joint kinematics, kinetics and EMG activity were recorded on the stepping-down leg during the loading phase. During the stepping-down task patients with established knee OA showed greater normalized medial hamstrings activity (p=0.034) and greater vastus lateralis-medial hamstrings co-contraction (p=0.012) than controls. Greater vastus medialis-medial hamstrings co-contraction was found in patients with established OA compared to control subjects (p=0.040) and to patients with early OA (p=0.023). Self-reported knee instability was reported in 7% and 32% of the patients with early and established OA, respectively. The greater EMG co-activity found in established OA might suggest a less efficient use of knee muscles or an attempt to compensate for greater knee laxity usually present in patients with established OA. In the early stage of the disease, the biomechanical and neuromuscular control of stepping-down is not altered compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xie, Feng; Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Kok-Yong; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Yeo, Seng-Jin; Yang, Kuang-Ying; Li, Shu-Chuen
To estimate and compare the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in multiethnic Asian patients with OA in Singapore. The study was a retrospective and cross-sectional design. Patients were stratified according to ethnicity and presence or absence of joint surgery. Direct costs were estimated from both a societal and a patient perspective using the Singapore General Hospital database; indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach. All costs were expressed as mean costs per patient per annum in 2003 Singapore dollars. A total of 1179 patients (83.6% Chinese, 7.2% Malay, 3.5% Indian, 5.7% others) were included in estimating direct costs, of which 513 (43.5%) had total knee replacement (TKR) and 92 (7.8%) total hip replacement (THR), while 105 patients (71.4% Chinese, 14.3% Malay, 14.3% Indian) were included in estimating indirect costs. Direct costs to patients ranged from 1460 dollars to 7477 dollars for Chinese, 1362 dollars-7211 dollars for Malays, 1688 dollars-6226 dollars for Indians, and 1437 dollars-12,140 dollars for other ethnic patients; direct costs to society ranged from 3351 dollars to 15,799 dollars for Chinese, 2939 dollars-15,436 dollars for Malays, 3150 dollars-10,990 dollars for Indians, and 2597 dollars-17,879 dollars for other ethnic patients. In contrast, the indirect costs ranged from 1215 dollars to 3834 dollars for Chinese, 1138 dollars-6116 dollars for Malays, and 1371 dollars-5292 dollars for Indians. However, most ethnic variations were not statistically significant. The economic burden of OA to society and patients increased by 3-fold or more in the patients with TKR/THR compared to those without. The ethnic differences in health resources consumed were more apparent when the disease progressed.
Qingguang, Zhu; Min, Fang; Li, Gong; Shuyun, Jiang; Wuquan, Sun; Jianhua, Li; Yong, Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese massage therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by measuring lower-limb gait parameters. We recruited 20 women with knee OA, who then underwent Chinese massage therapy three times per week for 2 weeks. The patients underwent gait evaluation using a six-camera infrared motion analysis system. They completed Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaires before and after treatment. We calculated the forward speed, step width, step length, total support time percentage, initial double support time percentage, and single support time percentage. We also measured the angles at the knee, hip, and ankle during the stance phase of walking. The results showed statistically significant mean differences in knee pain relief, alleviation of stiffness, and physical function enhancement after therapy (P < 0.05). The patients gained significantly faster gait speed, greater step width, and increased total support time percentage after the Chinese massage therapy (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the range of motion or initial contact angles of the knee, hip, or ankle during the stance phase of walking. We concluded that Chinese massage is a beneficial complementary treatment and an alternative therapy choice for patients with knee OA for short-term pain relief. Chinese massage may improve walking ability for these patients.
Howell, Stephen M
Arthroscopy of the osteoarthritic knee is a common and costly practice with limited and specific indications. The extent of osteoarthritis (OA) is determined by joint space narrowing, which is best measured on a weight-bearing radiograph of the knee in 30° or 45° of flexion. The patient older than 40 years with a normal joint space should have a magnetic resonance image taken to rule out focal cartilage wear and avascular necrosis before recommending arthroscopy. Randomized controlled trials of patients with joint space narrowing have shown that outcomes after arthroscopic lavage or debridement are no better than those after a sham procedure (placebo effect), and that arthroscopic surgery provides no additional benefit to physical and medical therapy. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons guideline on the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee (2008) recommended against performing arthroscopy with a primary diagnosis of OA of the knee, with the caveat that partial meniscectomy or loose body removal is an option in patients with OA that have primary mechanical signs and symptoms of a torn meniscus and/or loose body. There is no evidence that removal of loose debris, cartilage flaps, torn meniscal fragments, and inflammatory enzymes have any pain relief or functional benefit in patients that have joint space narrowing on standing radiographs. Many patients with joint space narrowing are older with multiple medical comorbidities. Consider the complications and consequences when recommending arthroscopy to treat the painful osteoarthritic knee without mechanical symptoms, as there is no proven clinical benefit.
Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Cadorin, Cristina; Frizziero, Antonio; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele
The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical spine pain and function after five sessions of viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Forty-nine patients, (79% females, aged between 43-81 years), affected by TMJ osteoarthritis and concurrent cervical spine pain and limited function were recruited. All patients underwent a cycle of five weekly arthrocenteses and viscosupplementation with 1 ml of medium molecular weight HA according to the single-needle arthrocentesis technique. Outcome variables were TMJ pain (VAS), cervical active ranges of motion, cervical disability (NPDS), and presence of painful palpation sites. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at one, three and six months after the end of treatment protocol. A significant reduction over time was shown both in TMJ pain levels and in NPDS values with respect to baseline (p < 0.001). Most parameters of active cervical range of motion showed an improvement with time. Benefits remained stable throughout six months after the viscosupplementation protocol. A protocol of TMJ intra articular arthrocentesis and viscosupplementation improved cervical function and reduced disability in patients with concurrent cervical spine pain. These findings add to the complex amount of literature on the relationship between temporomandibular disorders and cervical spine disorders.
Klokker, Louise; Osborne, Richard; Wæhrens, Eva E; Norgaard, Ole; Bandak, Elisabeth; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius
To comprehensively identify components of the physical limitation concept in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to rate the clinical importance of these using perspectives of both patients and health professionals. Concept mapping, a structured group process, was used to identify and organize data in focus groups (patients) and via a global web-based survey (professionals). Ideas were elicited through a nominal group technique and then organized using multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, participant validation, rating of clinical importance, and thematic analyses to generate a conceptual model of physical limitations in knee OA. Fifteen Danish patients and 200 international professionals contributed to generating the conceptual model. Five clusters emerged: 'Limitations/physical deficits'; 'Everyday hurdles'; 'You're not the person you used to be'; 'Need to adjust way of living'; and 'External limitations,' each with sub-clusters. Patients generally found their limitations more important than the professionals did. Patients and professionals agreed largely on the physical limitation concept in knee OA. Some limitations of high importance to patients were lower rated by the professionals, highlighting the importance of including patients when conceptualizing patient outcomes. These data offer new knowledge to guide selection of clinically relevant outcomes and development of outcome measures in knee OA.
van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke
Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lluch Girbés, Enrique; Nijs, Jo; Torres-Cueco, Rafael; López Cubas, Carlos
Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent, disabling, and costly pathologies of modern society. Among the main aims of osteoarthritis management are pain control and functional ability improvement. The exact cause of osteoarthritis pain remains unclear. In addition to the pathological changes in articular structures, changes in central pain processing or central sensitization appear to be involved in osteoarthritis pain. The latter calls for a broader approach to the management of patients with osteoarthritis. Yet, the scientific literature offers scant information addressing the treatment of central sensitization, specifically in patients with osteoarthritis. Interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and neuroscience education potentially target cognitive-emotional sensitization (and descending facilitation), and centrally acting drugs and exercise therapy can improve endogenous analgesia (descending inhibition) in patients with osteoarthritis. Future studies should assess these new treatment avenues.
Scanzello, Carla R
Evidence has been building that the pathologic drive for development of osteoarthritis (OA) involves more than simple mechanical "wear and tear." Inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the tissue response to joint injury, and are involved in development of post-traumatic OA. Inflammation also appears integral to the progression of OA, whether post-traumatic or spontaneous, contributing to the evolution of joint tissue degradation and remodeling as well as joint pain. Both patient-based studies and in vivo models of disease have shed light on a number of inflammatory pathways and mediators that impact various aspects of this disease, both structurally and symptomatically. Recent work in this field has implicated inflammatory chemokines in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Expression of multiple chemokines and their receptors is modulated during disease in both patients and animal models. Although best known for their effects on leukocyte migration and trafficking within the immune system, chemokines can have a wide variety of effects on both motile and non-motile cell types, impacting proliferation, differentiation, and activation of cellular responses. Their role in OA models has also demonstrated diverse effects on disease that exemplify their wide-ranging effects. Understanding how these important mediators of inflammation impact joint disease, and whether they can be targeted therapeutically, is actively being investigated by many groups in this field. This narrative review focuses on evidence published within the last 5 years highlighting chemokine-mediated pathways with mechanistic involvement in osteoarthritis and joint tissue repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:735-739, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Qiangzhi; Chen, Yong; Wang, Qiang; Fang, Chaoyong; Sun, Yu; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Yuebei; Bao, Rongni; Zhao, Ningjian
Increasing numbers of individuals are suffering from osteoarthritis every year, and the directed intra-articular injection of bone marrow stem cells has provided a promising treatment strategy for osteoarthritis. Although a number of studies have demonstrated that intra-articular injection of bone marrow stem cells produced desirable results, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been elucidated. In the current study, the effect of bone marrow stem cells on chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis was observed in a co-culture system. Human chondrocytes were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis who underwent surgical procedures and bone marrow stem cells were obtained from bone marrow aspirates, and then the chondrocytes were then cultured alone or cocultured with bone marrow stem cells in 0.4-µm Transwell inserts. The differentiation and biological activity of chondrocytes in the culture system were measured, and the inflammatory factors and OA-associated markers were also measured. The results indicated that coculture with human bone marrow stem cells increases cell proliferation of chondrocytes and inhibits inflammatory activity in osteoarthritis.
Koeckhoven, Esmee; van der Leeden, Marike; Roorda, Leo D; van Schoor, Natasja M; Lips, Paul; de Zwart, Arjan; Dekker, Joost; van der Esch, Martin; Lems, Willem F
Vitamin D deficiency, which is common among elderly people, has been linked to muscle weakness. In patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the association between muscle strength and serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level has not been studied comprehensively. The aim of our study was to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D level and muscle strength in patients with knee OA. Data of the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis cohort from 319 participants with knee OA were used in a cross-sectional study. Serum 25(OH)D level (nmol/l) was measured by a competitive electrochemiluminescence method. Muscle strength (nm/kg) of the upper leg was measured isokinetically. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to calculate the association between serum 25(OH)D level and muscle strength. Serum 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with muscle strength (B = 0.036, 95% CI 0.017-0.054, p < 0.001), adjusted for season of blood collection. After adding body mass index (BMI) to the model, this association was no longer significant (B = 0.011, 95% CI -0.007 to 0.029, p = 0.214). Alcohol consumption, number of comorbidities, and sex were subsequently added and changed the model slightly. Without BMI, this model showed a significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and muscle strength (B = 0.029, 95% CI 0.014-0.043, p < 0.001). The observed association between a low serum 25(OH)D level and muscle weakness in patients with knee OA is attenuated by BMI. Further studies are needed to explain the associations among Vitamin D level, muscle strength, and adiposity in patients with knee OA.
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included "People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery" (facilitator for education about OA), and "Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving" (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were "Lack of knowledge about guideline" (barrier for lifestyle advice), "Agreements/ deliberations with primary care" and "Easy communication with a dietician" (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Strategies to improve non-surgical treatment use in orthopaedic practice
Liu, R; Damman, W; Beaart-van de Voorde, Ljj; Kaptein, A A; Rosendaal, F R; Huizinga, Twj; Kloppenburg, M
To evaluate the nature and extent of aesthetic dissatisfaction in patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA), and to investigate its impact on daily life and its determinants. Patients with primary hand OA, consulting secondary care, underwent physical examination for the number of joints with bony joint enlargements, soft tissue swelling and deformities, and radiographs. Questionnaires were filled in to measure pain and function (Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis, FIHOA), dissatisfaction with the appearance of the hands and its impact (aesthetic scales from the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, MHQ), anxiety and depression (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), and illness perceptions (the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, IPQ-R). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression as measures of relative risk for dissatisfaction with appearance or its impact, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and joint-specific abnormalities (bony joint enlargements, deformities, or radiographic severity), self-reported pain and function. Of 247 patients (mean age 61.6 years, 88% women), 63 (26%) were aesthetically dissatisfied and 33 (13%) reported impact on daily life due to dissatisfaction. Patients with joint-specific abnormalities were at higher risk for reporting dissatisfaction. Patients who reported impact also reported more depression and negative illness perceptions, independently from joint-specific abnormalities. Hand OA patients report aesthetic dissatisfaction with their hands regularly, especially in those with joint abnormalities. This dissatisfaction has a negative impact in a small group of patients who also reported more depression and negative illness perceptions. These results indicate the influence of psychosocial factors on outcome measures in patients with hand OA.
Zhai, G; van Meurs, J B J; Livshits, G; Meulenbelt, I; Valdes, A M; Soranzo, N; Hart, D; Zhang, F; Kato, B S; Richards, J B; Williams, F M K; Inouye, M; Kloppenburg, M; Deloukas, P; Slagboom, E; Uitterlinden, A; Spector, T D
To identify the susceptibility gene in hand osteoarthritis (OA) the authors used a two-stage approach genome-wide association study using two discovery samples (the TwinsUK cohort and the Rotterdam discovery subset; a total of 1804 subjects) and four replication samples (the Chingford Study, the Chuvasha Skeletal Aging Study, the Rotterdam replication subset and the Genetics, Arthrosis, and Progression (GARP) Study; a total of 3266 people). Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had a likelihood of association with hand OA in the discovery stage and one of them (rs716508), was successfully confirmed in the replication stage (meta-analysis p = 1.81×10−5). The C allele conferred a reduced risk of 33% to 41% using a case–control definition. The SNP is located in intron 1 of the A2BP1 gene. This study also found that the same allele of the SNP significantly reduced bone density at both the hip and spine (p<0.01), suggesting the potential mechanism of the gene in hand OA might be via effects on subchondral bone. The authors' findings provide a potential new insight into genetic mechanisms in the development of hand OA. PMID:19508968
Background Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee are among the most common chronic conditions, resulting in substantial pain and functional limitations. Adequate management of OA requires a combination of medical and behavioral strategies. However, some recommended therapies are under-utilized in clinical settings, and the majority of patients with hip and knee OA are overweight and physically inactive. Consequently, interventions at the provider-level and patient-level both have potential for improving outcomes. This manuscript describes two ongoing randomized clinical trials being conducted in two different health care systems, examining patient-based and provider-based interventions for managing hip and knee OA in primary care. Methods / Design One study is being conducted within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and will compare a Combined Patient and Provider intervention relative to usual care among n = 300 patients (10 from each of 30 primary care providers). Another study is being conducted within the Duke Primary Care Research Consortium and will compare Patient Only, Provider Only, and Combined (Patient + Provider) interventions relative to usual care among n = 560 patients across 10 clinics. Participants in these studies have clinical and / or radiographic evidence of hip or knee osteoarthritis, are overweight, and do not meet current physical activity guidelines. The 12-month, telephone-based patient intervention focuses on physical activity, weight management, and cognitive behavioral pain management. The provider intervention involves provision of patient-specific recommendations for care (e.g., referral to physical therapy, knee brace, joint injection), based on evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes are collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. The primary outcome is the Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (self-reported pain, stiffness, and function), and secondary outcomes are the
Sørensen, Rasmus Reinholdt; Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech; Rasmussen, Sten; Skou, Søren Thorgaard
Postural balance (PB) is frequently used as an outcome measure in clinical and research settings when assessing patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Pain and stiffness is known to affect PB, and is elevated in the morning and evening in OA patients. The aim of this study was to explore if time-of-day affects PB control in knee OA patients. Centre Of Pressure (COP) excursion was measured (100Hz) by force plate technique at selected time-points (9.00 a.m., 12.30 p.m. and 4.00 p.m.) during a single day in 32 knee OA patients aged 66.0 (10.3) years. A rigorous protocol was followed to ensure comparable testing conditions across time-points. PB control was quantified by the COP variables: velocity moment (mm(2)/s), total sway area (mm(2)), total sway length (mm) and confidence ellipse area (mm(2)). A two-way mixed-effects model showed that PB significantly improved between 9.00 a.m. and 12.30 p.m. in three out of four COP variables. The observed improvement was 11.9% (p=0.011) for velocity moment, 12.2% (p=0.011) for total sway area and 9.4% (p<0.001) for total sway length. PB appears to be impaired in the morning relative to midday in knee OA patients. Thus, it is recommended that time of assessment is standardized between sessions when assessing PB in clinical and research settings in knee OA patients.
Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions
Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław
Background Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. Material/Methods A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. Results A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (p<0.001), increased ranges of motion and muscle strength, and reduced use of medicines (NASAIDs) (p<0.001). A correlation was found between the degree of degenerative deforming lesions and the effects of the treatment process (p<0.01). Conclusions 1. The rehabilitation program including water exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR. PMID:27455419
Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Klipple, Gary
Research shows that one of the first complaints from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is difficulty in stair ambulation due to knee pain. Increased step width (SW) has been shown to reduce first and second peak internal knee abduction moments, a surrogate variable for medial compartment knee joint loading, during stair descent in healthy older adults. This study investigates the effects of increased step width (SW) on knee biomechanics and knee pain in medial compartment knee OA patients during stair descent. Thirteen medial compartment knee OA patients were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional joint kinematics. An instrumented staircase was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF). Participants performed stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide, and wider SW. Participants rated their knee pain levels after each SW condition. Increased SW had no effect on peak knee abduction moments and knee pain. Patients reported low levels of knee pain during all stair descent trials. The 2nd peak knee adduction angle and frontal plane GRF at time of 2nd peak abduction moment were reduced with increasing SW. The findings suggest that increases in SW may not influence knee loads in medial compartment knee OA patients afflicted with low levels of knee pain during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your ... it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage ...
Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab
Up to now there have been no human studies to evaluate the effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in osteoarthritis patients; this study was designed to assess the effect of administration of sesame on clinical signs and symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty patients with knee OA referred to the only specialty and subspecialty orthopedic centers in the north-west of Iran, were selected and divided into two groups, namely control and sesame groups. Twenty-five patients in the control group received standard treatment while 25 patients in the sesame group received 40 g/day sesame by oral administration during 2 months of the study along with standard drug therapy. The KOOS Questionnaire, Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) tests were used for clinical assessments. There was significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups (P = 0.004) after treatment. The mean score of the KOOS Questionnaire in both treatment and control groups was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with baseline. The mean score of the TUG Questionnaire in both treatment and control groups was significantly decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with baseline. There was significant difference in post-treatment scores of the KOOS Questionnaire (P = 0.009) and TUG (P = 0.002) between the two groups. The present study showed a positive effect of sesame in improving clinical signs and symptoms in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame might be a viable adjunctive therapy in treating OA. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Baker, Jeffrey R; Akkari, Amanda S; Park, Wonil; Tanaka, Hirofumi
Swimming exercise is an ideal and excellent form of exercise for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is no scientific evidence that regular swimming reduces vascular dysfunction and inflammation and elicits similar benefits compared with land-based exercises such as cycling in terms of reducing vascular dysfunction and inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-eight middle-aged and older patients with OA were randomly assigned to swimming or cycling training groups. Cycling training was included as a non-weight-bearing land-based comparison group. After 12 weeks of supervised exercise training, central arterial stiffness, as determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid artery stiffness, through simultaneous ultrasound and applanation tonometry, decreased significantly after both swimming and cycling training. Vascular endothelial function, as determined by brachial flow-mediated dilation, increased significantly after swimming but not after cycling training. Both swimming and cycling interventions reduced interleukin-6 levels, whereas no changes were observed in other inflammatory markers. In conclusion, these results indicate that regular swimming exercise can exert similar or even superior effects on vascular function and inflammatory markers compared with land-based cycling exercise in patients with OA who often has an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Cordero-Ampuero, J; Darder, A; Santillana, J; Caloto, M T; Nocea, G
To evaluate expectations regarding osteoarthritis (OA) treatment of patients (PT) and physicians (PH) (Orthopedic Surgeons) in Spain. Multicenter, cross-sectional study in adult patients with OA with at least 1 year of disease progression and with at least one prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs within the last year. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics as well as patient-reported outcomes were obtained by phone interview. Using a treatment expectations questionnaire and applying Kano methodology, treatment attributes were classified as: must-be; one-directional; attractive; indifferent; reverse or questionable. A total of 965 adult patients with OA [mean age: 64 years (SD: 11); 75% women] and 383 PH [mean age: 47 years (SD: 10); 14% women] were surveyed. None of the treatment attributes showed a dominant "must-be" characteristic. The attributes that led to a greater dissatisfaction when absent were non-occurrence of long-term adverse effects, no discomfort upon administration, and achievement of symptoms relief. The two attributes that were considered most important by PT were as follows: achievement of both total disappearance of the symptoms and lasting symptom relief. Conversely, for PH, the two most important attributes were related to short- and long-term safety. A clear different perspective regarding treatment expectation was noted among PT (effectiveness) and PH (safety). Therefore, when selecting the most appropriate treatment for OA, PH should invite PT to participate in the decision making.
Dündar, Ümit; Aşık, Gülşah; Ulaşlı, Alper Murat; Sınıcı, Şükrü; Yaman, Fatima; Solak, Özlem; Toktaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Selma
The use of biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) have potential for early diagnosis, evaluation of disease severity and monitoring treatment. Serum and synovial fluid YKL-40 levels are increased in severe knee OA. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is a novel treatment method for OA. However, studies evaluating the PEMF therapy in treatment of knee OA revealed conflicting results. This study was conducted to objectively assess the effect of PEMF therapy in patients with knee OA, by using ultrasonographic measurements and a novel biomarker, YKL-40. Forty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Both groups received conventional physical therapy, while Group 1 received additional PEMF therapy. The patients were asked to rate their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and complete a Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured, and knee effusion and cartilage degeneration level were evaluated with ultrasonography before and after treatment. Pre-treatment YKL-40 level was correlated with WOMAC pain subscale (P = 0.032, r = 0.339). VAS and WOMAC scores significantly improved in both treatment groups (P < 0.05). The effusion in the right knee significantly decreased in Group 1. The change in YKL-40 level was not correlated with the change in VAS, WOMAC scores and knee effusion. This study revealed that adjuvant PEMF therapy has no additional effect on pain in patients with knee OA. Serum YKL-40 level seems to be unuseful for monitoring the treatment in knee OA. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hoeksma, Hugo L; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Ronday, H Karel; Dekker, Joost
To compare the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) response criteria for clinical trials with patient's global assessment in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip receiving a non-pharmacological intervention, i.e., manual therapy or exercise therapy. Data of a randomized clinical trial on manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with OA of the hip (n = 109) were used. Change scores of measures of hip function, range of joint motion and pain were compared between patients who were differently classified by the OARSI response criteria and the patient's global assessment (using a t test, 95% CI). Furthermore, risk ratios (with 95% CI) were calculated for the contrast between treatment outcome, using the OARSI criteria or patient's global assessment. Few patients were classified as improved (i.e., responders) with the OARSI response criteria as compared to patient's global assessment. Significantly worse outcome for hip function and pain was observed in patients who were classified as non-responders (OARSI criteria), but who considered themselves as improved (patient's global assessment). Risk ratios for the contrast between the two treatment programs (manual therapy vs exercise therapy) were similar, when using the OARSI criteria or patient's global assessment. The validity of the OARSI response criteria has been previously demonstrated in OA patients treated with pharmacological interventions. The present study demonstrates the validity of the OARSI response criteria in OA patients treated with a non-pharmacological intervention, i.e., manual therapy and exercise therapy.
Trojian, Thomas H; Concoff, Andrew L; Joy, Susan M; Hatzenbuehler, John R; Saulsberry, Whitney J; Coleman, Craig I
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disabling disease that produces severe morbidity reducing physical activity. Our position statement on treatment of knee OA with viscosupplementation injection (hyaluronic acid, HA) versus steroid (intra-articular corticosteroids, IAS) and placebo (intra-articular placebo, IAP) is based on the evaluation of treatment effect by examining the number of participants within a treatment arm who met the Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) criteria, which is different and more relevant than methods used in other reviews which examined if the average change across the treatment groups were clinically different. We performed a systematic literature search for all relevant articles from 1960 to August 2014 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL. We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of the relevant literature to determine if there is a benefit from HA as compared with IAS and IAP. 11 papers met the inclusion criteria from the search strategy. On NMA, those participants receiving HA were 15% and 11% more likely to respond to treatment by OMERACT-OARSI criteria than those receiving IAS or IAP, respectively (p<0.05 for both). In the light of the aforementioned results of our NMA, the American Medical Society for Sport Medicine recommends the use of HA for the appropriate patients with knee OA.
Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A.; Brooks, Sydney; De Angelis, G.; Bell, Mary; Egan, Mary; Poitras, Stephane; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; Loew, Laurianne; Novikov, Michael
Objective: The purpose of the study is to determine if an updated online evidence-based educational programme delivered through Facebook is effective in improving the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of patients with arthritis in relation to evidence-based self-management rehabilitation interventions for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid…
Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A.; Brooks, Sydney; De Angelis, G.; Bell, Mary; Egan, Mary; Poitras, Stephane; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; Loew, Laurianne; Novikov, Michael
Objective: The purpose of the study is to determine if an updated online evidence-based educational programme delivered through Facebook is effective in improving the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of patients with arthritis in relation to evidence-based self-management rehabilitation interventions for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid…
Lanas, Angel; Tornero, Jesús; Zamorano, José Luis
Medical management of adults with osteoarthritis (OA) who require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) must be decided after assessing prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) risks in the individual patient. To evaluate the GI and CV risk profile of patients with OA who require NSAIDs. A transversal, multicentre and observational study was conducted in consecutive patients with OA who were considered candidates for NSAID treatment and were visited by 374 unselected rheumatologists throughout the National Health System. Patients were classified into three risk groups (low, moderate and high) for their GI and CV characteristics. These were defined by considering the presence of a number of well-established GI risk factors or by application of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation model for assessing the overall risk for CV disease, respectively. Of 3293 consecutive patients, most (86.6%) were at increased GI risk and a considerable number, 22.3%, were at high GI risk. The CV risk was high in 44.2% of patients, moderate in 28.5% and low in 27.3%. Overall, 15.5% of patients presented a very high-risk profile, having high GI and CV risks. The type of NSAID prescription was similar regardless of the associated GI and CV risk profile. Most patients with OA requiring NSAIDs for pain control showed a high prevalence of GI and CV risk factors. Over half of the patients were at either high GI or CV risk, or both, such that the prescription of OA treatments should be very carefully considered.
W-Dahl, Annette; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören; Lindstrand, Anders
The purpose was to describe physical activity with respect to leisure and working activity in patients operated on by high tibial osteotomy using the hemicallotasis technique for knee osteoarthritis (OA), preoperatively and 10 years postoperatively. Seventy-nine patients, median age 55 (range 35-66), operated on by high tibial osteotomy using the hemicallotasis technique for knee OA 2001-2003 were included. Questionnaires for evaluation of physical and working activity, satisfaction as well as the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were filled in preoperatively and 2 and 10 years postoperatively. Conversion to knee arthroplasty was obtained through the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register. Changes between two postoperative measurements were assessed by Wilcoxon's rank test. Twenty-five patients were converted to a total knee arthroplasty, and nine patients were lost to follow-up during the 10 years, resulted in 45 patients available for follow-up. Preoperatively, 33/45 patients were physically active mainly in heavy yard/household work, and 43/45 patients were working active. Ten years after the HCO, 23/45 patients were still active with golf, dancing, hiking, etc., and 23/45 were retired. At 10 years postoperatively compared to 2 years postoperatively, the patients experienced more problems with pain (89 compared to 69, p = <0.0001). Of 45 patients, 36 were satisfied with the high tibial osteotomy surgery in general 10 years postoperatively, while 13/45 were satisfied with their sport and recreational function. The 10-year results indicate that high tibial osteotomy using the hemicallotasis technique for knee OA is an option for selected patients that improves the level of physical activity, with mild deterioration over time, and gives the majority of the patients the possibility to be working active until retirement. Level IV.
Nagase, H; Nagasawa, Y; Tachida, Y; Sakakibara, S; Okutsu, J; Suematsu, N; Arita, S; Shimada, K
Chondrocyte hypertrophy followed by cartilage destruction is a crucial step for osteoarthritis (OA) development, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study are to identify the gene that may cause cartilage hypertrophy and to elucidate its role on OA pathogenesis. Gene expression profiles of cartilages from OA patients and normal subjects were examined by microarray analysis. Expression of deiodinases, enzymes for regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) biosynthesis, in human and rat articular cartilage (AC) were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Rat ACs and chondrocytes were treated with T3 to investigate its role on chondrocyte hypertrophy and inflammatory reaction. Cartilage-specific Type II deiodinase (DIO2) transgenic rats were generated using bacterial artificial chromosome harboring the entire rat Col2a1 and human DIO2 gene. An experimental OA model was created in the animal to examine the role of DIO2 on cartilage degeneration. DIO2 is highly expressed in OA patient AC compared to normal control. In rat AC, DIO2 is specifically expressed among deiodinases and dominantly expressed the same as in brown adipose tissue. T3 induces hypertrophic markers in articular chondrocyte and cartilage explant culture, and enhances the effect of IL-1α on induction of cartilage degrading enzymes. Importantly, cartilage-specific DIO2 transgenic rats are more susceptible to knee joint destabilization and develop severe AC destruction. Our findings demonstrate that upregulated expression of DIO2 in OA patient cartilage might be responsible for OA pathogenesis by enhancing the chondrocyte hypertrophy and inflammatory response. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Jacob K; Klipple, Gary; Stewart, Candice; Asif, Irfan; Zhang, Songning
Cycling is commonly prescribed for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) but very little biomechanical research exists on the topic. Individuals with OA may be at greater risk of OA progression or other knee injuries because of their altered knee kinematics. This study investigated the effects of lateral wedges on knee joint biomechanics and pain in patients with medial compartment knee OA during stationary cycling. Thirteen participants with OA and 11 paired healthy participants volunteered for this study. A motion analysis system and a customized instrumented pedal were used to collect 5 pedal cycles of kinematics and kinetics, respectively, during 2 minutes of cycling in 1 neutral and 2 lateral wedge (5° and 10°) conditions. Participants pedaled at 60 RPM and an 80W workrate and rated their knee pain on a visual analog scale during each minute of each condition. There was a 22% decrease in the internal knee abduction moment with the 10° wedge. However, this finding was not accompanied by a decrease in knee adduction angle or subjective pain. Additionally, there was an increase in vertical and horizontal pedal reaction force which may negate the advantages of the decreased internal knee abduction moment. For people with medial knee OA, cycling with 10° lateral wedges may not be sufficient to slow the progression of OA beyond the neutral riding condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kondo, Kyoko; Jingushi, Seiya; Ohfuji, Satoko; Sofue, Muroto; Itoman, Moritoshi; Matsumoto, Tadami; Hamada, Yoshiki; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Takatori, Yoshio; Yamada, Harumoto; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ito, Hiroshi; Mori, Satoshi; Owan, Ichiro; Fujii, Genji; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Inui, Miki; Takahashi, Shinji; Hirota, Yoshio
As society ages, there is a vast number of elderly people with locomotive syndrome. In this study, the factors associated with functional limitations in daily living activities evaluated by female hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients were investigated. This study was a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 353 female patients who were newly diagnosed with hip OA at an orthopedic clinic with no history of hip joint surgery. Outcome indices were functional limitations in two daily living activities obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients: (i) standing up (standing from a crouched position) and (ii) stair-climbing (climbing and/or descending stairs). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for explanatory variables using the proportional odds model in logistic regression to evaluate their associations with functional limitations. Functional limitations in standing up were associated with heavy weight (third tertile vs. first tertile: 1.91, 1.11-3.27), participation in sports at school (0.62, 0.40-0.98), parity (vs. nullipara: 1.96, 1.08-3.56), old age and OA stage. Associations with functional limitations in stair-climbing were seen with short height (< 151.0 cm vs. ≥ 156.0 cm: 2.05, 1.02-4.12), bilateral involvement (vs. unilateral: 1.71, 1.01-2.88), old age and OA stage. Old age, OA stage, heavy weight, parity, shorter height and bilateral OA were associated with functional limitations in standing up and/or stair-climbing, whereas participation in sports such as club activities in school maintained standing up. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Succeeds Across Different Patient-reported Outcome Measures Assessing Physical Function, But Fails Across Other Dimensions and Rheumatic Diseases.
Mahler, Elien A M; Boers, Nadine; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; den Broeder, Alfons A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M
The aims of this study are (1) to establish the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) cutoff values of different patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) assessing physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (2) to assess the influence of sex, age, duration of symptoms, and presence of depressive feelings on being in PASS. Patients fulfilling the clinical American College of Rheumatology knee OA criteria received standardized nonsurgical treatment and completed different questionnaires at baseline and 3 months assessing physical function: Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lequesne Algofunctional Index, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, numerical rating scale, and the physical function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. PASS values were defined as the 75th percentile of the score of questionnaires for those patients who consider their state acceptable. Of the 161 included patients, 62% were women with a mean age of 59 years (SD 9) and body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) (SD 5). Standardized PASS values (95% CI) for different questionnaires for physical function varied between 48 (44-54) and 54 (50-56). Female patients and patients feeling depressed were found to have a lower probability to be in PASS for physical function, with OR (95% CI) varying from 0.45 (0.23-0.91) to 0.50 (0.26-0.97) and from 0.27 (0.14-0.55) to 0.38 (0.19-0.77), respectively. PASS cutoff values for physical function are robust across different PROM in patients with knee OA. Our results indicate that PASS values are not consistent across dimensions and rheumatic diseases, and that the use of a generic PASS value for patients with OA or even patients with other rheumatic diseases might not be justifiable.
Majani, Giuseppina; Giardini, Anna; Scotti, Aurelio
Background Clinical trials on osteoarthritis (OA) flare-ups treatment usually focus only on objective measures of health status, albeit recent literature suggestions on the importance of patients' subjectivity. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of OA and of its different types of medical treatment(s) on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in terms of both subjective satisfaction and functional status. Methods An observational study on prospective data collected from the Evaluation of Quality of life in OA (EQuO) clinical trial (April 1999-November 2000) was conducted; outpatients from 70 participating centers (Orthopedy or Rheumatology Departments in Italy) with a diagnosis of OA of the hip or knee were consecutively enrolled. Patients were observed at OA flare-ups (baseline) and at follow up 4 weeks after treatment. Patients' objective and subjective HRQoL were assessed by means of the SF-36 and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P, which focuses on subjective satisfaction); Present Pain at baseline and Pain Relief at follow up were also evaluated. Results Among the 1323 patients, 1138 (86%) were prescribed one drug/treatment of osteoarthritis, 169 (13%) 2 drugs/treatments, and 16 (1%) 3 drugs/treatments; most of treatments involved the prescription of NSAIDs; non-coxib, COX2 selective NSAIDs were prescribed in about 50% of patients. Follow-up visits were performed after 29.0 days on average (± 7.69 SD). For all SF-36 domains, all SAT-P items and factors, the differences between baseline and follow up scores resulted statistically significant (p < 0.001), enlighting an improvement both in health status and in subjective HRQoL. Conclusion Besides the classic health status measures, the assessment of patients' subjective satisfaction provides important clues on treatments efficacy of OA within the patient-centered medicine model. In clinical practice this could lead to a better doctor-patient communication and to higher levels of treatment adherence. PMID
Objective To evaluate the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on pain, function, and ultrasonographic features of chronic stroke patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A total of 18 chronic stroke patients (33 knee joints) with unilateral or bilateral knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥1) were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group receiving ESWT (n=9) or a control group receiving sham ESWT (n=9). For the ESWT group, patients received 1,000 pulses weekly for 3 weeks, totaling to an energy dose of 0.05 mJ/mm2 on the proximal medial tibia of the affected knee. The assessments were performed before the treatment, immediately after the first treatment, and 1 week after the last treatment using the following: the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; patient perception of the clinical severity of OA; the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (ambulation and chair/bed transfer); the Functional Independence Measure scale (FIM; bed/chair/wheelchair transfer, toilet transfer, walking, and stairs); and ultrasonographic features (articular cartilage thickness, Doppler activity, and joint effusion height). Results The experimental group showed a significant improvement in VAS score (4.50±1.87 to 2.71±1.38) and patient perception of the clinical severity of OA (1.87±0.83 to 2.75±0.46). The bed/chair/wheelchair transfer components of the FIM score also improved significantly (4.12±1.55 to 4.62±1.30). In terms of the ultrasonographic features, increased Doppler activity was observed in the medial knee in the experimental group immediately following ESWT. Conclusion It is suggested that ESWT may reduce pain and improve function in chronic stroke patients with OA, and may increase vascular activity at the target site. PMID:27847716
Oteo-Álvaro, Ángel; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel A; Miguens, Xoan; Stern, Andrés; Villoria, Jesús; Sánchez-Magro, Isabel
The present epidemiological research evaluated the prevalence of neuropathic pain characteristics in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the plausibility that such neuropathic features were specific of OA. Outpatients with chronic pain associated with knee OA who attended orthopedic surgery or rehabilitation clinics were systematically screened for neuropathic pain with the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) questionnaire. Data from medical files and those obtained during a single structured clinical interview were correlated with the DN4 scores. Information on potential confounders of neuropathic-like qualities of knee pain was collected to evaluate as much as possible only the symptoms attributable to OA. Of 2,776 patients recruited, 2,167 patients provided valid data from 2,992 knees. The DN4 was scored positively (≥ 4) in 1,125 patients (51.9%) and 1,459 knees (48.8%). When patients with potential confounders were excluded, the respective prevalences were 33.3% and 29.4%. Patients who scored positively in the DN4 had more severe pain, greater structural damage, and more potential confounders of neuropathic pain. Three potential confounders conveyed much of the variability explained by regression analyses. However, latent class analyses revealed that the concourse of other factors is required to explain the neuropathic pain qualities. A relevant proportion of patients with chronic pain associated with knee OA featured neuropathic pain qualities that were not explained by other conditions. The present research has provided reasonable epidemiological grounds to attempt their definite diagnosis and classification. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Bagi, C M; Berryman, E R; Teo, S; Lane, N E
The aim of this study was to determine the ability of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) to prevent excessive articular cartilage deterioration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty male rats were subjected to partial medial meniscectomy tear (PMMT) surgery to induce OA. Immediately after the surgery 10 rats received vehicle and another 10 rats oral daily dose of UC-II at 0.66 mg/kg for a period of 8 weeks. In addition 10 naïve rats were used as an intact control and another 10 rats received sham surgery. Study endpoints included a weight-bearing capacity of front and hind legs, serum biomarkers of bone and cartilage metabolism, analyses of subchondral and cancellous bone at the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis, and cartilage pathology at the medial tibial plateau using histological methods. PMMT surgery produced moderate OA at the medial tibial plateau. Specifically, the deterioration of articular cartilage negatively impacted the weight bearing capacity of the operated limb. Immediate treatment with the UC-II preserved the weight-bearing capacity of the injured leg, preserved integrity of the cancellous bone at tibial metaphysis and limited the excessive osteophyte formation and deterioration of articular cartilage. Study results demonstrate that a clinically relevant daily dose of UC-II when applied immediately after injury can improve the mechanical function of the injured knee and prevent excessive deterioration of articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Uysal, Fatma; Akbal, Ayla; Gökmen, Ferhat; Adam, Gürhan; Reşorlu, Mustafa
The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of pes anserine bursitis (PAB) in patients with osteoarthritis. A total of 85 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were included in the study. The patients were divided into four groups using the Kellgren-Lawrence staging system. The knee X-rays evaluated according to this system indicated that 15.6% of patients were grade 1, 34.1% grade 2, 37.1% grade 3, and 13.5% grade 4. Ultrasonography (USG) was performed on both knees by a radiologist experienced in musculoskeletal system ultrasonography and unaware of the patients' physical examination or direct X-ray findings. The presence of PAB, longest diameter of bursitis, and area of bursitis were recorded. The average age of the 11 male and 74 female patients included in the study was 58.9 ± 9.0 years. A total of 170 knees of 85 patients were examined. The incidence of bursitis was significantly higher in females (p = 0.026). The incidence of bursitis on ultrasound was 20% (34/170). There was a statistical difference between the grades for bursitis incidence (p = 0.004). There was a significant positive correlation between both the longest length (p = 0.015, r = 0.187) and area (p = 0.003, r = 0.231) of PAB with osteoarthritis grade. The mean age of bursitis patients was higher than that of those without the condition (p = 0.038). In addition, the osteoarthritis (OA) grade and bursitis prevalence increased as the patients' age increased, and these increases were statistically significant (p < 0.001). PAB is easily evaluated with ultrasonography. Pes anserine bursitis was observed in one out of every five symptomatic OA patients and was more common in female patients and with advanced age. A positive correlation was found between OA grade and PAB size and area.
