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Sample records for osteofibroso flexor das

  1. Flexor digitorum longus tendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2012-01-01

    The flexor digitorum longus tendon is susceptible to injury along its entire course, and lacerations, ruptures, longitudinal tears, and stenosing tenosynovitis have all been reported. Moreover, this tendon is commonly used for reconstruction of dysfunctional posterior tibial and Achilles tendons. Traditionally, surgery involving the flexor digitorum longus tendon was performed via open incision. We describe a technique of flexor digitorum longus tendoscopy that may encourage the future development of a minimally invasive approach to flexor digitorum longus tendon procedures. PMID:22727339

  2. Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, B A; Young, V L; Arfken, C

    1990-07-01

    A review of 253 consecutive digits with stenosing flexor tenosynovitis was done to clarify the respective role of steroid injection and surgical release in the management of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis. Treatment selection was based on the patient's age and severity of presenting complaints. In patients aged 10 years or more, analysis showed no statistically significant difference between results with steroid injection and surgical release. Surgical treatment was associated with higher cost and more complications. Based on this review, we recommend up to three injections of 20 mg of triamcinolone into the digital flexor sheath as the initial management of nonlocking, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in adults. Initial management by surgical release is reserved for children and patients with digits locked in flexion.

  3. Hip flexor strain - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as sprinting, kicking, and changing direction while running or moving, can stretch and tear the hip flexors. Runners, people who do martial arts, and football, soccer, and hockey players are more likely to have ...

  4. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  5. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately.

  6. Flexor pulley system: anatomy, injury, and management.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Brian; Rendulic, Dora; Szabo, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    Flexor pulley injuries are most commonly seen in avid rock climbers; however, reports of pulley ruptures in nonclimbers are increasing. In addition to traumatic disruption, corticosteroid-induced pulley rupture has been reported as a complication of treating stenosing tenosynovitis. Over the last decade, there have been 2 new developments in the way hand surgeons think about the flexor pulley system. First, the thumb pulley system has been shown to have 4 component constituents, in contrast to the classic teaching of 3 pulleys. Second, in cases of zone II flexor tendon injury, the intentional partial A2 and/or A4 pulley excision or venting is emerging as a component for successful treatment. This is challenging the once-held dogma that preserving the integrity of the entire A2 and A4 pulleys is indispensable for normal digit function. PMID:25459958

  7. Coexistent digital gouty and infective flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Qasim; Hughes, Michael; Muir, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Flexor tenosynovitis of the hand is often caused by trauma or infection. Gouty tenosynovitis is an uncommon presentation of the condition and is usually misdiagnosed as infection with the patient undergoing surgery. The coexistence of infection and gout causing flexor tenosynovitis has never been described before in the literature; we report the first ever case and emphasise the importance of its awareness for optimal treatment. A 54-year-old man was initially diagnosed and treated as having infective flexor tenosynovitis and, later, due to a lack of improvement in his symptoms, was discovered to also have gout. We review the literature and suggest management strategy for use in daily clinical practice, including an algorithm, for this presentation. PMID:27358092

  8. Role of flexors in knee stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Jiang, C C; Jan, M H; Lai, J S

    1995-05-01

    The muscle strength of knee extensors is commonly used as an indicator of a patient's functional recovery following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The knee flexors are dynamic stabilizers that prevent tibial anterior displacement and may reinforce the function of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of knee flexor performance assessed by isokinetic dynamometer and clinical evaluations including KT-1000 stability tests, shuttle run tests, thigh and calf circumference and range of motion of the knee joint. Ten patients who received ACL reconstruction over a 3- to 5-year period were included in this study, as were 15 normal controls who were tested for comparison. There was no significant difference in the time taken for the shuttle run test between normal controls and patients who underwent ACL, but there was a positive correlation between the shuttle run test and laxity of the knee joint. The knee laxity of ACL patients was significantly greater than that of the normal controls under passive anterior force. However, no significant difference was seen in the stability test under active contraction of the knee extensors. In addition, a positive correlation was seen between the KT-1000 knee ligament arthrometry test results and both torque acceleration energy and the average power of the flexors. These results suggest that physical therapy for patients following ACL reconstruction should emphasize the explosiveness of knee flexors to help strengthen the dynamic stability of the knee joint and motor performance.

  9. Flexor digitorum superficialis rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Culver, J E

    1976-04-01

    A rupture of the musculotendinous junction of the flexor digitorum superficialis to the index finger in a baseball pitcher is described. No underlying abnormality could be detected. Because of loss of strength and dexterity, repair of the rupture was accomplished with an improved result.

  10. Nutrient pathways of flexor tendons in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    The perfusion and diffusion pathways to the flexor profundus tendons of 40 monkeys were investigated by measuring the uptake of tritiated proline by various tendon segments. In the absence of all vascular connections, the process of diffusion provides nutrients to all areas of flexor tendon and in this study the process of diffusion was greater. The distal segment of tendon was observed to be profused most rapidly. The proximal tendon segment is perfused from both the muscular-tendinous junction and the vinculum longus; vincular segment perfusion is via the vinculum longus vessels alone; central segment perfusion is shared by the vinculum longus and vinculum brevis vasculature. The distal segment uptake is by both the process of diffusion or vinculum brevis perfusion. The osseous attachment at the distal phalanx contributes little to tendon nutrition.

  11. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  12. IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee report 2014: from the IFSSH Flexor Tendon Committee (Chairman: Jin Bo Tang).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin Bo; Chang, James; Elliot, David; Lalonde, Donald H; Sandow, Michael; Vögelin, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Hand surgeons continue to search for the best surgical flexor tendon repair and treatment of the tendon sheaths and pulleys, and they are attempting to establish postoperative regimens that fit diverse clinical needs. It is the purpose of this report to present the current views, methods, and suggestions of six senior hand surgeons from six different countries - all experienced in tendon repair and reconstruction. Although certainly there is common ground, the report presents provocative views and approaches. The report reflects an update in the views of the committee. We hope that it is helpful to surgeons and therapists in treating flexor tendon injuries. PMID:23962872

  13. Tendon ruptures: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S

    2012-08-01

    Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx.

  14. The role of carbon fibre as a flexor tendon substitute.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, R

    1983-06-01

    Experiments have been carried out on Rhesus monkeys to determine the effectiveness of carbon fibre as a flexor tendon substitute. Though the strength, flexibility and capacity to induce a neotendon make carbon fibre an ideal flexor tendon substitute, induction of fibrosis and accompanying increase in bulk of the implant resulted in failure.

  15. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  16. Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis following a rattlesnake bite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lydia; Yao, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    Snakebite victims have been described previously in orthopedic literature in regard to complications such as compartment syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome. We introduce a previously unreported complication of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in a patient bitten by a rattlesnake. After being bitten in her right forearm, the patient experienced mild systemic symptoms of fever and nausea and was assessed at an outside hospital, where it was determined that she did not suffer from envenomation and therefore did not require antivenin therapy. She presented to our institution 1 week later with signs and symptoms of acute, new-onset right thumb flexor tenosynovitis, with pain and tenderness at the level of the A1 pulley of the thumb, with intermittent triggering. She also presented the following week with ipsilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The patient reported no such symptoms prior to the snakebite. Given the recent development of these conditions after her snakebite, in addition to her history of endocrine disorders, we believe that our patient suffered from envenomation that led to these complications. Nonoperative measures including splinting and steroid injections were taken, with mixed results, and surgical intervention was necessary. While the proper management of snakebites is controversial, especially in regard to the administration of antivenin, we believe our patient would have benefitted from immediate evaluation and consideration for antivenin. PMID:20608624

  17. Hindfoot endoscopy for accessory flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen

    2011-03-01

    We present a case report involving the flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) tendon which travels through a fibro-osseous tunnel together with the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon, causing a stenosing tenosynovitis. The patient was admitted with posteromedial ankle pain and diagnosed clinically as FHL tenosynovitis. We found two tendons in the tunnel during hindfoot endoscopy. The stenosis was relieved by endoscopic debridement. After the operation, we checked the MRI images and observed two tendons. We concluded that the accessory tendon was the FDAL. Two years later the patient was admitted with the same symptoms. We excised the FDAL muscle and the patient's symptoms resolved. The FDAL muscle is a cause of FHL tenosynovitis. Because of its variability and mostly asymptomatic nature, it may not be noticed it on an MRI scan. Hindfoot endoscopy is a safe tool for the diagnosis of this condition and curative treatment is afforded by excision of the FDAL muscle. PMID:21276556

  18. Active tendon implants in flexor tendon reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M; Singer, D I; Jaeger, S H; Mackin, E J

    1988-11-01

    Forty-five active flexor tendon implants were evaluated after placement in scarred tendon beds of digits II through V. The implant is constructed of silicone rubber with a Dacron core, terminating in a loop proximally and a metal plate distally. Modification of the implant during the period of study has improved its reliability and longevity. The improvement in total active motion (TAM) averaged 72 degrees during implant functioning (stage I) in a group of digits that before operation were classified as 78% Boyes grade 5 (salvage). Complication rate during stage I was 11% (5 out of 45). Of the 27 digits evaluated after implant replacement by tendon autograft (stage II), there was an overall improvement in 62 degrees total active motion with 70% of digits being Boyes grade 5. Many of the complications were believed to be avoidable with experience. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an active tendon implant and the possibility of a permanent prosthesis. PMID:2976074

  19. Murine Flexor Tendon Injury and Repair Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Jessica E; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2016-01-01

    Tendon connects skeletal muscle and bone, facilitating movement of nearly the entire body. In the hand, flexor tendons (FTs) enable flexion of the fingers and general hand function. Injuries to the FTs are common, and satisfactory healing is often impaired due to excess scar tissue and adhesions between the tendon and surrounding tissue. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular components of FT repair. To that end, a murine model of FT repair that recapitulates many aspects of healing in humans, including impaired range of motion and decreased mechanical properties, has been developed and previously described. Here an in-depth demonstration of this surgical procedure is provided, involving transection and subsequent repair of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon in the murine hind paw. This technique can be used to conduct lineage analysis of different cell types, assess the effects of gene gain or loss-of-function, and to test the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in the healing process. However, there are two primary limitations to this model: i) the FDL tendon in the mid-portion of the murine hind paw, where the transection and repair occur, is not surrounded by a synovial sheath. Therefore this model does not account for the potential contribution of the sheath to the scar formation process. ii) To protect the integrity of the repair site, the FT is released at the myotendinous junction, decreasing the mechanical forces of the tendon, likely contributing to increased scar formation. Isolation of sufficient cells from the granulation tissue of the FT during the healing process for flow cytometric analysis has proved challenging; cytology centrifugation to concentrate these cells is an alternate method used, and allows for generation of cell preparations on which immunofluorescent labeling can be performed. With this method, quantification of cells or proteins of interest during FT healing becomes possible. PMID:27684281

  20. Disorders of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Os Trigonum.

    PubMed

    Rungprai, Chamnanni; Tennant, Joshua N; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-10-01

    Os trigonum syndrome with disease of the flexor hallucis longus tendon, so-called stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, is a common cause of posterior ankle impingement. Conservative treatment is the recommended first line of treatment, with secondary treatment options of either open or arthroscopic os trigonum excision with flexor hallucis longus retinaculum release. The arthroscopic approaches have gained popularity in the past decade because of less scarring, less postoperative pain, minimal overall morbidity, and earlier return to activities. However, comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of the posterior ankle is crucial to warrant successful outcomes and minimizing complications. PMID:26409593

  1. Disorders of the Flexor Hallucis Longus and Os Trigonum.

    PubMed

    Rungprai, Chamnanni; Tennant, Joshua N; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-10-01

    Os trigonum syndrome with disease of the flexor hallucis longus tendon, so-called stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, is a common cause of posterior ankle impingement. Conservative treatment is the recommended first line of treatment, with secondary treatment options of either open or arthroscopic os trigonum excision with flexor hallucis longus retinaculum release. The arthroscopic approaches have gained popularity in the past decade because of less scarring, less postoperative pain, minimal overall morbidity, and earlier return to activities. However, comprehensive understanding of the anatomy of the posterior ankle is crucial to warrant successful outcomes and minimizing complications.

  2. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  3. Flexor carpi radialis tendon ultrasound pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Luong, Dien Hung; Smith, Jay; Bianchi, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Disorders of the flexor carpi radialis tendon (FCRt) are often missed even though they are a relatively frequent cause of volar radial wrist pain. They can manifest as tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, synovial sheath cysts with or without scaphoid-trapezoid-trapezium (STT) joint pathology, and partial or complete rupture. Because FCRt disorders often present with non-specific symptoms and a non-diagnostic clinical examination, imaging is often necessary for accurate evaluation and therapeutic planning. Conventional radiography provides good visualization of the neighboring bones and joints, as well as rare intratendinous calcifications. MRI enables evaluation of the FCRt and adjacent anatomical structures with excellent tissue resolution. In comparison, ultrasound (US) evaluation of the FCRt is less commonly described in the radiology literature, despite its affordability, exquisite soft tissue resolution, and the advantages of quick, dynamic diagnostic imaging. This pictorial essay describes and demonstrates the normal anatomy of the FCRt, its US examination technique and normal US appearance, and US findings of clinically relevant FCRt disorders.

  4. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Y; Senda, M; Oka, T; Yagata, Y; Takahara, Y; Nagashima, H; Inoue, H

    2000-04-01

    In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  5. Quantification of regional blood flow to canine flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Weidman, K.A.; Simonet, W.T.; Wood, M.B.; Cooney, W.P.; Ilstrup, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Although the blood supply and the microcirculation of flexor tendons have been studied and defined extensively using qualitative methods, the quantitative assessment of blood flow has been lacking because of the limitations of the available experimental techniques. The authors studied the regional blood supply to the flexor tendons of dogs by the technique of radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Seven adult mongrel dogs were used. Microsphere injection and tissue-counting techniques previously used for other tissues were applied. Samples of proximal, isthmus, and distal portions of the profundus and superficialis flexor tendons were harvested from each digital unit of available limbs from each dog. Mean (+/- SE) flows (ml/100 g dry tissue/min) were proximal profundus 1.78 +/- 0.60 and superficialis 7.10 +/- 1.50. The differences were significant. The study suggests that regional variation in blood flow to canine digital flexor tendons exists, so that a single value for blood flow to these tendons is not relevant. Furthermore, the study supports the concept of dual (vascular and synovial) nutrition to the digital flexor tendons in dogs. These observations may have implications regarding tendon repair techniques.

  6. Phaeohyphomycosis infection leading to flexor tendon rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Jaskarndip; Dhotar, Herman S; Anastakis, Dimitri J

    2009-09-01

    A rare previously unreported cause of flexor tendon rupture is described. A 66-year-old man presented with a fully extended left middle finger, accompanied by swelling and purulent drainage. Prior to presentation, he had received a steroid injection for left middle finger stenosing tenosynovitis and subsequently developed culture-proven phaeohyphomycosis fungal infection and secondary enterococcal bacterial infection, requiring pharmacotherapy and incision, drainage, and debridement for abscess formation. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with the diagnosis of closed flexor tendon rupture of the left middle finger. Antifungal and antibiotic therapy followed by two-stage flexor tendon reconstruction was performed. Six months postoperatively, full passive range of motion was achieved and the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of the left middle finger actively flexed to 125 degrees and 90 degrees, respectively. PMID:19259746

  7. The Epidemiology of Reoperation After Flexor Pulley Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Christopher J.; Lyman, Stephen; Schreiber, Joseph J.; Do, Huong T.; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We used a statewide database to determine the incidence of pulley reconstruction and to evaluate the influence of demographics on reoperation. We hypothesized that age, insurance status, and concomitant nerve or tendon procedure would influence the likelihood of reoperation. Methods We used the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System ambulatory surgery database from New York, which represents all outpatient surgery in the state. Patients who had flexor pulley reconstruction from 1998 to 2009 were identified using Current Procedural Terminology 4 codes. Subsequent surgery records for these patients were identified through 2010, allowing at least 1 year follow-up. Concomitant nerve procedure and flexor tendon repair/reconstruction were identified. The type and timing of subsequent procedures, including tenolysis and repeat pulley reconstruction, were recorded. Univariate statistics were calculated to compare age, sex, and payer type between patients with and without reoperation. A multivariable, logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association of the demographics with the chances of having reoperation. Results There were 623 patients who had flexor pulley reconstruction from 1998 to 2009. The incidence of pulley reconstruction was 0.27 per 100,000 persons, with an annual frequency of 52 procedures. There were 39 (6%) reoperations. There was no difference in age, concomitant nerve or tendon repair, or workers’ compensation between patients with and without reoperation. Regression modeling showed a higher likelihood among men of having reoperation. Conclusions Flexor pulley reconstructions are rare. One-quarter of surgeons performed only one flexor pulley reconstruction over a 12-year period. The 6% reoperation rate is similar to our previous findings for flexor tendon repair using similar methodology. Our report provides information that may be useful in counseling patients. Type of study/level of evidence Prognostic II. PMID

  8. Superficialis Sling (Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Tenodesis) for Swan Neck Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wei, David H; Terrono, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Swan neck deformity, or hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint, may occur secondary to trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and can be treated with tenodesis of one slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon. This technique has several variations, differing primarily in the specific location and method that a single slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon is secured, but they all serve to create a static volar restraint against hyperextension. Options include tunneling the tendon through the bone of the proximal phalanx, attaching the tendon to the A1 or A2 pulley, or securing the tendon with bone anchors in the proximal phalanx. PMID:26328902

  9. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; Del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  10. Flexor Digitorum Accessorius Longus: Importance of Posterior Ankle Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592

  11. Single-Stage Flexor Tendon Grafting: Refining the Steps.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Derek R; McClinton, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Single-stage tendon grafting for reconstruction of zone I and II flexor tendon injuries is a challenging procedure in hand surgery. Careful patient selection, strict indications, and adherence to sound surgical principles are mandatory for return of digital motion. PMID:26026357

  12. Pediatric flexor tendon injuries: A 10-year outcome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Sheena; Lai, Michelle; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary flexor tendon repair was first introduced in the 1960s. Since then, major advances in the understanding of flexor tendon anatomy and biology have led to improved outcomes following repair. Relative to the adult population, sparse knowledge exists as to which operative and postoperative treatments are most successful in children. This is due, in part, to the rarity of pediatric tendon lacerations compared with the adult population, but also related to challenges when working with smaller anatomy and the decreased compliance in children with respect to rehabilitation protocols. Published reports indicate that the incidence of ‘good’ flexor tendon repair outcomes is as low as 53%. OBJECTIVE: To determine the injury pattern and demographics of pediatric flexor tendon injuries involving zones I, II and III over the past decade, and to report results and identify treatment paradigms that are associated with optimal outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all flexor tendon injuries involving zones I, II and III between April 2001 and December 2010 was performed. Parameters reviewed included demographics, injury mechanism, repair technique, outcomes and complications. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with a median age of eight years experienced 100 tendon injuries. The most common cause of injury was glass (n=22), with the most common digit injured being the small finger (n=30). Tendon injuries included the following: flexor digitorum superficialis (n=46); flexor digitorum profundus (n=45), flexor pollicis longus (n=8); and adductor pollicis longus (n=1). Zone III had the highest number of injuries (n=47), followed by zone II (n=39). Ninety tendons were repaired using polyester suture, the most common size being 4-0. The modified Kessler technique was used in the majority of cases (n=62). Only 22 tendons underwent an epitendinous repair. Splint immobilization was used in 30 patients and a full cast in 17. The median duration of

  13. Comparison of modified Kessler tendon suture at different levels in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon and porcine flexors and porcine extensors: an experimental biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Järvinen, T L N; Göransson, H

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the biomechanical behaviour of repairs in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones I, II and III with repairs of different segments of the porcine flexor tendon of the second digit and the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon, in order to assess the validity of porcine tendons as models for human flexor tendon repairs. These porcine tendons were selected after comparing their size with the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The tendon repairs were done in three segments of each porcine tendon and repairs in the human tendons were done in zones I,II and III. Ten tendons in each group yielded a total of 90 specimens. A modified Kessler repair was done with 3-0 coated braided polyester suture and subjected to uniaxial tensile testing. In human flexor tendons, the ultimate force was higher in zones I and II than in zone III. The porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon from the second digit and the proximal segment of the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon behaved similarly to the human flexor tendon in zone III and can be considered as surrogates for the human flexor tendon. PMID:21816887

  14. Case report: accessory head of the deep forearm flexors

    PubMed Central

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875) and these have subsequently been reported with variable attachments (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Turner, 1879; Schäfer & Thane, 1894; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Kida, 1988; Tountas & Bergman, 1993). The accessory heads of the deep flexors of the forearm (Gantzer's muscles) have been described as 2 different small bellies which insert either into FPL or FDP. There are no previous reports which have mentioned the existence of an accessory muscle which inserts into both of the 2 deep flexors of the forearm as in the case presented here. PMID:9306208

  15. Amplitude transitions of swimmers and flexors in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert; Thomases, Becca

    2015-11-01

    In both theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of fluid elasticity on micro-organism swimming, very different behavior has been observed for small and large amplitude strokes. We present simulations of an undulatory swimmer in an Oldroyd-B fluid and show that the resulting viscoelastic stresses are a nonlinear function of the amplitude. Specifically, there appears to be an amplitude dependent transition that is key to obtaining a speed-up over the Newtonian swimming speed. To understand the physical mechanism of the transition, we examine the stresses in a time-symmetric oscillatory bending beam, or flexor. We compare the flow in a neighborhood of the flexor tips with a large-amplitude oscillatory extensional flow, and we see similar amplitude dependent transitions. We relate these transitions to observed speed-ups in viscoelastic swimmers.

  16. Bioreactor optimization of tissue engineered rabbit flexor tendons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Thorfinn, J; Angelidis, I K; Gigliello, L; Pham, H M; Lindsey, D; Chang, J

    2012-02-01

    Tissue-engineered rabbit flexor tendons reseeded with cells are stronger in vitro after culture in a bioreactor. It is not known whether this effect persists in vivo. Tenocytes from New Zealand white rabbits were seeded onto rabbit rear paw flexor tendons that were deprived of cells and exposed to cyclic strain in a bioreactor. Reseeded constructs that were kept unloaded in a medium for 5 days were used as controls. The tendons were implanted to bridge a zone II defect in the rabbit. After explantation 4 weeks later, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM) were determined. Tendon constructs that were exposed to cyclic strain had significantly improved UTS and EM. Histology showed that cellularity was increased in the bioreactor tendons.

  17. Entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus tendon following ankle arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Keith, Troy; Robinson, Andrew H N

    2016-03-01

    Impingement following arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis has not been reported in the literature previously. We present a case report of a 68-year-old male 9 months following an uncomplicated arthroscopic ankle fusion presenting with persistent posteromedial ankle pain. Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon impingement resulting from a prominent os trigonum was identified. This was successfully treated utilising hindfoot endoscopy with excision of the os trigonum and FHL release.

  18. Partial Flexor Tendon Laceration Assessment: Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability.

    PubMed

    Barker, B Justin; Kolovich, Gregory P; Klinefelter, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in the hand is difficult owing to the subjectivity of evaluation. In this study, we created 12 partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric hand, evaluated the accuracy of 6 orthopedic residents and 4 fellowship-trained hand surgeons in estimating the percentage thickness of each laceration, and assessed the groups' interobserver and intraobserver agreement. The 10 participants estimated each laceration independently and on 2 separate occasions and indicated whether they would repair it. The actual thickness of each laceration was calculated from measurements made with a pair of digital microcalipers. Overall estimates differed significantly from calibrated measurements. Estimates grouped by residents and fellowship-trained hand surgeons also differed significantly. Third-year residents were the most accurate residents, and fellowship-trained hand surgeons were more accurate than residents. Overall interobserver agreement was poor for both readings. There was moderate overall intraobserver agreement. Fellowship-trained hand surgeons and first-year residents had the highest intraobserver agreement. These results highlight the difficulty in accurately assessing flexor tendon lacerations. Accuracy appears not to improve with surgeon experience. PMID:26991579

  19. Absence of the flexor digitorum longus tendon: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Taqvi, Syed; Cooper, Robert; Blundell, Chris M; Davies, Mark B

    2012-11-01

    Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is the primary flexor of the lateral four toes. It is a reliable source of tendon for transfer surgery. We present a case whereby a patient who required a reconstruction for adult acquired flatfoot deformity using FDL as a dynamic structure for transfer was found to have an absent FDL tendon at the time of operation, necessitating the use of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) instead. This unusual finding prompted us to investigate the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon. We reviewed our hospital MRI database of foot and ankle images specifically looking for patients with absence of this tendon. After randomization, 756 images were reviewed independently by two surgeons and a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. No instances of an absent FDL tendon were identified. In conclusion, the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon is less than 1 in 750. Surgeons who require FDL for tendon transfer surgery need not image the foot preoperatively to anticipate the need for the use of FHL as an alternative. PMID:22334461

  20. A biomechanical study of pediatric flexor profundus tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thunayan, Turki A.; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed T.; Hakeem, Ahmad A.; Al-Zahrani, Fahad M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the tensile strength of repaired flexor profundus tendons in young lambs, which would be equivalent to repairs in children older than 2 years of age. Methods: A comparative in-vitro experimental study conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2014 to December 2015. We utilized 30 flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a width of 4 mm. All tendons were repaired with a 4-strand repair technique using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures. In group I (n=10 tendons), 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures were applied. In group II (n=10 tendons), simple locking sutures were added to the corners of 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures. In group III (n=10 tendons), the locked cruciate repair was used. All tendon repairs were tested to single-cycle tensile failure. Results: There was no significant difference between groups II and III with regards to gap and breaking forces; and all forces of these 2 groups were significantly higher than the forces in group I. Conclusion: It was concluded that 4 mm-wide pediatric flexor tendons allow a 4-strand repair and the use of 4/0 sutures. The use of locking sutures increases the tensile strength to values that may allow protective mobilization in children. PMID:27570850

  1. Effect of pulley excision on flexor tendon biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Bollinger, B A; Lesker, P A; McCarthy, J A

    1986-01-01

    Flexor tendon function following excision of various portions of the fibro-osseous pulley system was measured biomechanically using a tensile testing machine. The biomechanical parameters measured were tendon excursion (the excursion of the tendon required to fully flex the digit) and work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve, representing all the forces that resist tendon flexion). In this experiment, work of flexion included the forces necessary to accomplish full digital flexion against a 15-g counter-weight, as well as the frictional forces that resist tendon gliding. The results indicate that the work of flexion was affected to a greater degree by pulley loss than was tendon excursion, suggesting that it is a more sensitive measurement of tendon function. A2 was found to be the single most important pulley for flexor tendon function, followed by A4. However, both A2 and A4 had to be present if near-normal hand function was to be achieved; sacrificing the A1 pulley was not associated with a significant loss of flexion. The "pulley effect" of the skin and soft tissue as a supplement to the fibro-osseous pulleys in reducing tendon bow-stringing was also noted. Although the parameters of tendon excursion and work of flexion were used in this study to determine the effect of pulley loss on tendon function, they can also be used to evaluate other flexor tendon studies, such as pulley reconstruction.

  2. Toe Flexor Strength, Flexibility and Function and Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Morphology in Dancers and Non-Dancers.

    PubMed

    Rowley, K Michael; Jarvis, Danielle N; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Chang, Yu-Jen; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Kulig, Kornelia

    2015-09-01

    Tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), colloquially referred to as "dancer's tendinitis," is a common condition in dancers and attributed to high demand on this muscle in positions of extreme ankle plantarflexion and metatarsophalangeal (MTP)) flexion and extension. Despite such a high prevalence, there has been little research into preventative or nonsurgical interventions. As a means to identify potential targets for prevention and intervention, this study aimed to characterize toe flexors in dancers by measuring strength, flexibility, function, and FHL tendon morphology. Dancers (n=25) were compared to non-dancers (n=25) in toe flexor isometric strength, first MTP joint range of motion, foot longitudinal arch flexibility, balance ability, endurance during modified heel raises without use of the toes, and FHL tendon thickness, cross-sectional area, and peak spatial frequency. Significant differences were found in functional first MTP joint extension (dancers 101.95°, non-dancers 91.15°, p<0.001), balance ability during single-leg stance on the toes (dancers 11.43 s, non-dancers 5.90 s, p=0.013), and during modified heel raises (dancers 22.20 reps, non-dancers 28.80 reps, p=0.001). Findings indicate that dancers rely on toe flexors more than non-dancers to complete balance and heel raise tasks. Efficacy of using this modified heel raise task with the toes off the edge of a block as a means to train larger plantarflexors and as a nonsurgical intervention should be studied in the future. Improving interventions for FHL tendinopathy will be impactful for dancers, in whom this condition is highly prevalent.

  3. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  4. Delayed diagnosis of brain tumor in a patient with flexor spasms and spastic foot drop

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, V. K.; Malhotra, H. S.; Sharma, R.; Shukla, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    Flexor spasms are involuntary muscle contractions comprising dorsiflexion at the ankle and flexion at the knee and the hip, occurring as a result of nociceptive spinal release reflex. The presence of flexor spasms generally suggests a lesion in the spinal cord. Foot drop is usually seen with lesions of lumbosacral roots, peripheral nerves or muscles. We hereby present a patient with a rare combination of spastic foot drop and flexor spasms due to a brain tumor. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in flexor spasms due to a cerebral lesion are briefly discussed. PMID:19893685

  5. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  6. Flexor Tendon Sheath Ganglions: Results of Surgical Excision

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Edwin E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to review the clinical features and determine the results following surgical excision of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion. A retrospective analysis of 24 consecutive patients (25 ganglions) who underwent excision of a painful flexor tendon sheath ganglion by the same surgeon was performed. The patient’s medical and operative records were reviewed. Each patient was invited to return for an evaluation, which consisted of a clinical interview, completion of a questionnaire, and physical examination. Those patients that were unable to return underwent a detailed telephone interview. Sixteen patients returned for a clinical evaluation, while eight patients underwent a telephone interview. There were 15 women and nine men, with an average age of 43 years (range, 21–68 years). The dominant hand was involved in 15 patients. The long finger was most commonly involved (11 cases). The ganglion arose from the A1 pulley in 13 cases, between the A1 and A2 pulleys in three cases, and from the A2 pulley in nine cases. At an average follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 5–38 months), all of the patients were satisfied with their final result. No patient developed a recurrence and all returned to their previous functional level. There were two minor complications that resolved uneventfully; one patient experienced mild incisional tenderness, while an additional patient experienced transient digital nerve paresthesias. We conclude that surgical excision is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating a painful ganglion of the digital flexor tendon sheath. PMID:18780066

  7. Chondroma within the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Brahms, M A; Fumich, R M

    1978-01-01

    Chondromas in tendon sheaths are a rare entity proviously reported in the flexor sheaths on the hand and possibly the foot. This is the first reported case of condroma of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath at the ankle region. A literature review with regard to pathogenesis, classification, and recurrence has been presented.

  8. Locomotor training alters the behavior of flexor reflexes during walking in human spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Rymer, William Zev; Knikou, Maria

    2014-11-01

    In humans, a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs the excitability of pathways mediating early flexor reflexes and increases the excitability of late, long-lasting flexor reflexes. We hypothesized that in individuals with SCI, locomotor training will alter the behavior of these spinally mediated reflexes. Nine individuals who had either chronic clinically motor complete or incomplete SCI received an average of 44 locomotor training sessions. Flexor reflexes, elicited via sural nerve stimulation of the right or left leg, were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before and after body weight support (BWS)-assisted treadmill training. The modulation pattern of the ipsilateral TA responses following innocuous stimulation of the right foot was also recorded in 10 healthy subjects while they stepped at 25% BWS to investigate whether body unloading during walking affects the behavior of these responses. Healthy subjects did not receive treadmill training. We observed a phase-dependent modulation of early TA flexor reflexes in healthy subjects with reduced body weight during walking. The early TA flexor reflexes were increased at heel contact, progressively decreased during the stance phase, and then increased throughout the swing phase. In individuals with SCI, locomotor training induced the reappearance of early TA flexor reflexes and changed the amplitude of late TA flexor reflexes during walking. Both early and late TA flexor reflexes were modulated in a phase-dependent pattern after training. These new findings support the adaptive capability of the injured nervous system to return to a prelesion excitability and integration state.

  9. Factors affecting the ultrasonic properties of equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Fursey, G A; Birch, H L; Young, R D

    1996-01-01

    The velocity, attenuation and apparent backscattering coefficient of 6-11-MHz ultrasound were measured in three orthogonal directions in equine deep digital flexor (DDF) and superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons at 0 degree C. Ultrasonic measurements were examined for correlation with tendon water, collagen, DNA and glycosaminoglycans contents, determined by chemical analyses and with structure observed by scanning electron microscopy. The SDF tendon contained more water, more DNA (i.e., more cells), less collagen and less glycosaminoglycans and exhibited lower velocities and attenuations than the DDF tendon. Velocities were governed primarily by the adiabatic bulk modulus and density, perturbed by a highly direction-dependent rigidity. Ultrasound propagating across tendon generated frequency-independent backscattering which appeared to derive from the large interfaces between the fascicles, while along the fibres backscattering varied as f3.62 +/- 0.88 and appeared to derive from small structures such as collagen fibres. The mechanisms by which ultrasound is attenuated by tendon remain unknown.

  10. Subcutaneous rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Noda, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Ichiro; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hagio, Tomonobu; Naito, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon can be associated with open injuries and that closed rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is rare. Tendon injuries of the foot can occur secondary to direct, indirect, or repetitive injury. Repetitive tendon injuries can cause tendinitis or stenosing tenosynovitis. Tendinitis is associated with internal tendon injury that can present with tendon thickening, mucinoid degeneration, nodule development, or in situ partial tears. Stenosing tenosynovitis is the development of tendon adhesions within the tendon sheath that interfere with tendon gliding, known as trigger toe. The flexor hallucis longus tendon is susceptible to injury along its entire course. A total of 35 cases of complete or partial closed ruptures of the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been reported. We present the case of complete subcutaneous rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with trauma at the proximal phalangeal head. PMID:22153296

  11. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball. PMID:27630405

  12. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball. PMID:27630405

  13. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball.

  14. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball.

  15. Resistance exercise prevents plantar flexor deconditioning during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Hunter, G. R.; Stevens, B. R.; Guilliams, M. E.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REX) and unloading induce opposing neuromuscular adaptations, we tested the efficacy of REX against the effects of 14 d of bed rest unloading (BRU) on the plantar flexor muscle group. Sixteen men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NOE, N = 8) or REX (N = 8). REX performed 5 sets x 6-10 repetitions to failure of constant resistance concentric/eccentric plantar flexion every other day during BRU. One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was tested on the training device. The angle-specific torque-velocity relationship across 5 velocities (0, 0.52, 1.05, 1.75, and 2.97 rad.s-1) and the full range-of-motion power-velocity relationship were assessed on a dynamometer. Torque-position analyses identified strength changes at shortened, neutral, and stretched muscle lengths. Concentric and eccentric contractile work were measured across ten repetitions at 1.05 rad.s-1. Maximal neural activation was measured by surface electromyography (EMG). 1RM decreased 9% in NOE and improved 11% in REX (P < 0.05). Concentric (0.52 and 1.05 rad.s-1), eccentric (0.52 and 2.97 rad.s-1), and isometric angle-specific torques decreased (P < 0.05) in NOE, averaging 18%, 17%, and 13%, respectively. Power dropped (P < 0.05) in NOE at three eccentric (21%) and two concentric (14%) velocities. REX protected angle-specific torque and average power at all velocities. Concentric and eccentric strength decreased at stretched (16%) and neutral (17%) muscle lengths (P < 0.05) in NOE while REX maintained or improved strength at all joint positions. Concentric (15%) and eccentric (11%) contractile work fell in NOE (P < 0.05) but not in REX. Maximal plantar flexor EMG did not change in either group. In summary, constant resistance concentric/eccentric REX completely prevented plantar flexor performance deconditioning induced by BRU. The reported benefits of REX should prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity and for patients susceptible to functional

  16. Operative technique for human composite flexor tendon allograft procurement and engraftment.

    PubMed

    DeGeorge, Brent R; Rodeheaver, George T; Drake, David B

    2014-01-01

    Devastating volar hand injuries with significant damage to the pulley structures and fibro-osseous sheath, flexor tendons, and volar plates pose a major problem to the reconstructive hand surgeon. Despite advances in tendon handling, operative technique, and postoperative hand rehabilitation, patients who have undergone flexor tendon reconstruction are often plagued by chronic pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion with resultant decreased ability to work and poor quality of life. Postoperative adhesion formation and lack of suitable donor material for tendon autograft are 2 fundamental problems that continue to challenge the hand surgeon. In 1967, Erle E. Peacock, Jr, described a technique of flexor tendon reconstruction using cadaveric composite flexor tendon allograft, which consisted of both the flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis tendons in their respective fibro-osseous sheaths consisting of the digital pulley structures and the underlying periosteum and volar plates. This technique never gained widespread acceptance due to concerns regarding tissue antigenicity, infectious disease transmission, and the rising popularity of the method of Hunter for silastic rod-based flexor tendon reconstruction initially described during the same period. With modern-day advances in tissue processing with acellularization and extensive donor screening for transmissible diseases, this technique should be revisited to address the reconstructive needs of patients with extensive volar soft tissue and tendon injury. Herein, we describe the operative technique of composite flexor tendon procurement and reconstruction with key modifications from the initial technique described by Peacock for improved composite construct elevation, soft tissue inset, and bony attachment.

  17. A histological study of macroscopically normal equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Webbon, P M

    1978-10-01

    The normal appearance of the superficial (SFT) and deep (DFT) digital flexor tendons was described and the difference between their histological structures was emphasised. Further differences were recognised between different sites from the same tendon and between tendons in the fore and hind limbs of the same animal. Both of the tendons underwent changes with age but although a number of alterations in the histological appearance were described, a particular change, involving a patchy loss of stainable nuclei, was found at the common site of SFT injuries. While this appearance has been seen in injured tendons and described as tendon necrosis, the author warns that no cause and effect relationship has been established between the acellularity and the clinical lesions. Neither is it certain that the loss of tendon cells results in mechanical weakness of the tendon.

  18. Determining flexor-tendon repair techniques via soft computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Firoozbakhsh, K.; Moniem, M.; Jamshidi, M.

    2001-01-01

    An SC-based multi-objective decision-making method for determining the optimal flexor-tendon repair technique from experimental and clinical survey data, and with variable circumstances, was presented. Results were compared with those from the Taguchi method. Using the Taguchi method results in the need to perform ad-hoc decisions when the outcomes for individual objectives are contradictory to a particular preference or circumstance, whereas the SC-based multi-objective technique provides a rigorous straightforward computational process in which changing preferences and importance of differing objectives are easily accommodated. Also, adding more objectives is straightforward and easily accomplished. The use of fuzzy-set representations of information categories provides insight into their performance throughout the range of their universe of discourse. The ability of the technique to provide a "best" medical decision given a particular physician, hospital, patient, situation, and other criteria was also demonstrated.

  19. An Unusual Cause of Flexor Tenosynovitis: Streptococcus mitis

    PubMed Central

    Ulucay, Cağatay; Ozler, Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Streptococcus mitis is a commensal organism of the human oropharynx that rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. Herein, we describe a previously healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the left index finger due to S. mitis infection. The patient’s infection was treated successfully via surgical and medical interventions, and during follow-up, it was determined that she was complement component C3 deficient. Tenosynovitis is an emergent clinical syndrome that can result in permanent disability or amputation. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe tenosynovitis due to S. mitis; in addition, it highlights the importance of initiating therapy with antibiotics that are effective against this rare pathogen. PMID:25587497

  20. Flexor digitorum profundus tendon tension during finger manipulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to measure the tension in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon in zone II and the digit angle during joint manipulations that replicate rehabilitation protocols. Eight FDP tendons from eight human cadavers were used in this study. The dynamic tension in zone II of the tendon and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint angle were measured in various wrist and digit positions. Tension in the FDP tendon increased with MCP joint extension. There was no tension with the finger fully flexed and wrist extended (synergistic motion), but the tendon force reached 1.77 +/- 0.43 N with the MCP joint hyperextended 45 degrees with the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints flexed. The combination of wrist extension and MCP joint hyperextension with the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints fully flexed, what the authors term "modified synergistic motion," produced a modest tendon tension and may be a useful alternative configuration to normal synergistic motion in tendon rehabilitation.