Ning, Yujie; Wang, Xi; Wang, Sen; Guo, Xiong
The aim of the present study was to investigate the early diagnostic biomarkers of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), and to compare the common signaling pathways of peripheral mononuclear cells between patients with KBD and those with osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 20 and 12 peripheral blood samples were separately collected from KBD patients and normal control subjects, respectively, in an endemic area according to the diagnosis criteria. Total RNAs were extracted and gene expression levels were determined using an Agilent whole genome expression microarrays. The gene expression data of OA were obtained from GEO published database. Significant different pathways between KBD and OA were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. A total of 82 differentially expressed genes, 51 significant different signaling pathways and five significant biological functions were identified in KBD patient samples, while 89, 50 and five significantly different genes, pathways and functions were identified in OA. Nine common significant pathways and five common differentially expressed genes were identified between the KBD and OA. Nine common significant pathways and five common differentially expressed genes were found between the two diseases. The present results suggest that there are similarities in vascular microcirculation, immunoreactions and cell apoptosis between KBD and OA, which may contribute to the early diagnosis and pathogenetic study of KBD. PMID:28101186
Philp, Ashleigh M; Davis, Edward T; Jones, Simon W
OA is the most common joint disorder in the world, but there are no approved therapeutics to prevent disease progression. Historically, OA has been considered a wear-and-tear joint disease, and efforts to identify and develop disease-modifying therapeutics have predominantly focused on direct inhibition of cartilage degeneration. However, there is now increasing evidence that inflammation is a key mediator of OA joint pathology, and also that the link between obesity and OA is not solely due to excessive load-bearing, suggesting therefore that targeting inflammation in OA could be a rewarding therapeutic strategy. In this review we therefore re-evaluate historical clinical trial data on anti-inflammatory therapeutics in OA patients, highlight some of the more promising emerging therapeutic targets and discuss the implications for future clinical trial design.
Matsuno, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Katayama, Kou; Hayashi, Seigaku; Kano, Syogo; Yudoh, Kazuo; Kiso, Yoshinobu
The effects of an orally administered combination of a glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside (GCQG) supplement on the synovial fluid properties of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated from the clinical nutrition view point. In this study, forty-six OA and twenty-two RA patients were administered with the GCQG supplement orally for 3 months. Several parameters of the knee joints were monitored before and after supplementation. The OA patients showed a significant improvement in pain symptoms, daily activities (walking and climbing up and down stairs), and visual analogue scale, and changes in the synovial fluid properties with respect to the protein concentration, molecular size of hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin 6-sulphate concentration were also observed. However, no such effects were observed in the RA patients. These results suggest that the GCQG supplement exerted a special effect on improving the synovial fluid properties in OA patients.
Allen, Kelli D; Bosworth, Hayden B; Chatterjee, Ranee; Coffman, Cynthia J; Corsino, Leonor; Jeffreys, Amy S; Oddone, Eugene Z; Stanwyck, Catherine; Yancy, William S; Dolor, Rowena J
The Patient and PRovider Interventions for Managing Osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care (PRIMO) study is one of the first health services trials targeting OA in a multi-site, primary care network. This multi-site approach is important for assessing generalizability of the interventions. These analyses describe heterogeneity in clinic and patient characteristics, as well as recruitment metrics, across PRIMO study clinics. Baseline data were obtained from the PRIMO study, which enrolled n = 537 patients from ten Duke Primary Care practices. The following items were examined across clinics with descriptive statistics: (1) Practice Characteristics, including primary care specialty, numbers and specialties of providers, numbers of patients age 55+, urban/rural location and county poverty level; (2) Recruitment Metrics, including rates of eligibility, refusal and randomization; (3) Participants' Characteristics, including demographic and clinical data (general and OA-related); and (4) Participants' Self-Reported OA Treatment Use, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed for participant characteristics and OA treatment use to describe between-clinic variation. Study clinics varied considerably across all measures, with notable differences in numbers of patients age 55+ (1,507-5,400), urban/rural location (ranging from "rural" to "small city"), and proportion of county households below poverty level (12%-26%). Among all medical records reviewed, 19% of patients were initially eligible (10%-31% across clinics), and among these, 17% were randomized into the study (13%-21% across clinics). There was considerable between-clinic variation, as measured by the ICC (>0.01), for the following patient characteristics and OA treatment use variables: age (means: 60.4-66.1 years), gender (66%-88% female), race (16%-61% non-white), low income status (5%-27%), presence of hip OA (26%-68%), presence both knee
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Objectives National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with non-surgical treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatments, but there are indications that these are not optimally used. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which all recommended non-surgical treatments were used by patients with hip or knee OA who receive(d) a total hip or knee replacement, as reported by patients and orthopaedic surgeons. Setting We performed two cross-sectional internet-based surveys among patients and orthopaedic surgeons throughout the Netherlands. Participants 195 OA patients either have undergone total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty no longer than 12 months ago or being on the waiting list for surgery with a confirmed date within 3 months and 482 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures The use of recommended non-surgical treatments including education about OA/treatment options, lifestyle advice, dietary therapy, physical therapy, acetaminophen, NSAIDs and glucocorticoid injections. Results 174 OA patients (93%) and 172 orthopaedic surgeons (36%) completed the surveys. Most recommended non-surgical treatments were given to the majority of patients (eg, 80% education about OA, 73% physical therapy, 72% acetaminophen, 80% NSAIDs). However, only 6% of patients and 10% of orthopaedic surgeons reported using a combination of all recommended treatments. Dietary therapy was used least frequently. Only 11% of overweight and 30% of obese participants reported having received dietary therapy and 28% of orthopaedic surgeons reported to prescribe dietary therapy to overweight patients. Conclusions While most recommended non-surgical treatments were used frequently as single therapy, the combination is used in only a small percentage of OA patients. Especially, use of dietary therapy
Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab
Considering the high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and since until now there has not been any human studies to evaluate the effect of sesame in OA patients, this study was designed to assess the effect of administration of sesame on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA. Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups namely control and sesame group. 25 patients in the control group received 40 g placebo powder per day while 25 patients in the sesame group received 40 g of sesame seed daily during two months of study along with standard medical therapy. Serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. In the sesame group, a significant decrease in serum MDA and hs-CRP were seen after two months of study (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in post-treatment serum values of MDA, TAC and hs-CRP between two groups (P>0.05). Serum IL-6 decreased significantly in both groups compared with baseline during the two-month study (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in mean serum IL-6 between two groups after treatment (P=0.001). Sesame seed is a natural and safe substance that may have beneficial effects in patients with knee OA, and it may provide new complementary and adjunctive treatment in these patients.
Altman, Roy Davis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent and increasing in frequency; the number of patients with OA has increased by nearly 30% over the past 10 years. The primary symptom of OA is pain. Pain and other symptoms of OA may have a profound effect on quality of life (QOL), affecting both physical function and psychological parameters. The economic costs of OA are high, and include those related to treatment, those for individuals and their families who must adapt their lives and homes to the disease, and those due to lost work productivity. These considerable humanistic and economic burdens of OA provide motivation for early identification and treatment. Early diagnosis is assisted by knowledge of risk factors. Classification criteria for OA of the hand, hip, and knee developed by the American College of Rheumatology assist in diagnosis. The European League Against Rheumatism has developed an elaborate system for diagnosis of OA of the hand. Several societies have developed therapeutic guidelines, with general overall agreement between publications. Therapy of OA is multimodal and requires a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments.
Huebner, Janet L; Johnson, Kristen A.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Terkeltaub, Robert A.
Objective The transglutaminase (TG) isoenzyme TG2, which catalyzes protein cross-linking via transamidation, influences healing phenotype in multiple forms of tissue injury. Moreover, TG2 knockout suppresses cartilage destruction but promotes osteophyte formation in instability-induced mouse knee OA. TG2 is marker of growth plate chondrocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, TG2 secreted by chondrocytes acts in part by promoting chondrocyte maturation to hypertrophy, a differentiation state linked with MMP-13 expression and disease progression in OA. Moreover, glucosamine, which is currently under investigation as an OA therapy, binds and inhibits TG2. Here, we examined TG2 as a potential marker of cartilage hypertrophy in the spontaneous guinea pig model of OA. Methods Synovial fluid ELISA and cartilage Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, were used to examine TG2 expression and TG transamidation-catalyzed isopeptide bonds. Results TG isopeptide bonds and TG2 were most abundant in articular cartilage in early knee OA. TG2 expression was robust at sites of early but not established osteophytes. Synovial fluid TG2 correlated with knee OA total histological score (r=0.47, p=0.01), as did medial tibial plateau cartilage TG2 mRNA (r=1.0, p=0.003). At 12 months of age, medial tibial plateau cartilage TG2 mRNA expression rose markedly in association with elevated type X collagen, as well as ADAMTS-5, and MMP-13 expression, changes not shared in age-matched Strain 13 guinea pigs that are less susceptible to knee OA. Conclusion Hartley guinea pig knee TG2 expression associates with enhanced articular chondrocyte hypertrophy and is a biomarker of OA severity. PMID:19328881
Rabago, David; van Leuven, Laura; Benes, Lane; Fortney, Luke; Slattengren, Andrew; Grettie, Jessica; Mundt, Marlon
Randomized and open-label studies assessing prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis have found quantitative improvement on the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) compared with baseline status and control therapies. This study assessed the qualitative response of participants receiving prolotherapy, an injection-based complementary treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews at 52 weeks after enrollment; transcribed responses were discussed by coauthors to identify themes; disagreement was resolved by consensus. Outpatient. Twenty-two participants treated with prolotherapy for symptomatic knee OA who were exited from three randomized and open-label studies. Intra- and extra-articular hypertonic dextrose injection (prolotherapy). Patient narrative and composite WOMAC questionnaire (0-100 points) scores. Participants had baseline demographic and knee OA severity similar to those of participants in three prior intervention trials, as well as similar robust follow-up WOMAC score change (19.9 ± 12.6 points), suggesting a representative subsample. Seven themes were identified from participant narratives: (1) improvement in knee-specific quality of life (n = 18), (2) safety and comfort, (3) pretreatment counseling enhanced treatment adherence and optimism, (4) overall positive experience with prolotherapy, (5) limited response to prolotherapy (n = 4), (6) consistency with anecdotal clinical prolotherapy experience; and (7) functional improvement without pain reduction. Most participants reported substantially improved knee-specific effects, resulting in improved quality of life and activities of daily living; four participants reported minimal or no effect. Clear, complete description of procedural rationale may enhance optimism about and adherence to treatment appointments.
Nha, Kyung Wook; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Feng, Jun; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk
Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments.
Lo, Sui-Foon; Wang, Yu-Chia; Chou, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Kang-Ming
Objectives. To examine and investigate the efficacy of shea nut oil extract (SheaFlex75) in relation to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Thirty-three patients (age 63.6 ± 5.8 years) with knee OA were recruited. Real-time ultrasound imaging and surface electromyography were used to objectively assess the morphological changes and the activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscles during a 16-week intervention of SheaFlex75. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to examine the reliability of the interscans. A paired-sample t-test was used to compare the findings in different stages. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the relevant variables of OA and percentage of thickness change of VMO at different contraction levels. Results. The baseline findings showed strong correlation, suggesting that the reliability of interscans at pretest was high. The ability to contract the muscles of the knee to a 30% contraction level showed significant change between the baseline and after 16-week testing, both in terms of morphological changes and muscle activity. Pain scale reported a significant decrease at the 16th week. Conclusion. The results suggest that SheaFlex75 can relieve the symptoms of knee OA and can result in improvement of muscle control of the knee. PMID:24454485
Daivajna, Sachin; Bajwa, Ali; Villar, Richard
Hip arthroscopy has continued to expand its horizons in treating many conditions other than femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the results of hip arthroscopy are known to be poor if the degree of articular cartilage damage is significant. We wanted to assess, whether the procedure might have a role in the management of young and active patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) and whether it should be offered as a treatment modality. 77 consecutive patients with Tönnis grade 2 and 3 osteoarthritis of the hip who had undergone hip arthroscopy were included in the study. Patients' medical notes, plain radiographs and outcome scores (modified Harris hip score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score (NAHS)) preoperatively and postoperatively at six weeks, six months, one year and annually thereafter, were analysed. 77 patients consisted of 63 men and 14 women with mean follow-up of 2.8 years (2.2 to 4.2) and mean age at surgery of 43 years (19 to 64). The mean preoperative mHHS and NAHS scores were 58 (28 to 87) and 64 (27 to 93) respectively. The mean improvements in both the mHHS and NAHS scores were significant (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0001 for mHHS at one and two years, p = 0.002 and p = 0.0003 for NAHS at one and two years, respectively). There were 34 patients (44%) who required a total hip replacement at mean of 18 months (6 to 48) after hip arthroscopy. We conclude that hip arthroscopy improves outcome scores in 56% of patients with severe OA of the hip (Tönnis grade 2 and 3) for at least two years after surgery. We thus consider the procedure to be a reasonable option for patients with hip OA, although success of the procedure will be less than if undertaken for certain other conditions. PMID:25635392
Daivajna, Sachin; Bajwa, Ali; Villar, Richard
Hip arthroscopy has continued to expand its horizons in treating many conditions other than femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the results of hip arthroscopy are known to be poor if the degree of articular cartilage damage is significant. We wanted to assess, whether the procedure might have a role in the management of young and active patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) and whether it should be offered as a treatment modality. 77 consecutive patients with Tönnis grade 2 and 3 osteoarthritis of the hip who had undergone hip arthroscopy were included in the study. Patients' medical notes, plain radiographs and outcome scores (modified Harris hip score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score (NAHS)) preoperatively and postoperatively at six weeks, six months, one year and annually thereafter, were analysed. 77 patients consisted of 63 men and 14 women with mean follow-up of 2.8 years (2.2 to 4.2) and mean age at surgery of 43 years (19 to 64). The mean preoperative mHHS and NAHS scores were 58 (28 to 87) and 64 (27 to 93) respectively. The mean improvements in both the mHHS and NAHS scores were significant (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0001 for mHHS at one and two years, p = 0.002 and p = 0.0003 for NAHS at one and two years, respectively). There were 34 patients (44%) who required a total hip replacement at mean of 18 months (6 to 48) after hip arthroscopy. We conclude that hip arthroscopy improves outcome scores in 56% of patients with severe OA of the hip (Tönnis grade 2 and 3) for at least two years after surgery. We thus consider the procedure to be a reasonable option for patients with hip OA, although success of the procedure will be less than if undertaken for certain other conditions.
Huétink, Kasper; Stoel, Berend C; Watt, Iain; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Bloem, Johan L; Malm, Steve H; Van't Klooster, Ronald; Nelissen, Rob G H H
The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA) development in a young to middle-aged population with sub-acute knee complaints. This, in order to define high risk patients who may benefit from early preventive or future disease modifying therapies. Knee OA development visible on radiographs and MR in 319 patients (mean age 41.5 years) 10 years after sub-acute knee complaints and subjective knee function (KOOS score) was studied. Associations between OA development and age, gender, activity level, BMI, meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions, OA in first-degree relatives and radiographic hand OA were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. OA on radiographs and MR in the TFC is associated with increased age (OR: 1.10, 95 % 1.04-1.16 and OR: 1.07, 95 % 1.02-1.13). TFC OA on radiographs only is associated with ACL and/or meniscal lesions (OR: 5.01, 95 % 2.14-11.73), presence of hand OA (OR: 4.69, 95 % 1.35-16.32) and higher Tegner activity scores at baseline before the complaints (OR: 1.20, 95 % 1.01-1.43). The presence of OA in the TFC diagnosed only on MRI is associated with a family history of OA (OR: 2.44, 95 % 1.18-5.06) and a higher BMI (OR: 1.13, 95 % 1.04-1.23). OA in the PFC diagnosed on both radiographs and MR is associated with an increased age (OR: 1.06, 95 % 1.02-1.12 and OR: 1.05, 95 % 1.00-1.09). PFC OA diagnosed on radiographs only is associated with a higher BMI (OR: 1.12, 95 % 1.02-1.22). The presence of OA in the PFC diagnosed on MR only is associated with the presence of hand OA (OR: 3.39, 95 % 1.10-10.50). Compared to normal reference values, the study population had significantly lower KOOS scores in the different subscales. These results show that knee OA development in young to middle aged patients with a history of sub-acute knee complaints is associated with the presence of known risk factors for knee OA. OA is already visible on radiographs and MRI after 10
Giannitti, C.; De Palma, A.; Pascarelli, N. A.; Cheleschi, S.; Giordano, N.; Galeazzi, M.; Fioravanti, Antonella
The aim of this study was to evaluate the whole-blood levels of miR-155, miR-223, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-let-7e in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) after a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT). Thirty-two patients with knee OA defined by the ACR criteria were included. Twenty-one patients (MBT group) were daily treated with a combination of local mud-packs at 42 °C and baths in mineral water, at 37 °C for 15 min, for 12 applications over a period of 2 weeks, in addition to standard therapy; 11 patients (control group) continued their conventional treatment alone. Global pain score evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), WOMAC subscores, and microRNA expression were evaluated at baseline and after 2 weeks. Peripheral whole blood was collected into PAXgene™ Blood RNA tubes, stored at - 80 °C, and total RNA was extracted. The expression of miR-155, miR-223, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-let-7e was determined by qRT-PCR. After MBT, we observed a statistically significant improvement of clinical parameters and a significant decrease of miR-155, miR-181a, miR-146a (p < 0.001), and miR-223 (p < 0.01) expression levels. No clinical and biochemical modifications were detected in the control group. No significant variations of miR-let-7e were shown in both groups after 2 weeks. In conclusion, MBT can modify the expression of miR-155, miR-181a, miR-146a, and miR-223, which are upregulated in OA. It could be due to the heat stress and the hydrostatic pressure, since some miRNAs were found to be temperature- and mechano-responsive. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanism of action of MBT and the role of miRNAs in OA.
Symonds, Tara; Hughes, Bernadette; Liao, Shanmei; Ang, Qiuqing; Bellamy, Nicholas
To establish the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) among Chinese subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, living in mainland China. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted for validation of the electronic personal digital assistant version of the WOMAC Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) 3.1 Index in China. A total of 287 subjects with OA of the knee were randomized to receive either meloxicam (15 mg) or placebo. Psychometric properties of the WOMAC were evaluated by estimating the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. Equivalence of the electronic version was also compared with the paper version. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the WOMAC pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales were 0.81, 0.76, and 0.85, respectively, indicating good test-retest reliability. Similarly, internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha for the 3 WOMAC subscales was 0.84, 0.86, and 0.96, respectively). Pearson's correlation coefficients for WOMAC pain and Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36) bodily pain, as well as WOMAC physical function and SF-36 physical functioning domains were >0.4, indicating convergent validity, whereas the coefficients for all 3 WOMAC domains with SF-36 mental health and mental health component scores were <0.4, indicating divergent validity. There was strong discriminant validity between healthy volunteers and OA patients. The effect sizes of change from baseline to week 12 in WOMAC subscale scores were large, demonstrating sensitivity to change. Equivalence between paper and electronic versions was very high. The culturally and linguistically validated Chinese version of the WOMAC NRS 3.1 for mainland China is psychometrically robust in its validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change for patients with OA of the knee. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
Colen, Sascha; Geervliet, Pieter; Haverkamp, Daniël; Van Den Bekerom, Michel P. J.
Background: Conservative treatments are especially in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GH-OA) important, since shoulder arthroplasty has its limitations. In this systematic review, we will evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) infiltration treatment options in patients with GH-OA. Materials and Methods: The following databases are searched: Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register, Embase and the WHO clinical trial register. All IA injection products used for the treatment of shoulder OA in humans are included. Results: A total of 8 studies could be included in this review. Hyaluronic acid (HA) showed effect sizes of 2.07, 2.02 and 2.11 at 6, 12 and 26 weeks follow-up, respectively. Placebo (1.60, 1.82 and 1.68) also showed stable effect sizes at the same time points. The efficacy of corticosteroids (CS) decreased rapidly at follow-up (1.08, 0.43 and 0.19). Although statistical significant, the maximum difference in effect sizes between HA and placebo was only 0.43 with absolute values between 2.0 and 6.4 on a 100-point visual analogue score for pain. Conclusion: IA treatment with HA has a good efficacy at follow-up compared to baseline. However, the difference in efficacy between HA and placebo never reaches the minimal clinically important difference at any of the follow-up points. We are not able to give clear recommendations for the use of IA CS injections in patients with GH-OA. In future research, we recommend focusing on sufficiently powered randomized trials to compare the efficacies of HA, CS, placebo and other IA treatment options in patients with GH-OA. PMID:25538430
Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Burdorf, Alex; Rozendaal, Rianne M; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bos, Pieter K; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A
The goal of this study was to assess whether there is an association between ambient weather conditions and patients' clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The design was a cohort study with a 2-year follow-up and 3-monthly measurements and prospectively collected data on weather variables. The study population consisted of 222 primary care patients with hip OA. Weather variables included temperature, wind speed, total amount of sun hours, precipitation, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain and hip disability as measured with the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function subscales. Associations between hip pain and hip disability and the weather variables were assessed using crude and multivariate adjusted linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements. On the day of questionnaire completion, mean relative humidity was associated with WOMAC pain (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.2; P=.02). Relative humidity contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC pain score. Mean barometric pressure was associated with WOMAC function (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.1; P=.02). Barometric pressure contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC function score. The other weather variables were not associated with the WOMAC pain or function score. Our results support the general opinion of OA patients that barometric pressure and relative humidity influence perceived OA symptoms. However, the contribution of these weather variables (< or = 1%) to the severity of OA symptoms is not considered to be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Campbell, T. Mark; Churchman, Sarah M.; Gomez, Alejandro; McGonagle, Dennis; Conaghan, Philip G.; Ponchel, Frederique
Objective In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are intimately linked to disease progression. We hypothesized that aberrant multipotential stromal cell (also known as mesenchymal stem cell [MSC]) responses within bone tissue contributes to BML pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate BML and non‐BML native subchondral bone MSCs for numeric, topographic, in vitro functional, and gene expression differences. Methods Ex vivo 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the femoral heads of 20 patients with hip OA was performed. MRI‐determined BML and non‐BML regions were excised and enzymatically treated to extract cells and quantify MSCs using flow cytometry and colony‐forming unit–fibroblast (CFU‐F) assay. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine in vivo CD271+ MSC distribution. Culture‐expanded CD271+ cells were analyzed for tripotentiality and gene expression. Results BML regions were associated with greater trabecular bone area and cartilage damage compared with non‐BML regions. The proportion of CD45−CD271+ MSCs was higher in BML regions compared with non‐BML regions (median difference 5.6‐fold; P < 0.001); the CFU‐F assay showed a similar trend (median difference 4.3‐fold; P = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry revealed CD271+ cell accumulation in bone adjacent to cartilage defects and areas of osteochondral angiogenesis. BML MSCs had lower proliferation and mineralization capacities in vitro and altered expression of TNFSF11/RANKL and CXCR4/stromal cell–derived factor 1 receptor. OA MSCs showed up‐regulated transcripts for CXCR1 and CCR6 compared with MSCs derived from healthy or osteoporotic bone. Conclusion This study is the first to show numeric and topographic alterations in native MSCs in the diseased bone of patients with hip OA. Given the associated functional perturbation of MSCs, these data suggest that subchondral bone MSC manipulation may be an OA treatment target. PMID
Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen
Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320
Fregly, Benjamin J.; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Rooney, Kelly L.; Mitchell, Kim H.; Chmielewski, Terese L.
Gait modification is a nonsurgical approach for reducing the external knee adduction torque in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The magnitude of the first adduction torque peak in particular is strongly associated with knee OA progression. While toeing out has been shown to reduce the second peak, no clinically realistic gait modifications have been identified that effectively reduce both peaks simultaneously. This study predicts novel patient-specific gait modifications that achieve this goal without changing the foot path. The modified gait motion was designed for a single patient with knee OA using dynamic optimization of a patient-specific, full-body gait model. The cost function minimized the knee adduction torque subject to constraints limiting how much the new gait motion could deviate from the patient's normal gait motion. The optimizations predicted a “medial-thrust” gait pattern that reduced the first adduction torque peak between 32% and 54% and the second peak between 34% and 56%. The new motion involved three synergistic kinematic changes: slightly decreased pelvis obliquity, slightly increased leg flexion, and slightly increased pelvis axial rotation. After gait retraining, the patient achieved adduction torque reductions of 39% to 50% in the first peak and 37% to 55% in the second one. These reductions are comparable to those reported after high tibial osteotomy surgery. The associated kinematic changes were consistent with the predictions except for pelvis obliquity, which showed little change. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to design novel patient-specific gait modifications with potential clinical benefit using dynamic optimization of patient-specific, full-body gait models. Further investigation is needed to assess the extent to which similar gait modifications may be effective for other patients with knee OA. PMID:17867361
Barber, Claire E; Patel, Jatin N; Woodhouse, Linda; Smith, Christopher; Weiss, Stephen; Homik, Joanne; LeClercq, Sharon; Mosher, Dianne; Christiansen, Tanya; Howden, Jane Squire; Wasylak, Tracy; Greenwood-Lee, James; Emrick, Andrea; Suter, Esther; Kathol, Barb; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Grant, Sean; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Phillips, Leah; Hendricks, Jennifer; Marshall, Deborah A
Centralized intake is integral to healthcare systems to support timely access to appropriate health services. The aim of this study was to develop key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate centralized intake systems for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Phase 1 involved stakeholder meetings including healthcare providers, managers, researchers and patients to obtain input on candidate KPIs, aligned along six quality dimensions: appropriateness, accessibility, acceptability, efficiency, effectiveness, and safety. Phase 2 involved literature reviews to ensure KPIs were based on best practices and harmonized with existing measures. Phase 3 involved a three-round, online modified Delphi panel to finalize the KPIs. The panel consisted of two rounds of rating and a round of online and in-person discussions. KPIs rated as valid and important (≥7 on a 9-point Likert scale) were included in the final set. Twenty-five KPIs identified and substantiated during Phases 1 and 2 were submitted to 27 panellists including healthcare providers, managers, researchers, and patients in Phase 3. After the in-person meeting, three KPIs were removed and six were suggested. The final set includes 9 OA KPIs, 10 RA KPIs and 9 relating to centralized intake processes for both conditions. All 28 KPIs were rated as valid and important. Arthritis stakeholders have proposed 28 KPIs that should be used in quality improvement efforts when evaluating centralized intake for OA and RA. The KPIs measure five of the six dimensions of quality and are relevant to patients, practitioners and health systems.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Spaeth, Rosa B; Retzepi, Kallirroi; Ott, Daniel; Kong, Jian
In this study, we investigated cortical thickness and functional connectivity across longitudinal acupuncture treatments in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Over a period of four weeks (six treatments), we collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 30 patients before their first, third and sixth treatments. Clinical outcome showed a significantly greater Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score (improvement) with verum acupuncture compared to the sham acupuncture. Longitudinal cortical thickness analysis showed that the cortical thickness at left posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) decreased significantly in the sham group across treatment sessions as compared with verum group. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using the left pMPFC as a seed showed that after longitudinal treatments, the rsFC between the left pMPFC and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), medial frontal pole (mFP) and periaquiduct grey (PAG) are significantly greater in the verum acupuncture group as compared with the sham group. Our results suggest that acupuncture may achieve its therapeutic effect on knee OA pain by preventing cortical thinning and decreases in functional connectivity in major pain related areas, therefore modulating pain in the descending pain modulatory pathway.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Spaeth, Rosa B.; Retzepi, Kallirroi; Ott, Daniel; Kong, Jian
In this study, we investigated cortical thickness and functional connectivity across longitudinal acupuncture treatments in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Over a period of four weeks (six treatments), we collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 30 patients before their first, third and sixth treatments. Clinical outcome showed a significantly greater Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score (improvement) with verum acupuncture compared to the sham acupuncture. Longitudinal cortical thickness analysis showed that the cortical thickness at left posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) decreased significantly in the sham group across treatment sessions as compared with verum group. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using the left pMPFC as a seed showed that after longitudinal treatments, the rsFC between the left pMPFC and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), medial frontal pole (mFP) and periaquiduct grey (PAG) are significantly greater in the verum acupuncture group as compared with the sham group. Our results suggest that acupuncture may achieve its therapeutic effect on knee OA pain by preventing cortical thinning and decreases in functional connectivity in major pain related areas, therefore modulating pain in the descending pain modulatory pathway. PMID:25258037
Alami, Sophie; Boutron, Isabelle; Desjeux, Dominique; Hirschhorn, Monique; Meric, Gwendoline; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge
Purpose To identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies. Methods We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4 GPs] delivering alternative medicine). Results Two main domains of patient views were identified: one about the patient–physician relationship and the other about treatments. Patients feel that their complaints are not taken seriously. They also feel that practitioners act as technicians, paying more attention to the knee than to the individual, and they consider that not enough time is spent on information and counseling. They have negative perceptions of drugs and a feeling of medical uncertainty about OA, which leads to less compliance with treatment and a switch to alternative medicine. Patients believe that knee OA is an inevitable illness associated with age, that not much can be done to modify its evolution, that treatments are of little help, and that practitioners have not much to propose. They express unrealistic fears about the impact of knee OA on daily and social life. Practitioners' views differ from those of patients. Physicians emphasize the difficulty in elaborating treatment strategies and the need for a tool to help in treatment choice. Conclusions This qualitative study suggests several ways to improve the patient–practitioner relationship and the efficacy of treatment strategies, by increasing their acceptability and compliance. Providing adapted and formalized information to patients, adopting more global assessment and therapeutic approaches, and dealing more accurately with patients' paradoxal representation of drug therapy are main factors of improvement that should be addressed. PMID:21573185
Pereira, Duarte; Ramos, Elisabete; Branco, Jaime
Osteoarthritis is nowadays one of the most frequent chronic diseases and, with the increase in life expectancy, both its prevalence and incidence is expected to rise. This condition is progressive and leads to functional decline and loss in quality of life, with important health care and society costs. A review of relevant and recent literature on osteoarthritis was performed in PubMed. The purpose of this study is to understand important aspects about osteoarthritis estimates, burden of disease, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.
Al-Jarallah, Khaled F; Shehab, Diaa K; Haider, Mohammad Z
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in a number of cellular and metabolic functions. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of a missense mutation (Pro12Ala) in the PPARG2 gene in Kuwaiti Arab patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls with the aim of identifying a possible association. A prospective cross-sectional study carried out at three major teaching hospitals (referral centers) in the country over a one-year period. The prevalence of PPARG2 gene Pro12Ala missense mutation was determined in 104 Kuwaiti Arab patients with primary knee OA and 111 ethnically matched healthy controls. The prevalence of this Pro12Ala missense mutation was also determined in clinical subgroups of OA patients divided on the basis of age at onset, function and radiologic grading. The Pro-Pro genotype of the PPARG2 gene Pro12Ala missense mutation was detected in 95/104 (91.3%) cases compared to 111/111 (100%) in the control subjects. The heterozygous Pro-Ala genotype was detected in 9/104 (8.7%) of the OA patients, while it was not detected in any of the controls. The Ala-Ala genotype was not detected in any of the OA patients or the controls. No significant differences were detected in the PPARG2 gene Pro12Ala genotypes in the subgroups of patients classified on the basis of age at onset, functional assessment using Lequesne's functional index, and radiological grading using Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grading. This study found no significant association between the PPARG2 gene Pro12Ala missense mutation and knee OA. However, the presence of the Pro-Pro genotype of the PPARG2 gene mutation has a protective effect against development of OA.
Pereira, Duarte; Severo, Milton; Ramos, Elisabete; Branco, Jaime; Santos, Rui A; Costa, Lúcia; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique
To evaluate the potential role of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), radiographic features and pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) case ascertainment. A cross-sectional study was performed using information from the EPIPorto cohort; social, demographic, behavioral and clinical data was obtained. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Knee radiographs were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale (0-4). Path analysis was used to assess the plausibility of the causal assumptions and a classification tree to identify characteristics that could improve the identification of patients with radiographic OA. Higher age and higher BMI were associated with higher radiographic score, but sex had no statistical association. Females, higher age, higher BMI and higher radiographic score were statistically associated with higher pain scores. For both genders, the classification tree estimated age as the first variable to identify individuals with knee radiographic features. In females older than 56 years, pain frequency score is the second discriminator characteristic, followed by age (> 65 years) and (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). Higher pain frequency and BMI > 29 kg/m(2) were relevant for identifying OA in men with ages between 43.5 and 55.5 years. Age, BMI and pain frequency are independently associated with radiographic OA and the use of information on these characteristics can improve the identification of patients with knee OA. Beyond age, pain complaints are particularly relevant but the level of pain is different by sex. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Beselga, Carlos; Neto, Francisco; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Hall, Toby; Oliveira-Campelo, Natália
Mobilization with movement (MWM) has been shown to reduce pain, increase range of motion (ROM) and physical function in a range of different musculoskeletal disorders. Despite this evidence, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effects of MWM for hip osteoarthritis (OA). To determine the immediate effects of MWM on pain, ROM and functional performance in patients with hip OA. Randomized controlled trial with immediate follow-up. Forty consenting patients (mean age 78 ± 6 years; 54% female) satisfied the eligibility criteria. All participants completed the study. Two forms of MWM techniques (n = 20) or a simulated MWM (sham) (n = 20) were applied. pain recorded by numerical rating scale (NRS). hip flexion and internal rotation ROM, and physical performance (timed up and go, sit to stand, and 40 m self placed walk test) were assessed before and after the intervention. For the MWM group, pain decreased by 2 points on the NRS, hip flexion increased by 12.2°, internal rotation by 4.4°, and functional tests were also improved with clinically relevant effects following the MWM. There were no significant changes in the sham group for any outcome variable. Pain, hip flexion ROM and physical performance immediately improved after the application of MWM in elderly patients suffering hip OA. The observed immediate changes were of clinical relevance. Future studies are required to determine the long-term effects of this intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Mor, David; Mason, Rebecca S; Bartlett, John R; Duque, Gustavo; Levinger, Itamar; Levinger, Pazit
Muscle function is often impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), with reduced strength and increased pain. The role of vitamin D and the vitamin D-endocrine pathway in muscle health has recently been placed in the spotlight, with various groups reporting positive effects on muscle development, function and health. Recently, it has been shown that uptake into muscle of the specialized vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is dependent on the endocytic receptor, megalin. Here we analyse circulating vitamin D, and muscle DBP, megalin and the cognate vitamin D receptor (VDR) in patients with knee OA and compare them to asymptomatic controls. Muscle and blood samples were collected from 19 patients with end-stage OA of the knee and 10 age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies from the OA group were performed during knee replacement surgery and a needle biopsy was used on control volunteers. Immunoblots performed with specific antibodies were used to detect the presence of DBP, megalin, VDR (using the specific D-6 antibody) and albumin in the muscle biopsies. Results were correlated with FoxO1, a key regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway in muscle. There were no differences in circulating levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D3 between the groups, and no subjects were vitamin D deficient. We found increased VDR, DBP and albumin protein in the muscle from patients with OA compared to controls, with no change in muscle megalin expression. Furthermore, DBP levels in the muscle correlated with FoxO1, suggesting an association between muscle protein breakdown and the activation of the vitamin D-endocrine pathway in muscle surrounding an OA affected joint. We show, for the first time, that the factors involved in the vitamin D-endocrine-pathway are present at higher levels in muscles from OA patients compared to asymptomatic controls. This is despite no differences in circulating 25 (OH) vitamin D levels between the groups. These findings indicate the activation of
Divine, Jon G; Shaffer, Michael D
Because of the rising numbers of patients affected by osteoarthritis (OA), management decisions on how to minimize pain and improve function in OA patients are important. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) knee injections have become a common treatment in the management of knee OA. In an editorial appearing in the 2007 National Knowledge Week on Osteoarthritis: National Health Service Evidence, four questions were asked about the clinical use of IAHA treatment for OA: 1) Who is the ideal candidate for HA viscosupplementation? 2) Do the mechanical and biological effects differ in importance in different stages of the disease? 3) What is the ideal dose in early- and late-stage OA? 4) Can the biological effect be delivered by means other than injection? These key issues are addressed. On the basis of results from several systemic reviews and meta-analyses, we conclude that IAHA knee injections in patients with knee OA result in modest improvements when measured by validated outcomes.
Khoja, Samannaaz S; Susko, Allyn M; Josbeno, Deborah A; Piva, Sara R; Fitzgerald, G Kelley
Obesity is a well-known modifiable risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, and is present in approximately 35% of individuals with OA. Obesity adds significant burden to individuals with OA and is associated with poorer functional status and greater disability. In addition to tackling OA-related impairments, such as pain and functional limitations, interventions in this population need to address bodyweight reduction, as well as promotion of active lifestyle behaviors. While exercise and regular physical activity participation are both recommended and beneficial for OA and obese populations, our current understanding of optimal strategies to improve function and health status in those who have both OA and obesity is limited. This review will summarize the current available evidence related to effectiveness of various physical activity interventions to reduce pain, improve function and overall health-related quality of life in overweight or obese individuals with OA.
... with the aging process. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease causing the deterioration of the cartilage within a ... is roughened and becomes worn down. As the disease progresses, the cartilage becomes completely worn down and ...
Busija, Lucy; Bridgett, Lisa; Williams, Sean R M; Osborne, Richard H; Buchbinder, Rachelle; March, Lyn; Fransen, Marlene
Internationally, prevalence estimates for osteoarthritis show wide variability depending on the age and sex of the studied population, the method of case identification used, and the specificity of joint sites included. Currently, there is no generally agreed "gold standard" for identifying cases of osteoarthritis in epidemiologic studies. Despite this lack of standardisation, it is consistently demonstrated in population-based studies, worldwide, that osteoarthritis prevalence is positively associated with increasing age and that the greatest disease burden is attributable to involvement of the hip or knee joints. To estimate the true burden of osteoarthritis involving the hips or knees, comprehensive accounting of all associated morbidity is required. The identification of modifiable risk factors for disease incidence and progression is needed.
Scopaz, Kristen A; Piva, Sara R; Wisniewski, Stephen; Fitzgerald, G Kelley
To explore whether the psychologic variables anxiety, depression, and fear-avoidance beliefs, and interactions between these variables, are associated with physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized lower levels of function would be related to higher anxiety, higher depression, and higher fear-avoidance beliefs, and that high levels of 2 of these factors simultaneously might interact to have a greater adverse effect on physical function. Cross-sectional, correlational design. Institutional practice. Subjects included patients with knee OA (N=182; age, mean +/- SD, 63.9+/-8.8y; 122 women). Not applicable. Self-report measures of function included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index, the Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS), and the Knee Outcome Survey-Activity of Daily Living Scale. The Get Up and Go test was used as a physical performance measure of function. Self-report measures for psychologic variables included the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity Scale modified for the knee. Higher anxiety was related to poorer function on the WOMAC physical function. Both high anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs were related to poorer function on the LEFS and Knee Outcome Survey-Activity of Daily Living Scale. There was no association between the psychologic variables and the Get Up and Go test. The anxiety x depression interaction was associated with the LEFS. Anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs are associated with self-report measures of function in patients with knee OA. Depression may influence scores on the LEFS under conditions of low anxiety.
Scopaz, Kristen A.; Piva, Sara R.; Wisniewski, Stephen; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley
Objectives To explore whether the psychologic variables anxiety, depression, and fear-avoidance beliefs, and interactions between these variables, are associated with physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized lower levels of function would be related to higher anxiety, higher depression, and higher fear-avoidance beliefs, and that high levels of 2 of these factors simultaneously might interact to have a greater adverse effect on physical function. Design Cross-sectional, correlational design. Setting Institutional practice. Participants Subjects included patients with knee OA (N=182; age, mean ± SD, 63.9±8.8y; 122 women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Self-report measures of function included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index, the Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS), and the Knee Outcome Survey-Activity of Daily Living Scale. The Get Up and Go test was used as a physical performance measure of function. Self-report measures for psychologic variables included the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity Scale modified for the knee. Results Higher anxiety was related to poorer function on the WOMAC physical function. Both high anxiety and fear avoidance beliefs were related to poorer function on the LEFS and Knee Outcome Survey-Activity of Daily Living Scale. There was no association between the psychologic variables and the Get Up and Go test. The anxiety X depression interaction was associated with the LEFS. Conclusions Anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs are associated with self-report measures of function in patients with knee OA. Depression may influence scores on the LEFS under conditions of low anxiety. PMID:19887210
Pellinen, Tiina; Villberg, Jari; Raappana, Maarit; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Kettunen, Tarja
The aim of this study was to assess the socio-demographic and disease-related symptoms and emotions and knowledge expectations of patients recently diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A further aim was to determine associations between selected demographic variables and patients' expected knowledge. Patient counselling and information provision are recommended for all patients with knee osteoarthritis. In healthcare centres, there is a good possibility to establish the knowledge expectations of patients with knee osteoarthritis during counselling. Recent empirical evidence indicates a lack of research on knowledge expectations among recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis. A quantitative, descriptive inquiry design was adopted. The data were collected from 252 recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis by a postal survey in 2013, using the Hospital Patient's Knowledge Expectations Scale as well as additional questions and statements. The data were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Most of the respondents were female pensioners who also had other chronic diseases. Approximately half of the participants had had counselling on osteoarthritis. Knowledge expectations concerning pain management were emphasized. From the empowering knowledge perspective, the highest knowledge expectations concerned bio-physiological dimensions of knowledge, followed by ethical and financial dimensions. Age, employment status, pain and emotions of concern and hope among women and tiredness or fatigue and vocational/higher education among men were associated with knowledge expectations. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have high knowledge expectations and there is a need to improve the counselling and care of pain and tiredness or fatigue symptoms. The development of the counselling of recently diagnosed patients with knee osteoarthritis also needs further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nguyen, Tue G; McKelvey, Kelly J; March, Lyn M; Hunter, David J; Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J; Morris, Jonathan M
Natural IgM antibodies (nIgM) are polyreactive autoantibodies that have diverse roles in regulating autoimmunity, systemic inflammation and removal of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). We hypothesized that aberrant states of nIgM may exist in persons with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we characterized and compared the levels of nIgM specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and galactosyl (anti-Gal) in persons with OA, RA and healthy controls (HC). Levels of anti-PC nIgM in OA patients were significantly lower than both HC and RA patients in an age-adjusted analysis (P<0.05). In contrast, anti-Gal nIgM levels were significantly higher in RA patients than OA patients (P<0.05) and markedly increased in comparison to HC. Anti-PC nIgM significantly correlated with anti-dsDNA and anti-Gal nIgM levels in HC and RA (P<0.05) but not in OA patients. Elevated CRP levels were associated with RA conditions and old ages in general. There was no significant correlation between anti-PC nIgM and CRP or oxLDL levels. Our study highlights for the first time the evidence of aberrant state of nIgM in human OA compared to healthy individuals that implicates a deficiency in immune responses to oxLDL which may contribute to the metabolic syndromes in the development of OA.
García-Álvarez, Mónica; Berenguer, Juan; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Teresa; Tejerina, Francisco; Diez, Cristina; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Resino, Salvador
The mechanisms involved in the chronic hepatitis C progression are incompletely understood. The aim was to analyze the association between 2′5′oligoadenylate synthetase 1,2 and 3 (OAS1-3) and myxovirus resistance proteins 1 (Mx1) polymorphisms and severity of liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study in 219 patients that underwent a liver biopsy. DNA genotyping for Mx1 (rs469390), OAS1 (rs2285934), OAS2 (rs1293762) and OAS3 (rs2010604) was performed by using GoldenGate assay. The outcome variables ion liver biopsy were: (i) significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2); (ii) moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2). Additive model of inheritance for genetic association test was used. The likelihood of having significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2) was lower in patients carrying OAS2 rs1293762 A allele [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.51; p = 0.040]. Besides, the likelihood of having moderate activity grade (A ≥ 2) was higher in patients carrying Mx1 rs464397 C allele (aOR = 1.63; p = 0.028) and Mx1 rs469390 G allele (aOR = 1.97; p = 0.005), while it was lower in patients carrying OAS1 rs2285934 A allele (aOR = 0.64; p = 0.039) and OAS2 rs1293762 A allele (aOR = 0.41; p = 0.009). In conclusion, Mx1 and OAS1-2 polymorphisms were associated with the severity of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, suggesting a significant role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:28139728
Wang, Ligong; Chang, Gregory; Bencardino, Jenny; Babb, James S.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Abramson, Steven; Regatte, Ravinder R.
Purpose To compare and assess subregional, compartmental, and whole T1rho values of menisci in patients with doubtful-minimal [Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 1–2] as compared to moderate-severe (KL3–4) osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls at 3T. Materials and Methods 46 subjects were included in the study and subdivided into three subgroups: 16 healthy controls (4 females, 12 males; mean age = 34.4±10.2 years, age range 24–63 years), 20 patients with doubtful-minimal (KL1–2) OA (9 females, 11 males; mean age = 61.9±10.8 years, age range 40–80 years), and 10 patients with moderate-severe (KL3–4) OA (4 females, 6 males; mean age = 71.1±9.6 years, age range 58–89 years). All subjects were evaluated on a 3T MR scanner using a spin-lock-based 3D GRE sequence for T1rho mapping. Clinical proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin echoes (FSE) images in the sagittal (without fat saturation), axial, and coronal (fat-saturated) planes were acquired for cartilage Whole-Organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS) grading. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between subregional, compartmental, and whole T1rho values of meniscus among healthy controls, OA patients with KL1–2 and with KL3–4. Results Lateral anterior (median±inter-quartile range: 26±3 ms) and medial posterior (29±6 ms) meniscus subregions in healthy controls had significantly lower T1rho values (p < 0.05) than the corresponding meniscus subregions in both KL1–2 (29±7 ms and 35±8 ms, respectively) and KL3–4 (30±12 ms and 40±13 ms, respectively) OA subjects. Significantly lower meniscus T1rho values (p < 0.05) were also identified in the medial compartment in healthy controls (28±5 ms) relative to both KL1–2 OA subjects and KL3–4 OA subjects (32±7 ms and 37±7 ms, respectively). The entire meniscus T1rho values in healthy controls (28±4 ms) were significantly lower than those of both KL1–2 and KL3–4 OA
Staab, Wieland; Hottowitz, Ralf; Sohns, Christian; Sohns, Jan Martin; Gilbert, Fabian; Menke, Jan; Niklas, Andree; Lotz, Joachim
[Purpose] A wide variety of accelerometer tools are used to estimate human movement, but there are no adequate data relating to gait symmetry parameters in the context of knee osteoarthritis. This study's purpose was to evaluate a 3D-kinematic system using body-mounted sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) on the trunk and limbs. This is the first study to use spectral analysis for data post processing. [Subjects] Twelve patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) (10 male) and seven age-matched controls (6 male) were studied. [Methods] Measurements with 3-D accelerometers and gyroscopes were compared to video analysis with marker positions tracked by a six-camera optoelectronic system (VICON 460, Oxford Metrics). Data were recorded using the 3D-kinematic system. [Results] The results of both gait analysis systems were significantly correlated. Five parameters were significantly different between the knee OA and control groups. To overcome time spent in expensive post-processing routines, spectral analysis was performed for fast differentiation between normal gait and pathological gait signals using the 3D-kinematic system. [Conclusions] The 3D-kinematic system is objective, inexpensive, accurate and portable, and allows long-term recordings in clinical, sport as well as ergonomic or functional capacity evaluation (FCE) settings. For fast post-processing, spectral analysis of the recorded data is recommended.
Jadhav, Manoj P; Jadhav, Priyanka M; Mutke, Amol P; Sonawane, Supriya D; Patil, Bhushan D; Naik, Narendra B; Sonawale, Archana S
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability and is focused in "Bone and Joint Decade" declared by WHO which substantially affect different dimensions of quality of life. The aim of present study was to find the disease pattern in OA patients, monitoring prescription pattern to assess prognosis of osteoarthritis by WOMAC index. An observational study on prospective data collected for the evaluation of Quality of Life (QOL) in OA was conducted at tertiary health care centre in Mumbai. Patients with a diagnosis of OA were enrolled. The patient's history and clinical examination was based on classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology; drugs prescribed were noted on case record form. Same procedure was carried out for the first and second follow-ups at 6 th and 12 th weeks respectively. The patients belong to primary OA (84%) as compared to secondary OA (16%). Females (70.56% and 10%) were affected more commonly than males (13.44% and 6%). Knee Joint was worst affected in 76%, followed by hip joint in 16% and shoulder, ankle, wrist, elbow joint each having 2% (n=1) involvement. NSAIDs continued to dominate prescriptions given to 84% of patients followed by antiarthritic drugs and calcium supplements in 54% cases. The WOMAC score was higher in most of patients. After medication hydroxy chloroquine sulfate has shown maximum reduction in average WOMAC sore followed by paracetamol, indomethacin and diclofenac sodium. Osteoarthritis has a significant impact on quality of life, only partly ameliorated by anti-arthritic drugs, as assessed by the WOMAC scale in this study population. Further, a study with larger sample size is needed to further support our findings.
Terlain, Bernard; Presle, Nathalie; Pottie, Pascale; Mainard, Didier; Netter, Patrick
In addition to aging, obesity is one of the most common underlying causes of osteoarthritis (OA). Mechanical loading, together with biochemical and systemic factors linked to altered lipid metabolism, are thought to contribute to the onset of OA. It has been suggested that OA is a systemic metabolic disease associated with lipid disorders affecting joint homeostasis. These gradual changes may be due to the local effect of adipokines, and especially leptin. Indeed, their relative levels in joints differ from that found in plasma. In particular, leptin levels are increased and adiponectin and resistin levels are reduced This hypothesis is supported by--leptin overexpression in OA cartilage and its correlation with the degree of cartilage destruction,--abundant leptin synthesis by osteophytes, and--the high leptin levels found in OA joints from female patients. This link between OA and adipokines provides new leads regarding the prevention of OA and the identification of new drug targets.
Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability as well as a burden on healthcare resources. Tai chi has been proposed as an alternative and complementary treatment for the management of knee osteoarthritis, but there appears to be no consensus on its usefulness. This study aims to develop an innovative tai chi rehabilitation program (ITCRP) for patients with knee OA, and to investigate the effect of ITCRP intervention on a range of outcomes including pain, function, balance, neuromuscular response, and biomechanics in knee OA. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 140 individuals with symptomatic knee OA. Patients will be randomly assigned into either an ITCRP group or a control group. The ITCRP group will participate in tai chi two or three times a week for 6 months. The control group will receive health education. After the 6-month intervention period, there will be a 6-month follow-up period with no active intervention in either group. The primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Primary outcome measures will be a visual analog scale for pain, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index,and the Lequesne Knee Score. The secondary outcome measures will include the Berg balance scale, knee and ankle proprioception, neuromuscular response, and 3D functional biomechanics. Furthermore, adverse events will be recorded and analyzed. If any participants withdraw from the trial, intention-to-treat analysiswill be performed. Discussion Important features of this trial include the randomization procedures, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for ITCRP for knee OA. This study aims to determine the feasibility of ITCRP for knee OA and provide data on the effects of ITCRP. Hence, our results will be useful for patients with knee OA as well as for medical staff and healthcare decision makers. Trial registration Chinese
An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience
Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144
van Drumpt, Rogier A.M.; van der Weegen, Walter; King, William; Toler, Krista; Macenski, Mitchell M.
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative condition characterized by pain and loss of function. A pathological biochemical environment with excess inflammatory and catabolic proteins is a major contributor to OA. nSTRIDE® Autologous Protein Solution (APS) is a new therapy under development for the treatment of OA. This therapy is formed from a patient's blood and contains high concentrations of anti-inflammatory and anabolic proteins. This study assessed the safety and treatment effects of APS. Eleven subjects with early to moderate OA were injected with APS. Subjects were closely monitored for adverse events (AE) following the injection. Treatment outcome measures were obtained before injection. AE and clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 and 2 weeks postinjection and 1, 3, and 6 months postinjection. There were no serious AE or AE that were reported by the investigator as greater than mild in severity. There were no AE that were related to the device. There were minor AE related to the injection procedure, including injection site discomfort (1/11), injection site joint pain (1/11), and procedural nausea (1/11), which resolved quickly and did not require treatment. Mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) composite scores and pain, stiffness, and function subscale scores all showed significant improvement compared to baseline by 2 weeks postinjection. The data presented here suggest that the treatment is safe and show a complication profile that is mild and consistent with similar treatments. A single injection of APS for treatment of early to moderate knee OA led to symptom improvement over the study course. Based on these results, an adequately powered, well-controlled, randomized multicenter study to establish clinical efficacy is warranted. PMID:27668131
Gay, C; Chabaud, A; Guilley, E; Coudeyre, E
Highlight the role of patient education about physical activity and exercise in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic literature review from the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Wiley Online Library databases. A total of 125 items were identified, including 11 recommendations from learned societies interested in OA and 45 randomized controlled trials addressing treatment education and activity/exercise for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. In the end, 13 randomized controlled trials and 8 recommendations were reviewed (1b level of evidence). Based on the analysis, it was clear that education, exercise and weight loss are the pillars of non-pharmacological treatments. These treatments have proven to be effective but require changes in patient behaviour that are difficult to obtain. Exercise and weight loss improve function and reduce pain. Education potentiates compliance to exercise and weight loss programs, thereby improving their long-term benefits. Cost efficiency studies have found a reduction in medical visits and healthcare costs after 12 months because of self-management programs. Among non-surgical treatment options for hip and knee osteoarthritis, the most recent guidelines focus on non-pharmacological treatment. Self-management for general physical activity and exercise has a critical role. Programs must be personalized and adjusted to the patient's phenotype. This development should help every healthcare professional adapt the care they propose to each patient. Registration number for the systematic review: CRD42015032346. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rauscher, Isabel; Stahl, Robert; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Huber, Markus B.; Luke, Anthony; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.
Purpose: To prospectively evaluate differences in T1ρ (T1 relaxation time in the rotating frame) and T2 values in the meniscus at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in both patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: The study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. T1ρ and T2 measurements were performed at 3.0-T MR imaging in 60 subjects deemed to be healthy (n = 23; mean age, 34.1 years ± 10.0 [standard deviation]; age range, 23–59 years), having mild OA (n = 27; mean age, 52.5 years ± 10.9; age range, 32–69 years), or having severe OA (n = 10; mean age, 61.6 years ± 11.6; age range, 50–86 years). Semiautomatic segmentation was performed to generate T1ρ and T2 maps of the menisci. Clinical findings were assessed by using Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) questionnaires. Differences in T1ρ and T2 values between the three subject groups were calculated by using two-tailed t tests (with P < .05 indicating significance), and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. Correlations of meniscal T1ρ and T2 values with age, cartilage-derived T1ρ and T2 parameters, and WOMAC scores were calculated. Results: Significant differences between the three subject groups were found: Mean T1ρ values were 14.7 msec ± 5.5, 16.1 msec ± 6.6, and 19.3 msec ± 7.6 for the healthy, mild OA, and severe OA groups, respectively. Mean T2 values were 11.4 msec ± 3.9, 13.5 msec ± 4.7, and 16.6 msec ± 8.2 for the healthy, mild OA, and severe OA groups, respectively. Correlations of meniscal T1ρ and T2 values with subject age (R2 = 0.18, for correlation with T2 only), cartilage-derived parameters (R2 = 0.14–0.29), and WOMAC scores (R2 = 0.11–0.45) were significant. Conclusion: Meniscal T1ρ and T2 values correlate with clinical findings of OA and can be used to differentiate healthy subjects from
Introduction Increasing evidence support the regulatory role of leptin in osteoarthritis (OA). As high circulating concentrations of leptin disrupt the physiological function of the adipokine in obese individuals, the current study has been undertaken to determine whether the elevated levels of leptin found in the joint from obese OA patients also induce changes in the chondrocyte response to leptin. Methods Chondrocytes isolated from OA patients with various body mass index (BMI) were treated with 20, 100 or 500 ng/ml of leptin. The expression of cartilage-specific components (aggrecan, type 2 collagen), as well as regulatory (IGF-1, TGFβ, MMP-13, TIMP 2) or inflammatory (COX-2, iNOS, IL-1) factors was investigated by real-time PCR to evaluate chondrocyte responsiveness to leptin. Furthermore, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on leptin signalling pathways was analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for STATs activation. Results Leptin at 20 ng/ml was unable to modulate gene expression in chondrocytes, except for MMP-13 in obese OA patients. Higher leptin levels induced the expression of IGF-1, type 2 collagen, TIMP-2 and MMP-13. However, the activity of the adipokine was shown to be critically dependent on both the concentration and the BMI of the patients with a negative association between the activation of regulated genes and BMI for 100 ng/ml of adipokine, but a positive association between chondrocyte responsiveness and BMI for the highest leptin dose. In addition, the gene encoding MMP-13 was identified as a target of leptin for chondrocytes originated from obese patients while mRNA level of TIMP-2 was increased in leptin-treated chondrocytes collected from normal or overweight patients. The adipokine at 500 ng/ml triggered signal transduction through a STAT-dependent pathway while 100 ng/ml of leptin failed to activate STAT 3 but induced STAT 1α phosphorylation in chondrocytes obtained from obese patients. Conclusions The current study
Pallu, Stéphane; Francin, Pierre-Jean; Guillaume, Cécile; Gegout-Pottie, Pascale; Netter, Patrick; Mainard, Didier; Terlain, Bernard; Presle, Nathalie
Increasing evidence support the regulatory role of leptin in osteoarthritis (OA). As high circulating concentrations of leptin disrupt the physiological function of the adipokine in obese individuals, the current study has been undertaken to determine whether the elevated levels of leptin found in the joint from obese OA patients also induce changes in the chondrocyte response to leptin. Chondrocytes isolated from OA patients with various body mass index (BMI) were treated with 20, 100 or 500 ng/ml of leptin. The expression of cartilage-specific components (aggrecan, type 2 collagen), as well as regulatory (IGF-1, TGFbeta, MMP-13, TIMP 2) or inflammatory (COX-2, iNOS, IL-1) factors was investigated by real-time PCR to evaluate chondrocyte responsiveness to leptin. Furthermore, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on leptin signalling pathways was analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for STATs activation. Leptin at 20 ng/ml was unable to modulate gene expression in chondrocytes, except for MMP-13 in obese OA patients. Higher leptin levels induced the expression of IGF-1, type 2 collagen, TIMP-2 and MMP-13. However, the activity of the adipokine was shown to be critically dependent on both the concentration and the BMI of the patients with a negative association between the activation of regulated genes and BMI for 100 ng/ml of adipokine, but a positive association between chondrocyte responsiveness and BMI for the highest leptin dose. In addition, the gene encoding MMP-13 was identified as a target of leptin for chondrocytes originated from obese patients while mRNA level of TIMP-2 was increased in leptin-treated chondrocytes collected from normal or overweight patients. The adipokine at 500 ng/ml triggered signal transduction through a STAT-dependent pathway while 100 ng/ml of leptin failed to activate STAT 3 but induced STAT 1alpha phosphorylation in chondrocytes obtained from obese patients. The current study clearly showed that characteristics of OA
Bastiani, Denise; Ritzel, Cintia Helena; Bortoluzzi, Silvia Manfrin; Vaz, Marco Aurelio
The inflammatory manifestations of knee osteoarthritis (OA) lead to muscle inhibition and hypotrophy, resulting in a reduction in total muscle work and muscle power. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most adequate surgery for the treatment of advanced OA. However, its effects on muscle functional behavior have not been well understood. To compare the total work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with OA (20) and in patients post-TKA (12) at two angular velocities (60º/sec and 240º/sec). An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer was used to assess muscle power and total work during isokinetic contractions. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare total muscle work and muscle power between the groups (SPSS software, version 13.0; significance level, P < 0.05). There was no difference between the OA and TKA groups for the total work of both knee extensors and flexors at the two angular velocities (P > 0.05). In addition, no difference was observed in the muscle power of the knee extensors and flexors (P > 0.05). Total work and power were similar in the OA and TKA groups, suggesting that TKA did not improve functional capacity, which was similar in both groups.
Li, Yusheng; Xiao, Wenfeng; Wu, Ping; Deng, Zhenhan; Zeng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Lei, Guanghua
The study aims to investigate the expression of SIRT1 in articular cartilage of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship with disease severity. Cartilage tissue samples were collected from 38 knee OA patients and 9 normal healthy controls and then ascribed to normal, mild, moderate, and severe groups on the basis of the improved Mankin grading system. The expression of SIRT1 in articular cartilage was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blots. The expression of p53 and acetylated p53 (Ac-p53) was also measured by western blots. The mutual comparisons of the SIRT1 expression levels in all groups have statistical significance except the one between the mild and moderate groups. Moreover, western blot results showed that the SIRT1 was decreased and p53/Ac-p53 were increased in the OA group. The average gray level of SIRT1 increases with the improving grade of the improved Mankin grading system scorers. The expression of SIRT1 in articular cartilage is negatively associated with severity of knee OA, indicating that SIRT1 may act as a monitoring indicator for determining development and progression of knee OA.
Senolt, L; Braun, M; Olejarova, M; Forejtova, S; Gatterova, J; Pavelka, K
Background: Pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product, increasingly accumulates in articular cartilage with age, and contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Increased pentosidine concentrations are associated with inflammatory disorders—for example, rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: To compare pentosidine serum concentrations in patients with knee OA and in healthy volunteers and to determine a relationship between pentosidine and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)—a marker of articular cartilage destruction. Methods: Paired serum and synovial fluid samples were obtained by arthrocentesis from 38 patients with knee OA and from 38 healthy volunteers. Pentosidine concentration was measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection and COMP was determined by sandwich ELISA. Results: Significantly increased serum pentosidine (p<0.01) and COMP (p<0.05) levels were detected in the patients with OA compared with the control group. Serum pentosidine correlated significantly with synovial fluid pentosidine (p<0.001). Pentosidine in synovial fluid (p<0.05) and in serum (p<0.05) correlated significantly with synovial fluid COMP. Pentosidine and COMP concentrations did not correlate significantly with the radiological stage of the disease. Conclusion: Increased pentosidine serum concentration in patients with OA and its correlation with the cartilage destruction marker COMP in synovial fluid suggests that pentosidine may be important in OA pathology and is a new potential OA marker. PMID:15897309
Callaghan, Michael J.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Forsythe, Laura M.; Lunt, Mark; Felson, David T.
Objective In osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials, a pain measure that is most sensitive to change is considered optimal. We compared sensitivity to change of patient‐reported pain outcomes, including a patient‐preference measure (where the patient nominates an activity that aggravates their pain). Methods We used data from 2 trials of patients with confirmed (American College of Rheumatology criteria) knee OA: a trial of brace treatment for patellofemoral OA, and a trial of intraarticular steroids in knee OA. Both trials reported an improvement in pain following treatment. Participants rated pain on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS), in the activity that caused them the most knee pain (VASNA), as well as completing questions on overall knee pain and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were also calculated from the KOOS. Standardized changes in each outcome were generated between treatment and control after 6 weeks intervention in the BRACE trial, and 1–2 weeks following intervention in the steroid trial. Results The VASNA produced standardized changes following treatment that were at least as large as other pain outcomes. In the BRACE trial, the between‐groups standardized change with the VASNA was −0.63, compared with the KOOS pain subscale change of −0.33, and pain in the last week VAS change of −0.56. In the steroid study, within‐group change following treatment in the VASNA was −0.60, compared to the last week VAS change of −0.51, and KOOS pain subscale change of −0.58. Conclusion Pain on nominated activity appears to be at least as, and in some cases more, sensitive to change than the KOOS/WOMAC questionnaire. PMID:26713415
Wu, J; Wang, K; Xu, J; Ruan, G; Zhu, Q; Cai, J; Ren, J; Zheng, S; Zhu, Z; Otahal, P; Ding, C
The roles of ghrelin in knee osteoarthritis (OA) are unclear. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of ghrelin with knee symptoms, joint structures and cartilage or bone biomarkers in patients with knee OA. This study included 146 patients with symptomatic knee OA. Serum levels of ghrelin and cartilage or bone biomarkers including cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), cross linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTXI), cross linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTXI), N-terminal procollagen III propeptide (PIIINP), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, 10, 13 were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Knee symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) volume, IPFP signal intensity alternation, cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and effusion-synovitis were assessed using the (MRI). Osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were assessed using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International atlas. After adjustment for potential confounders, ghrelin quartiles were positively associated with knee symptoms including pain, stiffness, dysfunction and total score (quartile 4 vs 1: β 24.19, 95% CI 8.13-40.25). Ghrelin quartiles were also significantly associated with increased IPFP signal intensity alteration (quartile 4 vs 1: OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.55-8.25) and NTXI, PIIINP, MMP3 and MMP13. Ghrelin was not significantly associated with other joint structures and biomarkers. Serum levels of ghrelin were significantly associated with increased knee symptoms, IPFP signal intensity alteration and serum levels of MMP3, MMP13, NTXI and PIIINP, suggesting that ghrelin may have a role to play in knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ji, Jong-Hun; Lee, Yeon-Soo; Shafi, Mohamed
Synovial lipoma arborescens (SLA) is a rare, benign, fat-containing synovial proliferative lesion that is typically known to affect the knee joint in adults, although it has also been described in other joints. SLA usually presents as a painless swelling and recurrent joint effusion, and the laboratory test results, including aspirated synovial fluid, are usually normal. We present here two cases of SLA of the knee, which presented as spontaneous recurrent hemarthroses in elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) with bloody aspirated synovial fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic synovectomy suggested the diagnosis of SLA; the histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis. One year later, both patients remain symptom-free and report no new episodes of hemarthrosis. We postulate that SLA should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent joint effusions with hemarthrosis in elderly patients with OA. The clinical presentation, MRI findings, and treatment of SLA are described, and the entity is briefly reviewed.
Farid, Reza; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Hatef, Mohamad Reza; Mirheidari, Mahyar; Mansouri, Hassan; Esmaelli, Habib; Bentley, Gayle; Lu, Yinrong; Foo, Yeap; Watson, Ronald Ross
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disorder and a major cause of pain and disability. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the passion fruit peel extract (PFP), a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, would reduce symptoms due to knee OA. Thirty-three OA patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients received either placebo or PFP pills (150 mg, daily) in a double-blinded fashion for 2 months. The OA clinical symptoms were evaluated monthly with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. In the PFP group, there was a significant improvement in total WOMAC score and WOMAC subscale score of physical function after 30 days and pain after 60 days. At 60 days, reductions of 18.6%, 18%, 19.6%, and 19.2% in pain, stiffness, physical function, and composite WOMAC score, respectively, were self-reported in the PFP group. Whereas, in the placebo group, the self-reported WOMAC scores increased in every category. The results of this study show that PFP substantially alleviated osteoarthritis symptoms. This beneficial effect of PFP may be due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Somers, Tamara J.; Blumenthal, James A.; Guilak, Farshid; Kraus, Virginia B.; Schmitt, Daniel O.; Babyak, Michael A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Caldwell, David S.; Rice, John R.; McKee, Daphne C.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Lisa C.; Pells, Jennifer J.; Sims, Ershela L.; Queen, Robin; Carson, James W.; Connelly, Mark; Dixon, Kim E.; LaCaille, Lara J.; Huebner, Janet L.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Keefe, Francis J.
Overweight and obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA) experience more OA pain and disability than patients who are not overweight. This study examined the long-term efficacy of a combined pain coping skills training (PCST) and lifestyle behavioral weight management (BWM) intervention in overweight and obese OA patients. Patients (N=232) were randomized to a 6-month program of: 1) PCST + BWM; 2) PCST-only; 3) BWM-only; or 4) standard care control. Assessments of pain, physical disability (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales [AIMS] physical disability, stiffness, activity, and gait), psychological disability (AIMS psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, arthritis self-efficacy, weight self-efficacy), and body weight were collected at four time points (pretreatment, post-treatment, and 6 months and 12 months after the completion of treatment). Patients randomized to PCST+ BWM demonstrated significantly better treatment outcomes (average of all three post-treatment values) in terms of pain, physical disability, stiffness, activity, weight self-efficacy, and weight when compared to the other three conditions (p’s <.05). PCST+BWM also did significantly better than at least one of the other conditions (i.e., PCST-only, BWM-only, or standard care) in terms of psychological disability, pain catastrophizing, and arthritis self-efficacy. Interventions teaching overweight and obese OA patients pain coping skills and weight management simultaneously may provide the more comprehensive long-term benefits. PMID:22503223
Oak, S R; Ghodadra, A; Winalski, C S; Miniaci, A; Jones, M H
To evaluate if quantitative joint space width (JSW) measurements from radiographs correlate with 4-year Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) and clinical performance measures. The study group consisted of 942 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). 4-year outcomes for six measures (KOOS Pain, Symptom, Quality of Life, and Function scores, 20-m walk pace, and chair stand time) were used to create six multiple linear regression models. Primary predictors were baseline minimum JSW and 4-year change in JSW measured from fixed flexion radiographs. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), race, knee alignment, and baseline measures of the outcomes of interest were covariates. Lower baseline minimum JSW and a greater decrease in 4-year JSW significantly correlated with worse 4-year KOOS Pain, Symptom, and Quality of Life. With all other factors constant, a 4.1, 4.8, and 5.6 mm lower baseline JSW correlated with a clinically significant eight-point drop in 4-year KOOS Pain, Symptom, and Quality of Life scores respectively. Additionally, a 3.5, 3.1, and 4.0 mm loss of JSW over 4 years correlated with a clinically significant eight-point drop in 4-year KOOS Pain, Symptom, and Quality of Life scores respectively. Our results indicate quantitative radiographic JSW measurements correlate with 4-year clinical outcomes. Since patients with narrower JSW at the onset of study had lower KOOS scores at 4 years even after controlling for 4-year change in JSW and baseline KOOS scores, clinical outcomes in knee OA may be predetermined once the disease process begins. These findings suggest early treatment with disease modifying therapies may be necessary to influence outcomes. © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernad-Pineda, M; de Las Heras-Sotos, J; Garcés-Puentes, M V
To evaluate the quality of life in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis through self-assessment and those made by the physician. An observational and cross-sectional multicenter study in which 628 traumatologists or rheumatologists evaluated 1,849 patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, aged ≥ 50 years old, and representative of 49 Spanish provinces. Each researcher evaluated three patients and also completed the SF-12v2 health questionnaire. The patients completed the WOMAC and SF-12v2 questionnaires. The patients were 68.5 ± 9.5 years old, 61.5% had knee osteoarthritis, 19% had hip osteoarthritis, and 19.5% in both locations. Older patients and those who had both knee and hip osteoarthritis had a poorer quality of life, according to patients and researchers. Physical health perceived by the researchers was better than patients reported (36.74 ± 8.6 and 35.21 ± 8.53; respectively, p<0.001), and the mental health score was similar between physicians and patients. Kellgren/Lawrence scale and test Timed Up & Go predict better the quality of life, assessed by WOMAC and SF-12v2 questionnaires. This is the Spanish study on quality of life in osteoarthritis of the knee and hip of larger amplitude and number of patients. These results could be considered as reference values of Spanish population aged ≥ 50 years with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foolady, Marjaneh; Behshid, Mozhgan; Irajpoor, Alireza
Introduction: Pain is the main reason for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to visit health clinics. Health seeking behaviors indicate unmet patient needs and lack of understanding of OA pain patterns. This study aimed to describe the experiences of Iranian patients with OA and explore their health seeking behaviors and perceptions on pain management related to osteoarthritis. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, data was collected by interviewing 19 patients, 2 family members, and 5 health care providers from the in-patient and out-patient clinics, and physicians’ offices. Data saturation was reached after 31 in-depth and semi-structured interviews (five second interviews). Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, using comparison, reﬂection and interpretation techniques. The criteria used to enhance rigor included credibility, transferability, dependability, and conﬁrmability. Results: Two main categories and six subcategories emerged from data analysis. The first main category included "adapting to the reality" which had three subcategories: Facing OA pain, seeking health care, and accepting pain as a part of life. The second main category included "behavior fluctuation" with three subcategory of role conflict, responsibility for self-care and, adherence to prescribed treatment versus self-treatment. Conclusion: Care seeking behaviors for chronic pain sufferers are void of cultural, emotional, social and financial situation and patient expectations. Some misconceptions emerged about the health problem and its management, which may lead to negative attitudes toward treatment and therapists and finally lead to non-adherence to treatment. Patients need for education to enhance appropriate health care utilization. PMID:28299300
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foolady, Marjaneh; Behshid, Mozhgan; Irajpoor, Alireza
Introduction: Pain is the main reason for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to visit health clinics. Health seeking behaviors indicate unmet patient needs and lack of understanding of OA pain patterns. This study aimed to describe the experiences of Iranian patients with OA and explore their health seeking behaviors and perceptions on pain management related to osteoarthritis. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, data was collected by interviewing 19 patients, 2 family members, and 5 health care providers from the in-patient and out-patient clinics, and physicians' offices. Data saturation was reached after 31 in-depth and semi-structured interviews (five second interviews). Data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, using comparison, reﬂection and interpretation techniques. The criteria used to enhance rigor included credibility, transferability, dependability, and conﬁrmability. Results: Two main categories and six subcategories emerged from data analysis. The first main category included "adapting to the reality" which had three subcategories: Facing OA pain, seeking health care, and accepting pain as a part of life. The second main category included "behavior fluctuation" with three subcategory of role conflict, responsibility for self-care and, adherence to prescribed treatment versus self-treatment. Conclusion: Care seeking behaviors for chronic pain sufferers are void of cultural, emotional, social and financial situation and patient expectations. Some misconceptions emerged about the health problem and its management, which may lead to negative attitudes toward treatment and therapists and finally lead to non-adherence to treatment. Patients need for education to enhance appropriate health care utilization.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in society and can lead to significant disability and impairment of a patient's capacity to perform activities of daily living. The focus of this article is various treatment options for the management of OA, with emphasis on conservative management. The emphasis is on the role of exercise, pharmacology, intra-articular joint injections, and bracing options in the management of OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young; Oh, Jee Hae; Lee, Jong In
[Purpose] We evaluated the relationship between knee alignment and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM) to the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a cross-sectional study. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with knee OA were assessed by anatomic radiographic knee alignment and the VM/VL ratio was calculated. Surface EMG from both the VM and VL muscles were evaluated during maximal isometric contraction at 60° knee flexion. Simultaneously, peak quadriceps torque was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Subjects were categorized into low, moderate, and high varus groups according to knee malalignment. The peak quadriceps torque and VM/VL ratio across groups, and their relationships with varus malalignment were analyzed. [Results] All subjects had medial compartment OA and the VM/VL ratio of all subjects was 1.31 ± 0.28 (mean ± SD). There were no significant differences in the peak quadriceps torque or VM/VL ratios across the groups nor were there any significant relationships with varus malalignment. [Conclusion] The VM/VL ratio and peak quadriceps torque were not associated with the severity of knee varus malalignment. PMID:25995602
Rego-Pérez, I; Fernández-Moreno, M; Deberg, M; Pértega, S; Fenández-López, C; Oreiro, N; Henrotin, Y; Blanco, F J
To analyse the influence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups on serum levels of molecular biomarkers in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Serum levels of molecular biomarkers of cartilage metabolism (collagen type II markers: C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix (C2C), collagen type II (Coll2-1, and its nitrated form, Coll2-1NO(2)), procollagen type II (CPII)), synovial metabolism (hyaluronic acid (HA)) and cartilage and synovial turnover (cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40)) were analysed in 73 patients with OA and 77 healthy controls using ELISAs. All participants had been previously genotyped for the mtDNA haplogroups J, U and H. Non-parametric and multivariate analysis were performed to test the effects of the clinical variables, including gender, age, smoking status, diagnosis, mtDNA haplogroups and radiological Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) grade on the serum levels of the molecular markers. Non-parametric analysis found increased serum levels of HA in patients with OA, while the values for C2C and the C2C/CPII ratio were significantly higher in the healthy controls. A multiple regression analysis showed a relationship between the mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of the typical collagen type II markers. Carriers of the mtDNA haplogroup H had higher levels while carriers of the mtDNA haplogroup J showed lower levels. Statistically significant interactions between mtDNA haplogroups and diagnosis and between mtDNA haplogroups and radiological K/L grade in the serum levels of molecular markers were also found. A new role for mtDNA haplogroups emerges from this work. The results suggest that the mtDNA haplogroups interact significantly with the serum levels of OA-related molecular markers, suggesting the possibility of their use as a complementary assay with these molecular markers.