  1. Temporal response of canine flexor tendon to limb suspension

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Andrew R.; Cha, Stephen S.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Tendon disuse, or stress deprivation, frequently accompanies clinical disorders and treatments, yet the metabolism of tendons subject to stress deprivation has rarely been investigated systematically. The effects of stress deprivation on canine flexor tendon were investigated in this study. One adult canine forepaw was suspended for 21 or 42 days. Control forepaws were collected from dogs that had no intervention on their limbs and paws. The expression of collagen I and III was not significantly altered in the tendons disused for 21 days but was significantly decreased at 42 days (P < 0.03). The expression of collagen II, aggrecan, decorin, and fibronectin was significantly decreased in the tendons in the suspended limbs at 21 days (P < 0.002) and further reduced at 42 days. With stress deprivation, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was significantly increased (P < 0.004) at 21 and 42 days. The expression of MMP3 was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days (P < 0.03). The expression of MMP13 was not altered with stress deprivation at 21 and 42 days. The expression of MMP14 was significantly increased at 21 days (P = 0.0015) and returned to the control level at 42 days. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) expression was decreased after the limbs were suspended for 42 days (P = 0.0043), but not 21 days. However, TIMP2 expression was not significantly different from control at 21 or 42 days. Furthermore, the cross-sectional area of the stress-deprived tendons at 42 days was decreased compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The intervention method in this study did not result in any alteration of stiffness of the tendon. Our study demonstrated that stress deprivation decreases the anabolic process and increases the catabolic process of extracellular matrix in flexor tendon. PMID:20947711

  2. Flexor carpi radialis tendinitis caused by malunited trapezial ridge fracture in a professional baseball player.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Osamu; Iida, Hiroyuki; Naito, Masatoshi

    2002-01-01

    Flexor carpi radialis tendinitis is an uncommon cause of pain experienced over the flexor aspect of the wrist. It may be a primary condition caused by overuse syndrome, or it may be a secondary condition associated with osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, osteoarthritis of the scaphotrapezial joint, scaphoid fracture, or scaphoid cyst. We present a case report of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis caused by a malunited trapezial ridge fracture, in a professional baseball player who was treated successfully by excision of the malunited trapezial ridge fragment.

  3. [Flexor hallucis longus tendon rupture as an impingement lesion induced by os trigonum instability].

    PubMed

    Lohrer, H

    2006-03-01

    A Flexor hallucis longus tendon lesion induced by an unstable Os trigonum has not been described heretofore. A 39 years old karateka complained increasing load induced pain at the posteromedial ankle. Because of this, he was unable to take part in sports activities. Clinical, X-ray and MRI investigation assumed a Flexor hallucis longus tendon tear induced by an impingeing Os trigonum. At surgery a longitudinal and a partial transverse tendon tear was present. The Flexor hallucis longus tendon pulley was narrowed by a partially unstable Os trigonum. Tendon reconstruction, Os trigonum removal and early functional posttreatment resulted in full ability in sport, leisure-time activities and profession five months later.

  4. A Review of Current Concepts in Flexor Tendon Repair: Physiology, Biomechanics, Surgical Technique and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Rymer, Ben; Theobald, Peter; Thomas, Peter B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the surgical treatment of flexor tendon injuries has always been associated with controversy. It was not until 1967, when the paper entitled Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man’s land was presented at the American Society of Hand Surgery, which reported excellent results and catalyzed the implementation of this technique into worldwide practice. We present an up to date literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar where the terms flexor tendon, repair and rehabilitation were used. Topics covered included functional anatomy, nutrition, biome-chanics, suture repair, repair site gapping, and rehabilitation. This article aims to provide a comprehensive and complete overview of flexor tendon repairs. PMID:26793293

  5. Closed rupture of the flexor tendons caused by carpal bone and joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, H; Kato, H; Hata, Y; Nakatsuchi, Y; Tsuchikane, A

    2007-12-01

    We analysed 21 patients with closed rupture of the flexor tendons caused by carpal bone and joint disorders. The tendon that ruptured depended on the location of the bone perforation into the carpal tunnel. Radiocarpal arthrography was performed in 13 patients and capsular perforation was demonstrated by contrast medium leakage into the carpal canal in 11 patients. This proved a useful diagnostic test. The flexor tendon(s) were reconstructed with free tendon graft in 17 patients, cross-over transfer of flexor tendons from adjacent digits in two and buddying to an adjacent flexor tendon in one patient. Postoperative total active range of motion in the fingers after 13 free tendon graft reconstructions averaged 213 degrees (range 170-265 degrees ). The active range of motion of the thumb-interphalangeal joint after free tendon graft reconstruction in three cases improved from 0 degrees to 33 degrees on average (range 10 degrees -40 degrees ).

  6. Os trigonum syndrome with flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis in a professional football referee.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M E; Wolin, P M

    1999-07-01

    The presentation of posterior ankle pain in any patient poses a diagnostic dilemma. The os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus stenosing tenosynovitis have been reported to occur in professional and amateur ballet dancers. It is important to consider these diagnoses in a patient who is not a dancer, as is shown in the case presented here. The patient in this case is a professional referee who injured his ankle while working on artificial turf. The treatment for os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis is initially conservative, but in refractory cases, surgical removal of the os and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon can be successfully performed. This is the first reported case of os trigonum syndrome and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis presenting simultaneously in a patient who is not a dancer.

  7. Reconstruction of Attritional Rupture of Flexor Tendons with Fascia Lata Graft Following Distal Radius Fracture Malunion.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A K; Acharya, A M; Soni, N

    2016-10-01

    Incidence of multiple flexor tendon rupture following distal radius fractures is rare with very few cases being reported in literature. We present an unusual case of a patient who had come to us with complaints of weakness and paresthesia of the right hand of one month prior and with a past history of dorsal plating for distal radius fracture nine years ago. Radiographs showed a distal radius fracture malunion with intact dorsal plate and protrusion of screws through the volar cortex. On exploration, attritional ruptures of all digital flexors were found with sparing of the Flexor Pollicis Longus tendon. The fibrous mass was excised and flexors reconstructed with a fascia lata graft. Attempt was made to correct the malunion with radial and ulnar osteotomies. At one year the patient had excellent restoration of digital flexion. PMID:27595963

  8. Rupture of Flexor Pollicis Longus Tendon: A Complication of Volar Locking Plating of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Aysha Sethunathan; Sreverthana, Shanaka; Harrison, John

    2010-08-01

    We report an unusual case of complete rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon following volar locking plating for a distal radius fracture. We believe that the prominence of a distal locking screw head predisposed to the rupture of the tendon. We highlight that correctly attaching the distal locking screws to the plate is essential for obtaining the correct biomechanics of the device and preventing flexor tendon rupture.

  9. Repair of flexor carpi radialis tendon laceration at the wrist in a professional ice hockey player.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Clifford T; Boyer, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The flexor carpi radialis is a wrist flexor and radial deviator with half the relative strength of flexor carpi ulnaris. In the majority of patients, the flexor carpi radialis tendon is expendable and is routinely used for various reconstructive procedures about the hand and wrist. Isolated flexor carpi radialis lacerations at the wrist are rare. Flexor carpi radialis tendon ruptures, which have been reported in association with distal radius fractures, longstanding osteoarthritis, and percutaneous treatment of scaphoid fractures, are usually treated non-operatively. We report a case of a traumatic laceration of the flexor carpi radialis tendon at the wrist in a professional ice hockey player. Surgical repair and rehabilitation using established principles for intrasynovial flexor tendon repair allowed return to sport at the professional level in 2 months.Tension-free core suture repair was performed with a modified-Kessler, 4-strand repair using a double-stranded 4-0 Supramid suture. A running epitendinous suture was then placed around the circumference of the tendon with 6-0 Prolene. Immobilization of the wrist in 20° of flexion was maintained for 2 weeks. Full active and passive digital motion was allowed immediately postoperatively and continued throughout the rehabilitation. Therapy was initiated at 2 weeks postoperatively with full passive wrist flexion and passive wrist extension to a dorsal block of 20°. At 4 weeks postoperatively, a dorsal splint was fabricated to keep the wrist in neutral. At this time, active extension to a dorsal block of zero and full passive flexion was allowed. Active wrist flexion without resistance was begun at 6 weeks, and full strengthening was allowed at 8 weeks postoperatively. The patient returned to sport at the professional level shortly thereafter. At latest follow-up, the patient has been able to fully participate in professional ice hockey without pain or functional limitation. PMID:21667915

  10. [Tenotomy of carpal and digital flexor tendons for correction of congenital neuromyodysplasia in a calf].

    PubMed

    Sohrt, J T; Heppelmann, M; Rehage, J; Staszyk, C

    2013-01-01

    In a 7-day-old heifer calf, a bilateral flexural deformity of the forelimbs involving the digital flexor tendons, the suspensory ligament and the ulnar and radial carpal flexor tendons was diagnosed. After 2 weeks of conservative treatment consisting of manual stretching of the legs and the application of splints and wooden blocks, which were glued to the soles and extended beyond the tip of the claws, the right forelimb could be extended sufficiently to allow weight bearing, whereas the left forelimb could be passively extended to only approximately 120°. Therefore, tenotomy of the ulnar carpal flexor tendon, the digital flexor tendons and the suspensory ligament was carried out in the left leg. A support bandage was then applied to the leg for 8 weeks, after which the carpus and fetlock could be completely extended passively. Flexural deformity of the carpus caused by contracture of the carpal flexor tendons was treated by means of a tenotomy of the ulnar carpal flexor tendon proximal to the accessory carpal bone, which allowed preservation of the carpal tunnel and avoided the risk of iatrogenic damage to nerves and the carpal joint capsule. PMID:23608892

  11. Laser tissue welding and repair of digital flexor tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, P. J.; Kiernan, Michael N.; MacGregor, A. D.; Clement, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Injuries involving division of the flexor tendons of the hand are a common surgical problem. Sutured repairs must be strong enough to withstand early active movement. Experiments were designed to assess the strength of bonds formed between tendon sections as a result of heating (1) under controlled conditions in a water bath and (2) using a carbon dioxide laser (laser tissue welding). The load (N) and stress (N/cm2) required to disrupt thermal bonds between bovine tendon sections heated for 4 minutes in water peaked at 62 degrees Celsius (13N, 11.3N/cm2). Further experiments revealed the optimal time period for heating to be 9 minutes (21.5N, 20.6N/cm2). A threshold effect was apparent at these parameters. The in vitro strength of sutured, laser welded and sutured and laser welded tendon repairs was compared in a rabbit model. Laser welding alone did not produce repairs as strong as sutured repairs. It did, however, augment the strength of sutured repair. This effect was maximal at a power of 0.1 W.

  12. Technical and biological modifications for enhanced flexor tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Nelson, Gregory; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Silva, Matthew J.; Das, Rosalina; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after intra-synovial flexor tendon repair have been substantially improved over the past two decades through advances in tendon suture techniques and postoperative rehabilitation methods. Nevertheless, complications such as repair site elongation (i.e., gap formation) and rupture continue to occur frequently. Experimental studies have shown that repair site strength fails to increase in the first three weeks following tendon suture. After three weeks, the strength and rigidity of the repair site improves significantly, a process that continues for several months. Formation of a repair site gap during the early rehabilitation period has been shown to considerably delay the accrual of repair site strength over time. Thus, it is of prime importance that the method of tendon suture achieves and maintains a stiff and strong repair site during the early healing interval by maintaining close approximation of the tendon stumps and by stimulating, where possible, the intrinsic repair response. In this review we describe recent efforts to enhance the integrity of the immature repair site. We focus on two major areas of advancement: surgical technique modifications and manipulation of the biologic and biochemical environment. PMID:20513584

  13. Human forearm position sense after fatigue of elbow flexor muscles

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L D; Hesse, C W; Morgan, D L; Proske, U

    2004-01-01

    After a period of eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles of one arm in young, adult human subjects, muscles became fatigued and damaged. Damage indicators were a fall in force, change in resting elbow angle and delayed onset of soreness. After the exercise, subjects were asked to match the forearm angle of one arm, whose position was set by the experimenter, with their other arm. Subjects matched the position of the unsupported reference arm, when this was unexercised, with a significantly more flexed position in their exercised indicator arm. Errors were in the opposite direction when the reference arm was exercised. The size of the errors correlated with the drop in force. Less consistent errors were observed when the reference arm was supported. A similar pattern of errors was seen after concentric exercise, which does not produce muscle damage. The data suggested that subjects were using as a position cue the perceived effort required to maintain a given forearm angle against the force of gravity. The fall in force from fatigue after exercise meant more effort was required to maintain a given position. That led to matching errors between the exercised and unexercised arms. It was concluded that while a role for muscle spindles in kinaesthesia cannot be excluded, detailed information about static limb position can be derived from the effort required to support the limb against the force of gravity. PMID:15181165

  14. Effects of Stress Deprivation on Lubricin Synthesis and Gliding of Flexor Tendons in a Canine Model in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Jay, Gregory D.; Schmid, Thomas M.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lubricin facilitates boundary lubrication of cartilage. The synthesis of lubricin in cartilage is regulated by mechanical stimuli, especially shear force. Lubricin is also found in flexor tendons. However, little is known about the effect of mechanical loading on lubricin synthesis in tendons or about the function of lubricin in flexor tendons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of mechanical loading to lubricin expression and gliding resistance of flexor tendons. Methods: Flexor tendons were harvested from canine forepaws that had been suspended without weight-bearing for twenty-one days and from the contralateral forepaws that had been allowed free motion. Lubricin expression in each flexor tendon was investigated with real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemistry. Lubricin in the flexor tendon was extracted and quantified with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The friction between the flexor tendon and the proximal pulley was measured. Results: The non-weight-bearing flexor tendons had a 40% reduction of lubricin expression (p < 0.01) and content (p < 0.01) compared with the flexor tendons in the contralateral limb. However, the gliding resistance of the tendons in the non-weight-bearing limb was the same as that of the tendons on the contralateral, weight-bearing side. Conclusions: Mechanical loading affected lubricin expression in flexor tendons, resulting in a 40% reduction of lubricin content, but these changes did not affect the gliding resistance of the flexor tendons. Clinical Relevance: The gliding resistance of flexor tendons was not affected after a period of limited motion. This suggests that physical activity after a short period of limited motion does not lead to wear of intact tendons and their surrounding tissue. PMID:23389791

  15. Unusual Closed Traumatic Avulsion of Both Flexor Tendons in Zones 1 and 3 of the Little Finger.

    PubMed

    Soro, Marie-Aimée Päivi; Christen, Thierry; Durand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Closed tendon avulsion of both flexor tendons in the same finger is an extremely rare condition. We encountered the case of a patient who presented a rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus in zone 1 and flexor digitorum superficialis in zone 3 in the little finger. This occurrence has not been reported previously. We hereby present our case, make a review of the literature of avulsion of both flexor tendons of the same finger, and propose a treatment according to the site of the ruptures. PMID:27656304

  16. Unusual Closed Traumatic Avulsion of Both Flexor Tendons in Zones 1 and 3 of the Little Finger

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Closed tendon avulsion of both flexor tendons in the same finger is an extremely rare condition. We encountered the case of a patient who presented a rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus in zone 1 and flexor digitorum superficialis in zone 3 in the little finger. This occurrence has not been reported previously. We hereby present our case, make a review of the literature of avulsion of both flexor tendons of the same finger, and propose a treatment according to the site of the ruptures. PMID:27656304

  17. Unusual Closed Traumatic Avulsion of Both Flexor Tendons in Zones 1 and 3 of the Little Finger

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Closed tendon avulsion of both flexor tendons in the same finger is an extremely rare condition. We encountered the case of a patient who presented a rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus in zone 1 and flexor digitorum superficialis in zone 3 in the little finger. This occurrence has not been reported previously. We hereby present our case, make a review of the literature of avulsion of both flexor tendons of the same finger, and propose a treatment according to the site of the ruptures.

  18. A study of the anatomy and repair strengths of porcine flexor and extensor tendons: are they appropriate experimental models?

    PubMed

    Mao, W F; Wu, Y F; Zhou, Y L; Tang, J B

    2011-10-01

    Although both porcine flexor and extensor tendons have been used in tendon repair research, no studies have specifically studied the anatomical differences and repair strengths in both types of tendons. We used 12 pig trotters to observe the anatomy of these tendons and compared the 2 mm gap and ultimate strengths of flexor and extensor tendons. There were four annular (A1, A2, A3, and A4) pulleys and one oblique pulley, which form a fibro-osseous tunnel for the flexor tendons, but the anatomy of the porcine extensor tendons was markedly different from the human flexor or extensor tendons. The diameter of flexor tendons was significantly greater than that of the extensors. The 2 mm gap and ultimate strengths of the flexor tendon with either two-strand or four-strand repairs were significantly greater than those of the extensor tendon. We conclude that the porcine flexor tendon systems are similar to those in the human, but the extensor tendons are not similar to either the flexor or extensor tendons in humans. Flexor and extensor tendons have different repair strengths which should be taken into account when interpreting findings from investigations using these tendons.

  19. Flexor bias of joint position in humans during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Boorman, G. I.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to estimate ankle and elbow joint position was tested before, during, and after a 17-day spaceflight. Subjects estimated targeted joint angles during isovelocity (IsoV) joint movements with agonist muscle groups either active or relaxed. These movements included elbow extension (EE) and elbow flexion (EF), and plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) of the ankle. Subjects also estimated these joint positions while moving the dynamometer at their chosen (variable) velocity (VarV) during EE and PF. For IsoV tests, no differences were observed between active and passive movements for either the ankle or elbow. Compared with those of pre-flight test days, estimates of targeted elbow joint angles were approximately 5 degrees to 15 degrees more flexed in-flight, and returned toward the pre-flight values during recovery. The spaceflight effects for the ankle were inconsistent and less prevalent than those for the elbow. The VarV PF test condition for the 120 degrees target angle at the ankle exhibited approximately 5 degrees to 7 degrees more DF target angle estimates in-flight compared with those pre- or post-flight. In contrast, during IsoV PF there was a tendency for ankle estimates to be approximately 2 degrees to 3 degrees more PF after 2-3 days exposure to spaceflight. These data indicate that during spaceflight the perception of elbow extension is greater than actuality, and are consistent with the interpretation that microgravity induced a flexor bias in the estimation of the actual elbow joint position. Moreover, these effects in joint proprioception during spaceflight were observed in individual isolated single-joint movements during tasks in which vestibular function in maintaining posture were minimal.

  20. Temporal muscle activation assessment by ultrasound imaging during flexor withdrawal reflex and voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Jose, Gomez-Tames; Shuto, Nakamura; Jose, Gonzalez; Wenwei, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Activating flexor reflexes by electrical stimulation has been used as a mechanism to initiate the swing phase or to enhance it for spinal cord injured patients. However, it is necessary to know their contraction dynamics in order to artificially induce them at the right moment of a walking cycle. This requires understanding the temporal activation pattern of both surface and deep muscles simultaneously. This study aimed at developing a system to measure and analyze the temporal activation of both surface and deep muscles during voluntary contraction and flexor reflexes (also called withdrawal reflexes) using ultrasound imaging. A set of experiments were done to verify the validity of the system, while exploring the temporal pattern of muscle activation during flexor reflexes. As a result, we were able to quantify the surface and deep muscle activity by measuring the muscle thickness, pennation angle and long-axis displacement, from the ultrasound images.