Alkatan, Mohammed; Baker, Jeffrey R; Machin, Daniel R; Park, Wonil; Akkari, Amanda S; Pasha, Evan P; Tanaka, Hirofumi
Arthritis and its associated joint pain act as significant barriers for adults attempting to perform land-based physical activity. Swimming can be an ideal form of exercise for patients with arthritis. Yet there is no information on the efficacy of regular swimming exercise involving patients with arthritis. The effect of a swimming exercise intervention on joint pain, stiffness, and physical function was evaluated in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a randomized study design, 48 sedentary middle-aged and older adults with OA underwent 3 months of either swimming or cycling exercise training. Supervised exercise training was performed for 45 min/day, 3 days/week at 60-70% heart rate reserve for 12 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index was used to measure joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation. After the exercise interventions, there were significant reductions in joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation accompanied by increases in quality of life in both groups (all p < 0.05). Functional capacity as assessed by maximal handgrip strength, isokinetic knee extension and flexion power (15-30% increases), and the distance covered in the 6-min walk test increased (all p < 0.05) in both exercise groups. No differences were observed in the magnitude of improvements between swimming and cycling training. Regular swimming exercise reduced joint pain and stiffness associated with OA and improved muscle strength and functional capacity in middle-aged and older adults with OA. Additionally, the benefits of swimming exercise were similar to the more frequently prescribed land-based cycling training. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01836380.
Introduction Since the concept of reprogramming mature somatic cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was demonstrated in 2006, iPSCs have become a potential substitute for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) given their pluripotency and “stemness” characteristics, which resemble those of ESCs. We investigated to reprogram fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) to generate iPSCs using a 4-in-1 lentiviral vector system. Methods A 4-in-1 lentiviral vector containing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc was transduced into RA and OA FLSs isolated from the synovia of two RA patients and two OA patients. Immunohistochemical staining and real-time PCR studies were performed to demonstrate the pluripotency of iPSCs. Chromosomal abnormalities were determined based on the karyotype. SCID-beige mice were injected with iPSCs and sacrificed to test for teratoma formation. Results After 14 days of transduction using the 4-in-1 lentiviral vector, RA FLSs and OA FLSs were transformed into spherical shapes that resembled embryonic stem cell colonies. Colonies were picked and cultivated on matrigel plates to produce iPSC lines. Real-time PCR of RA and OA iPSCs detected positive markers of pluripotency. Immunohistochemical staining tests with Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, Tra-1-80, Tra-1-60, and SSEA-4 were also positive. Teratomas that comprised three compartments of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm were formed at the injection sites of iPSCs. Established iPSCs were shown to be compatible by karyotyping. Finally, we confirmed that the patient-derived iPSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblast, which was shown by an osteoimage mineralization assay. Conclusion FLSs derived from RA and OA could be cell resources for iPSC reprogramming. Disease- and patient-specific iPSCs have the potential to be applied in clinical settings as source materials for molecular diagnosis and regenerative therapy. PMID:24490617
Masiero, Stefano; Vittadini, Filippo; Ferroni, Costanza; Bosco, Anna; Serra, Roberto; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Frizziero, Antonio
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis clinically characterized by joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life. Several studies have shown a clear link between obesity and higher risk of knee OA. According to the multifactorial OA pathogenesis, the management of this condition requires a multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this study is to evaluate hydrokinesitherapy effects in thermal setting in obese patients with knee OA. Fifty-three patients were assessed for eligibility, of which 33 refused the treatment, while 10 patients dropped out after the enrollment for personal reasons or inability to adhere to the program. Ten patients (8 females, 2 males, mean age of 59.4 years) with obesity (range BMI 30-45 kg/m2) and knee OA (II-III grade of Kellgren-Lawrence scale) treated with hydrokinetic therapy in thermal water (two sessions per week for 8 consecutive weeks) completed the study. Primary outcome measure was pain (VAS). Secondary outcomes were clinical knee evaluation (range of motion-ROM, lower-limb muscle strength), WOMAC, and Lequesne Algofunctional Index. Patellar tendon and peri-articular soft tissue ultrasound evaluation and gait analysis at baseline (T0), at the end of treatment (T1), and at 6 months of follow-up (T2) were performed. Significant decrease on VAS pain during walking on a flat surface and going up/down stairs was reached from baseline at T1 (p = 0.0039; p = 0.0098) and was maintained at T2 (p = 0.00954) exclusively for VAS pain during walking on a flat surface. WOMAC score showed a significant reduction between T0 and T1 (p = 0.0137) and between T0 and T2 (p = 0.006438), as ROM evaluations. Kinematic path assessment did not show significant results in individual gait steps, except for the space-time variables of the average speed and the values of ground reaction force (GRF) obtained with force platforms. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal environment in obese patients with knee OA may
Zhu, Qingguang; Li, Jianhua; Fang, Min; Gong, Li; Sun, Wuquan; Zhou, Nan
Chinese massage (Tui Na) is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese Medicine remedies for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Several studies have subjectively evaluated the effect of Chinese massage on knee OA through self-assessment questionnaires; however, very few studies have objectively assessed the effect by measuring knee muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Chinese massage in improving knee extensor and flexor muscle strength in patients with knee OA. Thirty patients with knee OA received Chinese massage therapy three times per week for 2 weeks. Patients completed pre- and post-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain questionnaires, and pre- and post-treatment knee muscle strength was evaluated using the Biodex Multi-Joint System 3. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were performed at 60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s. The peak torque (PT), peak torque/body weight(PT/BW), total work (TW), average power (AP), hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q), and range of motion (ROM) values were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. Chinese massage therapy significantly improved knee pain as assessed by the VAS in patients with knee OA (P < 0.05). Post-treatment values were significantly greater than pre-treatment values in the extensor muscles for PT (right P = 0.013, left P = 0.001), PT/BW (right P = 0.008, left P = 0.001) and TW (right P = 0.036, left P = 0.004) at 60 degrees/s. The AP increased significantly after treatment in the flexor muscles in the right knee (P = 0.009) and the extensor muscles in the left knee (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in pre- and post-treatment ROM and H/Q at 60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s. Chinese massage therapy decreased pain and may improve extensor muscle strength in patients with knee OA, but does not appear to improve ROM.
Kobsar, Dylan; Osis, Sean T.; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Ferber, Reed
Objective Muscle strengthening exercises have been shown to improve pain and function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, but individual response rates can vary greatly. Predicting individuals who respond and those who do not is important in developing a more efficient and effective model of care for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use pre-intervention gait kinematics and patient-reported outcome measures to predict post-intervention response to a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Methods Thirty-nine patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis completed a 6-week hip-strengthening program and were subgrouped as Non-Responders, Low-Responders, or High-Responders following the intervention based on their change in Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Predictors of responder subgroups were retrospectively determined from baseline patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic gait parameters in a discriminant analysis of principal components. A 3–4 year follow-up on 16 of the patients with knee OA was also done to examine long-term changes in these parameters. Results A unique combination of patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic factors was able to successfully subgroup patients with knee osteoarthritis with a cross-validated classification accuracy of 85.4%. Lower patient-reported function in daily living (ADL) scores and hip frontal plane kinematics during the loading response were most important in classifying High-Responders from other sub-groups, while a combination of hip, knee, ankle kinematics were used to classify Non-Responders from Low-Responders. Conclusion Patient-reported outcome measures and objective biomechanical gait data can be an effective method of predicting individual treatment success to an exercise intervention. Measuring gait kinematics, along with patient-reported outcome measures in a clinical setting
French, H P; Keogan, F; Gilsenan, C; Waldron, L; O'Connell, P
To assess patient satisfaction with exercise for knee osteoarthritis (OA). A convenience sample of 27 patients recruited to a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain exercises for knee OA were reassessed at nine months post-randomization. Clinical outcomes included self-report and physical performance measures of function and pain severity. Patients also completed the Physiotherapy Outpatient Survey (POPS), which is a multi-dimensional measure of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy. There was no significant difference in satisfaction between the two intervention groups. Overall mean satisfaction for the entire cohort was 4.07 of a maximum score of 5 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.52). Lower levels of satisfaction with outcome (mean = 3.56, SD = 0.8) were reported compared with other domains of expectations, communication, organization and the therapist (mean = 3.79-4.49; SDs = 0.42-0.92). Both intervention groups improved from baseline on clinical outcomes of pain, self-report function and walking distance, with no significant differences between the two groups. High levels of satisfaction were reported in this subsample of knee OA patients participating in an RCT evaluating the effects of different exercise approaches for knee OA. Satisfaction varied depending on the satisfaction domain, with lower satisfaction with outcome compared with other aspects of care. The POPS questionnaire can be used to measure the multi-dimensional aspects of satisfaction with physiotherapy.
Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Pinheiro, João Páscoa; Cabri, Jan
The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the contributions of potentially modifiable physical factors to variations in perceived health status in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients referred for physical therapy. Health status was measured by three questionnaires: Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS); Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS); and Medical Outcomes Study - 36 item Short Form (SF-36). Physical factors were measured by a battery of tests: body mass index (BMI); visual analog scale (VAS) of pain intensity; isometric dynamometry; universal goniometry; step test (ST); timed "up and go" test (TUGT); 20-meter walk test (20MWT); and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). All tests were administered to 136 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (94 females, 42 males; age: 67.2 ± 7.1 years). Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that knee muscle strength, VAS of pain intensity, 6MWT, degree of knee flexion and BMI were moderate predictors of health status. In the final models, selected combinations of these potentially modifiable physical factors explained 22% to 37% of the variance in KOOS subscale scores, 40% of the variance in the KOS-ADLS scale score, and 21% to 34% of the variance in physical health SF-36 subscale scores. More research is required in order to evaluate whether therapeutic interventions targeting these potentially modifiable physical factors would improve health status in knee OA patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Dugall, Mark; Pellegrini, Luciano; Ledda, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Togni, Stefano; Appendino, Giovanni
In a previous three-month study of Meriva, a proprietary curcumin-phosphatidylcholine phytosome complex, decreased joint pain and improvement in joint function were observed in 50 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Since OA is a chronic condition requiring prolonged treatment, the long-term efficacy and safety of Meriva were investigated in a longer (eight months) study involving 100 OA patients. The clinical end points (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC] score, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and treadmill walking performance) were complemented by the evaluation of a series of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]). This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis.
Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Nguyen, Tuan V
Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with a greater risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study sought to investigate whether the association is mediated by fat mass or lean mass. The study involved 170 men and 488 women aged between 20 and 90 (average age: 55) who were randomly recruited from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The presence of knee OA was radiographically diagnosed based on the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were obtained from the DXA whole body scan (Hologic QDR-4500). The relationship between OA, LM, and FM was analyzed by a series of multiple linear regression models which take into account the effects of gender and age. As expected, men and women with knee OA were older than those without OA (65 vs 51 year in men, and 64 vs 52 year in women). After adjusting for age, OA was associated with greater FM and percent body fat (PBF), but the association was only observed in women, not in men. There was no statistically significant difference in LM between OA and non-OA individuals. Moreover, after adjusting for age and BMI or PBF, bone density in OA patients was not significantly different from non-OA individuals. Women with OA of the knee have greater fat mass than non-OA individuals, and that there is no significant difference in bone density between OA and non-OA individuals. Thus, the association between body mass index and OA is mainly mediated by fat mass.
Charles, Janice; Valenti, Lisa; Britt, Helena
From April 2009 to March 2010 in the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) program, osteoarthritis was managed in general practice at a rate of 2.9 per 100 encounters, about 3.4 million times per year nationally.
Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Dube, Bright; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Tennant, Alan; Conaghan, Philip G
Early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) would increase the chances of effective intervention. We aimed to investigate which patient-reported activity is first associated with knee pain. We hypothesized that pain would occur first during activities requiring weight bearing and knee bending. Data were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a multicenter, longitudinal prospective observational cohort of people who have or are at high risk of OA. Participants completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; Likert scale) annually for up to 7 years. Rasch analysis was used to rank the WOMAC pain questions (activities) in order of affirmation as the pain score increased from 0. For each total WOMAC score category (0-20) we selected 25 individuals at random based on their maximum score across all visits. Fit to the Rasch model was assessed in this subset; stability of question ranking over successive visits was confirmed in the full OAI. WOMAC data on 4,673 people were included, with 491 selected for subset analysis. The subset data showed good fit to the Rasch model (χ(2) = 43.31, P = 0.332). In the full OAI, the "using stairs" question was the first to score points as the total pain score increased from 0 (baseline logit score ± 95% confidence interval -4.74 ± 0.07), then "walking" (-2.94 ± 0.07), "standing" (-2.65 ± 0.07), "lying/sitting" (-2.00 ± 0.08), and finally "in bed" (-1.32 ± 0.09). This ordering was consistent over successive visits. Knee pain is most likely to first appear during weight-bearing activities involving bending of the knee, such as using stairs. First appearance of this symptom may identify a group suitable for early intervention strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.
Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Dube, Bright; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Tennant, Alan; Conaghan, Philip G
Objective Early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) would increase the chances of effective intervention. We aimed to investigate which patient-reported activity is first associated with knee pain. We hypothesized that pain would occur first during activities requiring weight bearing and knee bending. Methods Data were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a multicenter, longitudinal prospective observational cohort of people who have or are at high risk of OA. Participants completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; Likert scale) annually for up to 7 years. Rasch analysis was used to rank the WOMAC pain questions (activities) in order of affirmation as the pain score increased from 0. For each total WOMAC score category (0–20) we selected 25 individuals at random based on their maximum score across all visits. Fit to the Rasch model was assessed in this subset; stability of question ranking over successive visits was confirmed in the full OAI. Results WOMAC data on 4,673 people were included, with 491 selected for subset analysis. The subset data showed good fit to the Rasch model (χ2 = 43.31, P = 0.332). In the full OAI, the “using stairs” question was the first to score points as the total pain score increased from 0 (baseline logit score ± 95% confidence interval −4.74 ± 0.07), then “walking” (−2.94 ± 0.07), “standing” (−2.65 ± 0.07), “lying/sitting” (−2.00 ± 0.08), and finally “in bed” (−1.32 ± 0.09). This ordering was consistent over successive visits. Conclusion Knee pain is most likely to first appear during weight-bearing activities involving bending of the knee, such as using stairs. First appearance of this symptom may identify a group suitable for early intervention strategies. PMID:25074673
Kobsar, Dylan; Osis, Sean T; Boyd, Jeffrey E; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed
Muscle strengthening exercises consistently demonstrate improvements in the pain and function of adults with knee osteoarthritis, but individual response rates can vary greatly. Identifying individuals who are more likely to respond is important in developing more efficient rehabilitation programs for knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if pre-intervention multi-sensor accelerometer data (e.g., back, thigh, shank, foot accelerometers) and patient reported outcome measures (e.g., pain, symptoms, function, quality of life) can retrospectively predict post-intervention response to a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention in a knee OA cohort. Thirty-nine adults with knee osteoarthritis completed a 6-week hip strengthening exercise intervention and were sub-grouped as Non-Responders, Low-Responders, or High-Responders following the intervention based on their change in patient reported outcome measures. Pre-intervention multi-sensor accelerometer data recorded at the back, thigh, shank, and foot and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale data were used as potential predictors of response in a discriminant analysis of principal components. The thigh was the single best placement for classifying responder sub-groups (74.4%). Overall, the best combination of sensors was the back, thigh, and shank (81.7%), but a simplified two sensor solution using the back and thigh was not significantly different (80.0%; p = 0.27). While three sensors were best able to identify responders, a simplified two sensor array at the back and thigh may be the most ideal configuration to provide clinicians with an efficient and relatively unobtrusive way to use to optimize treatment.
Korkmaz, Murat; Karaaslan, Fatih; Erdogan, Yalcin; Bolat, Esef; Karacavus, Seyhan; Kizilkaya, Hafize; Gunaydin, Ilhan
Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Glucosamine sulfate (GS) versus diclofenac sodium (DS) in effusion of osteoarthritic knees. Methodology: In this study, patients were included in this study from 2007-2010 based on American College of Rheumatology criteria with OA and physical examination in effusion of osteoarthritic knees. The patients were divided into two groups. First group (27 patients) DS was given in doses 75 mg twice daily for ten day. In the group II (25 patients) GS was used in doses of 1500 mg two times daily over the first 12 weeks of the study. A closed aspiration was performed. The knee circumference was measured in patients before and 12 week after treatment. Before and after 12 weeks of treatments, both groups of patients were assessed according to the WOMAC questionnaire of knee pain and function scores. Results: Comparison of knee mean circumference between the two groups was not statistically significant before treatment (p=0.938), but significant after treatment (p<0.001). At the end of the 12 week, there was 66.6% complete resolution of effusion in the DS group (18 patients) and 24.0% (6 patients) in the GS group, this was statistically significant (P<0.001). DS groups, results of the beginning and at the end of 12 week measurement showed significant differences in WOMAC pain mean score (P < 0.001) but GS groups not statistically significant (P=0.160). The WOMAC function mean scores in pre and post-treatment periods of follow-up showed significant variation between the two groups (P< 0.001, P<0.001). Conclusions: Our observations suggest that GS is not able to suppress the progression of adjuvant arthritis in OA with effusion of knee osteoarthritis. GS should not be expected as anti-inflammatory influence as DF in the treatment of OA-related effusion. PMID:24353641
Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships. PMID:23312408
Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy.
Jokić, Aleksandar; Sremcević, Nikola; Karagülle, Zeki; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Davidović, Vukosava
It is weel-known that sulphur baths and mud paks demonstrate beneficial effects on patients suffering from degenerative knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) through the increased activity of protective antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess lipid peroxidation level, i.e., malondialdehyde concetration, in individuals with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA), as well as to determine the influence of sulphur baths and mud packs application on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in order to minimize or eliminate excessive free radical species production (oxidative stress). Thirty one patiens with knee and/or hip OA of both sexes were included in the study. All OA patients received mud pack and sulphur bath for 20 minutes a day, for 6 consecutive days a week, over 3 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation, i.e., malondialdehyde concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically, before, on day 5 during the treatment and at the end of spa cure. Healthy volunteers (n=31) were the controls. The sulphur baths and mud packs treatment of OA patients caused a significant decrease in plasma malondialdehyde concentration compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The mean SOD activity before the terapy was 1836.24 U/gHb, on day 5 it rose to 1942.15 U/gHb and after the spa cure dropped to 1745.98 U/gHb. Catalase activity before the therapy was 20.56 kU/gHb and at the end of the terapy decreased to 16.16 kU/gHb. The difference in catalase activity before and after the therapy was significant (p < 0.001), and also significant as compared to control (p < 0.001). At the end of the treatment significant increase of hemoglobin level and significant decrease of pain intensity were noticed. A combined 3-week treatment by sulphur bath and mud packs led to a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation in plasma, as well as pain intensity in the patients with OA. These changes were associated with changes in plasma
Peultier, Laetitia; Lion, Alexis; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Zhang, Zheng; Rat, Anne-Christine; Gueguen, René; Paysant, Jean; Perrin, Philippe P.
This study aimed to determine if pain and balance control are related to meteorological modifications in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and thirteen patients with knee OA (mean age = 65 ± 9 years old, 78 women) participated in this study. Static posturography was performed, sway area covered and sway path traveled by the center of foot pressure being recorded under six standing postural conditions that combine three visual situations (eyes open, eyes closed, vision altered) with two platform situations (firm and foam supports). Knee pain score was assessed using a visual analog scale. Balance control and pain measurements recorded in the morning were correlated with the meteorological data. Morning and daily values for temperature, precipitation, sunshine, height of rain in 1 h, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric pressure were obtained from the nearest data collecting weather station. The relationship between postural control, pain, and weather variations were assessed for each patient on a given day with multiple linear regressions. A decrease of postural stability was observed when atmospheric pressure and maximum humidity decreased in the morning ( p < 0.05) and when atmospheric pressure decreased within a day ( p < 0.05). Patient's knee pain was more enhanced when it is warmer in the morning ( p < 0.05) and when it is wetter and warmer within a day ( p < 0.05). The relationship between weather, pain, and postural control can help patients and health professionals to better manage daily activities.
Tan, S S; Teirlinck, C H; Dekker, J; Goossens, L M A; Bohnen, A M; Verhaar, J A N; van Es, P P; Koes, B W; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Luijsterburg, P A J; Koopmanschap, M A
To determine the cost-effectiveness (CE) of exercise therapy (intervention group) compared to 'general practitioner (GP) care' (control group) in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. This cost-utility analysis was conducted with 120 GPs in the Netherlands from the societal and healthcare perspective. Data on direct medical costs, productivity costs and quality of life (QoL) was collected using standardised questionnaires which were sent to the patients at baseline and at 6, 13, 26, 39 and 52 weeks follow-up. All costs were based on Euro 2011 cost data. A total of 203 patients were included. The annual direct medical costs per patient were significantly lower for the intervention group (€ 1233) compared to the control group (€ 1331). The average annual societal costs per patient were lower in the intervention group (€ 2634 vs € 3241). Productivity costs were higher than direct medical costs. There was a very small adjusted difference in QoL of 0.006 in favour of the control group (95% CI: -0.04 to +0.02). Our study revealed that exercise therapy is probably cost saving, without the risk of noteworthy negative health effects. NTR1462. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zullig, Leah L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Jeffreys, Amy S; Corsino, Leonor; Coffman, Cynthia J; Oddone, Eugene Z; Yancy, William S; Allen, Kelli D
There is limited understanding of how comorbid health conditions affect osteoarthritis (OA)-related outcomes. This study examined associations of different comorbidity measures with baseline OA-related patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with hip and knee OA. Data were from patients (N = 300, 9 % female, mean age = 61.1; SD = 9.2) enrolled in a randomized control trial at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Separate multivariable regression models, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, examined the association of each comorbidity measure with baseline PROs: pain, physical function, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and insomnia. Comorbidity measures included the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SACQ), conditions reported as activity-limiting (SACQ-AL), and indicators of depression, diabetes, hypertension, and back pain. Mean (SD) numbers of comorbid conditions and activity-limiting conditions were 3.4 (1.8) and 1.6 (1.4), respectively. Comorbidity scores (SACQ overall and SACQ-AL) and individual comorbidity conditions were each associated with worse OA-related PROs adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Worse SACQ overall and SACQ-AL scores were associated with worse mean scores for pain, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and insomnia (p values <0.01). Additionally, increasing SACQ-AL scores were associated with worse mean scores for function (p < 0.01). Depression was associated with worse pain (p = 0.03), fatigue, and insomnia (p values <0.01). Diabetes was associated with worse fatigue (p = 0.01), depressive symptoms (p = 0.02), and insomnia (p = 0.03). Back pain was associated with worse pain scores (p = 0.02). Results provide evidence that comorbidity burden, particularly activity-limiting conditions, is associated with worse OA-related PROs. Interventions for patients with OA need to address comorbid conditions and their impact on key outcomes.
Zullig, Leah L.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Jeffreys, Amy S.; Corsino, Leonor; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Yancy, William S.
There is limited understanding of how comorbid health conditions affect osteoarthritis (OA)-related outcomes. This study examined associations of different comorbidity measures with baseline OA-related patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with hip and knee OA. Data were from patients (N=300, 9 % female, mean age = 61.1; SD=9.2) enrolled in a randomized control trial at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Separate multivariable regression models, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, examined the association of each comorbidity measure with baseline PROs: pain, physical function, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and insomnia. Comorbidity measures included the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SACQ), conditions reported as activity-limiting (SACQ-AL), and indicators of depression, diabetes, hypertension, and back pain. Mean (SD) numbers of comorbid conditions and activity-limiting conditions were 3.4 (1.8) and 1.6 (1.4), respectively. Comorbidity scores (SACQ overall and SACQ-AL) and individual comorbidity conditions were each associated with worse OA-related PROs adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Worse SACQ overall and SACQ-AL scores were associated with worse mean scores for pain, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and insomnia (p values <0.01). Additionally, increasing SACQ-AL scores were associated with worse mean scores for function (p<0.01). Depression was associated with worse pain (p=0.03), fatigue, and insomnia (p values <0.01). Diabetes was associated with worse fatigue (p=0.01), depressive symptoms (p=0.02), and insomnia (p=0.03). Back pain was associated with worse pain scores (p=0.02). Results provide evidence that comorbidity burden, particularly activity-limiting conditions, is associated with worse OA-related PROs. Interventions for patients with OA need to address comorbid conditions and their impact on key outcomes. PMID:24916605
Naili, Josefine E; Esbjörnsson, Anna-Clara; Iversen, Maura D; Schwartz, Michael H; Hedström, Margareta; Häger, Charlotte K; Broström, Eva W
Limited knowledge exists regarding the impact of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) on the overall gait pattern; and whether gait deviations are associated with performance-based measures (PBMs) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This cross-sectional study evaluated overall gait patterns in patients with knee OA using the Gait Deviation Index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-kinetic), and explored associations between gait deviations, PBMs, and PROs. Forty patients with knee OA and 25 age and gender-matched controls underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. Participants performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Five Times Sit-to-Stand (5STS), and Single Limb Mini Squat (SLMS) tests and completed a disease-specific PRO. Associations between gait deviations, PBMs, and PROs were assessed by Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Patients with OA demonstrated significantly lower GDI and GDI-kinetic scores of the OA and contralateral limbs compared to controls; with GDI-kinetic scores on the contralateral limb more impacted than the OA limb. On the contralateral limb, GDI-kinetic score significantly correlated with TUG (r=-0.42) and 5STS (r=-0.33), while on the OA limb with TUG (r=-0.68), 5STS (r=-0.38), SLMS (r=-0.38), activities of daily living (r=0.35) and Knee-related Quality of Life (r=0.35). No significant associations existed between kinematic GDI scores, PBMs and PROs. The overall gait pattern, as represented by GDI and GDI-kinetic scores, in patients with symptomatic knee OA is affected both on the painful OA limb and the contralateral limb. The GDI and GDI-kinetic scores provide different information regarding function that is not revealed by PBMs or PROs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angst, F; Aeschlimann, A; Steiner, W; Stucki, G
OBJECTIVE—To compare the responsiveness of the condition-specific Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis (OA) index (WOMAC) and the generic Short Form-36 (SF-36) in patients with OA of the legs undergoing a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation intervention. METHODS—A prospective follow up study of consecutively referred inpatients of a rehabilitation clinic was made. The patients included fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for knee or hip OA and underwent both passive and, particularly, active physical therapy for three to four weeks. Responsiveness assessment was performed using the standardised response mean (SRM), effect size, and Guyatt's responsiveness statistic between admission and discharge (end of rehabilitation) and then again between admission and three months later. For pain and function the SRMs were stratified by sex and OA joint. Effects were tested by the t test and SRMs of different scales were compared by the jack knife test. RESULTS—At the three month follow up, complete data were obtained for 223 patients. In general, the three responsiveness statistics showed a similar order of responsiveness. For both instruments, the pain scales were more responsive than the function scales. The responsiveness of the pain scale of both instruments was comparable (SRM=0.723 for WOMAC and SRM=0.528 for SF-36 at the end of rehabilitation; SRM=0.377 for WOMAC and SRM=0.468 for SF-36 at the three month follow up). In the measurement of function, the WOMAC was significantly more responsive than the SF-36 (SRMs, end of rehabilitation: 0.628 v 0.249; three month follow up: 0.235 v −0.001). Responsiveness tended to be higher in women and in knee OA than in men and hip OA. CONCLUSIONS—Both instruments, the WOMAC and the SF-36, capture improvement in pain in patients undergoing comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation intervention. Functional improvement can be detected better by the WOMAC than by the SF-36. All
The goal of OA (osteoarthritis) treatment is to relieve pain and maintain/improve patient's functional capacity. First line medication is paracetamol and topical NSAIDs, and oral NSAIDs when needed. Tramadol and codeine may be considered in most severe cases. Glucosamine and chondroitin do not differ from placebo, but intra-articular glucocorticoids and hyaluronate may be useful. Supervised exercise is recommended especially for knee osteoarthritis. Cold, TENS and ultrasound therapies may offer short-term benefits in knee OA. Arthroscopic debridement does not alleviate OA symptoms. Arthroplasty is indicated if pain is not otherwise manageable.
Wright, Alexis A; Cook, Chad E; Flynn, Timothy W; Baxter, G David; Abbott, J Haxby
Few studies have investigated or identified common clinical tests and measures as being associated with progression of hip osteoarthritis (OA); fewer still are longitudinal studies exploring prognostic variables associated with long-term outcome following physical therapy treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine a set of prognostic factors that maximize the accuracy of identifying patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) likely to demonstrate a favorable response to physical therapy intervention. This was a prognostic study. Ninety-one patients with a clinical diagnosis of hip OA were analyzed to determine which clinical measures, when clustered together, were most predictive of a favorable response to physical therapy intervention. Responders were determined based on OMERACT-OARSI response criteria, which included percent and absolute changes in pain, function, and global rating of change over 1 year. These data served as the reference standard for determining the predictive validity of baseline clinical examination variables. Using multivariate regression analyses and calculations for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios, a cluster was identified. Five baseline variables (unilateral hip pain, age of ≤58 years, pain of ≥6/10 on a numeric pain rating scale, 40-m self-paced walk test time of ≤25.9 seconds, and duration of symptoms of ≤1 year) were retained in the final model. Failure to exhibit a condition of 1 of the 5 predictor variables decreased the posttest probability of responding favorably to physical therapy intervention from 32% to <1% (negative likelihood ratio=0.00, 95% confidence interval=0.00-0.70). Having at least 2 out of 5 predictor variables at baseline increased the posttest probability of success with physical therapy intervention from 32% to 65% (positive likelihood ratio=3.99, 95% confidence interval=2.66-4.48), and having 3 or more of 5 predictor variables increased the posttest probability of
Paterson, Gail; Toupin April, Karine; Backman, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter
Purpose: To determine the face and content validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability of the OA Go Away (OGA), a personalized self-management tool to promote adherence to exercise and physical activity for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: The face and content validity of OGA version 1.0 were determined via interviews with 10 people with OA of the hip or knee and 10 clinicians. A revised OGA version 2.0 was then tested for construct validity and test-retest reliability with a new sample of 50 people with OA of the hip or knee by comparing key items in the OGA journal with validated outcome measures assessing similar health outcomes and comparing scores on key items of the journal 4-7 days apart. Face and content validity were then confirmed with a new sample of 5 people with OA of the hip or knee and 5 clinicians. Results: Eighteen of 30 items from the OGA version 1.0 and 41 of 43 items from the OGA version 2.0 journal, goals and action plan, and exercise log had adequate content validity. Construct validity and test-retest reliability were acceptable for the main items of the OGA version 2.0 journal. The OGA underwent modifications based on results and participant feedback. Conclusion: The OGA is a novel self-management intervention and assessment tool for people with OA of the hip or knee that shows adequate preliminary measurement properties.
Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.
OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714
Haskins, Robin; Henderson, Judith M; Bogduk, Nikolai
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) referred for orthopaedic consultation at a large Australian public hospital reported using conservative management strategies as recommended by current practice guidelines. A therapist-assisted questionnaire was employed within the context of a standard physiotherapy assessment in a consecutive cohort of patients with hip or knee OA. Two hundred and two patients with hip or knee OA comprised the included sample. Thirty-nine percent (n=79) reported having only previously consulted their general practitioner. Only 20% (n=41) felt that they had been sufficiently educated about the diagnosis, their treatment options and prognosis. Thirty-three percent (n=66) had not previously engaged in any non-pharmacological management strategy considered a core clinical practice guideline recommendation. The findings of this study suggest that several inconsistencies may exist between current Australian clinical practice and OA clinical guideline recommendations. Identification of the barriers to the use of conservative management requires timely investigation coupled with a national implementation framework to support the translation of guideline recommendations into practice.
Hawker, G A; Stanaitis, I
A systematic search was conducted for the time period April 1 2013 to March 30 2014 using PubMed to identify major osteoarthritis (OA) clinical research themes of the past year. Articles within each theme were selected for inclusion in this review based on study quality and relevance. Two major themes emerged, which relate to the current understanding of OA as a heterogeneous condition with multiple pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations. Theme 1 stems from the role of systemic inflammation in OA pathogenesis, and the concept of 'metabolic OA'. Over the past year, research has examined the effect of OA on incidence and progression of other 'metabolic syndrome'-related conditions, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes and the impact of multi-morbidity on the clinical management of OA. Theme 2 focuses on the concept of personalized medicine as it relates to the treatment of OA. It is hypothesized that the modest efficacy of available OA treatments is a result of inclusion of heterogeneous groups of OA patients in clinical trials. Prognostic studies in the past year have been helpful in identifying 'OA phenotypes' that are more or less likely to respond to treatments--e.g., the presence of synovitis on imaging, central pain sensitization on quantitative sensory testing (QST), or coping efficacy by self-reported patient questionnaire. Their findings are being increasingly used to target interventions to these identified 'OA responder' subgroups with the hopes that treatment effect will be amplified.
Kawano, Marcio Massao; Araújo, Ivan Luis Andrade; Castro, Martha Cavalcante; Matos, Marcos Almeida
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To assess the quality of life of knee osteoarthritis patients using the SF-36 questionnaire METHODS : Cross-sec-tional study with 93 knee osteoarthritis patients. The sample was categorized according to Ahlbӓck score. All individuals were interviewed with the SF-36 questionnaire RESULTS : The main finding of the study is related to the association of edu-cation level with the functional capacity, functional limitation and pain. Patients with higher education level had better functional capacity when they were compared to patients with basic level of education CONCLUSION : Individuals with osteoarthritis have a low perception of their quality of life in functional capacity, functional limitation and pain. There is a strong association between low level of education and low perception of quality of life. Level of Evidence IV, Clinical Case Series. PMID:27057143
Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr
Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor - TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients' age. We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may contribute to maintenance of normal body composition and mass, (ii
Visser, A Willemien; Bøyesen, Pernille; Haugen, Ida K; Schoones, Jan W; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet
Description of use and metric properties of instruments measuring pain, physical function, or patient's global assessment (PtGA) in hand osteoarthritis (OA). Medical literature databases up to January 2014 were systematically reviewed for studies reporting on instruments measuring pain, physical function, or PtGA in hand OA. The frequency of the use of these instruments were described, as well as their metric properties, including discrimination (reliability, sensitivity to change), feasibility, and validity. In 66 included studies, various questionnaires and performance- or assessor-based instruments were applied for evaluation of pain, physical function, or PtGA. No major differences regarding metric properties were observed between the instruments, although the amount of supporting evidence varied. The most frequently evaluated questionnaires were the Australian/Canadian Hand OA Index (AUSCAN) pain subscale and visual analog scale (VAS) pain for pain assessment, and the AUSCAN function subscale and Functional Index for Hand OA (FIHOA) for physical function assessment. Excellent reliability was shown for the AUSCAN and FIHOA, and good sensitivity to change for all mentioned instruments; additionally, the FIHOA had good feasibility. Good construct validity was suggested for all mentioned questionnaires. The most commonly applied performance- or assessor-based instruments were the grip and pinch strength for the assessment of physical function, and the assessment of pain by palpation. For these measures, good sensitivity to change and construct validity were established. The AUSCAN, FIHOA, VAS pain, grip and pinch strength, and pain on palpation were most frequently used and provided most supporting evidence for good metric properties. More research has to be performed to compare the different instruments with each other.
Altman, Roy D; Akermark, Christian; Beaulieu, André D; Schnitzer, Thomas
Non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) is a novel hyaluronan (HA) preparation with a 4-week intra-articular half-life. This study compared the efficacy of a single injection of NASHA with placebo in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This was a 26-week randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of a single intra-articular knee injection with either NASHA or placebo (saline). Assessments included the Western Ontario McMasters Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC, Likert Scale) and patients' overall global disease status. A positive response was defined as a reduction in WOMAC pain score for the study knee of 40% from baseline with a minimum improvement of > or =5 points. A total of 346 (NASHA 172; placebo 174) patients were treated. WOMAC scores and quality of life were improved in both the NASHA and placebo groups. For the overall population, there were no statistically significant between-group differences in response rates for any efficacy parameters. In patients with OA confined to the knee (N=216), a greater response to NASHA than placebo was observed at week 6 (P=0.025). There were few treatment-related events. NASHA was not superior to placebo for the primary efficacy analysis. However, these data may be confounded by the inclusion of patients with OA at other sites, as significant benefits over placebo were found among patients with OA confined to the knee. Future trials of OA that examine a local therapy might need to consider restricting the study population to those patients having OA of only the signal joint.
Guo, Jiong Jiong; Wu, Kailun; Guan, Huaqing; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Cheng; Yang, Huilin; Tang, Tiansi
Little is known about the mid-term results of nonsurgical treatment for shoulder osteoarthritis (OA), especially in a Chinese population. This study sought to determine the efficacy of nonsurgical management in older patients with shoulder OA. A total of 129 conservatively treated unilateral shoulder OA patients who were older than 65 years were evaluated prospectively at the initial office visit and then subsequently at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months later. During the 36-month follow-up period, all patients could receive conventional therapy, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, corticosteroid injection, sodium hyaluronate, and education, at the discretion of treating physicians. Some patients received physiotherapy, rehabilitation training, and a shoulder strap to improve the range of motion and muscular strength training from a physical therapist. Parameters measured included comparative effectiveness of each therapeutic method, visual analog scale (VAS), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) scores. At 3-year follow-up, most patients had a significant increase from their pretreatment values in pain, self-assessed shoulder function, mental health, and 5 of 8 SF-36 domains. The study showed a decline in SST and VAS at 6 and 12 months after an initial ascent at 3 months, and then it was rescued and continued at 3-year follow-up. Combined therapy could improve symptoms significantly. This study suggests that a conservative approach may be more appropriate and can produce satisfactory mid-term outcomes in selected cases. The findings of this study suggest that conservative treatments should be extended for longer than 12 months before the decision regarding shoulder arthroplasty is made. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e634-e641.].