  1. Maximum isometric knee flexor and extensor muscle contractions: normal patterns of torque versus time.

    PubMed

    Murray, M P; Baldwin, J M; Gardner, G M; Sepic, S B; Downs, W J

    1977-06-01

    Isometric torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles were recorded for 5 seconds at three knee joint positions. The subjects included healthy men in age groups from 20 to 35 and 45 to 65 years of age. The amplitudes and duration of peak torque and the time to peak torque were measured for each contraction. Peak torque was usually maintaned less than 0.1 second and never longer than 0.9 second. At each of the three angles, the mean extensor muscle torque was higher than the mean flexor muscle torque in both age groups, and the mean torque for both muscle group was higher among the younger than among the older man. The highest average torque was recorded at the knee angle of 60 degrees for the extensor muscles and 45 degrees for the flexor muscles, but this was not always a stereotyped response either for a given individual or among individuals.

  2. Modified flexor digitorum superficialis slip technique for A4 pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Odobescu, A; Radu, A; Brutus, J-P; Gilardino, M S

    2010-07-01

    We describe a variation in the A4 pulley reconstruction technique using one slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion and report the results of a biomechanical analysis of this reconstruction in cadavers. While conserving the distal bony insertion, one slip of flexor digitorum superficialis is transferred over the flexor digitorum profundus tendon and sutured to the contralateral superficialis slip insertion. This creates a new pulley at the base of the original A4 pulley that can be adjusted to accommodate an FDP repair of increased bulk. We found a 57% reduction in excess excursion due to bowstringing when compared with no repair. Furthermore the repairs were sturdy, 94% of specimens maintaining their integrity when a proximally directed force of 50 N was applied. PMID:20427405

  3. The relationship of trigger finger and flexor tendon volar migration after carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the increased frequency of trigger finger (TF) after carpal tunnel release (CTR) may be caused by the volar migration of the flexor tendons at the wrist altering the tendon biomechanics at the A1 pulley. This hypothesis has not been validated. We performed pre- and post-operative ultrasonography (USG) on the affected wrists of 92 patients who underwent CTR. Pre-operative USG was performed in neutral with no tendon loading; post-operative USG was performed in neutral unloaded and in various positions of wrist flexion whilst loading the flexor tendons with gripping. The mean volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR was 2.2 (SD 0.4) mm in the unloaded neutral position. It was 1.8 (SD 0.4) mm in patients who did not develop TF and 2.5 (SD 0.5) mm in those who did (p = 0.0067). In loaded wrist flexion, the mean volar migration of flexor tendons after CTR in patients who did not develop TF and those who did was 2.1 and 3.0 mm in 0° flexion; 3.2 and 3.9 mm in 15° flexion; 4.3 and 5.1 mm in 30° flexion; and 4.9 and 5.8 mm in 45° flexion, respectively. There were significant differences between patients with and without TF at each flexion angle. Our data indicate that patients with greater volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR are more likely to develop TF. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that the occurrence of TF after CTR may be caused by the bowstringing effects of the flexor tendons.

  4. Zone 2 flexor tendon injuries: Venturing into the no man's land

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Prakash P; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are seen commonly yet the management protocols are still widely debated. The advances in suture techniques, better understanding of the tendon morphology and its biomechanics have resulted in better outcomes. There has been a trend toward the active mobilization protocols with development of multistrand core suture techniques. Zone 2 injuries remain an enigma for the hand surgeons even today but the outcome results have definitely improved. Biomolecular modulation of tendon repair and tissue engineering are now the upcoming fields for future research. This review article focuses on the current concepts in the management of flexor tendon injuries in zone 2. PMID:23325961

  5. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. PMID:27080851

  6. Traumatic simultaneous rupture of both flexor tendons in a finger of an athlete.

    PubMed

    Tan, Virak; Mundanthanam, George; Weiland, Andrew J

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of traumatic simultaneous disruption of both finger flexor tendons in a professional athlete. The novelties in this report are (1) the location of the rupture (FDS at midsubstance and FDP at insertion) and (2) the proposition that a normal but diminutive FDS tendon is a contributing factor in the rupture. We recommend that simultaneous rupture of the normal flexor tendons be treated in a similar manner as tendon lacerations. Primary repair, if possible, is the treatment of choice in these acute injuries. Tendon grafting should be reserved for subacute or chronic cases in which restoration of active finger flexion is needed.

  7. Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by a giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheath.

    PubMed

    Meek, Marcel F; Sheikh, Zahid A; Quinton, David N

    2014-02-01

    A 76-year-old woman developed right carpal tunnel syndrome after being conservatively treated for tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons with associated mild carpal tunnel syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a tumour in the carpal tunnel. Re-exploration showed that the median nerve was being compressed by a giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheaths. Appropriate imaging is advised in patients with additional findings (such as swelling) or in patients with secondary carpal tunnel syndrome and incomplete response to conservative treatment, to exclude a space-occupying lesion.

  8. Endoscopic Loose Body Removal From Zone 2 Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-06-01

    Tenosynovial chondromatosis can occur in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Complete synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies comprise the treatment of choice. An open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a deep structure except at the hallux. A tendoscopy approach to synovectomy and removal of loose bodies has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery. This technical note outlines pearls and pitfalls and provides a step-by-step guide to performing this procedure. PMID:27656363

  9. Delayed rupture of flexor tendons in zone V complicated by neuritis 18 years following Galeazzi fracture-dislocation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Shah, Bhavik; Sankar, Thangasamy

    2014-04-16

    We report a rare case of an 84-year-old woman who presented with delayed, complete rupture of superficial (flexor digitorum superficialis) and deep flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus) of the third, fourth and fifth digits of the right hand in zone V of the flexor tendons. The patient, who was otherwise healthy, active and independent, incurred a closed fracture of her right wrist 18 years ago, which was treated conservatively. Current X-rays and operative findings confirmed a malunited Galeazzi fracture-dislocation with volar dislocation of the ulna from the distal radioulnar joint. She underwent surgical treatment to improve her hand function and agonising neuritis symptoms, as she was unable to use her middle, ring and little fingers and had developed severe neuritis of the ulnar nerve. Exploration and repair of the flexor tendons, nerve decompressions and Darrach procedure were performed. On follow-up, the patient showed improvement in hand function with the neuritis completely resolved.

  10. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors.

    PubMed

    Kurtzer, Isaac; Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50-100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors.

  11. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S.; Cordente, Carlos A.; Antón, Antonio J. Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting. PMID:26121145

  12. EFFECT OF USING WRIST ORTHOSES ON FOREARM FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR MUSCLE ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Novais Van Petten, Adriana Maria Valladão; Ávila, Antônio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of using wrist immobilization orthoses made from different materials, on activation of the flexor and extensor musculature of the forearm while performing specific tasks. Methods: Twenty-six adults, with an average age of 26.2 years, underwent the Jebsen-Taylor functional hand test and the grip strength test (Jamar® dynamometer) under three conditions: free hand, wearing a composite orthosis and wearing a thermoplastic orthosis. The tests were carried out using the dominant hand only. During the tests, surface electrodes were attached to the flexor and extensor muscles of the forearm to record the muscle electrical activity. The results obtained under the three conditions were compared and analyzed using the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results: Significant differences in muscle activation were found between using the free hand and using any of the orthoses. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the two types of orthosis. A decrease in activity of the extensor muscles of the forearm was observed during all the tasks, as well as an increase in activation of the flexor muscles with the use of the orthoses. Conclusion: These results are important for defining whether an orthosis should be prescribed during the rehabilitation process for a wide range of disorders, such as tendinitis of the flexors and extensors of the wrist and fingers, as well as for predicting the length of time for which these devices should be used. PMID:27022523

  13. Plantar flexor neuromuscular adjustments following match-play football in hot and cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Girard, O; Nybo, L; Mohr, M; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    We assessed neuromuscular fatigue and recovery of the plantar flexors after playing football with or without severe heat stress. Neuromuscular characteristics of the plantar flexors were assessed in 17 male players at baseline and ∼30 min, 24, and 48 h after two 90-min football matches in temperate (∼20 °C and 55% rH) and hot (∼43 °C and 20% rH) environments. Measurements included maximal voluntary strength, muscle activation, twitch contractile properties, and rate of torque development and soleus EMG (i.e., root mean square activity) rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100, and -200 ms during maximal isometric contractions for plantar flexors. Voluntary activation and peak twitch torque were equally reduced (-1.5% and -16.5%, respectively; P < 0.05) post-matches relative to baseline in both conditions, the latter persisting for at least 48 h, whereas strength losses (∼5%) were not significant. Absolute explosive force production declined (P < 0.05) 30 ms after contraction onset independently of condition, with no change at any other epochs. Globally, normalized rate of force development and soleus EMG activity rise values remained unchanged. In football, match-induced alterations in maximal and rapid torque production capacities of the plantar flexors are moderate and do not differ after competing in temperate and hot environments.

  14. Action of tizanidine on responses of forearm flexors and extensors to torque disturbances.

    PubMed Central

    Mackel, R; Brink, E E; Nakajima, Y

    1984-01-01

    The effects of tizanidine on the electromyographic responses of forearm flexors and extensors to torque disturbances were studied in normal subjects. Tizanidine had a strong depressive action on all the reflex responses, and on muscle background activity. It is concluded that the action on reflexes is not specific, but secondary to decreased spinal cord excitability. PMID:6502168

  15. Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running.

    PubMed

    Timmins, R G; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Schache, A G; Dear, N M; Shield, A J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether declines in knee flexor strength following overground repeat sprints were related to changes in hamstrings myoelectrical activity. Seventeen recreationally active men completed maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexor strength assessments at 180°/s before and after repeat sprint running. Myoelectrical activity of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MHs) was measured during all isokinetic contractions. Repeated measures mixed model [fixed factors = time (pre- and post-repeat sprint) and leg (dominant and nondominant), random factor = participants] design was fitted with the restricted maximal likelihood method. Repeat sprint running resulted in significant declines in eccentric, and concentric, knee flexor strength (eccentric = 26 ± 4 Nm, 15% P < 0.001; concentric 11 ± 2 Nm, 10% P < 0.001). Eccentric BF myoelectrical activity was significantly reduced (10%; P = 0.035). Concentric BF and all MH myoelectrical activity were not altered. The declines in maximal eccentric torque were associated with the change in eccentric BF myoelectrical activity (P = 0.013). Following repeat sprint running, there were preferential declines in the myoelectrical activity of the BF, which explained declines in eccentric knee flexor strength.

  16. [Research on minimally invasive release treatment of stenosing tenosynovitis of flexor digitorum].

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Liu, Jing

    2013-05-01

    The minimally invasive release treatment of TCM Small Needle-Knife for the stenosing tenosynovitis of flexor digtorum-"trigger finger" has a more satisfied efficacy. In recent years, many clinicians use self-made small sharp scalpels, iris knives, small sickles, push shear knives, and other improved alternatives to instead of the traditional small needle-knives. Changing the original small needle-knife vertical stabbed cutting method, take a mini-incision, along the traveling direction of flexor tendon make a vertical hook cut, pick cut, straight push cut and any other cuts, completely cut the stenosis of the tendon sheath pulley, to achieve the release therapeutic purposes. The experience of most scholars is: Detailed and thorough understanding refers to the anatomical level of the flexor tendon and surrounding tissue, the structural relationship; Strictly adhere to the indications of minimally invasive release therapy; Proficiency in a dedicated minimally invasive release needle-knives, scalpels, and standardized methods of operation; Accurate positioning before surgery, in surgery traveling direction along flexor tendon, continuous incision to release the middle along the tendon. It can achieve the same or even higher incision release efficacy than the traditional treatment, at the same time also avoids common adverse complications. PMID:23937042

  17. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting.

    PubMed

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S; Cordente, Carlos A; Antón, Antonio J Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting.

  18. Monosynaptic reflexes in the superficial forearm flexors in man and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Deschuytere, J; Rosselle, N; De Keyser, C

    1976-06-01

    Indirect motor responses with the characteristics of the H wave were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis and the palmaris longus muscles in normal adults. A series of experiments has been performed, constituting circumstantial arguments for the monosynaptic nature of these reflex responses. The findings in pathological conditions, which corroborated this point of view, are documented briefly.

  19. Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Transfer and Modified Kidner Technique in Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maskill, James T; Pomeroy, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    The modified Kidner procedure and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer are common procedures used today when addressing posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. These techniques are often used in conjunction with a combination of osteotomies to correct flatfoot deformity, and have been proved to be reliable and predictable. PMID:26590720

  20. Considerations in the surgical use of the flexor sheath and pulley system.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, A G; Lees, V C

    2014-01-01

    The use of the digital flexor sheath to reconstruct damaged structures in the fingers is an intriguing but under-investigated subject. The sheath is anchored firmly to the phalanges and palmar plates and has well-vascularized outer and synovial inner layers. The middle layer is strong and fibrous and not all of it is required for its main biomechanical function of maintaining the moment arm of the flexor tendons. These characteristics have led to several descriptions of different reconstructive uses. In sheath reconstruction, flaps can be used to repair damaged A2 and A4 pulleys. As an anchor, the sheath is useful for tenodeses and tendon transfers. It has been used in the correction of ulnar claw and swan neck deformities. In ligament reconstruction, the A1 pulley has been used to reconstruct the transverse intermetacarpal ligament in cleft hand and ray amputations. The sheath has also been used to cover tendon repairs and periosteal defects with the aim of decreasing adhesions. There is potential for further use of the flexor sheath in reconstructive surgery. The digital flexor sheath can be used to restore various finger functions providing its physiological roles are recognized and preserved. This review considers the different techniques described and their potential uses. PMID:24170491

  1. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on tendon gliding: a biomechanical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Kain, C C; Lesker, P A

    1986-01-01

    The effect on tendon gliding of flexor sheath excision versus incision/closure following primary flexor tendon repair was examined biomechanically and histologically in forty-one chickens. There was no significant difference in either the tendon excursion required to fully flex the digit or in the work of flexion (the integration of the forces that resist tendon gliding during excursion) between the sheath excised and sheath closed groups. The results were unaffected by postoperative immobilization or intermittent passive motion. Histologically, it was noted that at 3 weeks the healing tendon was surrounded by a layer of granulation tissue that was nearly identical in both the sheath excised and the sheath closed digits. Of note was the finding that a synovial lining could not be identified in those digits that had previously undergone sheath closure. However, at 6 weeks postoperatively, a new gliding surface could be identified surrounding the tendon in both the sheath excised and the sheath closed digits. This study indicates that closure of the flexor sheath after primary tendon repair does not improve tendon gliding as measured biomechanically. Despite its repair, the flexor sheath does not maintain its synovial characteristics as demonstrated histologically, and a new sheath must subsequently be formed.

  2. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    PubMed Central

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical

  3. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    PubMed

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Flouris, Andreas D; Fouris, Andreas D; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12 h (both limbs) and 36 h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36 h at 60°/s and for 60 h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players

  4. Effects of the optimal flexor/extensor ratio on G-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Sub; Choi, Jean; Kim, Jung Woon; Jeon, Sang Yun; Kang, Sunghwun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the flexor/extensor ratio of the knee joints and compare it with the results of Korean Air Force students in G-tolerance test. [Subjects and Methods] The body composition of Korea Air Force students (n=77) was measured by an impedance method. A muscular function test was performed using a Humac Norm (USA) at angular speeds of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and an isokinetic muscular function test was also conducted. [Results] In the failed C and passing groups, muscle mass and fat percentages were significantly higher than those of students in the failed A group. The BMI of the failed C and passing groups were significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The group that passed had a significantly higher value of left knee 60°/sec flexion peak torque than the failed B group. Moreover, the total work of left knee extension of the failed C group and the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The C group and the passing group had significantly higher values of the trunk 60°/sec flexor/extensor ratio than the failed A group, and the total work flexor/extensor ratio of the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. [Conclusions] Based on these results, balance the right and left knee flexor/extensor ratio, and a high flexor/extensor ratio of the trunk are required to endure a high G-tolerance test (+6G/30 sec). Moreover, an improvement in the maximum muscular strength is necessary to endure a situation of rapidly increasing acceleration in the early stage. PMID:27799715

  5. Digital flexion contracture and severe carpal tunnel syndrome due to tophaceus infiltration of wrist flexor tendon: first manifestation of gout.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, P; Caba, M; Gómez-Sánchez, R; Gómez-Morales, M

    2011-11-09

    The authors report an unusual case of flexor tenosynovitis, severe carpal tunnel syndrome, and triggering at the carpal tunnel as the first manifestation of gout. A 69-year-old man presented with digital flexion contracture and severe carpal tunnel syndrome of his right hand and was treated surgically. A flexor tenosynovectomy and a median nerve neurolysis were performed through an extended carpal tunnel approach. The sublimis and the profundus tendons were involved. Partial ruptures and multiple whitish lesions suggestive of tophacceous infiltration of the flexor tendons were seen. Macroscopically, the removed synovial tissue was involved by multiple whitish nodules that were milimetric in size and was suggestive of monosodium urate crystals deposits. By light microscopy examination, numerous nonnecrotizing granulomas of different sizes were observed that were compounded by large aggregations of acellular nonpolarized material, surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, mononuclear cells, and foreign body multinucleated giant cells. Postoperatively, the patient recovered with resolution of the median nerve symptoms and a near-to-full range of motion of the affected digits.To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first case report with flexor tendons tophacceous infiltration as the first clinical sign of gout. Gouty flexor tenosynovitis can occur in the absence of a long history of gout. A high index of suspicion is paramount to the initiation of proper management. Operative treatment of gouty flexor tenosynovitis is mandatory to debulk tophaceous deposits, improve tendon gliding, and decompress nerves. Routine uric acid determination could be helpful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with flexor tenosynovitis.

  6. Comparison of the Thickness of Pulley and Flexor Tendon Between in Neutral and in Flexed Positions of Trigger Finger

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the morphology of the A1 pulley and flexor tendons in idiopathic trigger finger of digits other than the thumb between in neutral position and in the position with the interphalangeal joints full flexed and with the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint 0° extended (hook grip position). Method: A total of 48 affected digits and 48 contralateral normal digits from 48 patients who initially diagnosed with idiopathic trigger finger were studied sonographically. Sonographic analysis was focused on the A1 pulley and flexor tendons at the level of the MP joint in the transverse plane. We measured the anterior-posterior thickness of A1 pulley and the sum of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons, and also measured the maximum radialulnar width of the flexor tendon in neutral and hook grip positions, respectively. Each measurement was compared between in neutral and in hook grip positions, and also between the affected and contralateral normal digits in each position. Results: In all the digits, the anterior-posterior thickness of flexor tendons significantly increased in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position, whereas radial-ulnar width significantly decreased. Both the A1 pulley and flexor tendons were thicker in the affected digits as compared with contralateral normal digits. Conclusion: The thickness of flexor tendons was significantly increased anteroposteriorly in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position. In trigger finger, A1 pulley and flexor tendon were thickened, and mismatch between the volume of the flexor tendon sheath and the tendons, especially in anterior-posterior direction, might be a cause of repetitive triggering. PMID:27099639

  7. Persistent spontaneous synovial drainage from digital flexor sheath in proliferative tenosynovitis: Two case reports and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Brian; Cheung, Kevin; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Thoma, Achilleas

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative flexor tenosynovitis of the hand is an inflammatory process involving the synovial sheaths surrounding the tendons. It is most commonly caused by infection, but may also be caused by overuse, diabetes and rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and crystal arthropathies. The present report describes two patients with severe proliferative tenosynovitis, who developed a fistula between the tendon sheath and skin after instrumentation, resulting in persistent synovial drainage. After failing conservative management, both patients were managed with extensive flexor tenosynovectomy to prevent inoculation of bacteria into the flexor sheath. The presentation, management and outcome of each case is described in addition to a discussion of the literature on tenosynovial fistulas. PMID:26090353

  8. A Conservatively Managed Anatomical Variant of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscle in the Hand.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Benjamin D; Moores, Thomas S; Heinz, Nicholas; Datta, Praveen; Smith, Kevin D; Thomas, Peter B M

    2016-04-01

    Anomalous flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in the hand are an uncommon phenomenon, and therefore present challenges in diagnosis and management. We report a case of a 16-year-old girl presenting with a painful, slowly enlarging palmar swelling. The swelling was investigated with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and was found to be an anomalous muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. After careful consideration, multidisciplinary discussion, and thorough imaging, the patient was treated successfully without surgical exploration or excision, in comparison to previously reported cases. The patient was pain free and had no concerns at 8-month follow-up, demonstrating the value of conservative management in these cases. PMID:27616828

  9. Flexor tendon synovitis of the hand as first manifestation of atypical tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, Björn D; Kömürcü, Fercan; Stöckl-Hiesleitner, Sabine; Deutinger, Maria

    2007-02-01

    We present the case of a 73-year old patient suffering from chronic flexor tendon synovitis of the wrist with carpal tunnel syndrome. He underwent synovectomy and median nerve release. Primary bacteriology was negative. Histology of the excised synovia revelead non-caseating granuloma as typical for sarcoidosis. Further screening for sarcoidosis was negative. Culture of a sample harvested from the poorly healing wound was finally positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculostatic treatment was started and the wound gradually healed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atypical non-caseating and sarcoidosis-like granulomas of the flexor tendon synovia of the hand as first manifestation of tuberculosis.