Yeğin, Tuğba; Altan, Lale; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha
Osteoartritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of pain, loss of function and disability in adults. The prevalence of OA is expected to increase substantially in the future. Knee OA is the most common subset of OA. Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is one of several physical therapy modalities suggested for the management of pain and loss of function due to OA. The purpose of our study was to investigate the efficacy of US therapy in reducing pain and functional loss and improving the quality of life in patients with knee OA in comparison to sham US therapy. The study involved 62 patients. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in group 1 (n = 30) were administered 1 W/cm(2), 1 MHz continuous US, and the patients in group 2 (n = 32) were administered sham US. The US treatment was applied for 8 min to each knee, 16 min in total, 5 d a wk, for a total of 10 sessions during 2 wk. The patients were evaluated immediately after treatment and 1 mo after therapy according to the visual analog scale (VAS), night pain, range of motion, morning stiffness, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lequesne and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scales and 6 min walking distance. Improvement in pain and joint functions was observed in both groups according to the evaluation immediately after treatment and at 1 mo after the therapy. According to the evaluation results immediately after treatment, there was significant improvement in all pain scales (VAS, WOMAC, Lequesne, SF-36), morning stiffness and 6 min walking distance in patients receiving real US treatment (p < 0.05), but only in some pain scales (VAS, WOMAC) and functions in the group receiving sham US (p < 0.05). Significantly better improvement was observed in some pain scales (SF-36), functions (WOMAC, SF-36) and 6 min walking distance in the real US group. At 1 mo after therapy, no significant difference was observed between groups except for improvement
Marshall, Amelia Rose; Noronha, Marcos de; Zacharias, Anita; Kapakoulakis, Theo; Green, Rodney
Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of morbidity. Rehabilitation for this population focuses on strengthening the hip muscles, particularly the abductors, however the deficit in function of these muscles is unclear. To review the evidence for the differences in structure and function of hip abductors (gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fascia lata) in hip OA. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL and SportDISCUS, from the earliest date to September 2013. Studies that compared hip OA patients with controls, or the unaffected contralateral hip were included. Studies needed to report data on an outcome related to gross gluteal muscle function. An initial yield of 141 studies was reduced to 22 after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis confirmed greater hip abductor strength in the control group (standardized mean difference = SMD -0.93, 95%CI -1.70 to -0.16) and the unaffected limb (SMD -0.26, 95%CI -0.48 to -0.04). Meta-analyses showed no differences in muscle size either between groups or limbs. Few electromyography studies have been reported and meta-analysis was not possible. Hip abductor strength is reduced in OA patients when compared to healthy controls and to the unaffected limb. Data on muscle size and activity is limited.
Rahman, M Mushfiqur; Kopec, Jacek A; Sayre, Eric C; Greidanus, Nelson V; Aghajanian, Jaafar; Anis, Aslam H; Cibere, Jolanda; Jordan, Joanne M; Badley, Elizabeth M
To quantify the effect of demographic variables and socioeconomic status (SES) on surgical consultation and total joint arthroplasty (TJA) rates among patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using population-based administrative data. A cohort study was conducted in British Columbia using population data from 1991 to 2004. From April 1996 to March 1998, we documented 34,420 new patients with OA and these patients were followed to March 2004 for their first surgical consultation and TJA. Effects of age, sex, and SES were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for comorbidities and pain medication used. During a mean 5.5-year followup period, 7475 patients with OA had their first surgical consultations and 2814 patients received TJA within a 6-year mean followup period. Crude hazards ratio (HR) for men compared to women was 1.25 (95% CI 1.20-1.31) for surgical consultation and was 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.23) for TJA. The interaction between sex and SES was significant. Stratified analysis showed among men an HR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.58) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.26-1.83) for surgical consultations and TJA, respectively, for the highest SES compared with the lowest SES quintiles. Similarly significant results were observed among women. Differential access to the healthcare system exists among patients with OA. Women with OA were less likely than men to see an orthopedic surgeon as well as to obtain TJA. Patients with higher SES consulted orthopedic surgeons more frequently and received more TJA than those with the lowest SES.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, degenerative disease of the articular cartilage and synovial fluid. Approximately 20 million Americans suffer from this disease for which no cure exists as yet. The primary goals of current OA therapy are centered on controlling pain; improving, preserving, or both, joint function and mobility; and improving health-related quality of life-but not on reversing the disease process. Current treatment options of OA consist of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Non-pharmacological therapy that consists of patient education and physical/occupational therapy is a primary component of OA management, either rendered alone or in combination with pharmacological treatment. The several options for pharmacological treatment include acetaminophen, nonspecific NSAIDs, and COX-2 specific inhibitors. Many of these drugs, however, are beset with serious side effects. For patients with severe OA not responsive to medical treatment, nonsurgical interventions such as viscosupplements and injectable compounds that mimic healthy synovial fluid or surgical interventions are two likely options. The former, however, have not been shown unequivocally to be effective. Future treatment modalities for OA are geared toward reversing the disease process and may include disease-modifying drugs and gene therapy.
Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena
To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Gobbi, Alberto; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Mahajan, Vivek; Malchira, Somanna
Background: With increasing frequency, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations have been used to treat cartilage lesions to regenerate tissue homeostasis and retard the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of intra-articular PRP injections in active patients with knee OA and to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with and without previous surgical treatment for cartilage lesions. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were followed for a minimum of 12 months. All were treated with 2 intra-articular injections of autologous PRP. Twenty-five patients had undergone a previous operative intervention for cartilage lesions, whereas 25 had not. Operated patients had undergone either cartilage shaving or microfracture. Multiple evaluative scores were collected at pretreatment and at 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The required sample of patients was determined beforehand by using statistical power analysis; International Knee Documentation Committee (subjective) score was defined as the primary parameter. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. General linear model–repeated measure test evaluated within-time improvement for each variable for all patients. Post hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed to investigate the significance in improvement within time evaluations for each variable for the total sample. The differences in improvement between operated and nonoperated patients were also investigated, as were those between sexes. Results: All patients showed significant improvement in all scores at 6 and 12 months (P < 0.01) and returned to previous activities. No significant difference in improvement was found between the evaluated subgroups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The PRP treatment showed positive effects in patients with knee OA. Operated and nonoperated patients showed significant improvement by means of diminishing
Deweber, Kevin; Olszewski, Mariusz; Ortolano, Rebecca
Previous studies have not shown a correlation between knuckle cracking (KC) and hand osteoarthritis (OA). However, one study showed an inverse correlation between KC and metacarpophalangeal joint OA. We conducted a retrospective case-control study among persons aged 50 to 89 years who received a radiograph of the right hand during the last 5 years. Patients had radiographically proven hand OA, and controls did not. Participants indicated frequency, duration, and details of their KC behavior and known risk factors for hand OA. The prevalence of KC among 215 respondents (135 patients, 80 controls) was 20%. When examined in aggregate, the prevalence of OA in any joint was similar among those who crack knuckles (18.1%) and those who do not (21.5%; P = .548). When examined by joint type, KC was not a risk for OA in that joint. Total past duration (in years) and volume (daily frequency × years) of KC of each joint type also was not significantly correlated with OA at the respective joint. A history of habitual KC-including the total duration and total cumulative exposure-does not seem to be a risk factor for hand OA.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Spaeth, Rosa B; Freeman, Sonya G; Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Hashmi, Javeria A; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Egorova, Natalia; Vangel, Mark; Mao, Jianren; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian
Recent advances in brain imaging have contributed to our understanding of the neural activity associated with acupuncture treatment. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity across longitudinal acupuncture treatments in older patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Over a period of 4 weeks (six treatments), we collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 30 patients before and after their first, third and sixth treatments. Clinical outcome showed a significantly greater pain subscore on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (indicative of improvement) with verum acupuncture than with sham acupuncture. Independent component analysis (ICA) of the resting state fMRI data showed that the right frontoparietal network (rFPN) and the executive control network (ECN) showed enhanced functional connectivity (FC) with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex, a key region in the descending pain modulatory system, in the verum groups as compared to the sham group after treatments. We also found that the rFPN connectivity with the left insula is (1) significantly associated with changes in KOOS pain score after treatments, and (2) significantly enhanced after verum acupuncture treatments as compared to sham treatment. Analysis of the acupuncture needle stimulation scan showed that compared with sham treatment, verum acupuncture activated the left operculum/insula, which also overlaps with findings observed in resting state analysis. Our results suggest that acupuncture may achieve its therapeutic effect on knee OA pain by modulating functional connectivity between the rFPN, ECN and the descending pain modulatory pathway. NCT01079390.
Gore, Mugdha; Tai, Kei-Sing; Sadosky, Alesia; Leslie, Douglas; Stacey, Brett R
To evaluate the use and direct medical costs of pharmacologic and alternative treatments for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). The LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database was used to identify patients ≥18 years old, diagnosed with OA (N = 112,951) or CLBP (N = 101,294). Of these patients, 64,085 with OA and 47,386 with CLBP received pain-related treatments during CY2008 and were selected for inclusion. For patients in both cohorts, pharmacologic and alternative treatments, and direct medical costs were examined during CY2008. Opioids were the most frequently prescribed medication (>70%) in both groups, followed by nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (>50%). Over 30% received antidepressants, >20% received benzodiazepines, and 15% in each group received sedative hypnotics. Use of alternative treatments was as follows: chiropractor, OA 11%, CLBP 34%; physical therapy, 20% in both groups; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations (TENS), OA 14%, CLBP 22%; acupuncture, hydrotherapy, massage therapy, and biofeedback, <3% in both groups. Mean (SD) total healthcare costs among these patients were, OA: $15,638 ($22,595); CLBP: $11,829 ($20,035). Pharmacologic therapies accounted for approximately 20% of these costs, whereas alternative treatments accounted for only 3% to 4% of the total costs. Patients with OA and CLBP used a variety of pain-related and adjunctive medications. Although, alternative treatments are widely recommended, we found limited use of several of these in clinical practice, potentially due to the source of our data (commercial claims). Further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which such therapies contribute to the total costs of OA and CLBP management. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.
Osteoarthritis (OA) a common disease of aged population and one of the leading causes of disability. Incidence of knee OA is rising by increasing average age of general population. Age, weight, trauma to joint due to repetiting movements in particular squatting and kneeling are common risk factors of knee OA. Several factors including cytokines, leptin, and mechanical forces are pathogenic factors of knee OA. In patients with knee pain attribution of pain to knee OA should be considered with caution. Since a proportion of knee OA are asymptomatic and in a number of patients identification of knee OA is not possible due to low sensitivity of radiographic examination. In this review data presented in regard to prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors. PMID:24024017
Minten, M J M; Mahler, E; den Broeder, A A; Leer, J W H; van den Ende, C H
Low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) has been widely used for treatment of non-malignant disorders since its introduction and animal studies show anti-inflammatory effects in osteoarthritis (OA). However, the evidence for its effect in clinical practice remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to systematically summarise the literature on effectiveness of LD-RT on pain and functioning in patients with OA and its safety. Broad search terms were used to search PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Primary inclusion criteria were osteoarthritis as indication, radiotherapy as intervention, written in English, German or Dutch and published since 1980. Study quality was assessed using the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (scale: strong, moderate, weak). Seven studies were suitable for inclusion, all with retrospective uncontrolled observational design. Methodological quality of all studies was judged as weak. Most studies used 2-3 RT sessions per week for 2 weeks, some with booster session after 6 weeks. Generally, non-validated single-item measurement instruments were used to evaluate the effect of LD-RT on pain and function. Across the studies, in 25-90 and 29-71 % of the patients pain and functioning improved, respectively. Side effects were described in one study, none were reported. Our results show that there is insufficient evidence for efficacy or to confirm the safety of LD-RT in treatment of OA, due to absence of high-quality studies. Therefore, a well-designed, sham-controlled and blinded randomised trial, using validated outcome measures is warranted to demonstrate the value of LD-RT for OA in clinical practice.
de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Cheung, John; van der Esch, Martin; Häkkinen, Arja; Haverkamp, Daniël; Roorda, Leo D; Twisk, Jos; Vollebregt, Joke; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost
To evaluate the efficacy on physical functioning and safety of tailored exercise therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and comorbidities. In a randomized controlled trial, 126 participants were included with a clinical diagnosis of knee OA and at least 1 of the following target comorbidities: coronary disease, heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ), with severity score ≥2 on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The intervention group received a 20-week, individualized, comorbidity-adapted exercise program consisting of aerobic and strength training and training of daily activities. The control group received their current medical care for knee OA and were placed on a waiting list for exercise therapy. Primary outcome measures were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, subscale physical functioning (WOMAC-pf), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Measurements were performed at baseline, after 20 weeks (directly posttreatment), and at 3 months posttreatment. Statistically significant physical functioning differences over time were found between the intervention and control group (WOMAC: B = -7.43 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -9.99, -4.87], P < 0.001; and 6MWT: B = 34.16 [95% CI 17.68, 50.64], P < 0.001) in favor of the intervention group. At 3 months followup, the mean improvements in the intervention group were 33% on the WOMAC scale and 15% on the 6MWT. These improvements are of clinical relevance. No serious adverse events occurred during the intervention. This is the first study showing that tailored exercise therapy is efficacious in improving physical functioning and safe in patients with knee OA and severe comorbidities. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with non-surgical treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatments, but there are indications that these are not optimally used. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which all recommended non-surgical treatments were used by patients with hip or knee OA who receive(d) a total hip or knee replacement, as reported by patients and orthopaedic surgeons. We performed two cross-sectional internet-based surveys among patients and orthopaedic surgeons throughout the Netherlands. 195 OA patients either have undergone total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty no longer than 12 months ago or being on the waiting list for surgery with a confirmed date within 3 months and 482 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate. The use of recommended non-surgical treatments including education about OA/treatment options, lifestyle advice, dietary therapy, physical therapy, acetaminophen, NSAIDs and glucocorticoid injections. 174 OA patients (93%) and 172 orthopaedic surgeons (36%) completed the surveys. Most recommended non-surgical treatments were given to the majority of patients (eg, 80% education about OA, 73% physical therapy, 72% acetaminophen, 80% NSAIDs). However, only 6% of patients and 10% of orthopaedic surgeons reported using a combination of all recommended treatments. Dietary therapy was used least frequently. Only 11% of overweight and 30% of obese participants reported having received dietary therapy and 28% of orthopaedic surgeons reported to prescribe dietary therapy to overweight patients. While most recommended non-surgical treatments were used frequently as single therapy, the combination is used in only a small percentage of OA patients. Especially, use of dietary therapy may be improved to help patients manage their symptoms, and potentially delay the need for
Lu, Tung-wu; Wei, I-pin; Liu, Yen-hung; Hsu, Wei-chun; Wang, Ting-ming; Chang, Chu-fen; Lin, Jaung-geng
Acupuncture has been shown to be effective in pain relief and anesthesia, and has been suggested for treating various kinds of functional disabilities in traditional Chinese medicine, including knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of acupuncture on gait patterns in patients with knee OA. Twenty patients with bilateral medial knee OA were assigned evenly and randomly to a sham group and an experimental group. During the experiment, the experimental group underwent a 30-minute formula electro-acupuncture treatment while the sham group received a sham treatment. Before and after treatment, each subject was evaluated for their knee pain using visual analog scales (VAS) and then their performance of level walking using gait analysis. For all the obtained variables, the independent t-test was used for between-group comparisons, while paired t-test was used to investigate the before and after changes. All the measured data before acupuncture treatment between the groups were not significantly different. The VAS scores were decreased significantly after acupuncture in both groups, and the mean change of the VAS values of the experiment group was 2 times greater than that of the sham group. After formula acupuncture stimulation, while no significant changes were found in all the gait variables in the sham group, the experimental group had significant increases in the gait speed, step length, as well as in several components of the joint angles and moments. The results of the study suggest that significantly improved gait performance in the experimental group may be associated with pain relief after treatment, but the relatively small decrease of pain in the sham group was not enough to induce significant improvements in gait patterns. Gait analysis combined with the VAS can be useful for the evaluation of the effect of acupuncture treatment for patients with neuromusculoskeletal diseases and movement disorder.
Helianthi, Dwi R; Simadibrata, Christina; Srilestari, Adiningsih; Wahyudi, Edy R; Hidayat, Rudy
to compare the effectiveness of active laser acupuncture with placebo on reducing pain intensity and improving functional outcome in geriatric patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in geriatrics with knee OA at Medical Acupuncture Outpatient Clinic, Integrated Geriatric Outpatient Clinic, Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, during May to October 2015. Sixty two patients with knee OA were randomly assigned into two groups: active laser acupuncture group or placebo laser acupuncture group. Interventions were carried out using a gallium aluminum arsenide laser device at the ST35 Dubi, ST36 Zusanli, SP9 Yinlingquan, GB34 Yanglingquan and EX - LE - 4 Neixiyan acupuncture points on the affected knee for ten sessions of treatment, i.e. twice a week. Patients were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and Lequesne index at baseline, after four sessions, after nine sessions and at 2 weeks after the treatment had been stopped. the VAS scores were significantly improved in the active laser acupuncture group compared to the placebo group. The evaluation of VAS scores was carried out after four treatment sessions (mean difference: 0.39; p<0.001), after nine treatment sessions (mean difference: 37.48; p<0.001) and at 2 weeks post intervention (mean difference: 39.15; p<0.001). The evaluation also showed significant improvement of Lequesne index after four treatment sessions (mean difference: 4.68; p<0.001), after nine treatment sessions (mean difference: 5.90; p<0.001) and at 2 weeks post intervention (mean difference: 6.48; p<0.001). active laser acupuncture is effective in reducing pain.
Campbell, Thomas Mark; Trudel, Guy; Wong, Kayleigh Kristin; Laneuville, Odette
Knee flexion contractures (KFC) are limitations in the ability to fully extend the knee joint. In people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), KFC are common, impair function, and worsen outcomes after arthroplasty. In KFC, the posterior knee capsule is believed to play a key role, but the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We sought to identify gene expression differences in the posterior knee capsule of patients with OA with and without KFC. Capsule tissue was obtained from the knees of 12 subjects diagnosed with advanced-stage OA at the time of knee arthroplasty surgery. The presence or absence of KFC allocated patients into 2 groups using a case-control design. Genomewide capsular gene expression was compared between the 2 patient groups. Confirmation of differential expression of the corresponding proteins was performed by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections. There were no significant demographic differences between the patients with OA with KFC and without KFC save for reduced extension in their surgical knee (p<0.01). KFC patients showed a 6.4-fold decrease in CSN1S1 (p=0.017) gene expression and a 3.7-, 2.0-, and 2.6-fold increase in CHAD, Sox9, and Cyr61 gene expression, respectively (p=0.001, 0.004, 0.001, respectively). There were corresponding increases in protein levels for chondroadherin, sex determining region Y-box 9, and casein alphaS1 (all p<0.05). Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated a strong association with pathways related to the extracellular matrix and to tissue fibrosis. Posterior capsules in endstage OA knees with KFC exhibited differential expression of 4 genes all previously documented to be associated with tissue fibrosis.
Williams, Quinn I; Gunn, Alexander H; Beaulieu, John E; Benas, Bernadette C; Buley, Bruce; Callahan, Leigh F; Cantrell, John; Genova, Andrew P; Golightly, Yvonne M; Goode, Adam P; Gridley, Christopher I; Gross, Michael T; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Hill, Carla H; Huffman, Kim M; Kline, Aaron; Schwartz, Todd A; Allen, Kelli D
Physical activity improves pain and function among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but most people with this condition are inactive. Physical therapists play a key role in helping people with knee OA to increase appropriate physical activity. However, health care access issues, financial constraints, and other factors impede some patients from receiving physical therapy (PT) for knee OA. A need exists to develop and evaluate other methods to provide physical activity instruction and support to people with knee OA. This study is examining the effectiveness of an internet-based exercise training (IBET) program designed for knee OA, designed by physical therapists and other clinicians. This is a randomized controlled trial of 350 participants with symptomatic knee OA, allocated to three groups: IBET, standard PT, and a wait list (WL) control group (in a 2:2:1 ratio, respectively). The study was funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which conducted a peer review of the proposal. The IBET program provides patients with a tailored exercise program (based on functional level, symptoms, and current activity), video demonstrations of exercises, and guidance for appropriate exercise progression. The PT group receives up to 8 individual visits with a physical therapist, mirroring standard practice for knee OA and with an emphasis on a home exercise program. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, 4 months (primary time point) and 12 months (to assess maintenance of treatment effects). The primary outcome is the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and secondary outcomes include objective physical function, satisfaction with physical function, physical activity, depressive symptoms and global assessment of change. Linear mixed models will be used to compare both the IBET and standard PT groups to the WL control group, examine whether IBET is non-inferior to PT (a treatment that has an established evidence base for knee
de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Heymans, Martijn W; Holla, Jasmijn F M; Häkkinen, Arja; Lems, Willem F; Roorda, Leo D; Veenhof, Cindy; Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost
To systematically summarize the literature on the course of pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), prognostic factors that predict deterioration of pain, the course of physical functioning, and prognostic factors that predict deterioration of physical functioning in persons with knee OA. A search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Psych-INFO, and SPORTDiscus up to January 2014. A meta-analysis and a qualitative data synthesis were performed. Of the 58 studies included, 39 were of high quality. High heterogeneity across studies (I(2) >90%) and within study populations (reflected by large SDs of change scores) was found. Therefore, the course of pain and physical functioning was interpreted to be indistinct. We found strong evidence for a number of prognostic factors predicting deterioration in pain (e.g., higher knee pain at baseline, bilateral knee symptoms, and depressive symptoms). We also found strong evidence for a number of prognostic factors predicting deterioration in physical functioning (e.g., worsening in radiographic OA, worsening of knee pain, lower knee extension muscle strength, lower walking speed, and higher comorbidity count). Because of high heterogeneity across studies and within study populations, no conclusions can be drawn with regard to the course of pain and physical functioning. These findings support current research efforts to define subgroups or phenotypes within knee OA populations. Strong evidence was found for knee characteristics, clinical factors, and psychosocial factors as prognostics of deterioration of pain and physical functioning. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Keogh, Justin W. L.; Grigg, Josephine; Vertullo, Christopher J.
health status questionnaires (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scale[WOMAC] and the Lequesne Index) as well as the timed up and go, sit to stand, preferred gait speed, and body composition. Discussion: This pilot study appears to be the first study assessing the feasibility and safety of a home-based HIIT training program for middle-aged and older adults with knee OA. As HIIT has been demonstrated to be more effective than MICT for improving aspects of health status, body composition, and/or muscular function in other chronic disease groups, the current study has the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform the design of future randomized controlled trials. PMID:28451599
Yi, Jun; Jin, Qunhua; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Xinqiu; Ge, Dawei
Background Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, is up-regulated in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we aim to evaluate the correlation between gremlin-1 concentrations and the onset and severity of OA. Material/Methods We performed this cross-sectional study in a population of 212 patients with knee OA and 125 healthy controls. Results Patients with knee OA had higher serum gremlin-1 concentrations than healthy controls. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) gremlin-1 concentrations increased according to advanced Kellgren-Lawrence grading stages. Conclusions Serum and SF gremlin-1 concentrations are correlated with the onset and severity of knee OA. PMID:27794162
Yi, Jun; Jin, Qunhua; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Xinqiu; Ge, Dawei
BACKGROUND Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, is up-regulated in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we aim to evaluate the correlation between gremlin-1 concentrations and the onset and severity of OA. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed this cross-sectional study in a population of 212 patients with knee OA and 125 healthy controls. RESULTS Patients with knee OA had higher serum gremlin-1 concentrations than healthy controls. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) gremlin-1 concentrations increased according to advanced Kellgren-Lawrence grading stages. CONCLUSIONS Serum and SF gremlin-1 concentrations are correlated with the onset and severity of knee OA.
Gasparyan, Levon V.
The purpose of the given research is the comparison of efficiency of conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee joints and therapy with additional application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) under dynamic control of clinical picture, rheovasographic, electromyographic examinations, and parameters of peroxide lipid oxidation. The investigation was made on 143 patients with OA of hip and knee joints. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: basic group included 91 patients, receiving conventional therapy with a course of LLLT, control group included 52 patients, receiving conventional treatment only. Transcutaneous ((lambda) equals 890 nm, output peak power 5 W, frequency 80 - 3000 Hz) and intravenous ((lambda) equals 633 nm, output 2 mW in the vein) laser irradiation were used for LLLT. Studied showed, that clinical efficiency of LLLT in the complex with conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes at the patients with OA is connected with attenuation of pain syndrome, normalization of parameters of myofascial syndrome, normalization of the vascular tension and parameters of rheographic curves, as well as with activation of antioxidant protection system.
Cutolo, Maurizio; Berenbaum, Francis; Hochberg, Marc; Punzi, Leonardo; Reginster, Jean-Yves
Despite availability of international evidence-based guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) management, agreement on the different treatment modalities is lacking. A symposium of European and US OA experts was held within the framework of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology to discuss and compare guidelines and recommendations for the treatment of knee OA and to reach a consensus for management, particularly for areas in which there is no clear consensus: non-pharmacological therapy; efficacy and safety of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); intra-articular (i.a.) hyaluronates (HA); and the role of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and/or glucosamine sulfate (GS). All guidelines reviewed agree that knee OA is a progressive disease of the joint whose management requires non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. Discrepancies between guidelines are few and mostly reflect heterogeneity of expert panels involved, geographical differences in the availability of pharmacotherapies, and heterogeneity of the studies included. Panels chosen for guideline development should include experts with real clinical experience in drug use and patient management. Implementation of agreed guidelines can be thwarted by drug availability and reimbursement plans, resulting in optimal OA treatment being jeopardized, HA and symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SySADOAs) being clear examples of drugs whose availability and prescription can greatly vary geographically. In addition, primary care providers, often responsible for OA management (at least in early disease), may not adhere to clinical care guidelines, particularly for non-pharmacological OA treatment. Harmonization of the recommendations for knee OA treatment is challenging but feasible, as shown by the step-by-step therapeutic algorithm developed by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). More easily disseminated and
Sun, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yi-Jiun; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Hwang, Chiao-Wen; Hsu, Pei-Te; Wang, Jue-Long; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chou, Mei-Chia
To investigate the efficacy, safety and the duration of treatment effectiveness of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (Artz, Japan) in patients with ankle osteoarthritis (OA). As a prospective clinical trial, 93 patients with unilateral ankle pain for at least 6 months and radiographically classified as Kellgren-Lawrence grade I or II ankle OA were included. After five weekly intra-articular Artz injections, the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle/hindfoot score, ankle sagittal range of motion (ROM), patients' global satisfaction, local adverse events and consumption of rescue analgesics were analyzed. Seventy-five patients completed the study. Significant improvement in AOS and AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scores was noted at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months post the fifth injection (P < 0.001 compared with baseline). The mean reduction of AOS score was 1.9, 2.6, 2.5 and 2.6 at each following visit (P < 0.001). The mean AOFAS ankle/hindfoot score improved from 64 points at baseline to 75, 78, 78, and 78 points at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, respectively, post the fifth injection (P < 0.001). Ankle sagittal ROM did not improve significantly (P > 0.05). The majority of patients reported satisfaction at 1 week (100%), 1 month (100%), 3 months (90.7%) and 6 months (86.7%) follow-up. Local adverse events occurred in 6.7% of patients. Acetaminophen consumption dropped significantly following treatment (P < 0.001). Five weekly intra-articular injections of Artz provide pain relief and functional improvements in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grades I and II ankle OA. The clinical effect was rapid at 1 week and may last for 6 months or more.
Background Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater reproducibility of ROM and muscle strength measurements. Furthermore, the reliability of the overall assessment of clinical hip OA was evaluated. Reporting is in accordance with proposed guidelines for the reporting of reliability and agreement studies (GRRAS). Methods In a university hospital, four blinded raters independently examined patients with unilateral hip OA; two hospital orthopaedists independently examined 48 (24 men) patients and two primary care chiropractors examined 61 patients (29 men). ROM was measured in degrees (deg.) with a standard two-arm goniometer and muscle strength in Newton (N) using a hand-held dynamometer. Reproducibility is reported as agreement and reliability between paired raters of the same profession. Agreement is reported as limits of agreement (LoA) and reliability is reported with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Reliability of the overall assessment of clinical OA is reported as weighted kappa. Results Between orthopaedists, agreement for ROM ranged from LoA [-28–12 deg.] for internal rotation to [-8–13 deg.] for extension. ICC ranged between 0.53 and 0.73, highest for flexion. For muscle strength between orthopaedists, LoA ranged from [-65–47N] for external rotation to [-10 –59N] for flexion. ICC ranged between 0.52 and 0.85, highest for abduction. Between chiropractors, agreement for ROM ranged from LoA [-25–30 deg.] for internal rotation to [-13–21 deg.] for flexion. ICC ranged between 0.14 and 0.79, highest for flexion. For muscle strength between chiropractors, LoA ranged between [-80–20N] for external rotation to [-146–55N] for abduction. ICC
Shaqura, Mohammed; John, Thilo; Likar, Rudolf; Ebied, Reham Said; Schäfer, Michael
Synovial injury and healing are complex processes including catabolic effects by proinflammatory cytokines and anabolic processes by anti-inflammatory mediators. Here we examined the expression of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators in synovium of patients with diagnostic arthroscopy (control), joint trauma (JT), osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial samples from these patients were subjected to RT-PCR and double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as immune cell markers. Interestingly, pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were expressed predominantly in granulocytes in patients with JT and in macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells in patients with OA and RA. Interestingly, parallel to the severity of inflammation, proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, and 5-LOX specific mRNA as well as immunoreactive (IR) cells were significantly more abundant in patients with RA and JT than in those with OA. However, anti-inflammatory mediators 15-LOX, FPR2, and IL-10 specific mRNA as well as IR cells were significantly more abundant in patients with OA than in those with JT and RA. These findings show that upregulation of proinflammatory mediators contributes to the predominantly catabolic inflammatory process in JT and RA synovium, whereas upregulation of anabolic anti-inflammatory mediators counteracts inflammation resulting in the inferior inflammatory process in OA synovium. PMID:28316377
Brembo, Espen Andreas; Kapstad, Heidi; Eide, Tom; Månsson, Lukas; Van Dulmen, Sandra; Eide, Hilde
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis worldwide, affecting a growing number of people in the ageing populations. Currently, it affects about 50 % of all people over 65 years of age. There are no disease-modifying treatments for OA; hence preference-sensitive treatment options include symptom reduction, self-management and surgical joint replacement for suitable individuals. People have both ethical and legal rights to be informed about treatment choices and to actively participate in decision-making. Individuals have different needs; they differ in their ability to understand and make use of the provided information and to sustain behaviour change-dependent treatments over time. As a part of a larger research project that aims to develop and test a web-based support tool for patients with hip OA, this paper is a qualitative in-depth study to investigate patients' need for information and their personal emotional needs. We invited 13 patients to participate in individual interviews, which were audiotaped. The audio-tapes were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. The thematic analysis revealed a pattern of patients' information and emotional needs, captured in several key questions relevant to the different stages of the disease experience. Based on these results and research literature, we developed a model illustrating the patients' disease experience and treatment continuum. Six phases with accompanying key questions were identified, displaying how patients information and emotional needs arise and change in line with the progression of the disease experience, the clinical encounters and the decision-making process. We also identified and included in the model an alternative route that bypasses the surgical treatment option. Patients with hip OA are in great need of information both at the time of diagnosis and further throughout the disease development and care continuum. Lack of information may
Lopez, John P. F.; Burant, Christopher J.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Ibrahim, Said A.
BACKGROUND: There is a marked racial difference in the use of knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis (OA). The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. We examined how African-American and white patients with symptomatic OA of the knee and/or hip compare with respect to their perceptions of care for knee and hip OA. METHODS: Survey of 596 male patients with OA of the knee and/or hip in primary care clinics at Cleveland VAMC. RESULTS: African-American (44%) and white (56%) study participants were comparable with respect to age and clinical factors. African Americans were more likely to have VA insurance only [OR=1.93 (1.13-3.28)]. African Americans were less likely to report difficulty getting medical care when needed [OR=0.54 (0.34-0.88)]. Differences in the two groups regarding satisfaction with and confidence in the primary physician were not significant. The proportions of participants who received specialty care referrals were similar. CONCLUSION: African-American patients reported having only VA insurance more often than white patients. Other aspects of perceived system and provider-based factors were similar between groups. PMID:15926643
Defining an International Standard Set of Outcome Measures for Patients With Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: Consensus of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis Working Group
Wissig, Stephanie; van Maasakkers, Lisa; Stowell, Caleb; Ackerman, Ilana; Ayers, David; Barber, Thomas; Benzakour, Thami; Bozic, Kevin; Budhiparama, Nicolaas; Caillouette, James; Conaghan, Philip G.; Dahlberg, Leif; Dunn, Jennifer; Grady‐Benson, John; Ibrahim, Said A.; Lewis, Sally; Malchau, Henrik; Manzary, Mojieb; March, Lyn; Nassif, Nader; Nelissen, Rob; Smith, Noel; Franklin, Patricia D.
Objective To define a minimum Standard Set of outcome measures and case‐mix factors for monitoring, comparing, and improving health care for patients with clinically diagnosed hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), with a focus on defining the outcomes that matter most to patients. Methods An international working group of patients, arthroplasty register experts, orthopedic surgeons, primary care physicians, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists representing 10 countries was assembled to review existing literature and practices for assessing outcomes of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic OA therapies, including surgery. A series of 8 teleconferences, incorporating a modified Delphi process, were held to reach consensus. Results The working group reached consensus on a concise set of outcome measures to evaluate patients’ joint pain, physical functioning, health‐related quality of life, work status, mortality, reoperations, readmissions, and overall satisfaction with treatment result. To support analysis of these outcome measures, pertinent baseline characteristics and risk factor metrics were defined. Annual outcome measurement is recommended for all patients. Conclusion We have defined a Standard Set of outcome measures for monitoring the care of people with clinically diagnosed hip or knee OA that is appropriate for use across all treatment and care settings. We believe this Standard Set provides meaningful, comparable, and easy to interpret measures ready to implement in clinics and/or registries globally. We view this set as an initial step that, when combined with cost data, will facilitate value‐based health care improvements in the treatment of hip and knee OA. PMID:26881821
Uçar, Demet; Dıraçoğlu, Demirhan; Süleyman, Türker; Capan, Nalan
Osteoarthritis is the most common age-related degenerative joint disease. It affects all the joints containing hyaline cartilage. Knee osteoarthritis is the most cumbersome in terms of prevalence and disability. The aim of this study to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid in patients with knee osteoarthritis with regard to joint pain and function, as well as patient satisfaction, assessed at one month and at one year, and by age group. In this prospective randomised study, 172 patients who were diagnosed knee OA and who received three consecutive intra-articular injections of HA weekly were included. Patients 65 years of age or older were accepted as the "elderly group", and those under 65 were accepted as the "middle-aged group". Clinical evaluations of efficacy and safety were conducted at the beginning of the study, one month after the third injection, and one year after the third injection. In the two groups, the intragroup analysis revealed significant improvements following injection when compared with preinjection values. According to the last followup controls (after 12 months) in the middle-aged group, VAS activity pain, VAS rest pain, WOMAC physical function, and WOMAC pain values were found to be statistically lower when compared with pre-injection values. In the elderly group, no statistically significant differences were found between pre-injection and after 12 months. We can conclude that intra-articular joint HA injections are effective in both young and old patients with OA with regard to pain and functional status over a short-term period. Further, HA injections in patients younger than 65 years can be planned for a one-year period.
Knazovicky, David; Helgeson, Erika S.; Case, Beth; Gruen, Margaret E.; Maixner, William; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain is a leading cause of disability. Central sensitization (CS), as a result of OA, is recognized as an important facet of human patients' chronic pain and has been measured in people using quantitative sensory testing (QST) testing. The spontaneous canine OA model has been suggested as a good translational model, but CS has not been explored in this model. In this study, QST was performed on dogs with and without spontaneous hip or stifle OA to determine whether OA is associated with CS in this model. Mechanical (von Frey and blunt pressure) and thermal (hot and cold) sensory thresholds obtained in dogs with chronic OA-associated pain (n = 31) were compared with those of normal dogs (n = 23). Dogs were phenotyped and joint-pain scored, and testing was performed at the OA-affected joint, cranial tibial muscle, and dorsal metatarsal region. QST summary data were evaluated using mixed-effect models to understand the influence of OA status and covariates, and dogs with OA and control dogs were compared. The presence of OA was strongly associated with hyperalgesia across all QST modalities at the index joint, cranial tibial muscle, and metatarsal site. Mechanical QST scores were significantly moderately negatively correlated with total joint-pain scores. The spontaneous canine OA model is associated with somatosensory sensitivity, likely indicative of CS. These data further validate the canine spontaneous OA model as an appropriate model of the human OA pain condition. PMID:26901805
Introduction Cupping is used in various traditional medicine forms to relieve pain in musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cupping in relieving the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In a two-group, randomized controlled exploratory pilot study patients with a clinically and radiological confirmed knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale: 2-4) and a pain intensity > 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were included. 40 Patients were randomized to either 8 sessions of pulsatile dry cupping within 4 weeks or no intervention (control). Paracetamol was allowed on demand for both groups. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score, the pain intensity on a VAS (0 mm = no pain to 100 mm = maximum intensity) and Quality of Life (SF-36) 4 and 12 weeks after randomization. Use of Paracetamol was documented within the 4-week treatment period. Analyses were performed by analysis of covariance adjusting for the baseline value for each outcome. Results 21 patients were allocated to the cupping group (5 male; mean age 68 ± SD 7.2) and 19 to the control group (8 male; 69 ± 6.8). After 4 weeks the WOMAC global score improved significantly more in the cupping group with a mean of 27.7 (95% confidence interval 22.1; 33.3) compared to 42.2 (36.3; 48.1) in the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks the WOMAC global score were still significantly different in favor for cupping (31.0 (24.9; 37.2) vs. 40.8 (34.4; 47.3) p = 0.032), however the WOMAC subscores for pain and stiffness were not significant anymore. Significantly better outcomes in the cupping group were also observed for pain intensity on VAS and for the SF-36 Physical Component Scale compared to the control group after 4 and 12 weeks. No significant difference was observed for the SF-36 Mental Component Scale and the total number of consumed Paracetamol tablets
Stigmar, Kjerstin; Dahlberg, Leif E; Zhou, Caddie; Jacobson Lidgren, Helena; Petersson, Ingemar F; Englund, Martin
Background and purpose Little is know about patterns of sick leave in connection with total hip and knee joint replacement (THR and TKR) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Patients and methods Using registers from southern Sweden, we identified hip and knee OA patients aged 40–59 years who had a THR or TKR in the period 2004–2012. Patients who died or started on disability pension were excluded. We included 1,307 patients with THR (46% women) and 996 patients with TKR (56% women). For the period 1 year before until 2 years after the surgery, we linked individual-level data on sick leave from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. We created a matched reference cohort from the general population by age, birth year, and area of residence (THR: n = 4,604; TKR: n = 3,425). The mean number of days on sick leave and the proportion (%) on sick leave 12 and 24 months before and after surgery were calculated. Results The month after surgery, about 90% of patients in both cohorts were on sick leave. At the two-year follow-up, sick leave was lower for both cohorts than 1 year before surgery, except for men with THR, but about 9% of the THR patients and 12–17% of the TKR patients were still sick-listed. In the matched reference cohorts, sick leave was constant at around 4–7% during the entire study period. Interpretation A long period of sick leave is common after total joint replacement, especially after TKR. There is a need for better knowledge on how workplace adjustments and rehabilitation can facilitate the return to work and can postpone surgery. PMID:27996342
Haugen, I K
Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease that can lead to substantial pain and physical disability. Currently, no disease-modifying drugs exist for the treatment of OA. Most OA research has been conducted on knee OA and we have limited knowledge about disease mechanisms in hand OA. During her research career, Ida K Haugen (IKH) has focused on the epidemiology of hand OA and imaging techniques. She has established a large international network, providing the opportunity to study the epidemiology of hand OA in large international OA cohorts. In the Framingham study, she found that symptomatic hand OA was present in 16% of women and 8% of men aged between 40 and 84 years. In her PhD thesis, IKH studied the reliability and validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hand OA. In collaboration with OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology), an MRI scoring system for hand OA was developed. MRI is more sensitive than radiographs for detecting structural abnormalities. Synovitis, as detected by both MRI and ultrasound, is associated with pain and predicts future disease progression. Hence, synovitis may represent a treatment target in hand OA. Her future research plans include the observational Nor-Hand study and a placebo-controlled randomized trial on methotrexate (MTX) in hand OA. The data collection of 300 patients in the Nor-Hand study is ongoing, and focuses on causes of pain and novel imaging techniques to assess inflammation in hand OA. In a future clinical trial, patients with moderate to severe long-lasting pain and inflammation will be treated with MTX and the effect on pain and inflammation will be explored.
Frech, Tracy M; Clegg, Daniel O
Osteoarthritis (OA) treatment is limited by the inability of prescribed medications to alter disease outcome. As a result, patients with OA often take food substances called nutraceuticals in an attempt to affect the structural changes that occur within a degenerating joint. The role of nutraceuticals in OA management can be defined only by an evidence-based approach to support their use. This paper reviews the clinical trials studying glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, vitamin C, vitamin E, and avocado-soybean unsaponifiables. It highlights the need for additional randomized, placebo-controlled trials to further define the utility of nutraceuticals in OA treatment.
Skalska, Urszula; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Kontny, Ewa
To evaluate the osteoblastic potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison to osteoarthritis (OA) patients, as well as the influence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) on osteoblastic ASC differentiation in vitro. ASCs were isolated from IPFP of RA and OA patients. After expansion, cells were cultured in osteogenic medium with or without TNFα. After 2 weeks, expression of BMP-2, Runx-2, osterix (Osx), collagen 1a1 (Col1a1) and osteopontin (OPN) messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and calcium deposition by alizarin red staining. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein concentrations were measured in culture supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both RA- and OA-ASCs cultured in osteogenic medium showed calcium deposition. The expression of Runx2 and OPN mRNA was increased in RA-ASCs. These cells expressed significantly more Osx and OPN than OA-ASCs. TNFα potentiated calcium deposition, up-regulated Runx2 and BMP-2 but down-regulated Col1a1 and OPN expression. In osteogenic cultures DKK-1 concentration was increased but that of OPG decreased, whereas TNFα elevated secretion of both cytokines. RA-ASCs have comparable or slightly stronger osteogenic potential than OA-ASCs. RA-ASCs seem to be more sensitive to TNFα treatment. TNFα exerts complex effects on ASC osteoblastogenesis, enhances expression of early osteogenic markers and calcium deposition, inhibits expression of mRNA coding for non-mineral bone components and alters ASC secretory activity. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Emerson Kavchak, Alicia J; Cook, Chad; Hegedus, Eric J; Wright, Alexis A
To determine patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) estimates in outcome measures commonly used in hip osteoarthritis (OA). Identification of cut-points on commonly used outcome measures associated with patient satisfaction with their current state of health. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of hip OA undergoing a 9-session physiotherapy treatment program completed four physical performance measures and three self-report measures at 9 weeks and 1 year. Upon completion of treatment, patients assessed their current health status according to the PASS question. Cut-points were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves (anchor-based method), based on the patient's response to the PASS question. At 9 weeks and 1 year, identified cut-points were, respectively, ≤10 and ≤11 for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale; ≤35 and ≤40 on the WOMAC physical function subscale; ≥+5 and ≥+6 on the global rating of change score; ≤6.05 and ≤5.30 s for the timed-up-and-go; ≤28.3 and ≤24.9 for the 40-m self-paced walk test; ≥11 and ≥12 repetitions for the 30-s chair stand test; and ≥46 repetitions for the 20-cm step test. Initial target cut-points signaling patient satisfaction with their current symptom state following physiotherapy in patients with hip osteoarthritis were determined for seven outcome measures over 1 year.
Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott
The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p < 0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p < 0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p = 0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.
Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott
Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p<0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p=0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Conclusion Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with
Pareek, Anil; Chandurkar, Nitin; Ambade, Ratnakar; Chandanwale, Ajay; Bartakke, Girish
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etodolac-paracetamol combination in comparison with etodolac alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) flare-up. In this double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, comparative, multicentric, parallel group study, 220 patients of either sex in the age range of 40 to 70 years with an OA flare-up were randomized either to etodolac (300 mg)-paracetamol (500 mg) combination or etodolac (300 mg) alone twice a day for 10 days. Efficacy outcomes were an average daily pain intensity score on 11-point visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster score (WOMAC), and Lequesne Severity Index; total pain relief score at 30 minutes, 1, 2, and 4 hours after first-dose administration; OA flare-up symptoms resolution; patient's and investigator's overall assessment of study treatments. Etodolac-paracetamol was significantly superior to etodolac alone in reducing pain intensity (P<0.001), achieving pain relief (P<0.05) during the first 4 hours after the study dose administration, and resolution of the clinical signs and symptoms of OA flare-up such as morning stiffness, swelling/inflammation, and erythema. The combination showed significantly greater improvement in WOMAC scores and Lequesne Severity Index (P<0.001) than in etodolac monotherapy. Peak pain intensity difference over a period of 10 days was also significantly (P<0.001) higher in combination-treated patients compared with monotherapy-treated patients. The combination had significantly better patient's and investigator's global efficacy assessment (P=0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated and safe in patients with OA flare-up. For the treatment of painful OA flare-ups, the etodolac-paracetamol combination can offer improved clinical outcomes by targeting multiple pain pathways. The results of the current study show that etodolac-paracetamol is more effective in the treatment of OA flare-up than etodolac alone.
Kong, S Y; Stabler, T V; Criscione, L G; Elliott, A L; Jordan, J M; Kraus, V B
To evaluate diurnal variation of biomarkers in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Twenty subjects with radiographic knee OA were admitted to the General Clinical Research Center of Duke University for an overnight stay to undergo serial blood and urine sampling. Biomarkers measured included serum hyaluronan (HA), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), keratan sulfate (KS-5D4), aggrecan neoepitope (CS846), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), osteocalcin, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and type II collagen (CII)-related epitopes (neoepitope from cleavage of CII [C2C], carboxy-terminus of three-quarter peptide from cleavage of CI and CII [C1,2C], and type II procollagen carboxy-propeptide [CPII] in serum, and C-terminal telopeptides of CII [CTX-II] and C2C in urine). Levels of serum HA, COMP, KS-5D4, and TGFbeta1 increased significantly from T0 (before arising from bed) to T1 (1 hour after arising). More diurnal variation in HA was observed in patients with higher daily mean HA concentrations. CPII increased significantly from T0 to T2 (4 hours after arising). Urinary concentrations of CTX-II were also found to vary with morning activity, decreasing significantly from T0 to T2. Urinary C2C concentrations increased significantly from T0 until T3 (early evening). No diurnal variations in CS846, hsCRP, osteocalcin, serum C2C, or C1,2C were observed. Six biomarkers (serum C2C, C1,2C, COMP, KS-5D4, TGFbeta1, and urinary CTX-II) were associated with radiographic knee OA (expressed as the sum of Kellgren/Lawrence radiographic severity grades), with the strongest correlations observed with measurements obtained at later time points (either T2 or T3). Our study results suggest that serum and urine sampling for HA, COMP, KS-5D4, TGFbeta1, CPII, urinary CTX-II, and urinary C2C should be standardized in future OA clinical trials. Serum and urine sampling at late midday time points may be the optimal approach for OA studies, although this
Sazo-Rodríguez, Sergio; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Rubio-Palma, Paulo
[Purpose] To determine the effects of progressive neuromuscular training on postural balance and functionality in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] Eleven participants between 60 and 75 years of age performed the progressive neuromuscular training for 8 weeks and 4 weeks of follow-up. The area and velocity of the center of pressure were measured on a force platform, and the functionality was measured with a Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] The area and velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral directions) of the center of pressure showed significant differences after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. Additionally, the global score and some questionnaire dimensions (pain and physical function) showed significant differences after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. These changes were maintained in all variables at week 4 of follow-up. [Conclusion] The intervention generated improvements in balance and functionality in elderly patients with knee OA. These changes were observed after 4 weeks of training and were maintained 4 weeks after the end of the intervention. PMID:28744054
Sazo-Rodríguez, Sergio; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Rubio-Palma, Paulo
[Purpose] To determine the effects of progressive neuromuscular training on postural balance and functionality in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] Eleven participants between 60 and 75 years of age performed the progressive neuromuscular training for 8 weeks and 4 weeks of follow-up. The area and velocity of the center of pressure were measured on a force platform, and the functionality was measured with a Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] The area and velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral directions) of the center of pressure showed significant differences after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. Additionally, the global score and some questionnaire dimensions (pain and physical function) showed significant differences after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. These changes were maintained in all variables at week 4 of follow-up. [Conclusion] The intervention generated improvements in balance and functionality in elderly patients with knee OA. These changes were observed after 4 weeks of training and were maintained 4 weeks after the end of the intervention.
Cavallo, Carola; Desando, Giovanna; Facchini, Andrea; Grigolo, Brunella
The opportunity to apply autologous chondrocyte transplantation in repairing cartilage lesions in osteoarthritis (OA) is of great interest. To this end, chondrocytes from cartilage of these patients and from healthy donors were used to evaluate the expression of some extracellular matrix molecules once these cells were grown onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold already used in clinical practice. Constructs were analyzed by immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analyses. Chondrocytes from control and patients with OA cartilages expressed the same extracellular matrix molecules even if at different amount. These differences, which were appreciable both at protein and molecular levels, were not evident once the cells were grown onto Hyaff-11 scaffold. In this experimental culture condition, the cells derived from control and patients with OA showed a significant increase of collagen type II, Sox-9, and aggrecan and a decrease of collagen type I compared with chondrocytes grown in monolayer. On the other hand, MMPs were downregulated in both the cell types evaluated by the specific action of TIMP-1 which was highly expressed at molecular and protein levels in the two groups. The growth of chondrocytes onto Hyaff-11 membrane seems to erase the differences between the cells derived from normal and OA cartilages. The cells seem to benefit of the "hyaluronan" presence which is able to create an ideal environment for the expression of cartilage genes even in absence of specific growth factors. This is of particular relevance hypothesizing the use of tissue engineering therapeutical approach also in patients with OA.
Background Although improvements are achieved by general exercise, training to improve sensorimotor control may be needed for people with osteoarthritis (OA). The aim was to apply the principles of neuromuscular training, which have been successfully used in younger and middle-aged patients with knee injuries, to older patients with severe hip or knee OA. We hypothesized that the training program was feasible, determined as: 1) at most acceptable self-reported pain following training; 2) decreased or unchanged pain during the training period; 3) few joint specific adverse events related to training, and 4) achieved progression of training level during the training period. Methods Seventy-six patients, between 60 and 77 years, with severe hip (n = 38, 55% women) or knee OA (n = 38, 61% women) underwent an individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training program (NEMEX-TJR) in groups for a median of 11 weeks (quartiles 7 to 15) prior to total joint replacement (TJR). Pain was self-reported immediately after each training session on a 0 to 10 cm, no pain to pain as bad as it could be, scale, where 0-2 indicates safe, > 2 to 5 acceptable and > 5 high risk pain. Joint specific adverse events were: not attending or ceasing training because of increased pain/problems in the index joint related to training, and self-reported pain > 5 after training. The level of difficulty of training was registered. Results Patients with severe OA of the hip or knee reported safe pain (median 2 cm) after training. Self-reported pain was lower at training sessions 10 and 20 (p = 0.04) and unchanged at training sessions 5 and 15 (p = 0.170, p = 0.161) compared with training session 1. There were no joint specific adverse events in terms of not attending or ceasing training. Few patients (n = 17, 22%) reported adverse events in terms of self-reported pain > 5 after one or more training sessions. Progression of training level was achieved over time (p < 0.001). Conclusions The NEMEX
Xu, Lingxiao; Peng, Qiuyue; Xuan, Wenhua; Feng, Xiaoke; Kong, Xiangqing; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng; Xue, Meilang; Wang, Fang
We have recently shown that IL-29 was an important proinflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of IL-29 on cytokine production and cartilage degradation in OA. The mRNA levels of IL-29 and its specific receptor IL-28Ra in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were significantly increased in OA patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). In the serum, IL-29 protein levels were higher in OA patients than those in HC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both IL-29 and IL-28Ra were dramatically elevated in OA synovium compared to HC; synovial fibroblasts (FLS) and macrophages were the main IL-29-producing cells in OA synovium. Furthermore, recombinant IL-29 augmented the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in OA FLS and increased cartilage degradation when ex vivo OA cartilage explant was coincubated with OA FLS. Finally, in OA FLS, IL-29 dominantly activated MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), but not Jak-STAT and AKT signaling pathway as examined by western blot. In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA.
Nyvang, Josefina; Hedström, Margareta; Gleissman, Sissel Andreassen
Knee arthroplasties are an increasingly common treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) and the main indication is pain. Previous research states, however, that 15-20% of the operated patients are dissatisfied and 20-30% have persistent pain after surgery. This study is aimed at describing patients' experiences of living with knee OA when scheduled for surgery and further their expectations for future life after surgery. We interviewed 12 patients with knee OA scheduled for arthroplasty, using semi-structured qualitative interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Three categories were formulated with an overriding theme: "It's not just a knee, but a whole life." The three categories were "Change from their earlier lives," "Coping with knee problems," and "Ultimate decision to undergo surgery." The main finding was that knee OA affects the whole body and self, ultimately affecting the patients' lives on many levels. Further findings were that knee OA was considered to be the central focus in the participants' lives, which limited their level of activity, their ability to function as desired, their quality of life, and their mental well-being. Although surgery was considered to be the only solution, the expectations regarding the outcome differed. The participants were forced to change how they previously had lived their lives resulting in a feeling of loss. Thus, the experienced loss and expectations for future life must be put into the context of the individual's own personality and be taken into account when treating individuals with knee OA. The experience of living with knee OA largely varies between individuals. This mandates that patients' assessment should be considered on individual basis with regard to each patient.
Esfandiari, Elham; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Foroughi, Nasim; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali
Background: Orthotic interventions for knee osteoarthritis (OA) aim to reduce mechanical loading on the medial compartment of the knee and may lessen the lateral trunk lean as the most important compensatory gait strategy. The lateral wedge insole is a known orthotic intervention for knee OA. However, the question whether the addition of a subtalar strap to the wedge improves its effect has not been addressed in the literature. Objective: To compare the effects of lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. Methods: Twenty-three patients aged over 40 years, with grade I or II OA of the medial compartment of one knee, based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria, were included in this study. The patients were diagnosed with OA based on a clinical examination, and the diagnosis was confirmed with radiographs. A 3-dimensional motion measurement system was used to collect the gait data for 3 different conditions: (1) with no insole, (2) with a lateral wedge insole, and (3) with a lateral wedge insole and a subtalar strap. The immediate effect of the 3 test conditions on the lateral trunk lean was compared during a gait cycle a stance phase and at the point of midstance. Results: Based on the laboratory coordinate system, the 3 conditions had no significant effect on the lateral trunk lean during a gait cycle and a stance phase and at the point of midstance in patients with knee OA. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the lateral wedge insoles, with and without a subtalar strap, had no immediate effect on the lateral trunk lean in patients with knee OA. However, the long-term effect of lateral wedge insoles on the lateral trunk lean in these patients requires further investigation. PMID:24600533
Tang, Alice Chu-Wen; Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching
To examine the kinetic features in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) injections in different time periods. A single group repeated measures study. Gait laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Twenty-five subjects with bilateral symptomatic knee OA and 15 healthy control subjects. Gait analyses were performed in both control and OA groups before (baseline), and after the completion of IAHA injections (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months). Knee pain and functional indices were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Lequesne function Index (LI). Joint kinetic changes were analyzed in the frontal and sagittal planes with 6-camera motion analysis system and two AMTI force plates. VAS and LI scores were both improved in OA group after IAHA injections (p<0.001). In the frontal plane, increased knee adduction moment (p<0.001) after IAHA treatment was observed and would last up to a period of 6 months. In the sagittal plane, lower knee extension moments at early stance, and larger knee flexion moments at terminal stance were demonstrated after the completion of IAHA injections (p<0.05). This study revealed that IAHA injections can provide significant pain relief and improvement in activity of daily living function for patients with knee OA. However, the reduction in pain and the increase in knee adduction moment may last up to 6 months. This may cause excessive loading on the knee joints, which may further accelerate the rate of knee degeneration. As a result, longer study time is needed to determine whether the observed kinetic findings in this study are associated with detrimental outcomes on the knee joints. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yıldırıım, Mustafa Aziz; Uçar, Demet; Öneş, Kadriye
[Purpose] The aim of study was to compare different durations of ultrasound in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred patients diagnosed with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group (G1) received 4 minutes of ultrasound. The second group (G2) received the exact same treatment, but the duration of ultrasound was longer at 8 minutes. Patients in both groups underwent a total of 10 ultrasound over 2 weeks. Following treatment, all patients provided self-evaluations of pain via the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), overall physical function with WOMAC, disability via the Lequesne index (Leq), and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Index (BDI). [Results] There were no significant differences in VAS, WOMAC Leq, and BDI values between groups 1 and 2. After treatment, VAS, WOMAC, Leq, and BDI values improved for both treatment groups. However, following treatment, G2 had significantly greater values for WOMAC functional and total scores than G1. No statistically significant differences were observed for VAS scores while inactive, WOMAC pain and stiffness scores, and BDI values after treatment between both groups. VAS pain scores while active and Leq index values were significantly lower in G1 than G2. [Conclusion] Patients in both groups demonstrated improved functionality, pain and psychological status following a consistent, 2-week regimen of 4-minute or 8-minute treatments with ultrasound. Yet, patients that experienced longer treatment durations of 8 minutes demonstrated better outcomes in pain and the ability to carry out activities of daily living. PMID:26834328
Suzuki, Kentaro; Yagi, Masahide
Objective Muscle activities during the sit-to-stand motion (STS) are characterized by coordinated movements between hip extensors and knee extensors. However, previous reports regarding the STS and lower extremity muscle activities have focused on some quantitative assessment, but little qualitative research. This study aimed to examine the muscle activities of the lower extremity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods Study participants included 13 patients with knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) and 11 age-matched asymptomatic controls. The task was STS from a chair with a height-adjustable seat. EMG activities were acquired using surface electromyogram. The root mean square signals normalized as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction values (RMS%MVC) and the mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Results During STS, knee OA patients had increased RMS%MVC of the vastus medialis and raised MPF of the rectus femoris before buttocks-off. Conclusion These findings suggest that STS of knee OA patients not only increased relative muscle activity of the vastus medialis, but also enlisted the rectus femoris in knee extension to improve muscle contraction force by activating more type II fibers to accomplish buttocks-off. PMID:26807578
Farrokhi, Shawn; Jayabalan, Prakash; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Klatt, Brian A; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Piva, Sara R
To evaluate whether knee contact force and knee pain are different between continuous and interval walking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty seven patients with unilateral symptomatic knee OA completed two separate walking exercise sessions on a treadmill at 1.3m/s on two different days: 1) a continuous 45min walking exercise session, and 2) three 15min bouts of walking exercise separated by 1h rest periods for a total of 45min of exercise in an interval format. Estimated knee contact forces using the OpenSim software and knee pain were evaluated at baseline (1st minute of walking) and after every 15min between the continuous and interval walking conditions. A significant increase from baseline was observed in peak knee contact force during the weight-acceptance phase of gait after 30 and 45min of walking, irrespective of the walking exercise condition. Additionally, whereas continuous walking resulted in an increase in knee pain, interval walking did not lead to increased knee pain. Walking exercise durations of 30min or greater may lead to undesirable knee joint loading in patients with knee OA, while performing the same volume of exercise in multiple bouts as opposed to one continuous bout may be beneficial for limiting knee pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stanczyk, Joanna; Kowalski, Marek L.; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Szkudlinska, Barbara; Jarzebska, Marzanna; Marciniak, Marek; Synder, Marek
A massive accumulation of inflammatory cells in synovial tissues is a major pathological feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Neutrophiles dominate synovial fluid while rheumatoid synovium is infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Mechanisms regulating influx of particular subpopulations of leukocytes into articular cavity and synovium compartment are not completely defined. An increasing amount of data supports a crucial role of a C-C chemokine RANTES in the RA pathogenesis. Our objective is to evaluate chemotactic activity for neutrophils (NCA), lymphocytes (LCA), and monocytes (MoCA) in SFs obtained from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). We also aimed to characterise the relation between chemotactic activity, RANTES, and percentage distribution of leukocytes in SF. SFs from 11 patients with RA and 6 with OA were included in the study. Modified microchamber Boyden method was employed to assess chemotactic activity. Cytological and biochemical analysis of SF was performed. RANTES was measured with ELISA. Rheumatoid SFs were rich in cells with predominance of neutrophiles while osteoarthritic fluids were lymphocytic. RA SFs were also characterised by increased lactoferrin level. Both NCA and LCA were higher in SF from patients with RA (62 ± 12 and 24 ± 6 cells/HPF, resp) as compared to patients with OA (23 ± 6; P < .05 and 6 ± 2 cells/HPF; P < 0.05). The chemoattractive effect of RA SF was more pronounced on neutrophiles than on lymphocytes. RA SF expressed high RANTES levels (145 ± 36 pg/mL), while OA SF was characterised by only trace amount of this chemokine (2 ± 1 pg/mL). We found positive correlation of RANTES with chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells (LCA+MoCA; R = 0.61; P < .05). Surprisingly, RANTES correlated also positively with neutrophiles number (R = 0.77; P < 0.001). Rheumatoid SF possesses strong chemotactic potency for leukocytes. RANTES is overexpressed in RA SF and is a potential mediator influencing intensity and composition
Washington, Katy; Shacklady, Carol
The aims of the present study were to gain a perspective of patients' experience of an online patient decision aid (PDA) for osteoarthritis of the knee (OA knee) as a method of shared decision making in a Musculoskeletal Clinical Assessment and Treatment Service (MSK CATS). In the MSK CATS, patients with OA knee discuss their condition and treatment options with the clinician. In the present study, patients, in addition to this discussion, used an online patient decision aid and subsequently completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of both of these processes. Most patients felt that both the clinical discussion and the PDA were easy to understand, user friendly, and not biased towards any treatment, but thought that the PDA gave a better understanding of OA knee. Most patients had already decided on their treatment following the clinical discussion alone, but one found that the PDA helped them change their mind about treatment. The PDA was a useful adjunct to the clinical discussion and could be best used for a selection of patients within the MSK CATS setting at a point where further clinical discussion could take place if necessary. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Toupin April, Karine; Backman, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter
Purpose: To determine the face and content validity, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the OA Go Away (OGA), a personalized self-management tool to promote adherence to exercise and physical activity for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: The face and content validity of OGA version 1.0 were determined via interviews with 10 people with OA of the hip or knee and 10 clinicians. A revised OGA version 2.0 was then tested for construct validity and test–retest reliability with a new sample of 50 people with OA of the hip or knee by comparing key items in the OGA journal with validated outcome measures assessing similar health outcomes and comparing scores on key items of the journal 4–7 days apart. Face and content validity were then confirmed with a new sample of 5 people with OA of the hip or knee and 5 clinicians. Results: Eighteen of 30 items from the OGA version 1.0 and 41 of 43 items from the OGA version 2.0 journal, goals and action plan, and exercise log had adequate content validity. Construct validity and test–retest reliability were acceptable for the main items of the OGA version 2.0 journal. The OGA underwent modifications based on results and participant feedback. Conclusion: The OGA is a novel self-management intervention and assessment tool for people with OA of the hip or knee that shows adequate preliminary measurement properties. PMID:27909359
Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Masashi; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Hino, Manabu; Komaki, Shintaro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu
Purpose The fixed flexion view (FFV) of the knee is considered useful for evaluating the joint space when assessing the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. To clarify the usefulness of FFV for evaluation of the joint space and severity of knee OA, this study evaluated changes in the joint space on the FFV and standing extended view (SEV) in patients with knee OA. Materials and Methods The SEV and FFV images were acquired in 567 patients (1,102 knees) who visited the hospital with a chief complaint of knee joint pain. Medial joint space width (MJSW) and Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) classification assessed using the SEV and FFV images were compared. Results Mean MJSW was significantly smaller when assessed on the FFV than on the SEV (3.02±1.55 mm vs. 4.31±1.30 mm; p<0.001). The K-L grade was the same or higher on the FFV than on the SEV. Conclusions The FFV is more useful than the SEV for evaluating the joint space in OA knees. Treatment strategies in patients with knee OA should be determined based on routinely acquired FFV images. PMID:28231651
King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila
The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.
Iijima, Hirotaka; Fukutani, Naoto; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Uritani, Daisuke; Kaneda, Eishi; Ota, Kazuo; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shuichi
Objective To investigate the association between knee pain during gait and 4 clinical phenotypes based on static varus alignment and varus thrust in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients in an orthopedic clinic (n = 266) diagnosed as having knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grade ≥1) were divided into 4 phenotype groups according to the presence or absence of static varus alignment and varus thrust (dynamic varus): no varus (n = 173), dynamic varus (n = 17), static varus (n = 50), and static varus + dynamic varus (n = 26). The knee range of motion, spatiotemporal gait parameters, visual analog scale scores for knee pain, and scores on the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure were used to assess clinical outcomes. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the relationship between knee pain during gait and the 4 phenotypes, adjusted for possible risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index, K/L grade, and gait velocity. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that varus thrust without varus alignment was associated with knee pain during gait (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08–12.4), and that varus thrust combined with varus alignment was strongly associated with knee pain during gait (OR 17.1, 95% CI 3.19–320.0). Sensitivity analyses applying alternative cutoff values for defining static varus alignment showed comparable results. Conclusion Varus thrust with or without static varus alignment was associated with the occurrence of knee pain during gait. Tailored interventions based on individual malalignment phenotypes may improve clinical outcomes in patients with knee OA. PMID:26017348
Wolfe, F; Kong, S X
Advances in health measurement have led to the application of Rasch Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis (Rasch analysis) to evaluate instruments measuring health status and quality of life of patients, including the Health Assessment Questionnaire and SF-36. This study investigated the extent to which the Western Ontario MacMaster osteoarthritis questionnaire (WOMAC) satisfies the Rasch model, particularly in respect to unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. The study included a total of 2205 patients, 1013 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 655 with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip (OA), and 537 with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the WOMAC as part of a longitudinal study of rheumatic disease outcomes. To examine whether the WOMAC pain and function scales each fits the Rasch model, the Winsteps program was used to assess item difficulty, scale unidimensionality, item separation, and linearity. Although the WOMAC worked best in OA, regardless of disorder, both the pain and function scales were unidimensional, had adequate item separation, and had a long range (25-150) of linearity in the function scale. Several functional items, however, had a high information weight fit (INFIT) statistic, indicating poor fit to the model. These items included "getting in and out of the bath" and "going down stairs." The WOMAC generally satisfies the requirements of Rasch item response theory across all disorders studied, and is an appropriate measure of lower body function in OA, RA and fibromyalgia. Although some individual items do not fit well, it is not likely that removing such items would result in more than overall minimal differences, and it will be difficult to remove traces of multidimensionality while keeping the central constructs of progressive lower body musculoskeletal abnormality intact. In addition, it is possible that a "purer", still more unidimensional instrument would be less useful in clinical trials and epidemiological studies by restricting
Bartels, E M; Folmer, V N; Bliddal, H; Altman, R D; Juhl, C; Tarp, S; Zhang, W; Christensen, R
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of oral ginger for symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by carrying out a systematic literature search followed by meta-analyses on selected studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral ginger treatment with placebo in OA patients aged >18 years. Outcomes were reduction in pain and reduction in disability. Harm was assessed as withdrawals due to adverse events. The efficacy effect size was estimated using Hedges' standardized mean difference (SMD), and safety by risk ratio (RR). Standard random-effects meta-analysis was used, and inconsistency was evaluated by the I-squared index (I(2)). Out of 122 retrieved references, 117 were discarded, leaving five trials (593 patients) for meta-analyses. The majority reported relevant randomization procedures and blinding, but an inadequate intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Following ginger intake, a statistically significant pain reduction SMD = -0.30 ([95% CI: [(-0.50, -0.09)], P = 0.005]) with a low degree of inconsistency among trials (I(2) = 27%), and a statistically significant reduction in disability SMD = -0.22 ([95% CI: ([-0.39, -0.04)]; P = 0.01; I(2) = 0%]) were seen, both in favor of ginger. Patients given ginger were more than twice as likely to discontinue treatment compared to placebo ([RR = 2.33; 95% CI: (1.04, 5.22)]; P = 0.04; I(2) = 0%]). Ginger was modestly efficacious and reasonably safe for treatment of OA. We judged the evidence to be of moderate quality, based on the small number of participants and inadequate ITT populations. Prospero: CRD42011001777. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Bellisai, Barbara; Iacoponi, Francesca; Galeazzi, Mauro
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether balneotherapy with mineral sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water could determine substantial symptomatic improvement, and to detect any changes in the quality of life (QoL) of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a prospective randomized, single blind controlled trial. Sixty outpatients with primary bilateral knee OA, according to ACR criteria, were included in the study and randomized to one of two groups: group I (30 patients) was treated with a daily sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium mineral water bath; group II (30 patients), the control group, continued their regular outpatient care routine. At baseline, after 15 days and after 12 weeks, patients were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for spontaneous pain, Lequesne and Womac Index for gonarthrosis, SF-36, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and symptomatic drugs consumption. We observed a significant improvement of all parameters at the end of the cycle of balneotherapy which persisted throughout the follow-up period, whereas in the control group no significant differences were noted. This symptomatic effect was confirmed by the significant reduction of symptomatic drugs consumption. The differences between the two groups were significant for all considered parameters already from the 15th day and persisted during follow-up. Tolerability of balneotherapy seemed to be good, with light and transitory side effects. Our results confirm that the beneficial effects of balneotherapy in patients with knee OA last over time, with positive effects on the painful symptomatology, a significant improvement on functional capacities and QoL. Balneotherapy can represent a useful backup to pharmacological treatment of knee OA or a valid alternative for patients who do not tolerate pharmacological treatments.
Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Bellisai, Barbara; Iacoponi, Francesca; Galeazzi, Mauro
The aims of this study were to evaluate whether balneotherapy with mineral sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water could determine substantial symptomatic improvement, and to detect any changes in the quality of life (QoL) of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a prospective randomized, single blind controlled trial. Sixty outpatients with primary bilateral knee OA, according to ACR criteria, were included in the study and randomized to one of two groups: group I (30 patients) was treated with a daily sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium mineral water bath; group II (30 patients), the control group, continued their regular outpatient care routine. At baseline, after 15 days and after 12 weeks, patients were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for spontaneous pain, Lequesne and Womac Index for gonarthrosis, SF-36, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and symptomatic drugs consumption. We observed a significant improvement of all parameters at the end of the cycle of balneotherapy which persisted throughout the follow-up period, whereas in the control group no significant differences were noted. This symptomatic effect was confirmed by the significant reduction of symptomatic drugs consumption. The differences between the two groups were significant for all considered parameters already from the 15th day and persisted during follow-up. Tolerability of balneotherapy seemed to be good, with light and transitory side effects. Our results confirm that the beneficial effects of balneotherapy in patients with knee OA last over time, with positive effects on the painful symptomatology, a significant improvement on functional capacities and QoL. Balneotherapy can represent a useful backup to pharmacological treatment of knee OA or a valid alternative for patients who do not tolerate pharmacological treatments.
Pisters, M F; Veenhof, C; van Dijk, G M; Dekker, J
To evaluate the mediating role of reduced muscle strength in the relationship between avoidance of activity and limitations in activities in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA). A longitudinal cohort study with 5 years follow-up was conducted. Patients with knee or hip OA (n = 288) were recruited at rehabilitation centers and hospitals. Self-reported and performance based limitations in activities, avoidance of activity and muscle strength were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 5 years follow-up. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses were used to evaluate mediation. In patients with knee OA, reduced knee extensor muscle strength mediated the relationship between avoidance of activity and limitations in activities. In patients with hip OA reduced hip abductor muscle strength mediates the relationship between avoidance of activity and limitations in activities. The results of this longitudinal study support the theory that avoidance of activity leads to deterioration of muscle strength and consequently to more limitations in activities in patients with knee and hip OA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction Discrimination of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from patients with other inflammatory or degenerative joint diseases or healthy individuals purely on the basis of genes differentially expressed in high-throughput data has proven very difficult. Thus, the present study sought to achieve such discrimination by employing a novel unbiased approach using rule-based classifiers. Methods Three multi-center genome-wide transcriptomic data sets (Affymetrix HG-U133 A/B) from a total of 79 individuals, including 20 healthy controls (control group - CG), as well as 26 osteoarthritis (OA) and 33 RA patients, were used to infer rule-based classifiers to discriminate the disease groups. The rules were ranked with respect to Kiendl’s statistical relevance index, and the resulting rule set was optimized by pruning. The rule sets were inferred separately from data of one of three centers and applied to the two remaining centers for validation. All rules from the optimized rule sets of all centers were used to analyze their biological relevance applying the software Pathway Studio. Results The optimized rule sets for the three centers contained a total of 29, 20, and 8 rules (including 10, 8, and 4 rules for ‘RA’), respectively. The mean sensitivity for the prediction of RA based on six center-to-center tests was 96% (range 90% to 100%), that for OA 86% (range 40% to 100%). The mean specificity for RA prediction was 94% (range 80% to 100%), that for OA 96% (range 83.3% to 100%). The average overall accuracy of the three different rule-based classifiers was 91% (range 80% to 100%). Unbiased analyses by Pathway Studio of the gene sets obtained by discrimination of RA from OA and CG with rule-based classifiers resulted in the identification of the pathogenetically and/or therapeutically relevant interferon-gamma and GM-CSF pathways. Conclusion First-time application of rule-based classifiers for the discrimination of RA resulted in high performance, with means
Ray, Tracy R
This article provides physicians specializing in nonsurgical sports medicine with an overview of viscosupplementation as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that is becoming more prevalent in patients and is generally treated using conservative nonpharmacologic measures. If conservative measures are unsuccessful at alleviating pain, current recommendations include prescribing acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to patients. However, long-term use of these agents increases the risk for liver, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal complications in patients. Viscosupplementation is the term used for intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid/hylans. Intra-articular injections of these agents have good safety profiles and have shown efficacy for treating knee OA pain. Viscosupplementation injections relieve pain for ≤ 26 weeks, which is longer than the short-term pain relief derived from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid injections. Additionally, viscosupplementation administered to patients in earlier stages of OA may be more beneficial than when given later in the treatment of OA. As part of a multimodal algorithm, viscosupplementation combined with conventional therapy or other pharmacologic agents has been shown to be more effective at managing OA than conventional care alone. This article reviews the evidence for using viscosupplementation as part of a comprehensive program for managing OA in patients.
Stahl, Robert; Luke, Anthony; Li, Xiaojuan; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Ma, C Benjamin; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M
(1) To assess the degree of focal cartilage abnormalities in physically active and sedentary healthy subjects as well as in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA). (2) To determine the diagnostic value of T2 and T1rho measurements in identifying asymptomatic physically active subjects with focal cartilage lesions. Thirteen asymptomatic physically active subjects, 7 asymptomatic sedentary subjects, and 17 patients with mild OA underwent 3.0-T MRI of the knee joint. T1rho and T2 values, cartilage volume and thickness, as well as the WORMS scores were obtained. Nine out of 13 active healthy subjects had focal cartilage abnormalities. T1rho and T2 values in active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities differed significantly (p < 0.05). T1rho and T2 values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in early OA patients compared to healthy subjects. T1rho measurements were superior to T2 in differentiating OA patients from healthy subjects, yet T1rho was moderately age-dependent. (1) Active subjects showed a high prevalence of focal cartilage abnormalities and (2) active subjects with and without focal cartilage abnormalities had different T1rho and T2 composition of cartilage. Thus, T1rho and T2 could be a parameter suited to identify active healthy subjects at higher risk for developing cartilage pathology.
Jaime, P; García-Guerrero, N; Estella, R; Pardo, J; García-Álvarez, F; Martinez-Lostao, L
Natural killer (NK) cells have been involved in the pathology of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Inflammation is an important regulator of osteoarthritis (OA), but the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating this process are not well defined. To understand the role of NK cells in OA, we have compared the phenotype (CD56 subsets and perforin and granzyme expression) and cytotoxic function of NK cells in peripheral blood and synovial fluid from patients with OA undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), the majority of NK cells from the synovial fluid were CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells. As expected the expression of the cytolytic mediators perforin and granzyme B in CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells was low and correlated with a poor cytotoxic potential against K562 sensitive target cells. Surprisingly, this low cytotoxic NK cell subset expressed high levels of granzyme A (a protease recently characterized as a key modulator of inflammation in mouse models) in synovial fluid but not in peripheral blood. The presence of the CD56(+)(bright)CD16(-) cells expressing granzyme A correlated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid from OA patients. Our results indicate that NK cells from the synovium of patients with OA, which present an immunoregulatory non-cytotoxic phenotype, show different phenotype comparing with NK cells from peripheral blood, especially expressing granzyme A, a pro-inflammatory molecule which may contribute to the establishment of chronic articular inflammation in this type of patients. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response
Ortega, E.; Gálvez, I.; Hinchado, M. D.; Guerrero, J.; Martín-Cordero, L.; Torres-Piles, S.