  10. The suture loop holding capacity of flexor digitorum profundus tendon within and outside the digital tendon sheath.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Göransson, H

    2013-09-01

    In a previous study we found that the strength of a Kessler core suture in the flexor tendon was greater in flexor zone 2 than in zone 3. To further investigate the material properties of the flexor tendon without the influence of a locking suture configuration, we measured the ultimate strength of a simple loop suture in the flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones 1, 2, and 3. Eight cadaver flexor digitorum profundus tendons were tested in 10 mm increments with a 3-0 polyester suture loop pull-out test in the mid-substance of the tendon. The mean strength in zones 1 and 2 (26.7 N, SD 5.6) was significantly higher than the mean strength in zone 3 (17.7 N, SD 5.4). We conclude that the difference is owing to variations of the structure of the flexor tendon in different sections of the tendon, as the suture configuration was a simple loop without a locking or grasping component. PMID:23315625

  11. Hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with acetabular labral tears compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Hayes, David A; Watts, Mark C; Hides, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a source of hip pain and are considered to be a precursor to hip osteoarthritis. Hip flexor muscles contribute to hip joint stability and function but it is unknown if their size and function is altered in the presence of labral pathology. This study aimed to investigate hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with hip labral pathology compared to control subjects. 12 subjects diagnosed with an unilateral acetabular labral tear were compared to 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbo-pelvic region. Average muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles were measured. Hip flexion strength was measured by an externally fixed dynamometer. Individual muscle recruitment pattern during a resisted hip flexion exercise task was measured by muscle functional MRI. Hip flexor muscle strength was found to be decreased in patients with labral pathology compared to control subjects (p < 0.01). No difference between groups or sides was found for hip flexor muscle size (all p > 0.17) and recruitment pattern (all p > 0.53). Decreased hip flexor muscle strength may affect physical function in patients with hip labral pathology by contributing to altered gait patterns and functional tasks. Clinical rehabilitation of these patients may need to include strengthening exercises for the hip flexor muscles.

  12. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  13. Strict actions of the human wrist flexors: A study with an electrical neuromuscular stimulation method.

    PubMed

    Narita, Aya; Sagae, Masaaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Takaaki; Sotokawa, Tasuku; Nakano, Haruki; Naganuma, Makoto; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Ogino, Toshihiko; Naito, Akira

    2015-08-01

    In order to elucidate strict actions of the human wrist flexors, motion and force produced by electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS) to each of musculus (m.) flexsor carpi radialis (FCR) and m. flexsor carpi ulnaris (FCU) with the prone, semiprone, and supine forearm were studied in ten healthy human subjects. Abduction, extension, adduction, and flexion directions were represented by, respectively, 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. ENS to FCR and FCU produced motion in direction of, respectively, 273° (mean) and 265° with the prone, 249° and 232° with the semiprone, and 242° and 229° with the supine forearm to the maximal range. Direction/strength (Nm) of force by ENS to FCR and FCU were, respectively, 298°/1.16 and 239°/1.70 with the prone, 279°/1.30 and 241°/1.62 with the semiprone, and 267°/1.24 and 227°/2.04 with the supine forearm. ENS to FCR exhibited force of 20-29% of maximal flexion and 7-15% of maximal abduction or 1-4% of maximal adduction and that to FCU force of 24-28% of maximal flexion and 15-25% of maximal adduction. The force study results suggest that FCU is a flexor rather than an adductor with every forearm position. FCR should be a flexor rather than an abductor with the prone and semiprone and a flexor with the supine forearm. The action of FCR as the abductor should diminish with supinating the forearm. PMID:25921817

  14. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  15. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  16. Middle phalanx skeletal morphology in the hand: can it predict flexor tendon size and attachments?

    PubMed

    Marzke, Mary W; Shrewsbury, Marvin M; Horner, Kristin E

    2007-10-01

    Specific sites on the palmar diaphysis of the manual middle phalanges provide attachment for the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon. It has been assumed in the literature that lateral palmar fossae on these bones reflect locations for these attachments and offer evidence for relative size of the flexor tendon. This assumption has led to predictions about relative FDS muscle force potential from sizes of fossae on fossil hominin middle phalanges. Inferences about locomotor capabilities of fossil hominins in turn have been drawn from the predicted force potential of the flexor muscle. The study reported here provides a critical first step in evaluating hypotheses about behavioral implications of middle phalangeal morphology in fossil hominins, by testing the hypothesis that the lateral fossae reflect the size of the FDS tendon and the location of the terminal FDS tendon attachments on the middle phalanx. The middle phalangeal region was dissected in 43 individuals from 16 primate genera, including humans. Qualitative observations were made of tendon attachment locations relative to the lateral fossae. Length measurements of the fossae were tested as predictors of FDS tendon cross-sectional area and of FDS attachment tendon lengths. Our results lead to the conclusion that the hypothesis must be rejected, and that future attention should focus on functional implications of the palmar median bar associated with the lateral fossae.

  17. Acute effects of caffeine on strength and muscle activation of the elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Michael A; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Malek, Moh H

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on strength and muscle activation of the elbow flexors. Thirteen recreationally active male volunteers (mean ± SD, age: 21.38 ± 1.26 years) came to the laboratory 4 times. Visit 1 served as a familiarization visit. During visits 2 through 4, subjects ingested a randomly assigned drink, with or without caffeine (0, 5, or 10 mg·kg of body mass), and performed 3 maximal isometric muscle actions of the elbow flexors 60 minutes after ingestion. Maximal strength and rate of torque development (RTD) were recorded. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and frequency, and electromechanical delay (EMD), and phonomechanical delay (PMD) were measured from the biceps brachii. The results indicated that the ingestion of 0 (placebo), 5, or 10 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) peak torque, RTD, normalized EMG amplitude or frequency, normalized MMG amplitude, or EMD and PMD. Normalized MMG frequency was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) following ingestion of 5 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine compared with the placebo trial. This was most likely an isolated finding because MMG frequency was the only variable to have a significant difference across all trials. The results suggested that ingestion of either 5 or 10 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine does not provide an ergogenic effect for the elbow flexors during isometric muscle actions.

  18. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-01

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  19. Enhanced Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair through a New Half Hitch Loop Suture Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a new half hitch loop suture configuration on flexor tendon repair mechanics. Cadaver canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired with 4- or 8-strands, 4–0 or 3–0 suture, with and without half hitch loops. An additional group underwent repair with half hitch loops but without the terminal knot. Half hitch loops improved the strength of 8-strand repairs by 21% when 4–0, and 33% when 3–0 suture was used, and caused a shift in failure mode from suture pullout to suture breakage. 8-strand repairs with half hitch loops but without a terminal knot produced equivalent mechanical properties to those without half hitch loops but with a terminal knot. 4-strand repairs were limited by the strength of the suture in all groups and, as a result, the presence of half hitch loops did not alter the mechanical properties. Overall, half hitch loops improved repair mechanics, allowing failure strength to reach the full capability of suture strength. Improving the mechanical properties of flexor tendon repair with half hitch loops has the potential to reduce the postoperative risk of gap formation and catastrophic rupture in the early postoperative period. PMID:27101409

  20. Effects of lubricant and autologous bone marrow stromal cell augmentation on immobilized flexor tendon repairs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Haruhiko; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8 × 10(5) BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21 day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day 42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. PMID:26177854

  1. Acute effects of caffeine on strength and muscle activation of the elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Michael A; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Malek, Moh H

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on strength and muscle activation of the elbow flexors. Thirteen recreationally active male volunteers (mean ± SD, age: 21.38 ± 1.26 years) came to the laboratory 4 times. Visit 1 served as a familiarization visit. During visits 2 through 4, subjects ingested a randomly assigned drink, with or without caffeine (0, 5, or 10 mg·kg of body mass), and performed 3 maximal isometric muscle actions of the elbow flexors 60 minutes after ingestion. Maximal strength and rate of torque development (RTD) were recorded. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and frequency, and electromechanical delay (EMD), and phonomechanical delay (PMD) were measured from the biceps brachii. The results indicated that the ingestion of 0 (placebo), 5, or 10 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) peak torque, RTD, normalized EMG amplitude or frequency, normalized MMG amplitude, or EMD and PMD. Normalized MMG frequency was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) following ingestion of 5 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine compared with the placebo trial. This was most likely an isolated finding because MMG frequency was the only variable to have a significant difference across all trials. The results suggested that ingestion of either 5 or 10 mg·kg of body mass of caffeine does not provide an ergogenic effect for the elbow flexors during isometric muscle actions. PMID:25029005

  2. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions: (1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; (2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; (3) 30 mmHg; (4) 60 mmHg; (5) 90 mmHg; (6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients.

  3. Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy After Hand Flexor Tendon Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B.

    2009-09-27

    Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.

  4. Relationship between joint motion and flexor tendon force in the canine forelimb.

    PubMed

    Lieber, R L; Amiel, D; Kaufman, K R; Whitney, J; Gelberman, R H

    1996-11-01

    To increase in vivo tendon force and gliding after flexor tendon repair, a variety of modifications to the methods by which protective passive motion is administered have been advocated. To determine the relationship between the prime variables, wrist and digital position, muscle activation, and in vivo tendon force, a clinically relevant canine model was developed. Force was measured in the flexor tendon during several joint manipulation paradigms: single-finger flexion-extension with the wrist flexed (group 1F), single-finger flexion-extension with the wrist extended (group 1E), four-finger flexion-extension with the wrist flexed (group 4F), four-finger flexion-extension with the wrist extended (group 4E), and synergistic wrist and finger motion where wrist extension and finger flexion were performed simultaneously, followed by wrist flexion and finger extension (group SYN). In addition, tendon force was measured during electric stimulation of the proximal flexor muscle mass. Passive tendon force with the wrist extended (groups 1E and 4E) was two to three times greater than that measured with the wrist flexed, independent of the number of digits moved. With the wrist extended, peak tendon force reached 1,997 g +/- 194 g during single-digit manipulation (group 1E), compared to only 853 g +/- 104 g with the wrist flexed during the same maneuver (group 1F). Statistical comparison between means revealed that groups 1E and 4E were significantly different from groups 1F, 4F, and SYN (p < .005). There were no significant differences between groups 1E and 4E or between groups 1F, 4F, and SYN (p > .200). Active muscle force elicited by electrical stimulation and passive force varied dramatically as the wrist was flexed from full extension 3460 g +/- 766 g to full flexion 427 g +/- 239 g (p < .001). Simultaneously, passive tension decreased from 940 g +/- 143 g with wrist extended to 76 g +/- 37 g with the wrist flexed. These data indicate that wrist position has the

  5. Climbing-specific finger flexor performance and forearm muscle oxygenation in elite male and female sport climbers.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Marc; Wegst, Daniel; Müller, Tom; Raschner, Christian; Burtscher, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Climbing performance relies to a great extent on the performance of the finger flexor muscles. Only a few studies investigated this performance in top class climbers and only one study compared gender-specific differences. This study investigated the climbing-specific finger flexor strength and endurance and related muscular oxygenation in 12 elite female and male climbers and 12 non-climbers. After the assessment of maximum voluntary finger flexor contraction (MVC), two isometric finger flexor endurance tests were performed at 40% MVC until exhaustion. A continuous isometric test was followed by an intermittent isometric test (10 s contraction, 3 s rest). Changes in oxygenation of finger flexor muscles were recorded using near infrared spectroscopy. MVC and strength-to-weight ratio were greater in climbers than non-climbers (P = 0.003; P < 0.001) and greater in men than women (P < 0.001; P = 0.002). Time to task failure for the intermittent test and the force-time integrals for the continuous and the intermittent test were also significantly greater in climbers (P = 0.030; P = 0.027; P = 0.005). During the intermittent test, re-oxygenation of the working muscles was faster in climbers (P < 0.05) without gender-specific differences. Close correlations were demonstrated between the best on-sight climbing performance and strength-to-weight ratio (r (2) = 0.946, P < 0.001) only in female climbers. The superior intermittent finger flexor endurance of climbers over non-climbers may be explained by the faster re-oxygenation of the finger flexor muscles during the short rest phases.

  6. Apparent Transverse Compressive Material Properties of the Digital Flexor Tendons and the Median Nerve in the Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Main, Erin K; Goetz, Jessica E; Rudert, M James; Goreham-Voss, Curtis M; Brown, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a frequently encountered peripheral nerve disorder caused by mechanical insult to the median nerve, which may in part be a result of impingement by the adjacent digital flexor tendons. Realistic finite element (FE) analysis to determine contact stresses between the flexor tendons and median nerve depends upon the use of physiologically accurate material properties. To assess the transverse compressive properties of the digital flexor tendons and median nerve, these tissues from ten cadaveric forearm specimens were compressed transversely while under axial load. The experimental compression data were used in conjunction with an FE-based optimization routine to determine apparent hyperelastic coefficients (μ and α) for a first-order Ogden material property definition. The mean coefficient pairs were μ=35.3kPa, α =8.5 for the superficial tendons, μ=39.4kPa, α=9.2 for the deep tendons, μ=24.9kPa, α=10.9 for the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, and μ=12.9kPa, α=6.5 for the median nerve. These mean Ogden coefficients indicate that the FPL tendon was more compliant at low strains than either the deep or superficial flexor tendons, and that there was no significant difference between superficial and deep flexor tendon compressive behavior. The median nerve was significantly more compliant than any of the flexor tendons. The material properties determined in this study can be used to better understand the functional mechanics of the carpal tunnel soft tissues and possible mechanisms of median nerve compressive insult, which may lead to the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:21194695

  7. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players.

    PubMed

    Chalker, Wade J; Shield, Anthony J; Opar, David A; Keogh, Justin W L

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler's and batter's mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries. PMID:26925310

  8. Comparisons of eccentric knee flexor strength and asymmetries across elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Wade J.; Shield, Anthony J.; Opar, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There has been a continual increase in injury rates in cricket, with hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) being the most prominent. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and bilateral asymmetries are major modifiable risk factors for future HSIs. However, there is a lack of data relating to eccentric hamstring strength in cricket at any skill level. The objective of this study was to compare eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries in elite, sub-elite and school level cricket players; and to determine if playing position and limb role influenced these eccentric knee flexor strength indices. Methods. Seventy four male cricket players of three distinct skill levels performed three repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the experimental device. Strength was assessed as the absolute and relative mean peak force output for both limbs, with bilateral asymmetries. Differences in mean peak force outputs between skill level and playing positions were measured. Results. There were no significant differences between elite, sub-elite and school level athletes for mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries of the knee flexors. There were no significant differences observed between bowler’s and batter’s mean peak force and bilateral asymmetries. There were no significant differences between front and back limb mean peak force outputs. Discussion. Skill level, playing position and limb role appeared to have no significant effect on eccentric knee flexor strength and bilateral asymmetries. Future research should seek to determine whether eccentric knee flexor strength thresholds are predictive of HSIs in cricket and if specific eccentric knee flexor strengthening can reduce these injuries. PMID:26925310

  9. Musculoskeletal modelling deconstructs the paradoxical effects of elastic ankle exoskeletons on plantar-flexor mechanics and energetics during hopping

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Dominic James; Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments have shown that elastic ankle exoskeletons can be used to reduce ankle joint and plantar-flexor muscle loading when hopping in place and, in turn, reduce metabolic energy consumption. However, recent experimental work has shown that such exoskeletons cause less favourable soleus (SO) muscle–tendon mechanics than is observed during normal hopping, which might limit the capacity of the exoskeleton to reduce energy consumption. To directly link plantar-flexor mechanics and energy consumption when hopping in exoskeletons, we used a musculoskeletal model of the human leg and a model of muscle energetics in simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics during hopping with and without elastic ankle exoskeletons. Simulations were driven by experimental electromyograms, joint kinematics and exoskeleton torque taken from previously published data. The data were from seven males who hopped at 2.5 Hz with and without elastic ankle exoskeletons. The energetics model showed that the total rate of metabolic energy consumption by ankle muscles was not significantly reduced by an ankle exoskeleton. This was despite large reductions in plantar-flexor force production (40–50%). The lack of larger metabolic reductions with exoskeletons was attributed to increases in plantar-flexor muscle fibre velocities and a shift to less favourable muscle fibre lengths during active force production. This limited the capacity for plantar-flexors to reduce activation and energy consumption when hopping with exoskeleton assistance. PMID:25278469

  10. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after 8 weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms) and iMVC of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave), peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that cycling endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue resistance. PMID:26029114

  11. Wrist and digital joint motion produce unique flexor tendon force and excursion in the canine forelimb.

    PubMed

    Lieber, R L; Silva, M J; Amiel, D; Gelberman, R H

    1999-02-01

    The force and excursion within the canine digital flexor tendons were measured during passive joint manipulations that simulate those used during rehabilitation after flexor tendon repair and during active muscle contraction, simulating the active rehabilitation protocol. Tendon force was measured using a small buckle placed upon the tendon while excursion was measured using a suture marker and video analysis method. Passive finger motion imposed with the wrist flexed resulted in dramatically lower tendon force (approximately 5 N) compared to passive motion imposed with the wrist extended (approximately 17 N). Lower excursions were seen at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint with the wrist flexed (approximately 1.5 mm) while high excursion was observed when the wrist was extended or when synergistic finger and wrist motion were imposed (approximately 3.5 mm). Bivariate discriminant analysis of both force and excursion data revealed a natural clustering of the data into three general mechanical paradigms. With the wrist extended and with either one finger or four fingers manipulated, tendons experienced high loads of approximately 1500 g and high excursions of approximately 3.5 mm. In contrast, the same manipulations performed with the wrist flexed resulted in low tendon forces (4-8 N) and low tendon excursions of approximately 1.5 mm. Synergistic wrist and finger manipulation provided the third paradigm where tendon force was relatively low (approximately 4 N) but excursion was as high as those seen in the groups which were manipulated with the wrist extended. Active muscle contraction produced a modest tendon excursion (approximately 1 mm) and high or low tendon force with the wrist extended or flexed, respectively. These data provide the basis for experimentally testable hypotheses with regard to the factors that most significantly affect functional recovery after digital flexor tendon injury and define the normal mechanical operating characteristics

  12. Avulsion Injuries of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon: An Unclassified Pattern of Injury.

    PubMed

    Abdul Azeem, Mokhtar; Marwan, Yousef; Esmaeel, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Closed avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon is classified based on the impact of injury on the management plan. In this report, we present a case with unclassified pattern of FDP tendon avulsion. The injury involves an intra-articular fracture of the volar part of distal phalanx of the little finger resulting into two bony fragments, one attached to the retracted avulsed tendon and another separated and incarcerated at A4 pulley, and an intact dorsal cortex of the phalanx. Based on that, we recommend the development of a new classification scheme for this condition.