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre `El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Serum inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β) were evaluated using the Bio-Plex® Luminex® system. Circulating neuroendocrine-stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72), were measured by ELISA. After the cycle of mud therapy, OA patients improved the knee flexion angle and OA-related pain, stiffness and physical function, and they reported a better health-related quality of life. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TGF-β, as well as eHsp72, were markedly decreased. Besides, systemic levels of cortisol increased significantly. These results confirm that the clinical benefits of mud therapy may well be mediated, at least in part, by its systemic anti-inflammatory effects and neuroendocrine-immune regulation in OA patients. Thus, mud therapy could be an effective alternative treatment in the management of OA.
Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Alptekin, Kerem; Teksöz, Bahar; Yağci, Ilker; Ozçakar, Levent; Aksoy, Cihan
This paper aims to compare the results of single-joint knee vs hip hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) involving both the knee and hip joints. Thirty-eight patients who were diagnosed to have both hip and knee OA were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups to receive HA injection three times at 1-week intervals either to the hip or knee joints. Pain level during activities and rest was measured by using visual analog scale (VAS). Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC 5-point Likert 3.0) was also used prior to the injections and 1 month after the 3rd injection. In the knee injection group, the intragroup analysis revealed significant improvements in VAS activity pain, VAS rest pain, and WOMAC pain values following injection when compared with preinjection values, while no significant difference was detected in WOMAC stiffness, WOMAC physical function, and WOMAC total values. In the hip injection group, VAS activity pain, VAS rest pain, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, WOMAC physical function, and WOMAC total values showed significant improvement after the injection when compared with preinjection values. Although statistically not significant (p > 0.05), the comparison of the differences (preinjection-postinjection) between the groups demonstrated higher values in the hip injection group. We imply that intra-articular single-joint HA injections either to the knee or hip joints in OA patients with involvement of both of these joints are effective with regard to pain and functional status.
Crowell, Michael S; Tragord, Bradley S
Case report. Comprehensive treatment strategies are needed for individuals with glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis (OA), especially when they are young and active. Prior dislocation, with or without subsequent shoulder stabilization surgery, complicates the clinical presentation and increases the risk of OA progression. The purpose of this case report was to describe an orthopaedic manual physical therapy approach used in a patient with glenohumeral joint OA who presented with shoulder pain and impaired movement. CASE DESCRIPTION A 38-year-old male military officer presented with left-shoulder pain of 2 months in duration that was unrelieved with a subacromial injection. He reported a history of anterior-inferior dislocation with subsequent stabilization surgery 15 years prior and arthroscopic subacromial decompression 2 years prior. Physical examination demonstrated painful limitations in shoulder elevation and internal/external rotation movements, stiffness with testing using accessory glides, and rotator cuff and scapular musculature weakness associated with pain. Treatment consisted of 5 sessions provided over 4 weeks. The plan of care included manual physical therapy, exercises, and progressive functional activities specifically tailored to the patient's clinical presentation. Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores decreased from 43% to 17%, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score improved from 3.0 to 7.3 out of 10. After 4 additional weeks of a home exercise program, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 4% and Patient-Specific Functional Scale average score was 9.0. Improvements in self-reported function were maintained at 6 months. Four "booster" treatment sessions were administered at 9 months, contributing to sustained outcomes through 1 year. In a young, active patient with glenohumeral joint OA, clinically meaningful short-term improvements in self-reported function and pain, maintained at 1 year, were observed with manual
Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb
Liu, Rani; Damman, Wendy; Kaptein, Adrian A; Rosendaal, Frits R; Kloppenburg, Margreet
Coping responses have been shown to determine health outcomes in chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the role of joint-specific factors and coping styles on disability in patients with hand OA. Primary hand OA patients who consulted secondary care, underwent physical examination to assess the number of joints with bony joint enlargements, pain upon palpation, soft tissue swelling, deformities and limitations in motion. Coping styles were assessed with Coping with Rheumatic Stressors. Disability (score ≥5) was assessed by the Functional Index for Hand OA (possible score 0-30) cross-sectionally and after 1 year. With multivariate logistic regression, joint-specific variables and coping styles were associated with disability cross-sectionally and after 1 year, adjusted for age, sex and BMI. A total of 314 patients (88% women, mean age 61.4 years) were included in the cross-sectional analyses; 68% were considered as disabled. Longitudinal data after 1 year were available in 173 patients (71% disabled). In multivariate analysis including all joint-specific factors, only painful joints and joints with limitations in motion were associated with disability. Disadvantageous scores for the coping scales (comforting cognitions, decreasing activity and pacing) were positively associated with disability cross-sectionally. Disability after 1 year was only associated with the coping scales decreasing activity and pacing. Joint-specific factors were also associated with disability, independent of coping styles. In patients with hand OA, joint-specific factors and coping styles decreasing activity and pacing were both associated with disability. Our results suggest that interventions should aim at joint-specific complaints as well as changing coping styles to improve functional outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jacobs, Brittany Y; Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Allen, Kyle D
Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models.
Ikeda, Daiki; Ageta, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Kunihiro
Objective: We performed comprehensive proteomic analyses of articular cartilage by using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method, and searched for candidate biomarkers for osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Articular cartilage was collected from patients with OA or femoral neck fracture for the control group. Molecular variations were detected by the iTRAQ method, and quantitative analyses were performed by western blot. Results: Using the iTRAQ method, we identified 76 proteins with different expression levels in OA patients and the control group. Among these proteins, we selected LECT2 (leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2), BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic), and PRDX6 (peroxiredoxin-6), which had not been reported as biomarkers for OA. Conclusions: Use of these proteins in combination with conventional OA biomarkers may better reflect the grade and prognosis of OA. PMID:23937207
Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.
Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712
Hua, Bin; Abbas, Estelle; Hayes, Alan; Ryan, Peter; Nelson, Lisa; O'Brien, Kylie
Chinese medicine (CM) has its own diagnostic indicators that are used as evidence of change in a patient's condition. The majority of studies investigating efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have utilized biomedical diagnostic endpoints. For CM clinical diagnostic variables to be incorporated into clinical trial designs, there would need to be evidence that these diagnostic variables are reliable. Previous studies have indicated that the reliability of CM syndrome diagnosis is variable. Little information is known about where the variability stems from--the basic data collection level or the synthesis of diagnostic data, or both. No previous studies have investigated systematically the reliability of all four diagnostic methods used in the CM diagnostic process (Inquiry, Inspection, Auscultation/Olfaction, and Palpation). The objective of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of data collected using the four diagnostic methods of CM in Australian patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), in order to investigate if CM variables could be used with confidence as diagnostic endpoints in a clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a CHM in treating OA. An inter-rater reliability study was conducted as a substudy of a clinical trial investigating the treatment of knee OA with Chinese herbal medicine. Two (2) experienced CM practitioners conducted a CM examination separately, within 2 hours of each other, in 40 participants. A CM assessment form was utilized to record the diagnostic data. Cohen's κ coefficient was used as a measure of the level of agreement between 2 practitioners. There was a relatively good level of agreement for Inquiry and Auscultation variables, and, in general, a low level of agreement for (visual) Inspection and Palpation variables. There was variation in the level of agreement between 2 practitioners on clinical information collected using the Four Diagnostic Methods of a CM examination. Some aspects of CM diagnosis appear
Messier, Stephen P.
SYNOPSIS OA is a common chronic disease and there is a need for treatments that can be provided for the course of the disease with minimal adverse side effects. Exercise is a safe intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with few contraindications or adverse events. Indeed, there are few treatments that, from a public health perspective, can be delivered to a large proportion of those with OA with little associated adverse risk as exercise. Exercise therapy is recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and this recommendation is supported by Level 1 evidence. Obesity is the most modifiable risk factor for knee OA. The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. This paper reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity and exercise on older adults with knee OA; the effects of long-term weight-loss and exercise interventions, and the utility and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice. PMID:20699166
Matsumoto, Tomoko; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Baba, Hideo; Osaki, Makoto; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Akihiko; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Toshio
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are the products of non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids. Low-turnover tissues such as articular cartilage seem to be susceptible to the accumulation of AGEs, which might lead to cartilage degradation. Recently, a non-invasive method for measuring skin AGE accumulation was developed by using the Autofluorescence Reader (AFR). To examine the usefulness of measuring skin AGE in patients with bone and joint diseases, we examined autofluorescence (AF) levels in skin of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and dialysis-related spondyloarthropathy (DRSA). Ninety-three patients with RA, 24 patients with OA, and 29 patients with DRSA were examined, and 43 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Skin AF was assessed on the lower arm with the AGE-Reader. Mean AF was significantly higher in the patients with RA (median 2.13 and range 1.25-2.94) or with DRSA (median 2.21 and range 1.29-3.88) than in the patients with OA (median 1.63 and range 1.07-2.31) or in the controls (median 1.74 and range 1.10-2.46). There was no significant difference between OA and the controls, or between RA and DRSA. These findings suggest that differences of AGE accumulation in the skin might reflect the different pathologies of these diseases.
Karaman, Haktan; Tüfek, Adnan; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Uysal, Ersin; Celik, Feyzi; Kaya, Sedat
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most widespread chronic joint disease worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is observed in approximately 12% of individuals more than 60 years of age. Conservative treatments models may not be effective always, and that some of them have serious adverse effects that prompted the researchers to research different treatment methods. In this study, we investigated short- and mid-term effectiveness of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) applied in patients with chronic knee pain due to OA. This study was carried out in the pain management center of a university hospital between January 2009 and June 2009. The patient record files of 31 patients who received intra-articular PRF were retrospectively reviewed. The antero-lateral area of the knee, where the intervention would be applied, was anesthetized with 1% lidocaine. An introducer needle was placed intra-articularly. PRF was started as 42°C at 2 Hz for 15 minutes. The pain of the patients was evaluated by 10 cm Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Furthermore, the ages, the gender, the symptom duration of the patients, the side of the knee on which the intervention was applied, and the complications were collected for statistical evaluation. Although the mean initial VAS scores of the patients were 6.1 ± 0.9 cm, it was found, respectively, to be 3.9 ± 1.9 cm and 4.1 ± 1.9 cm at the first- and sixth-month follow-ups. In general, a decrease of 32.8% in mean in the VAS scores was achieved in the last follow-up; whereas the rate of patients reporting a minimum decrease of 2 points in the VAS scores was 64.5% and the rate of patients reporting a decrease of ≥50% in their pain was calculated as 35.5%. PRF applied to the knee joint appears to be an effective and safe method. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael
The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Eymard, Florent; Chevalier, Xavier; Conrozier, Thierry
Viscosupplementation (VS) is still controversial. One of the key points is the lack of well-identified factors of response. We aimed to identify clinical and radiological factors associated with lack of relevant response after intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients. A post hoc analysis of the HAV-2012 trial, a controlled, multicentre, double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing 3 weekly IA injections of HA (HAnox-M or BioHA) for symptomatic tibiofemoral OA was performed. At inclusion, demographic, anthropometric, clinical data (WOMAC score, patient global assessment, presence of knee effusion), and radiological data (OARSI grade, patello-femoral involvement) were recorded. VS response was defined according to OMERACT-OARSI response criteria at month 6. Predictors of response were investigated in univariate then in multivariate analysis. One hundred and sixty-six patients with full available data were included. As baseline characteristics and treatment effectiveness were similar between the 2 HA groups, their data were pooled. The mean age was 65.2 [63.7-66.8] years; 101 (60.8%) were women; 73 (44.0%) had severe TF space narrowing. At 6 months, 113 patients (68.1%) were responders. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and radiological severity (OARSI grade 3) were significantly associated with VS failure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, the association of obesity and severe TF space narrowing significantly increased the risk of VS failure. Baseline pain intensity and functional impairment were not associated with VS response. Consequently, IA injection of HA for knee OA should mainly be considered in subjects with low BMI and mild TF space narrowing. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
Adams, Thomas; Band-Entrup, Debra; Kuhn, Scott; Legere, Lucas; Mace, Kimberly; Paggi, Adam; Penney, Matthew
Osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent in today's population, including the athletic and recreationally active "middle-aged" population. OA is a degenerative condition of the articular/hyaline cartilage of synovial joints and commonly affects the knee joint. In general, athletic participation does not specifically influence a higher incidence of knee OA in this population; however, traumatic injury to the knee joint poses a definitive risk in developing early-onset OA. The purpose of this article is to review evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions for the conservative management of knee OA. Manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, patient education, and weight management are strongly supported in the literature for conservative treatment of knee OA. Modalities [thermal, electrical stimulation (ES), and low-level laser therapy (LLLT)] and orthotic intervention are moderately supported in the literature as indicated management strategies for knee OA. While many strongly supported conservative interventions have been published, additional research is needed to determine the most effective approach in treating knee OA.
Hamilton, John L; Nagao, Masashi; Levine, Brett R; Chen, Di; Olsen, Bjorn R; Im, Hee-Jeong
Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are associated with osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Indeed, VEGF appears to be involved in OA-specific pathologies including cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone cysts and sclerosis, synovitis, and pain. Moreover, a wide range of studies suggest that inhibition of VEGF signaling reduces OA progression. This review highlights both the potential significance of VEGF in OA pathology and pain, as well as potential benefits of inhibition of VEGF and its receptors as an OA treatment. With the emergence of the clinical use of anti-VEGF therapy outside of OA, both as high-dose systemic treatments and low-dose local treatments, these particular therapies are now more widely understood. Currently, there is no established disease-modifying drug available for patients with OA, which warrants continued study of the inhibition of VEGF signaling in OA, as stand-alone or adjuvant therapy. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Onishi, Kentaro; Utturkar, Amol; Chang, Eric; Panush, Richard; Hata, Justin; Perret-Karimi, Danielle
Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are faced with a barrage of treatment options, from recommendations from friends and social media to medications prescribed by the primary care physician. The purpose of this article is to critically review current approaches to generalized or monoarticular OA based on available evidence and to illustrate multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies for the management of OA. Treatment options assessed for efficacy include patient education; oral and topical pharmacological agents; complementary and alternative medicine; surgery; manual medicine; acupuncture; interventional procedures (corticosteroid injection, viscosupplementation, and pulsed radiofrequency); bracing; assistive devices; physical therapy; and physical modalities. Multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies combined with early detection and prevention strategies provide the best benefit to patients. This review also illustrates that traditional and alternative modalities of treatment can be both synergistic and beneficial. Physicians should be aware of the variety of tools available for the management of OA and the associated symptoms. Those healthcare providers who can best individualize treatment plans for specific patients and inspire their patients to embrace healthy lifestyle modifications will achieve the best results. PMID:25750483
Aranda-Villalobos, Pilar; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Navarro-Espigares, Jose L; Hernández-Torres, Elisa; Villalobos, Mercedes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel
To evaluate the relevance of ongoing nociceptive joint inputs to the maintenance of widespread pain hypersensitivity in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether a reversal in the widespread pressure hypersensitivity together with an improvement in pain and function occurs after total hip replacement in these patients. Forty patients with hip OA participated. Twenty patients underwent total hip replacement, and the other 20 patients were assigned to a waiting list. Pressure-pain thresholds (PPTs) over the second metacarpal bone and the gluteus medius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and tibialis anterior muscles were assessed bilaterally with a pressure algometer before and 3 months after total hip replacement surgery. Assessments of pain intensity (by visual analog scale [VAS]), physical function (by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), and health status (by the Short Form 12 health survey and the EuroQol 5-domain index) were also performed. Patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty exhibited a reduction in widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia (increases in PPTs) over local and distant pain-free areas, as compared with before surgery and as compared with the patients assigned to the waiting list. PPTs were related to hip pain intensity, and significant correlations were found between higher VAS scores and lower average PPTs over all points assessed (-0.409 < r < -0.306, P < 0.05). Patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty exhibited a greater decrease in pain intensity and greater increases in function and health status than did those who were on the waiting list. Changes in the intensity of hip pain were moderately associated with changes in pressure pain sensitivity in the hip arthroplasty group. Normalization of widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia was found after successful hip joint replacement in patients with hip OA. Altered pain processing seems to be driven by ongoing peripheral joint
Dieppe, Paul; Judge, Andrew; Williams, Susan; Ikwueke, Ifeoma; Guenther, Klaus-Peter; Floeren, Markus; Huber, Joerg; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Learmonth, Ian; Lohmander, L Stefan; Nilsdotter, Anna; Puhl, Wofhart; Rowley, David; Thieler, Robert; Dreinhoefer, Karsten
Total hip joint replacement (THR) is a high volume, effective intervention for hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, indications and determinants of outcome remain unclear. The 'EUROHIP consortium' has undertaken a cohort study to investigate these questions. This paper describes the variations in disease severity in this cohort and the relationships between clinical and radiographic severity, and explores some of the determinants of variation. A minimum of 50 consecutive, consenting patients coming to primary THR for primary hip OA in each of the 20 participating orthopaedic centres entered the study. Pre-operative data included demographics, employment and educational attainment, drug utilisation, and involvement of other joints. Each subject completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC - Likert version 3.1). Other data collected at the time of surgery included the prosthesis used and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) status. Pre-operative radiographs were read by the same three readers for Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) grading and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas features. Regression analyses were carried out. Data from 1327 subjects has been analysed. The mean age of the group was 65.7 years, and there were more women (53.4%) than men. Most (79%) were ASA status 1 or 2. Reported disease duration was 5 years or less in 69.2%. Disease in other joint sites was common.Radiographs were available in 1051 subjects and the K&L grade was 3 or 4 in 95.8%. There was much more variation in clinical severity (WOMAC score); the mean total WOMAC score was 59.2 (SD 16.1). The radiographic severity showed no correlation with WOMAC scores.Significantly higher WOMAC scores (worse disease) were seen in older people, women, those with obesity, those with worse general health, and those with lower educational attainment. 1. Clinical disease severity varies widely at the time of THR for OA. 2. In advanced hip OA
Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137
Toupin April, Karine; Rader, Tamara; Hawker, Gillian A; Stacey, Dawn; O'Connor, Annette M; Welch, Vivian; Lyddiatt, Anne; McGowan, Jessie; Thorne, J Carter; Bennett, Carol; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter
To develop an innovative stepped patient decision aid (StDA) comparing the benefits and harms of 13 nonsurgical treatment options for managing osteoarthritis (OA) and to evaluate its acceptability and effects on informed decision making. Guided by the Ottawa Decision Support Framework and the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, the process involved (1) developing a decision aid with evidence on 13 nonsurgical treatments from the 2012 American College of Rheumatology OA clinical practice guidelines; and (2) interviewing patients with OA and healthcare providers to test its acceptability and effects on knowledge and decisional conflict. The StDA helped make the decision explicit, and presented evidence on 13 OA treatments clustered into 5 steps or levels according to their benefits and harms. Probabilities of benefits and harms were presented using pictograms of 100 faces formatted to allow comparisons across sets of options. It also included a values clarification exercise and knowledge test. Feedback was obtained from 49 patients and 7 healthcare providers. They found that the StDA presented evidence in a clear manner, and helped patients clarify their values and make an informed decision. Some participants found that there was too much information and others said that there was not enough on each treatment option. This innovative StDA allows patients to consider both the evidence and their values for multiple options. The findings are being used to revise and plan future evaluation. The StDA is an example of how research evidence in guidelines can be implemented in practice.
Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard
This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical
Stamm, T; van der Giesen, F; Thorstensson, C; Steen, E; Birrell, F; Bauernfeind, B; Marshall, N; Prodinger, B; Machold, K; Smolen, J; Kloppenburg, M
To explore whether the concepts important to patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA) are covered by the most commonly used instruments measuring functioning. A qualitative multicentre study using a focus group technique was performed in five European countries: Austria, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The qualitative data analysis followed a modified form of "meaning condensation" and used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a theoretical framework. Finally, the concepts from the focus groups were compared with the content of the most commonly used instruments which had been identified in an earlier theoretical analysis. Fifty-six people (51 women, mean (SD) age 62.7 (7.9) years) with hand OA participated in this study in two focus groups per centre. 63 concepts were extracted from the focus groups. Twenty-one (33%) of the 63 concepts were covered by at least one instrument. Psychological consequences, different qualities of pain, aesthetic changes and leisure activities are important concepts from the focus groups which were not covered by the instruments. The qualitative analysis revealed detailed descriptions of pain-concerning sensations, levels and a certain relation to activity, none of which were fully represented in the instruments routinely used. It was possible to combine the concepts of the focus groups from each centre into a common qualitative analysis. The concepts important to people with hand OA are not fully represented in the most commonly used instruments.
Hurley, M V; Scott, D L
Quadriceps sensorimotor dysfunction may be important in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and a determinant of disability. Exercise regimes can increase quadriceps strength, but whether this improves proprioception and reduces disability is uncertain. Moreover, research regimes involve protracted treatment which is clinically impracticable. We compared quadriceps sensorimotor function and disability in 60 patients with knee OA, before and after an exercise regime, with a control group (n = 37) who did not exercise. Exercise improved quadriceps strength (mean change, 95% CI; 73 N, 26-19 N), voluntary activation (14%, 5-20%), knee joint position sense (0.6 degrees, 0.1-1.8 degrees), and reduced the Lequesne Index (3.5, 0.5-4) and aggregate time of four activities of daily living (8.4 s, 0.2-16.7 s). At 6 month follow-up, these improvements were maintained. The parameters of the control group were unchanged. These results substantiate the association between quadriceps sensorimotor dysfunction and disability, emphasizing the importance of quadriceps exercise in the management of knee OA. The regimen is relatively brief and clinically practicable, but could be adapted to make it more cost effective.
Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan
Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888
Larcher, Romaric; Mauboussin, Jean-Marc; Rouanet, Isabelle; Sotto, Albert
We describe four cases of hand osteoarthritis in patients with HIV infection under antiretroviral treatment. A 36-year-old HIV-infected man came for consultation in 2007 with hand osteoarthritis. He was diagnosed HIV positive by sexual transmission in 1997. A 52-year-old HIV-infected woman came for consultation with hand osteoarthritis started in 2006. She was diagnosed HIV positive in 1986 by sexual transmission. A 57-year-old man presented hand osteoarthritis. This former IV drug user was diagnosed HIV positive in 1989. A 61-year-old HIV-infected man presented with hand osteoarthritis started in 2010. He had been contaminated with HIV in 1990 by sexual transmission. For all patients, there were neither clinical nor biological manifestations suggesting inflammatory arthritis. X-rays showed signs of hand osteoarthritis. CD4 cell count was over 500/mm(3) and the viral load was below 20 copies/mL under treatments. These four cases show osteoarthritis in HIV-infected patients. Hand osteoarthritis did not seem to be linked to aging or to an antiretroviral treatment's side effect, but rather to the HIV infection itself, and it may pass through a metabolic syndrome. We described a possible association between early-developed hand osteoarthritis and HIV-infected patients. Clinicians should consider osteoarthritis when they are confronted with HIV-infected patients with chronic hand pain.
Xiao, Wenfeng; Deng, Zhenhan; Zeng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Li, Liangjun; Luo, Wei
Objectives. This study is undertaken to investigate the relation between osteopontin (OPN) and Wnt5a expression in the progression and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. 50 cartilage tissues from knee OA patients and normal controls were divided into four groups of severe, moderate, minor, and normal lesions based on the modified grading system of Mankin. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were utilized to analyze the OPN and Wnt5a expression in articular cartilage. Besides, the relations between OPN and Wnt5a expression and the severity of OA were explored. Results. OPN and Wnt5a could be identified in four groups' tissues. Amongst the groups, the intercomparisons of OPN expression levels showed statistical differences (P < 0.01). Besides, the intercomparisons of Wnt5a expression degrees showed statistical differences (P < 0.05), except that between the minor and normal groups (P > 0.05). The scores of Mankin were demonstrated to relate to OPN expression (r = −0.847, P < 0.01) and Wnt5a expression in every group (r = −0.843, P < 0.01). Also, a positive correlation can be observed between the OPN and Wnt5a expression (r = 0.769, P < 0.01). Conclusion. In articular cartilage, the expressions of OPN and Wnt5a are positively related to progressive damage of knee OA joint. The correlation between Wnt5a and OPN might be important to the progression and pathogenesis of knee OA. PMID:27556044
Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gray-Laymón, Pedro; Molina-Siguero, Antonio; Martínez-Martín, Javier; García-Maroto, Roberto; García-Sánchez, Isidoro; García-Pérez, Lidia; Ramos-García, Vanesa; Castro-Casas, Olga; Bilbao, Amaia
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a disease that entails a major burden for patients and the society as a whole. One way of measuring this burden for the patient is through impact on Health-related Quality of Life (HRQL). The Oxford Hip Score (OHS) is a well-known tool to measure HRQL in patients with OA of the hip. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish-adapted version of the OHS, including its reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. Prospective observational study that included 361 patients diagnosed with hip OA (according to the criterion of the American College of Rheumatology) from 3 different Spanish regions. Their HRQL was assessed using a generic questionnaire, the EQ-5D-5 L, and two specific ones (the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, WOMAC, and the OHS) adapted to Spanish. There was a follow-up period of 6 months, and the acceptability, psychometric properties, presence of ceiling and floor effects, validity, reliability, and sensitivity to changes of the OHS were measured. The OHS was fully answered in 99.4% of cases with no indication of ceiling or floor effects. Its factor structure can be explained in a single dimension. Its discriminative capacity was very good compared to the groups generated by the WOMAC and the EQ-5D-5 L. The correlation between the OHS and dimensions of the WOMAC or EQ-5D-5 L utilities was ≥0.7. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.992; CI95%: 0.994-0.998) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.928) were observed. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was 7.0 points, and the minimum detectable change (MDC) was 5.5 points. The effect size for moderate improvement in perceived HRQL was 0.73, similar to that of WOMAC dimensions and higher than the EQ-5D-5 L. The Spanish-adapted version of the OHS is a useful, acceptable tool for the assessment of perceived HRQL in patients with hip OA, and has psychometric properties similar
Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Ingleshwar, Aparna; Volk, Robert J; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Barbo, Andrea; Saag, Kenneth; Leong, Amye; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E
We developed and tested multimedia patient education tools (video tools) for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), osteoporosis (OP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We followed an "edutainment" model, incorporating educational patient story lines. The goals were designed to make the programs both didactic and entertaining, with navigation and graphical user interfaces as simple as possible. We created both English and Spanish-language versions. Once the video tool was finalized, 60 patients, 20 per disease, were shown the tool and were interviewed. Disease knowledge was our primary outcome and decision conflict, disease management, and acceptability were secondary outcomes. We observed statistically significant differences in pre-post knowledge questionnaire scores (before and after viewing the video tool) (OA, p=0.03; OP, p=0.001; RA, p<0.0001). Most participants felt they: 1) gained "clarity" on disease duration, symptoms, and time medication takes to start acting, 2) were "encouraged to see their doctor regularly", and 3) were more aware about taking their medications. In terms of acceptability, most patients in all disease groups found the length and amount of information presented in the video tools to be "just right", and the presentation as 'balanced". In terms of comprehension, all participants provided a favorable evaluation of the video tool; all found the video easy to use, the vocabulary easy to understand, and the materials be well organized. Multimedia tools that incorporate videos may help patients better understand and manage their disease. Patient involvement in the development process is essential to ensure relevant content and usability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Haugen, I K; Slatkowsky‐Christensen, B; Ørstavik, R; Kvien, T K
Objectives Several studies have revealed increased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis, but few studies have addressed this issue in hand osteoarthritis (HOA). The aims of this study were to compare BMD levels and frequency of osteoporosis between female patients with HOA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls aged 50–70 years, and to explore possible relationships between BMD and disease characteristics in patients with HOA. Methods 190 HOA and 194 RA patients were recruited from the respective disease registers in Oslo, and 122 controls were selected from the population register of Oslo. All participants underwent BMD measurements of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine (dual‐energy x ray absorptiometry), interview, clinical joint examination and completed self‐reported questionnaires. Results Age‐, weight‐ and height‐adjusted BMD values were significantly higher in HOA versus RA and controls, the latter only significant for femoral neck and lumbar spine. The frequency of osteoporosis was not significantly different between HOA and controls, but significantly lower in HOA versus RA. Adjusted BMD values did not differ between HOA patients with and without knee OA, and significant associations between BMD levels and symptom duration or disease measures were not observed. Conclusion HOA patients have a higher BMD than population‐based controls, and this seems not to be limited to patients with involvement of larger joints. The lack of correlation between BMD and disease duration or severity does not support the hypothesis that higher BMD is a consequence of the disease itself. PMID:17502356
Quante, Markus; Hille, Stephanie; Schofer, Markus D; Lorenz, Jürgen; Hauck, Michael
Chronic pain is mainly a result of two processes: peripheral and central sensitization, which can result in neuroplastic changes. Previous psychophysical studies suggested a decrease of the so-called pain-inhibiting-pain effect (DNIC) in chronic pain patients. We aimed to study the DNIC effect on the neuronal level using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in 12 patients suffering from advanced unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA). DNIC was induced in patients by provoking the typical OA pain by a slightly hyperextended joint position, while they received short electrical pain stimuli. Although the patients did not report a reduction of electrical pain perception, the cingulate gyrus showed a decrease of activation during provoked OA pain, while activity in the secondary somatosensory cortex did not change. Based on much stronger DNIC induction at comparable intensities of an acute counterirritant pain in healthy subjects this result suggests a deficit of DNIC in OA patients. We suggest that the strength of DNIC is subject to neuronal plasticity of descending inhibitory pain systems and diminishes during the development of a chronic pain condition. PMID:21197282
Rothdiener, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Südkamp, Norbert; Aurich, Matthias; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Kurz, Bodo; Rolauffs, Bernd
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is used in 34-60% for osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage defects, although ACI is neither recommended nor designed for OA. Envisioning a hydrogel-based ACI for OA that uses chondrons instead of classically used chondrocytes, we hypothesized that human OA-chondrons may outperform OA-chondrocytes. We compared patient- and joint surface-matched human OA-chondrons vs. OA-chondrocytes cultured for the first time in a hydrogel, using a self-assembling peptide system. We determined yield, viability, cell numbers, mRNA expression, GAPDH mRNA enzyme activity, collagen II synthesis (CPII) and degradation (C2C), and sGAG. Ex vivo, mRNA expression was comparable. Over time, significant differences in survival led to 3.4-fold higher OA-chondron numbers in hydrogels after two weeks (p=0.002). Significantly more enzymatically active GAPDH protein indicated higher metabolic activity. The number of cultures that expressed mRNA for collagen types I, VI, COMP, aggrecan, VEGF, TGF-β1, and FGF-2 (but not collagen types II, X) was different, resulting in a 3.5-fold higher number of expression-positive OA-chondron cultures (p<0.05). Measuring CPII and C2C per hydrogel, OA-chondron hydrogels synthesized more than they degraded collagen type II, the opposite was true for OA-chondrocytes. Per cell, OA-chondrons but not OA-chondrocytes displayed more synthesis than degradation. Thus, OA-chondrons displayed superior biosynthesis and mRNA expression of tissue engineering and phenotype-relevant genes. Moreover, human OA-chondrons displayed a significant survival advantage in hydrogel culture, whose presence, drastic extent, and time scale was novel and is clinically significant. Collectively, these data highlight the high potential of human OA-chondrons for OA-ACI, as they would outnumber and, thus, surpass OA-chondrocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Huskisson, E C
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, chronic disease that most frequently affects the knees and is a major cause of disability in the elderly. It is characterized by progressive cartilage loss, accompanied by secondary changes such as osteophyte formation and calcium deposition. Inflammatory processes are also involved, leading to stiffness and pain, for which patients seek treatment. Conventional treatment includes analgesics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, however life-style changes should also be recommended, such as weight reduction and specific exercises. Glucosamine and chondroitin, classed as over-the-counter supplements or nutraceuticals, are regularly self-administered by patients with OA. Both agents are produced endogenously in the human body and are essential components of cartilage. This review discusses the evidence that supports the use of these agents either alone or in combination for pain relief and as disease-modifying agents in OA.
Evaluation of the effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia alone and combined with Boswellia thurifera compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.
Karimifar, Mansoor; Soltani, Rasool; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Sarrafchi, Sara
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common articular disorders. Many patients do not respond to acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for knee OA. The plants Elaeagnus angustifolia and Boswellia thurifera have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of E. angustifolia alone and in combination with B. thurifera compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 75 patients with knee OA were randomly and equally assigned to one of three groups Elaeagnus (n = 23), Elaeagnus/Boswellia (n = 26), and ibuprofen (n = 26) to receive the capsules of Elaeagnus, Elaeagnus/Boswellia, and ibuprofen, respectively, three times daily with meals for 4 weeks. Pain severity based on VAS (visual analog scale, 0 to 10 scale) and the scores of LPFI (Lequesne Pain and Function Index) and PGA (patient global assessment) were determined pre- and post-intervention for all patients. All interventions had significant lowering effects on VAS, LPFI, and PGA scores (P < 0.001 for all parameters) with no significant difference between groups in terms of effects on all evaluated parameters. Consumption of E. angustifolia fruit extract either alone or in combination with Boswellia oleo-gum resin extract could decrease pain and improve function in patients with knee osteoarthritis comparable to ibuprofen.
White, Alan G; Birnbaum, Howard G; Janagap, Carmela; Buteau, Sharon; Schein, Jeff
To assess the health care utilization and cost of illness for osteoarthritis (OA) patients taking pain medications. Specifically, the goals were to estimate the direct health care and indirect costs of OA. A claims database of privately insured patients was used to identify OA patients. Prescription drug pain treatments included tramadol, cyclooxygenase-II inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mean annual per patient costs were calculated from an employer's perspective. OA patients were prescribed multiple drugs simultaneously and/or sequentially to manage pain. OA patients had a number of prevalent comorbid conditions. Average annual direct medical, drug, and indirect work loss costs were $8601, $2941, and $4603, respectively. There was a substantial payer burden associated with OA resulting from the drug, medical, and disability costs and OA-related comorbidities and high concomitant medication utilization.
Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Harrison, Ben J; López-Solà, Marina; López-Ruiz, Marina; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Benito, Pere; Deus, Joan; Monfort, Jordi
A relevant aspect in osteoarthritic pain is neural sensitization. This phenomenon involves augmented responsiveness to painful stimulation and may entail a clinically worse prognosis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study pain sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty patients were recruited and pain sensitization was clinically defined on the basis of regional spreading of pain (spreading sensitization) and increased pain response to repeated stimulation (temporal summation). Functional magnetic resonance imaging testing involved assessing brain responses to both pressure and heat stimulation. Thirty-three patients (55%) showed regional pain spreading (simple sensitization) and 19 patients (32%) showed both regional spreading and temporal summation. Sensitized patients were more commonly women. Direct painful pressure stimulation of the joint (articular interline) robustly activated all of the neural elements typically involved in pain perception, but did not differentiate sensitized and nonsensitized patients. Painful pressure stimulation on the anterior tibial surface (sensitized site) evoked greater activation in sensitized patients in regions typically involved in pain and also beyond these regions, extending to the auditory, visual, and ventral sensorimotor cortices. Painful heat stimulation of the volar forearm did not discriminate the sensitization phenomenon. Results confirm the high prevalence of pain sensitization secondary to knee osteoarthritis. Relevantly, the sensitization phenomenon was associated with neural changes extending beyond strict pain-processing regions with enhancement of activity in general sensory, nonnociceptive brain areas. This effect is in contrast to the changes previously identified in primary pain sensitization in fibromyalgia patients presenting with a weakening of the general sensory integration.
Sieghart, Daniela; Liszt, Melissa; Wanivenhaus, Axel; Bröll, Hans; Kiener, Hans; Klösch, Burkhard; Steiner, Günter
Balneotherapy employing sulphurous thermal water is still applied to patients suffering from diseases of musculoskeletal system like osteoarthritis (OA) but evidence for its clinical effectiveness is scarce. Since the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2S) seems to affect cells involved in degenerative joint diseases, it was the objective of this study to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are key players in OA pathogenesis being capable of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes. To address this issue primary FLS derived from OA patients were stimulated with IL-1β and treated with the H2S donor NaHS. Cellular responses were analysed by ELISA, quantitative real-time PCR, phospho-MAPkinase array and Western blotting. Treatment-induced effects on cellular structure and synovial architecture were investigated in three-dimensional extracellular matrix micromasses. NaHS treatment reduced both spontaneous and IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES in different experimental settings. In addition, NaHS treatment reduced the expression of matrix metallo-proteinases MMP-2 and MMP-14. IL-1β induced the phosphorylation of several MAPkinases. NaHS treatment partially reduced IL-1β-induced activation of several MAPK whereas it increased phosphorylation of pro-survival factor Akt1/2. When cultured in spherical micromasses, FLS intentionally established a synovial lining layer-like structure; stimulation with IL-1β altered the architecture of micromasses leading to hyperplasia of the lining layer which was completely inhibited by concomitant exposure to NaHS. These data suggest that H2S partially antagonizes IL-1β stimulation via selective manipulation of the MAPkinase and the PI3K/Akt pathways which may encourage development of novel drugs for treatment of OA. PMID:25312962
Sieghart, Daniela; Liszt, Melissa; Wanivenhaus, Axel; Bröll, Hans; Kiener, Hans; Klösch, Burkhard; Steiner, Günter
Balneotherapy employing sulphurous thermal water is still applied to patients suffering from diseases of musculoskeletal system like osteoarthritis (OA) but evidence for its clinical effectiveness is scarce. Since the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) seems to affect cells involved in degenerative joint diseases, it was the objective of this study to investigate the effects of exogenous H2 S on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are key players in OA pathogenesis being capable of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes. To address this issue primary FLS derived from OA patients were stimulated with IL-1β and treated with the H2 S donor NaHS. Cellular responses were analysed by ELISA, quantitative real-time PCR, phospho-MAPkinase array and Western blotting. Treatment-induced effects on cellular structure and synovial architecture were investigated in three-dimensional extracellular matrix micromasses. NaHS treatment reduced both spontaneous and IL-1β-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES in different experimental settings. In addition, NaHS treatment reduced the expression of matrix metallo-proteinases MMP-2 and MMP-14. IL-1β induced the phosphorylation of several MAPkinases. NaHS treatment partially reduced IL-1β-induced activation of several MAPK whereas it increased phosphorylation of pro-survival factor Akt1/2. When cultured in spherical micromasses, FLS intentionally established a synovial lining layer-like structure; stimulation with IL-1β altered the architecture of micromasses leading to hyperplasia of the lining layer which was completely inhibited by concomitant exposure to NaHS. These data suggest that H2 S partially antagonizes IL-1β stimulation via selective manipulation of the MAPkinase and the PI3K/Akt pathways which may encourage development of novel drugs for treatment of OA. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for
Boniatis, Ioannis; Cavouras, Dionisis; Costaridou, Lena; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Panayiotakis, George
A computer-based system was designed for the grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis (OA) severity. Employing an active-contours segmentation model, 64 hip joint space (HJS) images (18 normal, 46 osteoarthritic) were obtained from the digitized radiographs of 32 unilateral and bilateral OA-patients. Shape features, generated from the HJS-images, and a hierarchical decision tree structure was used for the grading of OA. A shape features based regression model quantified the OA-severity. The system accomplished high accuracies in characterizing hips as "Normal" (100%), of "mild/moderate"-OA (93.8%) or "severe"-OA (96.7%). OA-severity values, as expressed by HJS-narrowing, correlated highly (r=0.9,p<0.001) with the values predicted by the regression model. The system may contribute to OA-patient management.
Valtonen, Anu M; Pöyhönen, Tapani; Manninen, Mikko; Heinonen, Ari; Sipilä, Sarianna
To determine the extent of asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor muscles, and to examine whether asymmetrical muscle deficits are associated with mobility limitations in persons with late-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional. Research laboratory. A clinical sample (N=56; age range, 50-75y) of eligible persons with late-stage knee OA awaiting knee replacement. Not applicable. Knee extensor and flexor power and torque assessed isokinetically; thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed by computed tomography; mobility limitation assessed by walking speed and stair ascension time; and pain assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire. The asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor power and torque were between 18% and 29% (P<.001). Regarding the thigh muscle CSA, the asymmetrical deficit was 4% (P<.001). Larger asymmetrical knee extensor power deficits and weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the contralateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Moreover, weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the ipsilateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Greater knee pain in the OA joint was independently associated with slower stair ascending time in both models. The knee extensor and flexor muscle power of both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides and the pain in the OA knee were independently associated with stair ascension times. These results highlight the importance of assessing muscle power on both sides and knee pain in the prevention of mobility limitations in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro
Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease ( p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients ( p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and
Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro
Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group (n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients (p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of
Wittoek, Ruth; Cruyssen, Bert Vander; Verbruggen, Gust
To compare levels of pain and functional limitation in patients with erosive osteoarthritis (OA) of the interphalangeal finger joints with those in patients with nonerosive OA and patients with controlled inflammatory arthritis affecting the hands, and to explore predictors of functional impairment in erosive OA. A cross-sectional study including 270 patients with OA of the hands who were referred to rheumatology clinics was performed. A group of patients with inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis) with a low Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (<3.2; n = 79) was examined. Levels of functional impairment (measured by the Functional Index for Hand OA [FIHOA] and Australian/Canadian OA Hand Index [AUSCAN]) and pain were compared between the groups. Predictors of functional impairment in erosive OA were evaluated by generalized linear models. Of 270 patients with hand OA, 167 (61.9%) were classified as having erosive OA. Despite a higher percentage of patients taking analgesics (almost 60%), patients with erosive OA had worse functional outcome and pain scores than patients with controlled inflammatory arthritis or nonerosive OA. Pain scores remained significantly higher in patients with erosive OA after correction for potential confounders. FIHOA and AUSCAN function scores showed a trend toward more disability in patients with erosive OA. Female sex and the number of radiographic affected joints (consisting of joints in the erosive and remodeled radiographic phases) were the strongest predictors of functional impairment in erosive OA. Whether the carpometacarpal joints were affected did not influence functional status in patients with erosive OA. Our findings indicate that patients with erosive OA have more functional impairment and significantly more pain compared to patients with controlled inflammatory arthritis affecting the hands. This highlights the significant clinical burden of erosive OA and warrants the search for new treatment
Wang, Kang; Xu, Jianhua; Cai, Jingyu; Zheng, Shuang; Yang, Xueqing; Ding, Changhai
To investigate cross-sectional associations between serum levels of resistin and interleukin-17 (IL-17) and cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in patients with knee symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and ninety-four consecutively-selected patients with knee symptomatic OA (mean 55.4 years, range 34-74, 87% females) were included in Anhui Osteoarthritis (AHOA) Study. Knee cartilage defects and BMLs were determined at different sites using T2-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin echo MRI. Serum resistin, IL-17, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. In multivariable analyses, serum resistin was positively associated with cartilage defects at lateral femoral, lateral tibial, and medial tibial (all p < 0.05) sites. The significant associations were also present with BMLs at lateral femoral and tibial sites (ORs: 1.13-1.19, both p < 0.05). In patients with the highest quartile of hs-CRP (>2.45 pg/ml), IL-17 was positively and significantly associated with cartilage defect score at nearly all sites (ORs: 1.33-1.44, all p < 0.05), and BMLs at lateral and medial femoral sites (ORs: 1.26-1.51, both p < 0.05). Serum levels of resistin were positively and independently associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with knee OA. Serum IL-17 was significantly associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with an increased inflammatory status. These suggest that metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms may have a role to play in knee OA.
Zhou, Diange; Zhang, Shijie; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing
Deteriorating knee stability is a local risk factor that reflects the occurrence and aggregative of osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the many biomechanics-based methods for assessing the structural stability of knee joints in clinics, these methods have many limitations. The stability of the knee joint relies on not only biomechanical factors, but also proprioception and the central nervous system. In this study, we attempt to depict the stability of knee joint from a holistic viewpoint, and a novel index of knee joint stability (IKJS) was thus extracted. We compared the differences of IKJS in 57 healthy volunteers and 55 patients with OA before and after total knee replacement (TKR). Analysis of Variance results demonstrated that there existed significant differences in IKJS among the three participating groups (<0.0001). Also, the IKJS of the operated leg in patients with knee OA increased remarkably after TKR (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the results of the experiment suggested that the IKJS has sufficient reproducibility (ICC = 0.80). In conclusion, the proposed IKJS that employs the knee-aiming task is feasible for quantitatively determining knee stability. It can provide a potentially valuable and convenient tool to evaluate the effect of postoperative rehabilitation for patients with knee OA.
Burnett, W; Kontulainen, S; McLennan, C; Hazel, D; Talmo, C; Hunter, D; Wilson, D; Johnston, J
To determine differences in patellar subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients with differing levels of pain at rest. The preoperative knee of 41 total knee replacement (TKR) patients was scanned using QCT and scored for pain using Western Ontario McMasters Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). 'Pain at rest' was defined as average pain while lying//sitting and nocturnal pain. Participants were divided into groups: 'mild-to-no pain at rest' and 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest'. We used a depth-specific CT-based mapping technique to measure patellar subchondral BMD at depths of 0-2.5 mm, 2.5-5 mm, and 5-7.5 mm from the subchondral surface. Mean lateral and medial facet BMD were compared between groups using MANCOVA. Mean adjusted BMD was lower in participants with 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest' over the total lateral facet at depths of 0-2.5 mm (10% lower, p=0.041), 2.5-5 mm (20% lower, p=0.017), and 5-7.5 mm (25% lower, p=0.004), and over the total medial facet at 2.5-5 mm (22% lower, p=0.033) and 5-7.5 mm (28% lower, p=0.016). In OA patients with 'moderate-to-severe pain at rest', depth-specific density measures demonstrated up to 28% lower lateral and medial subchondral BMD. Patients with high levels of pain at rest may have reduced amounts of native bone prior to TKR.
Gore, Mugdha; Sadosky, Alesia; Leslie, Douglas; Tai, Kei-Sing; Seleznick, Mitchel
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition characterized by chronic pain. Several pain medications are recommended, and patients frequently alternate among these medications. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of pain medications in clinical practice with respect to recommended guidelines. This objective was accomplished by evaluating patterns of switching, augmentation, and discontinuation after treatment initiation with select medications in patients with OA. The LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database was used to select patients with OA (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 715.XX) who were newly prescribed (index event) nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, acetaminophen, tramadol, weak opioids, and strong opioids. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier analyses, and the COX proportional hazards model were used to assess therapy switching, augmentation, and discontinuation during the 12-month postindex period. Patterns of intraarticular injections and joint replacement surgeries among the cohorts were also evaluated. Substantial proportions of OA patients switched, augmented, or discontinued therapy during the postindex period. Rates of therapy switching, augmentation, and discontinuation, respectively, were significantly different (all P < 0.0001 for overall effects using log-rank tests) across the evaluated medication cohorts: NSAIDs, 22.3%, 6.7%, 93.2%; COX-2 inhibitors, 27.5%, 10%, 87.4%; acetaminophen, 46.0%, 6.5%, 98.7%; tramadol, 44.5%, 8.4%, 95.6%; weak opioids, 27.2%, 4.1%, 98.3%; and strong opioids, 41.1%, 3.3%, 97%. Therapy switching, augmentation, and discontinuation occurred within 2 months after treatment initiation in two thirds of patients and within 6 months in >90% of patients. The patterns of intraarticular injections were significantly different across treatment cohorts, as were the patterns of joint replacement surgeries (both
Richter, Magdalena; Trzeciak, Tomasz; Rybka, Jakub Dalibor; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek
The study was designed to investigate whether serum concentrations of leptin, resistin and adiponectin in obese and normal-weight patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) correlate with clinical and radiological stages of the disease and percentage of total body fat. Seventy-three patients with knee OA, divided into obese and normal-weight groups, were clinically evaluated according to the Knee Society Score (KSS), and radiologically assessed using Kellgren and Lawrence scale. The percentage of total body fat and some anthropometric data were also given. Serum leptin, resistin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by Elisa and were correlated with the clinical, radiological and anthropometric parameters. Leptin concentrations were significantly higher (p = 0.001) in the obese patients and positively correlated (R = 0.63) with radiologically assessed OA grade, but only in the normal-weight group. Resistin and adiponectin concentrations were identical in obese and normal-weight patients and negatively correlated (R = -0.41) with the clinical status of obese patients. In both groups, percentage of total body fat positively correlated (R = 0.29 and R = 0.53 for obese and normal-weight respectively) with radiologically assessed OA grade. However, no correlations were found with clinical status of the patients. It was found that in the obese patients with knee OA, increased percentage of total body fat and elevated serum leptin concentration might favour the advancement of clinical but not radiologically assessed changes in the joint structures, while in normal-weight patients it correlates only with radiologically assessed changes but does not affect to an appreciable extent the clinical status of the patients.
Getting Better or Getting Well? The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) Better Predicts Patient's Satisfaction than the Decrease of Pain, in Knee Osteoarthritis Subjects Treated with Viscosupplementation.
Conrozier, Thierry; Monet, Matthieu; Lohse, Anne; Raman, Raghu
Background In the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA), patient-reported-outcomes (PROs) are being developed for relevant assessment of pain. The patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) is a relevant cutoff, which allows classifying patients as being in "an acceptable state" or not. Viscosupplementation is a therapeutic modality widely used in patients with knee OA that many patients are satisfied with despite meta-analyses give conflicting results. Objectives To compare, 6 months after knee viscosupplementation, the percentage of patients who reached the PASS threshold (PASS +) with that obtained from other PROs. Methods Data of 53 consecutive patients treated with viscosupplementation (HANOX-M-XL) and followed using a standardized procedure, were analyzed at baseline and month 6. The PROs were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function, patient's global assessment of pain (PGAP), patient's self-assessment of satisfaction, PASS for WOMAC pain and PGAP. Results At baseline, WOMAC pain and PGAP (range 0-10) were 4.6 (1.1) and 6.0 (1.1). At month 6, they were 1.9 (1.2) and 3.1 (5) ( P < 0.0001). At 6 months, 83% of patients were "PASS + pain," 100% "PASS + function," 79% "PASS + PGAP," 79% were satisfied, and 73.6% experienced a ≥50% decrease in WOMAC pain. Among "PASS + pain" and "PASS + PGAP" subjects, 90% and 83.3% were satisfied with the treatment, respectively. Conclusion In daily practice, clinical response to viscosupplementation slightly varies according to PROs. "PASS + PGAP" was the most related to patient satisfaction.
Zarins, Z.A.; Bolbos, R.I.; Pialat, J. B.; Link, T.M.; Li, X.; Souza, R.B.; Majumdar, S.
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate meniscal degeneration in healthy subjects and subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) using T1ρ and T2 measurements and to examine the interrelationship between cartilage and meniscus abnormalities. Methods Quantitative assessment of cartilage and meniscus was performed using 3T MRI with a T1ρ and T2 mapping technique in 19 controls and 44 OA patients. A sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) fat-saturated image was acquired for cartilage and meniscal Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) assessment. Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) scores were obtained to assess clinical symptoms. Results The posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMED) had the highest incidence of degeneration. Stratifying subjects on the basis of PHMED grade revealed that the T1ρ and the T2 measurements of the PHMED and the medial tibial (MT) cartilage were higher in subjects having a meniscal tear (meniscal grade 2–4) compared to subjects with a mensical grade of 0 or 1 (p<0.05). While not statistically significant, there was a trend for T1ρ and T2 being higher in PHMED grade 1 compared to grade 0 (p=0.094, p=0.073 respectively). WOMAC scores had a stronger correlation with meniscus relaxation measures than cartilage measures. Conclusions MR T1ρ and T2 measurements provide a noninvasive means of detecting and quantifying the severity of meniscal degeneration. Meniscal damage has been implicated in OA progression and is correlated with cartilage degeneration. Early detection of meniscal damage represented by elevations in meniscal relaxation measures may identify subjects at increased risk for OA. PMID:20696262
Altman, Roy; Lim, Sooyeol; Steen, R. Grant; Dasa, Vinod
Background The growing prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and the medical costs associated with total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for end-stage OA motivate a search for agents that can delay OA progression. We test a hypothesis that hyaluronic acid (HA) injection is associated with delay of TKR in a dose-dependent manner. Methods and Findings We retrospectively evaluated records in an administrative claims database of ~79 million patients, to identify all patients with knee OA who received TKR during a 6-year period. Only patients with continuous plan enrollment from diagnosis until TKR were included, so that complete medical records were available. OA diagnosis was the index event and we evaluated time-to-TKR as a function of the number of HA injections. The database included 182,022 patients with knee OA who had TKR; 50,349 (27.7%) of these patients were classified as HA Users, receiving ≥1 courses of HA prior to TKR, while 131,673 patients (72.3%) were HA Non-users prior to TKR, receiving no HA. Cox proportional hazards modelling shows that TKR risk decreases as a function of the number of HA injection courses, if patient age, gender, and disease comorbidity are used as background covariates. Multiple HA injections are therefore associated with delay of TKR (all, P < 0.0001). Half of HA Non-users had a TKR by 114 days post-diagnosis of knee OA, whereas half of HA Users had a TKR by 484 days post-diagnosis (χ2 = 19,769; p < 0.0001). Patients who received no HA had a mean time-to-TKR of 0.7 years; with one course of HA, the mean time to TKR was 1.4 years (χ2 = 13,725; p < 0.0001); patients who received ≥5 courses delayed TKR by 3.6 years (χ2 = 19,935; p < 0.0001). Conclusions HA injection in patients with knee OA is associated with a dose-dependent increase in time-to-TKR. PMID:26694145
Background The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled before-and-after study were to compare baseline status to an age-matched population-based reference group and to examine the effects of neuromuscular training on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in patients with severe primary OA of the hip or knee. Methods 87 patients (60–77 years) with severe primary OA of the hip (n = 38, 55% women) or knee (n = 49, 59% women) awaiting total joint replacement (TJR) had supervised, neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) in groups with individualized level and progression of training. A reference group (n = 43, 53% women) was included for comparison with patients’ data. Assessments included self-reported outcomes (HOOS/KOOS) and measures of physical function (chair stands, number of knee bends/30 sec, knee extensor strength, 20-meter walk test) at baseline and at follow-up before TJR. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for comparing patients and references and elucidating influence of demographic factors on change. The paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups. Results At baseline, patients reported worse scores than the references in all HOOS/KOOS subscales (hip 27–47%, knee 14–52%, of reference scores, respectively) and had functional limitations (hip 72–85%, knee 42–85%, of references scores, respectively). NEMEX-TJR (mean 12 weeks (SD 5.6) of training) improved self-reported outcomes (hip 9–29%, knee 7–20%) and physical function (hip 3–18%, knee 5–19%) (p < 0.005). Between 42% and 62% of hip OA patients, and 39% and 61% of knee OA patients, displayed a clinically meaningful improvement (≥15%) in HOOS/KOOS subscales by training. The improvement in HOOS
Objectives To quantify the improvement in health outcomes in patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Methods This was a two-year non-randomized prospective observational study in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergone TKR. Patients were interviewed one week before, six months after, and two years after surgery using a standardized questionnaire including the SF-36, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and the Knee Society Clinical Rating Scale (KSS). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to estimate the magnitudes of the changes with and without the adjustment of age, ethnicity, BMI, and years with OA. Results A total of 298 (at baseline), 176 (at six-months), and 111 (at two-years) eligible patients were included in the analyses. All the scores changed significantly over time, with the exception of SF-36 social functioning, vitality, and mental health. With the adjustment of covariates, the magnitude of changes in these scores was similar to those without the adjustment. Conclusions Both general and knee-specific physical functioning had been significantly improved after TKR, while other health domains have not been substantially improved after the surgery. PMID:20723239
Wang, Youhua; Xu, Dawei; Long, Long; Deng, Xiaolong; Tao, Ran; Huang, Guicheng
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease characterized by cartilage degeneration, secondary synovial membrane inflammation and subchondral bone changes. In recent years, many studies have confirmed that interleukin-18 (IL-18) is involved in the inflammatory process of inflammatory joint diseases. In the present study, we investigated IL-18 levels in plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage of patients with primary knee OA (n = 33) to analyze their relationship with radiographic severity. Compared to healthy controls (n = 15), OA patients had higher plasma and synovial fluid IL-18 concentrations(45.8 ± 22.1 vs. 23.7 ± 13.6 pg/ml, P<0.001 and 75.2 ± 40.1 vs. 28.3 ± 11.6 pg/ml, P<0.001) as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Also,the percentage of immunofluorescent IL-18 positive cells in articular cartilage was significantly increased in OA compared to controls (46.5 ± 10.3 vs. 2.9 ± 1.7, P<0.001). Moreover, plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage IL-18 significantly positively correlated with radiographic severity, respectively (r = 0.663, P<0.001, r = 0.56, P = 0.001 and r = 0.884, P<0.001). Subsequent analysis revealed that plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage IL-18 levels positively correlated with each other (r = 0.632, P<0.001, r = 0.489, P = 0.004 and r = 0.620, P<0.001). These data suggested that plasma, synovial fluid and articular cartilage IL-18 levels were significantly increased in OA patients, and these elevated levels were positively correlated with radiographic severity. Accordingly, our study supports the role of IL-18 in the pathophysiology of OA.
Silva, Andressa; Mello, Marco T.; Serrão, Paula R.; Luz, Roberta P.; Bittencourt, Lia R.; Mattiello, Stela M.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters the fluctuation of submaximal isometric torque of the knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, divided into four groups: Group 1 (G1) - Control (n=15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n=15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n=15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n=15) with OA and with OSA. Five patients underwent maximal isometric contractions of 10 seconds duration each, with the knee at 60° of flexion to determine peak torque at 60°. To evaluate the fluctuation of torque, 5 submaximal isometric contractions (50% of maximum peak torque) of 10 seconds each, which were calculated from the standard deviation of torque and coefficient of variation, were performed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between groups for maximum peak torque, while G4 showed a lower value compared with G1 (p=0.005). Additionally, for the average torque exerted, G4 showed a lower value compared to the G1 (p=0.036). However, no differences were found between the groups for the standard deviation (p=0.844) and the coefficient of variation (p=0.143). CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that OSA did not change the parameters of the fluctuation of isometric submaximal torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade OA. PMID:26443974
Defining an International Standard Set of Outcome Measures for Patients With Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: Consensus of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis Working Group.
Rolfson, Ola; Wissig, Stephanie; van Maasakkers, Lisa; Stowell, Caleb; Ackerman, Ilana; Ayers, David; Barber, Thomas; Benzakour, Thami; Bozic, Kevin; Budhiparama, Nicolaas; Caillouette, James; Conaghan, Philip G; Dahlberg, Leif; Dunn, Jennifer; Grady-Benson, John; Ibrahim, Said A; Lewis, Sally; Malchau, Henrik; Manzary, Mojieb; March, Lyn; Nassif, Nader; Nelissen, Rob; Smith, Noel; Franklin, Patricia D
To define a minimum Standard Set of outcome measures and case-mix factors for monitoring, comparing, and improving health care for patients with clinically diagnosed hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), with a focus on defining the outcomes that matter most to patients. An international working group of patients, arthroplasty register experts, orthopedic surgeons, primary care physicians, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists representing 10 countries was assembled to review existing literature and practices for assessing outcomes of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic OA therapies, including surgery. A series of 8 teleconferences, incorporating a modified Delphi process, were held to reach consensus. The working group reached consensus on a concise set of outcome measures to evaluate patients' joint pain, physical functioning, health-related quality of life, work status, mortality, reoperations, readmissions, and overall satisfaction with treatment result. To support analysis of these outcome measures, pertinent baseline characteristics and risk factor metrics were defined. Annual outcome measurement is recommended for all patients. We have defined a Standard Set of outcome measures for monitoring the care of people with clinically diagnosed hip or knee OA that is appropriate for use across all treatment and care settings. We believe this Standard Set provides meaningful, comparable, and easy to interpret measures ready to implement in clinics and/or registries globally. We view this set as an initial step that, when combined with cost data, will facilitate value-based health care improvements in the treatment of hip and knee OA. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.
Giemza, Czeslaw; Ostrowska, Bozena; Matczak-Giemza, Magdalena
This study presents the influence of a physiotherapy training programme over the standing balance in elderly hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the standing balance in elderly male hip OA patients, and to investigate how the physiotherapy training programme could significantly improve the balance. The tests were performed on a group of selected OA patients as well as on a group of age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects before and after the physiotherapy training programme. The significant differences were observed between the results of tests performed before and after the physiotherapy training programme, and also between the hip OA patients and the control subjects in all CPF parameters, in both sagittal and frontal planes. In conclusion, the hip OA has an effect on the process of maintaining the standing balance. Moreover the physiotherapy training programme significantly improves the postural stability in male hip OA patients.
Altman, R D; Lozada, C J
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular rheumatic disease. Practice guidelines have been developed to assist the practitioner in the care of patients with hip and knee OA. The guidelines divide the treatment strategy into nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic modalities. The nonpharmacologic or nonmedicinal approaches include patient education, psychosocial interventions, physical and surgical measures. Each of these are as important as the pharmacologic or medicinal measures. Medicinal measures can be subdivided into symptomatic therapy and disease modifying therapy. Even though all present therapies are aimed at symptoms, experimental therapies are being developed to alter the disease process.
Conrozier, T; Poole, A R; Ferrand, F; Mathieu, P; Vincent, F; Piperno, M; Verret, C; Ionescu, M; Vignon, E
Cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA) involves excessive degradation and increased synthesis of cartilage matrix macromolecules including type II collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage biomarkers exist for the measurement of cartilage matrix turnover and may reveal differences in patients with OA. To determine whether there are detectable differences in and relationships between biomarkers of type II collagen (CII) degradation (C2C, C1, 2C) and synthesis (CP II) in patients with only hip OA (OHOA) and those suffering from multiple sites OA (MSOA). Fifty-six patients classified as MSOA or OHOA. Minimum hip joint space width (Min JSW) measured by computer from standard radiographs. Serum measurement of CII synthesis C-propeptide (CPII) and cleavage of type II (C2C) and types I and II (C1, 2C) collagens. Aggrecan metabolism was assessed by serum CS 846 assay. Step to step logistic regression to determine the effect of the quantitative data on the assignment to each subgroup. Twenty-four subjects were classified with MSOA. Among the 32 OHAO patients, 15 had bilateral hip OA and 17 had unilateral hip OA. The latter were classified with "Isolated hip OA" (IHOA). CPII levels were significantly lower in patients with MSOA than in those with OHOA (99.9+/-50.3ng/mL versus 141.9+/-81.2ng/mL, p=0.04. OR= 0.18 for CPII >120 ng/mL, p<0.005). C2C levels were also lower in MSOA (9.7+/-2.3ng/mL) versus OHOA (11.4+/-3.2ng/mL, p=0.03. OR= 0.26 for C2C >10 ng/mL, p=0.02). There was an inverse correlation between min JSW and C2C only in patients with IHOA (r=0.50, p= 0.02). Hip OA, in patients with MSOA, might be related to alteration in CII metabolism which may result in a deficient type II collagen repair process. The significant relationship between C2C and JSW in IHOA suggests that this marker is of value in assessing cartilage degradation patients with involvement of a single joint.
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Birjandinejad, Ali; Keshtan, Farideh Golhasani; Hoseini, Hosein A; Mazloumi, Seyed Mahdi
Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common chronic joint disease that involves middle aged and elderly persons. There are different clinical instruments to quantify the health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis and one example is the WOMAC score that has been translated and adapted into different languages. The purpose of this study was cultural adaptation, validation and reliability testing of the Persian version of the WOMAC index in Iranians with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: We translated the original WOMAC questionnaire into Persian by the forward and backward technique, and then its psychometric study was done on 169 native Persian speaking patients with knee degenerative joint disease. Mean age of patients was 53.9 years. The SF-36 and KOOS were used to assess construct validity. Results: Reliability testing resulted in a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.917, showing the internal consistency of the questionnaire to be a reliable tool. Inter-correlation matrix among different scales of the Persian WOMAC index yielded a highly significant correlation between all subscales including stiffness, pain, and physical function. In terms of validity, Pearson`s correlation coefficient was significant between three domains of the WOMAC with PF, RP, BP, GH, VT, and PCS dimensions of the SF-36 health survey (P<0.005) and KOOS (P<0.0001) . Conclusions: The Persian WOMAC index is a valid and reliable patient- reported clinical instrument for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25207315
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Birjandinejad, Ali; Keshtan, Farideh Golhasani; Hoseini, Hosein A; Mazloumi, Seyed Mahdi
Osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common chronic joint disease that involves middle aged and elderly persons. There are different clinical instruments to quantify the health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis and one example is the WOMAC score that has been translated and adapted into different languages. The purpose of this study was cultural adaptation, validation and reliability testing of the Persian version of the WOMAC index in Iranians with knee osteoarthritis. We translated the original WOMAC questionnaire into Persian by the forward and backward technique, and then its psychometric study was done on 169 native Persian speaking patients with knee degenerative joint disease. Mean age of patients was 53.9 years. The SF-36 and KOOS were used to assess construct validity. Reliability testing resulted in a Cronbach's alpha of 0.917, showing the internal consistency of the questionnaire to be a reliable tool. Inter-correlation matrix among different scales of the Persian WOMAC index yielded a highly significant correlation between all subscales including stiffness, pain, and physical function. In terms of validity, Pearson`s correlation coefficient was significant between three domains of the WOMAC with PF, RP, BP, GH, VT, and PCS dimensions of the SF-36 health survey (P<0.005) and KOOS (P<0.0001) . The Persian WOMAC index is a valid and reliable patient- reported clinical instrument for knee osteoarthritis.
Terwee, Caroline B; Coopmans, Charlotte; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Poolman, Rudolf W; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Harlaar, Jaap; de Vet, Henrica C W
Physical functioning of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis is measured by self-report questionnaires and performance-based tests. However, performance-based tests often are not feasible. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-administered questionnaire (ie, the Animated Activity Questionnaire [AAQ]) to measure physical functioning in patients with hip or knee OA. By showing animations of activities, the influence of the patient's own reference frame is minimized. The AAQ measures the same aspects of physical functioning as performance-based tests do. This was a development and preliminary validation (cross-sectional) study. A pilot version of the AAQ was developed using motion capture to analyze the movement of a person performing 7 daily activities. Different animations of the same activity were made with 2 to 5 levels of difficulty. For each activity, participants were asked to choose one animation that best corresponds to their own way of performing the activity. A preliminary validation study was performed to compare the AAQ with validated self-report questionnaires (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and questionnaires on walking, stair climbing, and rising and sitting down) and performance-based tests (walking, Timed "Up & Go" Test, Timed Stair Test) in 33 patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. As expected, the AAQ showed a correlation above .70 (.79, 95% confidence interval=.61-.89) with the total score of the performance-based tests. On the subscore level, the results were partly as expected. Fifty-eight percent of the participants preferred the AAQ over self-report questionnaires and performance-based tests. The findings need to be replicated in larger samples of patients because the sample size of the study was rather small. The AAQ might be a good alternative for measuring physical functioning of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. The AAQ can easily be adapted for use in
Li, Linfu; Liu, Haiqing; Shi, Weimei; Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Xu, Daohua; Huang, Hao; Wu, Longhuo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, and osteophyte formation. No effective treatments are available. The current pharmacological medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics, accompanied by possible adverse effects, might ameliorate OA symptoms. But they do not arrest the progression of OA. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides medical value by modification of disease and symptoms in OA. Valuable work on exploring TCM merits for OA patients has been investigated using modern technologies, although the complicated interacting network among the numerous components indicates the uncertainty of target specification. This review will provide an overview of the action mechanism of TCM in the last 5 years, discussing the TCM activities of anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, anticatabolism, and proliferation in OA. TCM is a proposed medical option for OA treatment.
Li, Linfu; Liu, Haiqing; Shi, Weimei; Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Xu, Daohua
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, and osteophyte formation. No effective treatments are available. The current pharmacological medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics, accompanied by possible adverse effects, might ameliorate OA symptoms. But they do not arrest the progression of OA. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides medical value by modification of disease and symptoms in OA. Valuable work on exploring TCM merits for OA patients has been investigated using modern technologies, although the complicated interacting network among the numerous components indicates the uncertainty of target specification. This review will provide an overview of the action mechanism of TCM in the last 5 years, discussing the TCM activities of anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, anticatabolism, and proliferation in OA. TCM is a proposed medical option for OA treatment. PMID:28203259
Balmaceda, Casilda M
Goals for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) emphasize pain relief, reduction of inflammation, and improvement in functioning. Among pharmacological pain management interventions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently recommended as the most effective treatment option for OA. However, the use of traditional oral NSAIDs is associated with risk of serious adverse events involving the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Topical NSAIDs are an alternative with well-established tolerability and efficacy in the treatment of OA of the knee or hand. While the management of OA pain is evolving toward the more widespread use of topical NSAIDs, some OA management guidelines have yet to incorporate these agents in their recommendations. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, their current placement in OA management guidelines, and their potential role in enabling pain specialists to provide individualized care for their patients with OA. PMID:24748817
Huang, Hsuan-Ti; Liang, Jing-Min; Hung, Wei-Tso; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wu, Wen-Lan
[Purpose] Patients with severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis (KOA) often suffer from low back pain (LBP). However, few studies have examined the relationship between LBP and KOA in downward reach and pick-up movements. [Subjects] Eight KOA patients with LBP (LBP group), 8 KOA patients without LBP (NLBP group), and 7 healthy participants (Control group), without osteoarthritis or low back pain, were recruited for this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to pick up a bottle with one hand, placed at the diagonal on the opposite side of the body. A 3D motion analysis system was used to record trunk and lower limb movements. [Results] The knee flexion angle on the side ipsilateral to the bottle was significantly smaller in both KOA groups than in the controls in the downward reach and pick-up movements. KOA patients showed a significantly lower trunk flexion angle and greater pelvis anterior tilt angle than the controls. In addition, no significant differences were found between the LBP and NLBP group. [Conclusion] We suspect that severe knee pain due to OA determines the priority of movement in strategic planning for the execution of pick-up movements. The knee strategy was abandoned by our severe knee OA patients, even when they had mild LBP. PMID:25364103
Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr
Introduction Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Results Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor – TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients’ age. Conclusions We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may
Seed, Sheila M; Dunican, Kaelen C; Lynch, Ann M
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States. Treatment options such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely used agents to manage mild-to-moderate pain. Treatment with tramadol or opioids is usually reserved for severe pain associated with OA. These agents do not come without risk, especially for older adults. Patient-specific parameters and comorbid conditions must be considered when evaluating treatment options for older adults. This article reviews pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the management of OA in older adults.
Hayes, K W; Petersen, C; Falconer, J
We explored the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the passive motion component of the Cyriax soft tissue diagnosis system. We compared the hypothesized and actual patterns of restriction, end-feel, and pain/resistance sequence (P/RS) of 79 subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and examined associations among these indicators of dysfunction and related constructs of joint motion, pain intensity, and chronicity. Subjects had a mean age of 68.5 years (SD = 13.3, range = 28-95), knee stiffness for an average of 83.6 months (SD = 122.4, range = 1-612), knee pain averaging 5.6 cm (SD = 3.1, range = 0-10) on a 10-cm visual analogue scale, and at least a 10-degree limitation in passive range of motion (ROM) of the knee. Passive ROM (goniometry, n = 79), end-feel (n = 79), and P/RS during end-feel testing (n = 62) were assessed for extension and flexion on three occasions by one of four experienced physical therapists. Test-retest reliability was estimated for the 2-month period between the last two occasions. Consistent with hypotheses based on Cyriax's assertions about patients with OA, most subjects had capsular end-feels for extension; subjects with tissue approximation end-feels for flexion had more flexion ROM than did subjects with capsular end-feels, and the P/RS was significantly correlated with pain intensity (rho = .35, extension; rho = .30, flexion). Contrary to hypotheses based on Cyriax's assertions, most subjects had noncapsular patterns, tissue approximation end-feels for flexion, and what Cyriax called pain synchronous with resistance for both motions. Pain intensity did not differ depending on end-feel. The P/RS was not correlated with chronicity (rho = .03, extension; rho = .01, flexion). Reliability, as analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC[3,1]) and Cohen's kappa coefficients, was acceptable (> or = .80) or nearly acceptable for ROM (ICC = .71-.86, extension; ICC = .95-.99, flexion) but not for end-feel (kappa
Hou, Pu-Wei; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
To evaluate whether the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī) influences symptoms or functional outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (膝關節炎 xī guān jié yán). A systematic review of randomized control trials was conducted. Searches for studies in PubMed that were performed between 1965 and August 2013, and retrieved studies were subjected to reference screening. The types of studies included in our review were 1) placebo-based or comparative studies; 2) open label, single-blinded or double-blinded studies; 3) studies evaluating the efficacy of TCM for treating OA of the knee; and 4) studies evaluating only TCM or combination preparations. Trials were conducted with participants over 18 years of age with knee pain and at least three of the following characteristics: 1) an age greater than 50 years; 2) morning stiffness lasting for fewer than 30 min; 3) a crackling or grating sensation; 4) bony tenderness of the knee; 5) bony enlargement of the knee; or 6) no detectable warmth of the joint to the touch. Studies were rated for risk of bias and graded for quality. After screening, 104 studies that satisfied the eligibility requirements were identified, and only 18 randomized control trials were included in the quantitative and qualitative synthesis. Upon review, we found “moderate-quality” evidence of effects from acupuncture (針灸 zhēn jiǔ) on pain, which was measured using a visual analogue scale, and physical function, which was measured using qigong (氣功 qì gōng) with motion. “Low-quality” evidence was found regarding the effects of acupuncture on physical function, and no evidence was found regarding the effects of herbal medicine on pain or physical function. Herbal patches (藥布 yào bù) appeared to affect pain and physical and function, but these effects were not found to be significant. The initial findings included in this review suggest that acupuncture is a promising intervention
Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Keng-Chang; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Koo, Malcolm
To investigate the risk of incident rheumatoid arthritis in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery using a nationwide health claims database. A nationwide, population-based, case-control study. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 1147 patients (aged 20-100 years) with rheumatoid arthritis and 5735 controls who were frequency-matched for sex, 10-year age interval and year of catastrophic illness certificate application date (index year) were identified. All participants were retrospectively traced, up to 14 years prior to their index year, for diagnosis of osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to quantify the association between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The risks of rheumatoid arthritis were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (adjusted OR=5.24, p<0.001) and osteoarthritis-related surgery (adjusted OR=2.27, p<0.001). This large nationwide, population-based, case-control study showed a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwanese patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis might be a triggering factor of rheumatoid arthritis in environment-sensitised and genetically susceptible individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Stemberger, Regina; Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, mainly affecting middle-aged and elderly persons. People with OA of the knee or hip experience pain and deconditioning that may lead to disability. Treatment goals include pain control, maximizing functional independence, and improving quality of life within the constraints imposed by both OA and comorbidities. Exercise is a core recommendation in all nonpharmacological guidelines for the management of patients with knee or hip OA; it is supposed to ameliorate pain and maybe function as well. Therapeutic ultrasound, neuromuscular as well as transcutaneous electrostimulation, pulsed magnetic field therapy, low-level laser therapy, thermal agents, acupuncture, and assistive devices such as insoles, canes, and braces can be used additionally in a multimodal therapeutic program. They may positively influence pain and function, mobility, and quality of life in patients suffering from OA of the lower limbs.
Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Oreiro, Natividad; Pértega, Sonia; Fenández-López, Carlos; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J
To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO); a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO(2); a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA); human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO(2), the Coll2-1NO(2)/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII, and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892-1.012). For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95% CI = 0.801-0.989). The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are potential complementary candidates for biomarkers of OA; their genotyping in conjunction with the assessment of classical protein molecular markers is recommended.
Roos, Ewa M; Arden, Nigel K
Osteoarthritis (OA) has been thought of as a disease of cartilage that can be effectively treated surgically at severe stages with joint arthroplasty. Today, OA is considered a whole-organ disease that is amenable to prevention and treatment at early stages. OA develops slowly over 10-15 years, interfering with activities of daily living and the ability to work. Many patients tolerate pain, and many health-care providers accept pain and disability as inevitable corollaries of OA and ageing. Too often, health-care providers passively await final 'joint death', necessitating knee and hip replacements. Instead, OA should be viewed as a chronic condition, where prevention and early comprehensive-care models are the accepted norm, as is the case with other chronic diseases. Joint injury, obesity and impaired muscle function are modifiable risk factors amenable to primary and secondary prevention strategies. The strategies that are most appropriate for each patient should be identified, by selecting interventions to correct--or at least attenuate--OA risk factors. We must also choose the interventions that are most likely to be acceptable to patients, to maximize adherence to--and persistence with--the regimes. Now is the time to begin the era of personalized prevention for knee OA.
O'Leary, Helen; Smart, Keith M; Moloney, Niamh A; Blake, Catherine; Doody, Catherine M
Introduction Pain is the dominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and recent evidence suggests factors outside of local joint pathology, such as pain sensitisation, can contribute significantly to the pain experience. It is unknown how pain sensitisation influences outcomes from commonly employed interventions such as physiotherapy. The aims of this study are, first, to provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of people with pain associated with knee OA. Second, we will investigate if indicators of pain sensitisation in patients with knee osteoarthritis are predictive of non-response to physiotherapy. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre prospective cohort study with 140 participants. Eligible patients with moderate to severe symptomatic knee osteoarthritis will be identified at outpatient orthopaedic and rheumatology clinics. A baseline assessment will provide a comprehensive description of the somatosensory characteristics of each participant by means of clinical examination, quantitative sensory testing, and validated questionnaires measuring pain and functional capacity. Participants will then undergo physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome will be non-response to physiotherapy on completion of the physiotherapy treatment programme as defined by the Osteoarthritis Researc