  13. Measuring force transfers in the deep flexors of the musician's hand: theoretical analysis, clinical examples.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N

    1997-09-01

    In the present paper the anatomical and functional interdependencies which regularly exist between the deep flexor tendons of the different fingers are modelled. The model results are validated by measurements on real hands. The results show that intertendinous force transfers may be caused by (i) coactivation of muscle fibres inserting in different tendons, and (ii) passive connections between tendons or muscle bellies. The coactivation is validated by the measuring results of a hand in which all intertendinous connections were surgically removed. The present models and measurements are currently used for diagnosis of hand problems in musicians at our hand clinic.

  14. Tissue engineering in flexor tendon surgery: current state and future advances.

    PubMed

    Galvez, M G; Crowe, C; Farnebo, S; Chang, J

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering of flexor tendons addresses a challenge often faced by hand surgeons: the restoration of function and improvement of healing with a limited supply of donor tendons. Creating an engineered tendon construct is dependent upon understanding the normal healing mechanisms of the tendon and tendon sheath. The production of a tendon construct includes: creating a three-dimensional scaffold; seeding cells within the scaffold; encouraging cellular growth within the scaffold while maintaining a gliding surface; and finally ensuring mechanical strength. An effective construct incorporates these factors in its design, with the ultimate goal of creating tendon substitutes that are readily available to the reconstructive hand surgeon.

  15. Bilateral avulsion of ring finger flexor digitorum profundus tendons during contact sport: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank; McDonald, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    We report on the case of a 14-year-old patient with bilateral avulsion of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) in both ring fingers. This was noted four days after a basketball match. At surgical exploration both FDP were ruptured with the ends located at A2 and A3 pulleys. These were repaired with excellent functional results. While FDP avulsions can often occur affecting the ring finger this is the first reported case of a patient presenting with a bilateral injury affecting the ring finger on both sides.

  16. Structural changes of the carpal tunnel, median nerve and flexor tendons in MRI before and after endoscopic carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Seneki; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural changes of the carpal tunnel, median nerve, and flexor tendons in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR). We studied 36 hands undergoing ECTR. In MRI, the cross-sectional area of the carpal tunnel and the median nerve at the hamate and the pisiform levels were measured. The distance from the volar side of carpal bone to the median nerve or tendons and the volar displacement were measured. In post-operative MRI, the transverse carpal ligament could not be well delineated and the carpal tunnel was significantly enlarged both at the hamate and pisiform levels. The median nerve was enlarged at the hamate level. The median nerve and flexor tendons significantly moved to the volar side. The volar displacement of the median nerve and flexor digitorum superficialis in the long and ring fingers was greater than the other tendons.

  17. Impaired Foot Plantar Flexor Muscle Performance in Individuals With Plantar Heel Pain and Association With Foot Orthosis Use.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Collazo, Christopher; Vincent, Ebonie; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Plantar heel pain is one of the most common foot and ankle conditions seen in clinical practice, and many individuals continue to have persisting or recurrent pain after treatment. Impaired foot plantar flexor muscle performance is a factor that may contribute to limited treatment success, but reliable methods to identify impairments in individuals with plantar heel pain are needed. In addition, foot orthoses are commonly used to treat this condition, but the implications of orthosis use on muscle performance have not been assessed. Objectives To assess ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance in individuals with plantar heel pain using clinically feasible measures and to examine the relationship between muscle performance and duration of foot orthosis use. Methods The rocker-board plantar flexion test (RBPFT) and modified paper grip test for the great toe (mPGTGT) and lesser toes (mPGTLT) were used to assess foot plantar flexor muscle performance in 27 individuals with plantar heel pain and compared to 27 individuals without foot pain who were matched according to age, sex, and body mass. Pain ratings were obtained before and during testing, and self-reported duration of foot orthosis use was recorded. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with plantar heel pain demonstrated lower performance on the RBPFT (P = .001), the mPGTGT (P = .022), and the mPGTLT (P = .037). Longer duration of foot orthosis use was moderately correlated to lower performance on the RBPFT (r = -0.52, P = .02), the mPGTGT (r = -0.54, P = .01), and the mPGTLT (r = -0.43, P = .03). Conclusion Ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance was impaired in individuals with plantar heel pain and associated with longer duration of self-reported foot orthosis use. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):681-688. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6482. PMID:27374013

  18. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  19. A rare complication of scaphoid nonunion: Multiple flexor tendon lesions. A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pierrart, J; Rétoré, J-Y; Leclercq, C

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with a complete rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and partial rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus of the index finger, secondary to scaphoid nonunion. This is a rare, late complication that deserves to be described because of the potential diagnostic confusion with anterior interosseous nerve palsy. No case has been reported since 1999 in the literature. The mechanism was an attrition rupture due to sharp osteophytes. The scaphoid osteophytes were removed and the FPL was repaired by tendon transfer. The results were satisfactory at the last follow-up. PMID:27117128

  20. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes.

  1. Absent quadriceps reflex with distant toe flexor response: An underrecognized neurological sign.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego Z; Boes, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    As opposed to finger flexion response upon tapping the styloid process with absent brachioradialis reflex (inverted brachioradialis reflex), toe flexion response upon patellar percussion with absent quadriceps reflex is a quite underrecognized neurological sign, and has been reported only once in the literature. Similar to the inverted brachioradialis reflex, this sign can also be useful for neurological localization. We hereby report a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of an anterior epidural mass compressing the cauda equina at L2-L4, without evidence of myelopathy. Upon examination, the patient had bilateral absent quadriceps reflexes with a right toe flexor response when the right patella was percussed. An absent quadriceps reflex with distant toe flexor response is proposed as a lower extremity equivalent of the inverted brachioradialis reflex, likely localizing to L3-L4 levels. Spindle hypersensitivity due to lack of reciprocal inhibition from antagonist muscles is hypothesized as a possible underlying mechanism. Further observations should help clarify the most common underlying etiology (radicular vs. radiculomyelopathy). Neurologists should be able to recognize this sign, as it can be helpful for neurological localization. PMID:27458829

  2. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT).

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kate Ann; Lee, Katie Joanna; Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy-storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells by low-density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin-4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor-like characteristics. PMID:25877997

  3. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs.

  4. The early inflammatory response after flexor tendon healing: A gene expression and histological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manning, CN; Havlioglu, N; Knutsen, E; Sakiyama-Elbert, SE; Silva, MJ; Thomopoulos, S; Gelberman, RH

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques over the past three decades, tendon repairs remain prone to poor clinical outcomes. Previous attempts to improve tendon healing have focused on the later stages of healing (i.e., proliferation and matrix synthesis). The early inflammatory phase of tendon healing, however, is not fully understood and its modulation during healing has not yet been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to characterize the early inflammatory phase of flexor tendon healing with the goal of identifying inflammation-related targets for future treatments. Canine flexor tendons were transected and repaired using techniques identical to those used clinically. The inflammatory response was monitored for 9 days. Temporal changes in immune cell populations and gene expression of inflammation-, matrix degradation-, and extracellular matrix-related factors were examined. Gene expression patterns paralleled changes in repair-site cell populations. Of the observed changes, the most dramatic effect was a greater than 4000-fold up-regulation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory factor IL-1β. While an inflammatory response is likely necessary for healing to occur, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may result in collateral tissue damage and impaired tendon healing. These findings suggest that future tendon treatment approaches consider modulation of the inflammatory phase of healing. PMID:24464937

  5. Enhanced flexor tendon healing through controlled delivery of PDGF-BB

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, S; Das, R; Silva, MJ; Sakiyama-Elbert, S; Harwood, FL; Zampiakis, E; Kim, HM; Amiel, D; Gelberman, RH

    2010-01-01

    A fibrin/heparin-based delivery system was used to provide controlled delivery of PDGF-BB in an animal model of intrasynovial flexor tendon repair. We hypothesized that PDGF-BB, administered in this manner, would stimulate cell proliferation and matrix remodeling, leading to improvements in the sutured tendon’s functional and structural properties. Fifty-six flexor digitorum profundus tendons were injured and repaired in 28 dogs. Three groups were compared: 1) controlled delivery of PDGF-BB using a fibrin/heparin-based delivery system, 2) delivery system carrier control, and 3) repair only control. The operated forelimbs were treated with controlled passive motion rehabilitation. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, and 42 days, at which time the tendons were assessed using histologic (hyaluronic acid content, cellularity, and inflammation), biochemical (total DNA and reducible collagen crosslink levels), and biomechanical (gliding and tensile properties) assays. We found that cell activity (as determined by total DNA, collagen crosslink analyses, and hyaluronic acid content) was accelerated due to PDGF-BB at 14 days. Proximal interphalangeal joint rotation and tendon excursion (i.e., tendon gliding properties) were significantly higher for the PDGF-BB treated tendons compared to the repair alone tendons at 42 days. Improvements in tensile properties were not achieved, possibly due to sub-optimal release kinetics or other factors. In conclusion, PDGF-BB treatment consistently improved the functional but not the structural properties of sutured intrasynovial tendons through 42 days following repair. PMID:19322789

  6. Restricted differentiation potential of progenitor cell populations obtained from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, William James Edward; Comerford, Eithne Josephine Veronica; Clegg, Peter David; Canty‐Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize stem and progenitor cell populations from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon, an energy‐storing tendon with similarities to the human Achilles tendon, which is frequently injured. Using published methods for the isolation of tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells by low‐density plating we found that isolated cells possessed clonogenicity but were unable to fully differentiate towards mesenchymal lineages using trilineage differentiation assays. In particular, adipogenic differentiation appeared to be restricted, as assessed by Oil Red O staining of stem/progenitor cells cultured in adipogenic medium. We then assessed whether differential adhesion to fibronectin substrates could be used to isolate a population of cells with broader differentiation potential. However we found little difference in the stem and tenogenic gene expression profile of these cells as compared to tenocytes, although the expression of thrombospondin‐4 was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. Tendon‐derived stem/progenitor cells isolated by differential adhesion to fibronectin had a similar differentiation potential to cells isolated by low density plating, and when grown in either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In summary, we have found a restricted differentiation potential of cells isolated from the equine superficial digital flexor tendon despite evidence for stem/progenitor‐like characteristics. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:849–858, 2015. PMID:25877997

  7. Resurfacing with Chemically Modified Hyaluronic Acid and Lubricin for Flexor Tendon Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon reconstruction, using a canine in vivo model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 14 dogs were reconstructed with autologs peroneus longus (PL) tendons 6 weeks after a failed primary repair. One digit was treated with cd-HA-Lubricin, and the other was treated with saline as the control. Six weeks following grafting, the digits and graft tendons were functionally and histologically evaluated. Adhesion score, normalized work of flexion, graft friction in zone II, and adhesion breaking strength at the proximal repair site in zone III were all lower in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated group compared to the control group. The strength at the distal tendon/bone interface was decreased in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated grafts compared to the control grafts. Histology showed inferior healing in the cd-HA-Lubricin group at both proximal and distal repair sites. However, cd-HA-Lubricin treatment did not result in any gap or rupture at either the proximal or distal repair sites. These results demonstrate that cd-HA-Lubricin can eliminate graft adhesions and improve digit function, but that treatment may have an adverse effect on tendon healing. PMID:23335124

  8. Resurfacing with chemically modified hyaluronic acid and lubricin for flexor tendon reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Kirk, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2013-06-01

    We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon reconstruction, using a canine in vivo model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 14 dogs were reconstructed with autologs peroneus longus (PL) tendons 6 weeks after a failed primary repair. One digit was treated with cd-HA-Lubricin, and the other was treated with saline as the control. Six weeks following grafting, the digits and graft tendons were functionally and histologically evaluated. Adhesion score, normalized work of flexion, graft friction in zone II, and adhesion breaking strength at the proximal repair site in zone III were all lower in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated group compared to the control group. The strength at the distal tendon/bone interface was decreased in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated grafts compared to the control grafts. Histology showed inferior healing in the cd-HA-Lubricin group at both proximal and distal repair sites. However, cd-HA-Lubricin treatment did not result in any gap or rupture at either the proximal or distal repair sites. These results demonstrate that cd-HA-Lubricin can eliminate graft adhesions and improve digit function, but that treatment may have an adverse effect on tendon healing.

  9. A Study on the Accessory Head of the Flexor Pollicis Longus Muscle (Gantzer’s Muscle)

    PubMed Central

    S.A., Gunnal; A.U., Siddiqui; S.R., Daimi; M.S., Farooqui; R.N., Wabale

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was planned to analyze the Accessory Head of the Flexor Pollicis Longus muscle’ (AHFPL) or Gantzer’s muscle and its incidence. It is an additional muscle in the forearm which might cause pressure symptoms to the underlying structures, especially to the anterior interosseus nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 180 upper limbs (90 right and 90 left). The morphology and the morphometry of AHFPL was done. In this investigation, we observed the various shapes, origins, insertions, nerve supplies and relations of the muscle. Observations and Results: The incidence of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was seen in 92 cases (51.11%). It was found bilaterally in 66 (71.73%) cases and unilaterally in 26 cases (28.26%), among which, in 16, it was seen on the right side and in 10 on the left side. With the increasing incidence of the Gantzer’s muscle, one can call it as an evolutionary muscle. Conclusion: The present study supplements the knowledge on the morphology of AHFPL muscle and its relationship with the anterior interosseus nerve. An increased incidence of this muscle may be the causative factor for the complete anterior interosseous nerve syndrome. PMID:23634387

  10. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel.

  11. Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Brown, Nicholas A T; Pandy, Marcus G

    2016-08-01

    Tendon elastic strain energy is the dominant contributor to muscle-tendon work during steady-state running. Does this behaviour also occur for sprint accelerations? We used experimental data and computational modelling to quantify muscle fascicle work and tendon elastic strain energy for the human ankle plantar flexors (specifically soleus and medial gastrocnemius) for multiple foot contacts of a maximal sprint as well as for running at a steady-state speed. Positive work done by the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicles decreased incrementally throughout the maximal sprint and both muscles performed more work for the first foot contact of the maximal sprint (FC1) compared with steady-state running at 5 m s(-1) (SS5). However, the differences in tendon strain energy for both muscles were negligible throughout the maximal sprint and when comparing FC1 to SS5. Consequently, the contribution of muscle fascicle work to stored tendon elastic strain energy was greater for FC1 compared with subsequent foot contacts of the maximal sprint and compared with SS5. We conclude that tendon elastic strain energy in the ankle plantar flexors is just as vital at the start of a maximal sprint as it is at the end, and as it is for running at a constant speed. PMID:27581481

  12. A Classic Improved: Minor Tweaks Yield Major Benefits in Crayfish Slow-Flexor Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Cynthia; Hochhaus, A. Maren; Wright, T. Michael; Mulloney, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Action potentials and the postsynaptic potentials they evoke fill the pages of neuroscience textbooks, but students have relatively few opportunities to record these phenomena on their own. However, the act of making such recordings can be key events in a student’s scientific education. The crayfish abdominal slow flexor muscle system is a well-established platform for recording spikes and PSPs. It enables students to see nerves and the muscles they innervate, record spontaneous spikes from several motor axons in these nerves as well as PSPs in their postsynaptic muscle fibers, and interpret these recordings quantitatively. Here we describe an improved method for preparing the slow-flexor system for recording that employs transmitted illumination through the stereo microscope’s conventional substage lighting. Oblique transmitted lighting allows students to see the nerve and muscles fibers in each segment clearly and position recording electrodes accurately under visual control. Because students can see the nerves, muscles, and recording electrodes, broken electrode tips are relatively uncommon and the first successful recordings come more quickly. Many kinds of neurons in the CNS have the same pattern of multineuronal, multiterminal innervation that occurs on these muscle fibers. To visualize these innervation patterns on these fibers, we describe an immunohistochemical protocol that labels the GABAergic inhibitory motor axon and all the synaptic vesicles in the synaptic terminals on these muscle fibers. Dual-color images reveal extensive branching of the axons and fields of presynaptic terminals, only some of which are double-labeled for GABA. PMID:25838805

  13. Corticomotor excitability of wrist flexor and extensor muscles during active and passive movement.

    PubMed

    Chye, Lilian; Nosaka, Ken; Murray, Lynda; Edwards, Dylan; Thickbroom, Gary

    2010-08-01

    The excitability of the corticospinal projection to upper and lower limbs is constantly modulated during voluntary and passive movement; however a direct comparison during a comparable movement has not been reported. In the present study we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare corticomotor excitability to the extensor and flexor carpi radialis (ECR/FCR) muscles of the forearm during voluntary rhythmic wrist movement (through 45 degrees of range), during a matched (for range and rhythm) passive movement of the wrist, and while the wrist was stationary (in mid-range). TMS was delivered when the wrist was in the neutral position. With passive and active movement, and for both FCR and ECR, corticomotor excitability was reduced during lengthening relative to shortening phases of movement. With active movement, this pattern was maintained and superimposed on an overall increase in excitability to both muscles that was greater for the ECR. The results favor a common pattern of excitability changes shared by extensor and flexor muscles as they undergo lengthening and shortening, which may be mediated by afferent input during both passive and active movement. This is combined with an overall increase in excitability associated with active movement that is greater for extensor muscles perhaps due to differences in the strength of the corticomotor projection to these muscles.

  14. Voluntary activation of the different compartments of the flexor digitorum profundus.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Hiske; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2010-12-01

    Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), the sole flexor of the fingertips, is critical for tasks such as grasping. It is a compartmentalized multitendoned muscle with both neural and mechanical links between the fingers. We determined whether voluntary activation (VA), the level of neural drive to muscle, could be measured separately in its four compartments, whether VA differed between the fingers, and whether maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and VA changed when the non-test fingers were extended from full flexion to 90° flexion to partially "disengage" the test finger. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex was used to measure VA, in a position in which only FDP generated force at the fingertip. Despite differences among the fingers in MVCs, VA for each finger was ∼92% (n = 8), with no differences between fingers. When the test finger was partially disengaged by extending the other fingers to 90° flexion, performance was more variable both within and between subjects. MVCs decreased significantly by about 25-40% for the four fingers. However, VA was not significantly changed (n = 6) and was similar for the four fingers. In both positions, there were strong linear relationships between the voluntary forces and the superimposed twitch sizes, indicating that the method to measure VA was very reliable. Our results indicate that maximal VA is similar for all four compartments of FDP when force production by the other fingers is unconstrained. When altered mechanical connections between the compartments decrease voluntary force output there is little difference in neural drive.

  15. Rehabilitation outcomes in patients with early and two-stage reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs. PMID:27630400

  16. Gliding characteristics between flexor tendons and surrounding tissues in the carpal tunnel: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Osamura, Naoki; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel with varied wrist positions and tendon motion styles, which may help us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and repetitive hand motion. Eight fresh human cadaveric wrists and hands were used. The peak (PGR) and mean (MGR) gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were measured with the wrist in 0, 30, and 60 degrees of flexion and extension. While moving all three fingers together, the PGR at 60 degrees flexion was significantly higher than that at 0, 30, or 60 degrees extension. While moving the middle finger alone, the PGR at 60 and 30 degrees flexion was significantly higher than the PGR at 60 degrees extension. The PGR moving the middle finger FDS alone was significantly greater than that for all three digits moving together in 0, 30, and 60 degrees flexion. Differential finger motion with wrist flexion elevated the tendon gliding resistance in the carpal tunnel, which may be relevant in considering the possible role of wrist position and activity in the etiology of CTS.

  17. Absent quadriceps reflex with distant toe flexor response: An underrecognized neurological sign.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego Z; Boes, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    As opposed to finger flexion response upon tapping the styloid process with absent brachioradialis reflex (inverted brachioradialis reflex), toe flexion response upon patellar percussion with absent quadriceps reflex is a quite underrecognized neurological sign, and has been reported only once in the literature. Similar to the inverted brachioradialis reflex, this sign can also be useful for neurological localization. We hereby report a patient presenting with signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of an anterior epidural mass compressing the cauda equina at L2-L4, without evidence of myelopathy. Upon examination, the patient had bilateral absent quadriceps reflexes with a right toe flexor response when the right patella was percussed. An absent quadriceps reflex with distant toe flexor response is proposed as a lower extremity equivalent of the inverted brachioradialis reflex, likely localizing to L3-L4 levels. Spindle hypersensitivity due to lack of reciprocal inhibition from antagonist muscles is hypothesized as a possible underlying mechanism. Further observations should help clarify the most common underlying etiology (radicular vs. radiculomyelopathy). Neurologists should be able to recognize this sign, as it can be helpful for neurological localization.

  18. Development of a synthetic replacement for the flexor tendon pulleys--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A; Kain, C C; Schaefer, R K

    1986-05-01

    A method was developed to reconstruct the fibro-osseous pulleys with Nitex, a synthetic material. Nitex is a closely woven fabric constructed from monofilament nylon fibers. Six adult monkeys (24 digits) had excision of the A1 and A2 pulleys; this was followed by reconstruction of the A2 pulley with the Nitex synthetic material. The animals were killed, two at a time, at 4, 8, and 12 weeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nitex pulleys. Flexor tendon function was assessed by biomechanical methods with a tensile testing machine to measure the tendon excursion and the work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve) necessary to fully flex each digit; these parameters revealed that the Nitex pulleys were capable of preventing tendon bow-stringing and did not significantly impair tendon gliding. The breaking strength of the Nitex pulleys was comparable to that of normal A2 pulleys (for monkeys weighing less than 10 kg) and it was sufficient to allow immediate mobilization of the digits postoperatively without fear of pulley rupture. Histologic examination showed minimal foreign body reaction around the Nitex, and the gliding surface of a Nitex pulley was found to be covered with a smooth layer of fibrous tissue with minimal adhesions to the underlying flexor tendon. The synthetic Nitex pulley appears to have the potential to function as an effective fibro-osseous pulley replacement.

  19. Desmotomy for treatment of chronic desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Todhunter, P G; Schumacher, J; Finn-Bodner, S T

    1997-01-01

    Chronic lameness was determined to be caused by desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and adhesions associated with these 2 structures. Desmotomy of the accessory ligament, resection of adhesions, and controlled exercise during convalescence resulted in return to normal use without apparent lameness. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9332748

  20. Neural and Nonneural Contributions to Wrist Rigidity in Parkinson's Disease: An Explorative Study Using the NeuroFlexor

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, H.; Frykberg, G. E.; Gäverth, J.; Lindberg, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The NeuroFlexor is a novel method incorporating a biomechanical model for the measurement of neural and nonneural contributions to resistance induced by passive stretch. In this study, we used the NeuroFlexor method to explore components of passive movement resistance in the wrist and finger muscles in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. A cross-sectional comparison was performed in twenty-five subjects with PD with clinically identified rigidity and 14 controls. Neural (NC), elastic (EC), and viscous (VC) components of the resistance to passive extension of the wrist were calculated using the NeuroFlexor. Measurements were repeated during a contralateral activation maneuver. Results. PD subjects showed greater total resistance (P < 0.001) and NC (P = 0.002) compared to controls. EC and VC did not differ significantly between groups. Contralateral activation maneuver resulted in increased NC in the PD group but this increase was due to increased resting tension. Total resistance and NC correlated with clinical ratings of rigidity and with bradykinesia. Conclusions. The findings suggest that stretch induced reflex activity, but not nonneural resistance, is the major contributor to rigidity in wrist muscles in PD. The NeuroFlexor is a potentially valuable clinical and research tool for quantification of rigidity. PMID:25685778

  1. V1 and V2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M.; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C.; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally-located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. PMID:24698273

  2. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  3. Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.

    PubMed

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-09-01

    The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon elastic strain energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon elastic strain energy over muscle fiber work.

  4. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of porcupine quill foreign bodies in the plantar flexor tendon sheath region in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie

    2010-08-01

    A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month's duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed. PMID:21037892

  5. A More Informed Evaluation of Medial Compartment Loading: the Combined Use of the Knee Adduction and Flexor Moments

    PubMed Central

    Manal, Kurt; Gardinier, Emily; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if the peak knee flexor moment provides unique and meaningful information about peak medial compartment loading above and beyond what is obtained from the peak knee adduction moment. Methods Standard video-based motion capture and EMG recordings were collected for 10 ACL reconstructed subjects walking at a self-selected speed. Knee joint moments were obtained using inverse dynamics and medial contact force was computed using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model. Linear regression with the peak adductor moment entered first was implemented to isolate the unique contribution of the peak flexor moment to peak medial loading. Results Peak moments and medial contact force occurred during weight acceptance at approximately 23% of stance. The peak adduction moment (pKAM) was a significant predictor of peak medial loading (p = 0.004) accounting for approximately 63% of the variance. The peak knee flexor moment (pKFM) was also a significant predictor (p = 0.009) accounting for an additional 22% of the variance. When entered together pKAM and pKFM accounted for more than 85% of the variance in peak medial compartment loading. Conclusion The combined use of the peak knee flexor and adductor moments provides a significantly more accurate estimate of peak medial joint loading than the peak adduction moment alone. More accurate inferences of joint contact force will assist clinicians and researchers investigating relationships between joint loading and the onset and progression of knee OA. PMID:25862486

  6. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity.

  7. Effects of roxarsone and monensin on digital flexoral tendons of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Chapman, H D; Fitz-Coy, S H; Balog, J M; Huff, G R; Huff, W E

    1998-04-01

    Roxarsone and monensin are common poultry feed additives that are used alone or in combination with other drugs to improve growth and feed utilization in young birds. The effects of monensin and roxarsone on the physiology of flexoral tendons of broiler chickens were examined to understand their relationships to leg weakness that have been occasionally associated with these drugs. Day-old chickens were fed either roxarsone or monensin for a period of 6 wk with two regimens of each of the drugs (roxarsone, 45.4 or 90.8 g/ton feed; monensin, 100 or 150 g/ton feed). None of the treatments had any adverse effect on the growth of the birds or caused any significant leg problem. Roxarsone at 45.4 g/ton caused a significant gain in body weight. The biomechanical strength of digital flexoral tendons was measured in several ways. There were no statistical differences in load at break, the modulus of elasticity, or stress or strain levels between different treatment groups and birds that received no medication. There were no differences in collagen, proteoglycan, and pyridinoline content of tendons. Sequential extraction of tendons with different solvents revealed a significant increase in the percentage of guanidine HCl extractible collagens in monensin-treated birds, and a decrease in the acid extractible collagen in both roxarsone- and monensin-treated groups. The relative content of collagen in acid extractible collagens were significantly small relative to total collagen content. Majority of collagen (84 to 90%) was extractible with pepsin. About 8 to 11% of total collagen was resistant to pepsin that was extractible with collagenase; this did not differ between treatment groups. Roxarsone treatment had no effect on the guanidine soluble collagen pool. The effect of monensin on the increase in guanidine soluble pool of collagen may relate to its disruptive effects on cellular secretory processes, which may be of significance in modulating connective tissue function in

  8. Firing of antagonist small-diameter muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and torque of elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2013-07-15

    During muscle fatigue, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents can decrease voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle. However, these afferents may have a more widespread effect on other muscles in the exercising limb. We examined if the firing of fatigue-sensitive afferents from elbow extensor muscles in the same arm reduces torque production and voluntary activation of elbow flexors. In nine subjects we examined voluntary activation of elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during brief (2-3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Inflation of a blood pressure cuff following a 2-min sustained MVC blocked blood flow to the fatigued muscle and maintained firing of small-diameter afferents. After a fatiguing elbow flexion contraction, maximal flexion torque was lower (26.0 ± 4.4% versus 67.9 ± 5.2% of initial maximal torque; means ± s.d.; P < 0.001) and superimposed twitches were larger (4.1 ± 1.1% versus 1.8 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC, P = 0.01) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing elbow extensor contraction, maximal flexion torque was also reduced (82.2 ± 4.9% versus 91.4 ± 2.3% of initial maximal torque; P = 0.007), superimposed twitches were larger (2.7 ± 0.7% versus 1.3 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC; P = 0.02) and voluntary activation lower (81.6 ± 8.2% versus 95.5 ± 6.9%; P = 0.04) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing contraction, voluntary drive to the fatigued muscles is reduced with continued input from small-diameter muscle afferents. Furthermore, fatigue of the elbow extensor muscles decreases voluntary drive to unfatigued elbow flexors of the same arm. Therefore, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents from one muscle can affect voluntary activation and hence torque generation of another muscle in the same limb. PMID:23652589

  9. Synergistic Co-activation Increases the Extent of Mechanical Interaction between Rat Ankle Plantar-Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Baan, Guus C.; Maas, Huub

    2016-01-01

    Force transmission between rat ankle plantar-flexors has been found for physiological muscle lengths and relative positions, but only with all muscles maximally activated. The aims of this study were to assess intermuscular mechanical interactions between ankle plantar-flexors during (i) fully passive conditions, (ii) excitation of soleus (SO), (iii) excitation of lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and (iv) during co-activation of SO, and LG (SO&LG). We assessed effects of proximal lengthening of LG and plantaris (PL) muscles (i.e., simulating knee extension) on forces exerted at the distal SO tendon (FSO) and on the force difference between the proximal and distal LG+PL tendons (ΔFLG+PL) of the rat. LG+PL lengthening increased FSO to a larger extent (p = 0.017) during LG excitation (0.0026 N/mm) than during fully passive conditions (0.0009 N/mm). Changes in FSO in response to LG+PL lengthening were lower (p = 0.002) during SO only excitation (0.0056 N/mm) than during SO&LG excitation (0.0101 N/mm). LG+PL lengthening changed ΔFLG+PL to a larger extent (p = 0.007) during SO excitation (0.0211 N/mm) than during fully passive conditions (0.0157 N/mm). In contrast, changes in ΔFLG+PL in response to LG+PL lengthening during LG excitation (0.0331 N/mm) were similar (p = 0.161) to that during SO&LG excitation (0.0370 N/mm). In all conditions, changes of FSO were lower than those of ΔFLG+PL. This indicates that muscle forces were transmitted not only between LG+PL and SO, but also between LG+PL and other surrounding structures. In addition, epimuscular myofascial force transmission between rat ankle plantar-flexors was enhanced by muscle activation. However, the magnitude of this interaction was limited. PMID:27708589

  10. Long-term follow-up of the flexor carpi ulnaris transfer in spastic hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Thometz, J G; Tachdjian, M

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 25 patients with cerebral palsy who underwent transfer of the flexor carpi ulnaris to the radial wrist extendors. The mean age at the time of surgery was 8 years 1 month. The mean follow-up was 8 years 7 months. At follow-up, the mean active wrist dorsiflexion was 44.2 degrees, palmar flexion was 19.0 degrees, supination was 40.2 degrees, and pronation was 53.4 degrees. According to a modification of Green's evaluation system, there were six excellent, nine good, five fair, and five poor results. Two patients required further surgery to correct a supination, dorsiflexion contracture. We found the transfer to be quite effective in improving wrist dorsiflexion, although there was often a significant loss of active palmar flexion postoperatively. The patient therefore should have good digital extension (with the wrist extended passively above neutral) to be considered for the transfer.

  11. Spastic wrist flexion in cerebral palsy. Pronator teres versus flexor carpi ulnaris transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard de Novaes França; Rizzi, Nivea; Setani, Eliana Ogassawara; Casagrande, Livia; Fonseca, Joseane; Fortes, Glaucia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analize data on patients submitted to transfer of the pronator teres (PT) or the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCB) to the extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis (ECRL/B) in order to correct flexed wrist deformity in patients with cerebral palsy. METHOD: Patients were divided into two groups: PT group and FCU group to ECRL/B. The results were evaluated by goniometry and by the functional hand test (FHT). RESULTS: Goniometry showed a statistically significant difference in favor of FCU transfer. There was no statistically significant difference regarding FHT. CONCLUSION: Both transfers PT and FCU to ECRB are good options to correct wrist flexion deformity in cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence III, Non-randomized Controlled Cohort/Follow-Up Study. PMID:26207093

  12. Salvage Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer for a Failed Achilles Repair: Endoscopic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Sérgio; Caetano, Rubén; Corte-Real, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfer is a well-established treatment option in failed Achilles tendon (AT) repair and has been routinely performed as an open procedure. We detail the surgical steps needed to perform an arthroscopic transfer of the FHL for a chronic AT rupture. The FHL tendon is harvested as it enters in its tunnel beneath the sustentaculum tali; a tunnel is then drilled in the calcaneus as near to the AT footprint as possible. By use of a suture-passing device, the free end of the FHL is advanced to the plantar aspect of the foot. After adequate tension is applied to the construct, the tendon is fixed in place with an interference screw in an inside-out fashion. This minimally invasive approach is a safe and valid alternative to classic open procedures with the obvious advantages of preserving the soft-tissue envelope and using a biologically intact tendon. PMID:26697296

  13. Layered chitosan-collagen hydrogel/aligned PLLA nanofiber construct for flexor tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, S; Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Deepti Kadavan, J; Jayakumar, R

    2016-11-20

    The aim of our study was to develop a tendon construct of electrospun aligned poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers, to mimic the aligned collagen fiber bundles and layering PLLA fibers with chitosan-collagen hydrogel, to mimic the glycosaminoglycans of sheath ECM for tendon regeneration. The hydrogel coated electrospun membrane was rolled and an outer coating of alginate gel was given to prevent peritendinous adhesion. The developed constructs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and tensile testing. Protein adsorption studies showed lower protein adsorption on coated scaffolds compared to uncoated scaffolds. The samples were proven to be non-toxic to tenocytes. The chitosan-collagen/PLLA uncoated scaffolds and alginate gel coated chitosan-collagen/PLLA scaffolds showed good cell proliferation. The tenocytes showed good attachment and spreading on the scaffolds. This study indicated that the developed chitosan-collagen/PLLA/alginate scaffold would be suitable for flexor tendon regeneration. PMID:27561521

  14. [Use of tissue engineering in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand].

    PubMed

    Bíró, Vilmos

    2015-02-01

    In his literary analysis, the author describes a novel method applied in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This procedure is named tissue engineering, and it is examined mainly under experimental circumstances. After definition of the method and descriptions of literary preliminaries the author discusses the healing process of the normal tendon tissue, then development of the scaffold, an important step of tissue engineering is described. After these topics the introduction of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold, and proliferation of these cells and development of the sliding systems are presented. The mechanical resisting ability of the formed tendon tissue is also discussed. Finally, the author concludes that as long as results of experimental research cannot be successfully applied into clinical practice, well-tried tendon reconstruction operations and high quality postoperative rehabilitation are needed.

  15. Effects of plantar flexor muscle fatigue induced by electromyostimulation on postural coordination.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Antoine; Fouque, Florent; Cahouët, Violaine; Martin, Alain

    2007-02-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a modification of an intrinsic capacity (plantar flexor strength) on the implementation of in-phase and anti-phase mode of coordination. Analysis of hip and ankle relative phases during fore-aft tracking task was done before and after an electromyostimulation fatigue protocol on the soleus muscles. Results showed participants used exclusively in-phase and anti-phase modes of coordination, with a sudden switch from one to the other with target frequency increase. Regarding tracking tasks, fatigue induces a decrease of performance for lower frequencies, and a significant decrease of switch frequency (-0.08 Hz) for each subject. In conclusion, changes in mode of coordination implementation suggest that the in-phase mode implementation is highly linked to the strength production capacity at the ankle joint. PMID:17280784

  16. Morphological and histochemical characteristics of muscle fibre types in the flexor carpi radialis of the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    The canine flexor carpi radialis is subdivided into 2 portions. The radial portion which occupies one third of the cross-section is located caudomedially and is composed only of large type I fibres (43.53 +/- 0.6 microns minimum diameter) in levels close to the insertion. The cubital portion is located craniolaterally and contains fewer and smaller type I fibres (26.10 +/- 0.3 microns minimum diameter). It is hypothesised that the radial portion of the muscle, with its larger slow fibre population, contributes to forelimb postural function. The cubital portion, with its generally fast fibre population (IIA), may be more important in the muscle's recognised function (flexion of the carpal joint during locomotion). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8226286

  17. Can a stroke present with flexor spasms? A highly rare experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Yasir Mehmood; Almadani, Abubaker Abdulrahman; Dar, Jaeed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary movement disorders are not a common presentation of basal ganglia ischemia which may be induced by cerebral hemodynamic insufficiency. In secondary causes of movements disorders cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with intermittent involuntary tonic spasms or seizure-like episodes followed by weakness due to contralateral putaminal infarction. Initially thought to have Todd's paralysis she was not thrombolysed, but later she developed dense hemiplegia. Flexor spasms are generally thought to occur in lesions of the spinal cord but they can also occur in cerebral lesion, may be because of disinhibition of the spinal cord. Certain other theories also have been narrated, but this field still needs to be worked upon.

  18. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  19. Three-dimensional sonographic imaging of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Wood, A K; Sehgal, C M; Reef, V B

    1994-11-01

    In a feasability study, a technique for constructing 3-dimensional sonographic images of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) was established in 6 clinically normal horses and applied to 7 horses with injured SDFT. Two-dimensional B-mode sonographic images were recorded on videotape as the sonographic transducer was manually moved along the palmar aspect of the metacarpal region. Selected videofields were digitized, and 3-dimensional images were constructed, using a computer work station and dedicated software program. The 3-dimensional images were of high quality and presented qualitative clinical information in unique fashion. Indication of the extent of SDFT injuries was excellent. Such 3-dimensional images would be especially useful in explaining to owners and trainers the importance of the injury to their horse and would have a role in monitoring tendon healing and in the assessment of various treatments.

  20. Biomechanical risk factors and flexor tendon frictional work in the cadaveric carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures. PMID:25553671

  1. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage. PMID:21573775

  2. INTRASYNOVIAL FLEXOR TENDON REPAIR: A BIOMECHANICAL STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN SUTURE APPLICATION IN HUMAN CADAVERA

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, GN; Potter, R; Ntouvali, E; Silva, MJ; Boyer, MI; Gelberman, RH; Thomopoulos, S

    2013-01-01

    To improve the functional outcomes of intrasynovial tendon suture, prior experiments evaluated individual technical modifications used in the repair process. Few studies, however, have assessed the combinatorial effects of those suture modifications in an integrated biomechanical manner, including a sample size sufficient to make definitive observations on repair technique. 256 flexor tendon repairs were performed in cadavera, and biomechanical properties were determined. The effects of five factors for flexor tendon repair were tested: core suture caliber (4-0 or 3-0), number of sutures crossing the repair site (4- or 8-strand), core suture purchase (0.75 cm or 1.2 cm), peripheral suture caliber (6-0 or 5-0), and peripheral suture purchase (superficial or 2 mm). Significant factors affecting the properties of the repair were the number of core suture strands and the peripheral suture purchase. The least significant factors were core suture purchase and peripheral suture caliber. The choice of core suture caliber affected the properties of repair marginally. Based on these results, we recommend that surgeons continue to focus on multi-strand repair methods, as the properties of 8-strand repairs were far better than those of 4-strand repairs. To resist gap formation and enhance repair strength, a peripheral suture with 2mm purchase is also recommended. Finally, since core suture caliber affected some biomechanical properties, including the failure mode, a 3-0 suture could be considered, provided that future in vivo studies can confirm that gliding properties are not adversely influenced. PMID:22457145

  3. Muscle fibre types of the lumbrical, interossei, flexor, and extensor muscles moving the index finger.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fibre types of the muscles moving the index fingers in humans. Fifteen forearms of eight adult cadavers were used. The sampled muscles were the first lumbrical (LM), first volar interosseous (VI), first dorsal interosseus (DI), second flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), second flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and extensor digitorum (ED). Six micrometer thick sections were stained for fast muscle fibres. The procedure was performed by applying mouse monoclonal anti-skeletal myosin antibody (fast) and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining. Rectangular areas (0.38 mm × 0.38 mm) were photographed and the boundaries of the muscle areas were marked on the translucent film. The numbers and sizes of the muscle fibres in each part were evaluated by the image analyser program and calculated per unit area (1 mm(2)). The proportion of the fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.012) greater in the intrinsic muscles (55.7 ± 17.1%) than in the extrinsic muscles (45.9 ± 17.1%). Among the six muscles, the VI had a significantly higher portion (59.3%) of fast fibres than the FDS (40.6%) (p = 0.005) or the FDP (45.1%) (p = 0.023). The density of the non-fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.015) greater in the extrinsic muscles (539.2 ± 336.8/mm(2)) than in the intrinsic muscles (383.4 ± 230.4/mm2). Since the non-fast fibres represent less fatigable fibres, it is thought that the extrinsic muscles have higher durability against fatigue, and the intrinsic muscles, including the LM, should move faster than the FDS or FDP because the MP joint should be flexed before the IP joint to grip an object.

  4. A Barbed Suture Repair For Flexor Tendons: A Novel Technique With No Exposed Barbs

    PubMed Central

    Sugrue, Conor; Chan, Jeffrey C.; Delgado, Luis; Zeugolis, Dimitrios; Carroll, Seam M.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Barbed suture technology has shown promise in flexor tendon repairs, as there is an even distribution of load and the need for a knot is eliminated. We propose that a quick and simple, novel, barbed technique without any exposed barbs on the tendon surface has comparable strength and a smaller cross-sectional area at the repair site than traditional methods of repair. Methods: Forty porcine flexor tendons were randomized to polybutester 4-strand barbed repair or to 4-strand Adelaide monofilament repair. The cross-sectional area was measured before and after repair. Biomechanical testing was carried out and 2-mm gap formation force, ultimate strength of repair, and method of failure were recorded. Results: The mean ultimate strength of the barbed repairs was 54.51 ± 17.9 while that of the Adelaide repairs was 53.17 ± 16.35. The mean 2-mm gap formation force for the barbed group was 44.71 ± 17.86 whereas that of the Adelaide group was 20.25 ± 4.99. The postrepair percentage change in cross-sectional area at the repair site for the Adelaide group and barbed group was 12.0 ± 2.3 and 4.6 ± 2.8, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that a 4-strand knotless, barbed method attained comparable strength to that of the traditional Adelaide repair technique. The barbed method had a significantly reduced cross-sectional area at the repair site compared with the Adelaide group. The 2-mm gap formation force was less in the barbed group than the Adelaide group. Barbed repairs show promise for tendon repairs; this simple method warrants further study in an animal model. PMID:25426354

  5. Contractile properties of muscle fibers from the deep and superficial digital flexors of horses.

    PubMed

    Butcher, M T; Chase, P B; Hermanson, J W; Clark, A N; Brunet, N M; Bertram, J E A

    2010-10-01

    Equine digital flexor muscles have independent tendons but a nearly identical mechanical relationship to the main joint they act upon. Yet these muscles have remarkable diversity in architecture, ranging from long, unipennate fibers ("short" compartment of DDF) to very short, multipennate fibers (SDF). To investigate the functional relevance of the form of the digital flexor muscles, fiber contractile properties were analyzed in the context of architecture differences and in vivo function during locomotion. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type was studied, and in vitro motility assays were used to measure actin filament sliding velocity (V(f)). Skinned fiber contractile properties [isometric tension (P(0)/CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (V(US)), and force-Ca(2+) relationships] at both 10 and 30°C were characterized. Contractile properties were correlated with MHC isoform and their respective V(f). The DDF contained a higher percentage of MHC-2A fibers with myosin (heavy meromyosin) and V(f) that was twofold faster than SDF. At 30°C, P(0)/CSA was higher for DDF (103.5 ± 8.75 mN/mm(2)) than SDF fibers (81.8 ± 7.71 mN/mm(2)). Similarly, V(US) (pCa 5, 30°C) was faster for DDF (2.43 ± 0.53 FL/s) than SDF fibers (1.20 ± 0.22 FL/s). Active isometric tension increased with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, with maximal Ca(2+) activation at pCa 5 at each temperature in fibers from each muscle. In general, the collective properties of DDF and SDF were consistent with fiber MHC isoform composition, muscle architecture, and the respective functional roles of the two muscles in locomotion.

  6. Muscle fibre types of the lumbrical, interossei, flexor, and extensor muscles moving the index finger.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fibre types of the muscles moving the index fingers in humans. Fifteen forearms of eight adult cadavers were used. The sampled muscles were the first lumbrical (LM), first volar interosseous (VI), first dorsal interosseus (DI), second flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), second flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and extensor digitorum (ED). Six micrometer thick sections were stained for fast muscle fibres. The procedure was performed by applying mouse monoclonal anti-skeletal myosin antibody (fast) and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining. Rectangular areas (0.38 mm × 0.38 mm) were photographed and the boundaries of the muscle areas were marked on the translucent film. The numbers and sizes of the muscle fibres in each part were evaluated by the image analyser program and calculated per unit area (1 mm(2)). The proportion of the fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.012) greater in the intrinsic muscles (55.7 ± 17.1%) than in the extrinsic muscles (45.9 ± 17.1%). Among the six muscles, the VI had a significantly higher portion (59.3%) of fast fibres than the FDS (40.6%) (p = 0.005) or the FDP (45.1%) (p = 0.023). The density of the non-fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.015) greater in the extrinsic muscles (539.2 ± 336.8/mm(2)) than in the intrinsic muscles (383.4 ± 230.4/mm2). Since the non-fast fibres represent less fatigable fibres, it is thought that the extrinsic muscles have higher durability against fatigue, and the intrinsic muscles, including the LM, should move faster than the FDS or FDP because the MP joint should be flexed before the IP joint to grip an object. PMID:23692210

  7. Biomechanical risk factors and flexor tendon frictional work in the cadaveric carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures.

  8. Enhanced expression of Wnt9a in the flexor tenosynovium in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Menuki, Kunitaka; Zenke, Yukichi; Hirasawa, Hideyuki; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between abnormal Wnt signaling and the cause of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (ICTS) and whether an association exists between Wnt signaling and cell proliferation in the flexor tenosynovium. The subjects included nine patients with ICTS; the controls were nine patients with distal radius fractures without any symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. We extracted mRNA from the flexor tenosynovium and compared the expression levels of genes encoding 17 types of Wnt in both subjects and controls via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels of factors involved in cell proliferation, such as estrogen-responsive finger protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured using quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, we compared the Wnt and MIB-1 protein expression levels to clarify the effect of Wnt on cell proliferation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed significantly greater expression of the gene encoding Wnt9a in subjects with ICTS than in controls and also revealed a positive correlation between the expression of genes encoding Wnt9a and VEGF in subjects with ICTS. Quantitative evaluation using immunohistochemical staining also indicated more marked Wnt9a expression in subjects than in controls. However, there was no relationship between the expression of Wnt9a and the cell proliferation index MIB-1. These results indicate that Wnt9a expression is enhanced in ICTS and that Wnt9a may be involved in VEGF expression in ICTS.

  9. Reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition after eccentric muscle damage in human elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Bradley M; Semmler, John G

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of eccentric exercise on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) after damage to elbow flexor muscles. Nine young (22.5 ± 0.6 yr; mean ± SD) male subjects performed maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexor muscles until maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was reduced by ∼40%. TMS was performed before, 2 h after, and 2 days after exercise under Rest and Active (5% MVC) conditions with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. Peripheral electrical stimulation of the brachial plexus was used to assess maximal M-waves, and paired-pulse TMS with a 3-ms interstimulus interval was used to assess changes in SICI at each time point. The eccentric exercise resulted in a 34% decline in strength (P < 0.001), a 41% decline in resting M-wave (P = 0.01), changes in resting elbow joint angle (10°, P < 0.001), and a shift in the optimal elbow joint angle for force production (18°, P < 0.05) 2 h after exercise. This was accompanied by impaired muscle strength (27%, P < 0.001) and increased muscle soreness (P < 0.001) 2 days after exercise, which is indicative of muscle damage. When the test MEP amplitudes were matched between sessions, we found that SICI was reduced by 27% in resting and 23% in active BB muscle 2 h after exercise. SICI recovered 2 days after exercise when muscle pain and soreness were present, suggesting that delayed onset muscle soreness from eccentric exercise does not influence SICI. The change in SICI observed 2 h after exercise suggests that eccentric muscle damage has widespread effects throughout the motor system that likely includes changes in motor cortex. PMID:22837166

  10. Skeletal Muscle Metastases to the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis and Profundus from Urothelial Cell Carcinoma and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Marco; Fusetti, Cesare; Lucchina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) metastases to skeletal muscle are extremely rare and usually found in patients with advanced stage cancer. The most common sites of bladder cancer metastases are lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bones. Muscle is an unusual site of metastases from a distant primary cancer, due to several protective factors. We present a rare case of 76-year-old patient with metastases in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles, 2 years after a radical cystectomy for invasive UCC of the bladder. This case is the first description of a forearm lesion, with an extensive infiltration of the volar compartments of the forearm, and the first one with a clear functional impairment. PMID:27648338

  11. Skeletal Muscle Metastases to the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis and Profundus from Urothelial Cell Carcinoma and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fusetti, Cesare; Lucchina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) metastases to skeletal muscle are extremely rare and usually found in patients with advanced stage cancer. The most common sites of bladder cancer metastases are lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bones. Muscle is an unusual site of metastases from a distant primary cancer, due to several protective factors. We present a rare case of 76-year-old patient with metastases in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles, 2 years after a radical cystectomy for invasive UCC of the bladder. This case is the first description of a forearm lesion, with an extensive infiltration of the volar compartments of the forearm, and the first one with a clear functional impairment. PMID:27648338

  12. Endoscopic-Assisted Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer: Harvest of the Tendon at Zone 2 or Zone 3.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer is indicated for reconstruction of the Achilles tendon with a gap larger than 5 cm. The tendon can be harvested at zone 2 or zone 3 by minimally invasive techniques with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue dissection. The tendon can be harvested under the sustentaculum tali by zone 2 FHL tendoscopy. It is adequate for FHL transfer to the posterior calcaneal tubercle. If a double-thickness reconstruction of a huge gap of the Achilles tendon is indicated, the tendon can be harvested at the level of the hallux by means of a tendon stripper. However, the interconnection tendon of the master knot of Henry can be split together with the FHL or flexor digitorum longus tendon instead of being cut. Zone 2 FHL tendoscopy can be used to release the split tendon to complete the FHL harvest. PMID:27284516

  13. Plantar-flexor Static Stretch Training Effect on Eccentric and Concentric Peak Torque – A comparative Study of Trained versus Untrained Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-aziem, Amr Almaz; Mohammad, Walaa Sayed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of static stretching of the plantar-flexor muscles on eccentric and concentric torque and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy subjects. Seventy five healthy male volunteers, with no previous history of trauma to the calf that required surgery, absence of knee flexion contracture and no history of neurologic dysfunction or disease, systemic disease affecting the lower extremities were selected for this study. The participants were divided into three equal groups. The control group did not stretch the plantar-flexor muscles. Two Experimental groups (trained and untrained) were instructed to perform static stretching exercise of 30 second duration and 5 repetitions twice daily. The stretching sessions were carried out 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured in all subjects. Also measured was the eccentric and concentric torque of plantar-flexors at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s pre and post stretching. Analysis of variance showed a significant increase in plantar-flexor eccentric and concentric torque (p < 0.05) of trained and untrained groups, and an increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (p < 0.05) at both angular velocities for the untrained group only. The static stretching program of plantar-flexors was effective in increasing the concentric and eccentric plantarflexion torque at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s. Increases in plantar-flexors flexibility were observed in untrained subjects. PMID:23486840

  14. Focal Experimental Injury Leads to Widespread Gene Expression and Histologic Changes in Equine Flexor Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  15. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  16. Knee flexor strength and bicep femoris electromyographical activity is lower in previously strained hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Dear, Nuala M; Shield, Anthony J

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if athletes with a history of hamstring strain injury display lower levels of surface EMG (sEMG) activity and median power frequency in the previously injured hamstring muscle during maximal voluntary contractions. Recreational athletes were recruited, 13 with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury and 15 without prior injury. All athletes undertook isokinetic dynamometry testing of the knee flexors and sEMG assessment of the biceps femoris long head (BF) and medial hamstrings (MHs) during concentric and eccentric contractions at ±180 and ±60°s(-1). The knee flexors on the previously injured limb were weaker at all contraction speeds compared to the uninjured limb (+180°s(-1)p=0.0036; +60°s(-1)p=0.0013; -60°s(-1)p=0.0007; -180°s(-1)p=0.0007) whilst sEMG activity was only lower in the BF during eccentric contractions (-60°s(-1)p=0.0025; -180°s(-1)p=0.0003). There were no between limb differences in MH sEMG activity or median power frequency from either BF or MH in the injured group. The uninjured group showed no between limb differences in any of the tested variables. Secondary analysis comparing the between limb difference in the injured and the uninjured groups, confirmed that previously injured hamstrings were mostly weaker (+180°s(-1)p=0.2208; +60°s(-1)p=0.0379; -60°(-1)p=0.0312; -180°s(-1)p=0.0110) and that deficits in sEMG were confined to the BF during eccentric contractions (-60°s(-1)p=0.0542; -180°s(-1)p=0.0473). Previously injured hamstrings were weaker and BF sEMG activity was lower than the contralateral uninjured hamstring. This has implications for hamstring strain injury prevention and rehabilitation which should consider altered neural function following hamstring strain injury.

  17. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  18. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  19. Closed Rupture of the Flexor Tendon Secondary to Sclerosis of the Hook of the Hamate: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Hosaka, Masato; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Closed flexor tendon ruptures in the little finger can be caused by fracture or nonunion of the hook of the hamate, but no case of the disorder secondary to the sclerosis and thinning of the hamate hook has been reported. We report two rare cases with this complication due to rough surface of the hamate hook. Carpal tunnel view radiographs and computed tomography showed the sclerosis and thinning of the hook. PMID:27595962

  20. Attritional Rupture of the Little Finger Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon in the Carpal Tunnel in a Patient with Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Munn Yi Tina; Jin, Yeo Chong

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel is rare in the absence of rheumatoid arthritis. Other predisposing conditions such as gout, infection, pisotriquetrial osteoarthritis, as well as hook of hamate fracture non-union, have previously been reported. However, tendon ruptures of the hand in the presence of acromegaly, as well as spontaneous ruptures within the carpal tunnel, have not been described in the literature. PMID:27454510

  1. High-Intensity Running and Plantar-Flexor Fatigability and Plantar-Pressure Distribution in Adolescent Runners

    PubMed Central

    Fourchet, François; Kelly, Luke; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Loepelt, Heiko; Taiar, Redha; Millet, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Context: Fatigue-induced alterations in foot mechanics may lead to structural overload and injury. Objectives: To investigate how a high-intensity running exercise to exhaustion modifies ankle plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor strength and fatigability, as well as plantar-pressure distribution in adolescent runners. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Academy research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven male adolescent distance runners (age = 16.9 ± 2.0 years, height = 170.6 ± 10.9 cm, mass = 54.6 ± 8.6 kg) were tested. Intervention(s): All participants performed an exhausting run on a treadmill. An isokinetic plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor maximal-strength test and a fatigue test were performed before and after the exhausting run. Plantar-pressure distribution was assessed at the beginning and end of the exhausting run. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded plantar-flexor and dorsiflexor peak torques and calculated the fatigue index. Plantar-pressure measurements were recorded 1 minute after the start of the run and before exhaustion. Plantar variables (ie, mean area, contact time, mean pressure, relative load) were determined for 9 selected regions. Results: Isokinetic peak torques were similar before and after the run in both muscle groups, whereas the fatigue index increased in plantar flexion (28.1%; P = .01) but not in dorsiflexion. For the whole foot, mean pressure decreased from 1 minute to the end (−3.4%; P = .003); however, mean area (9.5%; P = .005) and relative load (7.2%; P = .009) increased under the medial midfoot, and contact time increased under the central forefoot (8.3%; P = .01) and the lesser toes (8.9%; P = .008). Conclusions: Fatigue resistance in the plantar flexors declined after a high-intensity running bout performed by adolescent male distance runners. This phenomenon was associated with increased loading under the medial arch in the fatigued state but without any excessive pronation. PMID:25531143

  2. Modulation of Stretch Reflexes of the Finger Flexors by Sensory Feedback From the Proximal Upper Limb Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Gilles; Kamper, Derek G.; Kahn, Jennifer H.; Rymer, William Z.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Neural coupling of proximal and distal upper limb segments may have functional implications in the recovery of hemiparesis after stroke. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the stretch reflex response magnitude of spastic finger flexor muscles poststroke is influenced by sensory input from the shoulder and the elbow and whether reflex coupling of muscles throughout the upper limb is altered in spastic stroke survivors. Through imposed extension of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, stretch of the relaxed finger flexors of the four fingers was imposed in 10 relaxed stroke subjects under different conditions of proximal sensory input, namely static arm posture (3 different shoulder/elbow postures) and electrical stimulation (surface stimulation of biceps brachii or triceps brachii, or none). Fast (300°/s) imposed stretch elicited stretch reflex flexion torque at the MCP joints and reflex electromyographic (EMG) activity in flexor digitorum superficialis. Both measures were greatest in an arm posture of 90° of elbow flexion and neutral shoulder position. Biceps stimulation resulted in greater MCP stretch reflex flexion torque. Fast imposed stretch also elicited reflex EMG activity in nonstretched heteronymous upper limb muscles, both proximal and distal. These results suggest that in the spastic hemiparetic upper limb poststroke, sensorimotor coupling of proximal and distal upper limb segments is involved in both the increased stretch reflex response of the finger flexors and an increased reflex coupling of heteronymous muscles. Both phenomena may be mediated through changes poststroke in the spinal reflex circuits and/or in the descending influence of supraspinal pathways. PMID:19571191

  3. Tonic and phasic discharge patterns in toe flexor gamma-motoneurons during locomotion in the decerebrate cat.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P R

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the specificity of fusimotor (gamma) drive during locomotion, gamma-efferents were recorded from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) nerves in a decerebrate cat preparation. These nerves innervate hindlimb muscles that differ in some aspects of their mechanical action. For both FHL and FDL two stereotyped patterns of gamma activity were distinguished. Tonic units fired throughout the step cycle and had less modulation, but higher minimum rates, than phasic units, which were mainly recruited with ankle extensor [soleus (SOL)] electromyogram (EMG) activity. Differences in the relative timing of these patterns were apparent. In FHL the activity of phasic and most tonic neurons peaked after EMG onset. With FDL, tonic units generally reached maximum rate before, while phasic units peaked after, the beginning of EMG activity. During locomotion FHL and FDL alpha activity were rhythmically recruited with SOL. However, consistent with previous reports, FHL and FDL differed in their patterns of alpha activity. FHL was stereotyped while FDL was variable. Both FHL and FDL had activity related to ankle extensor EMG, but only FDL exhibited a peak around the end of this phase. No corresponding gamma activity was observed in FDL. In conclusion, 1) FHL and FDL received tonic and phasic fusimotor drive; 2) there was no alpha/gamma linkage for the late FDL alpha burst; 3) phasic gamma-efferents in both muscles received similar inputs, linked to plantar flexor alpha activity; and 4) tonic gamma-efferents differed, to the extent that they were modulated at all. The FHL units peaked with the plantar flexor alphas. The FDL neurons generally peaked before alpha activity even began.

  4. The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean ± SD age: 43 ± 12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7 ± 150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9 ± 25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r = 0.549, p = 0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

  5. Four-Strand Core Suture Improves Flexor Tendon Repair Compared to Two-Strand Technique in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Beyersdoerfer, Sascha Tobias; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the amount of suture material on the formation of peritendinous adhesions of intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs. Materials and Methods. In 14 rabbits, the flexor tendons of the third and the fourth digit of the right hind leg were cut and repaired using a 2- or 4-strand core suture technique. The repaired tendons were harvested after three and eight weeks. The range of motion of the affected toes was measured and the tendons were processed histologically. The distance between the transected tendon ends, the changes in the peritendinous space, and cellular and extracellular inflammatory reaction were quantified by different staining. Results. A 4-strand core suture resulted in significantly less gap formation. The 2-strand core suture showed a tendency to less adhesion formation. Doubling of the intratendinous suture material was accompanied by an initial increase in leukocyte infiltration and showed a greater amount of formation of myofibroblasts. From the third to the eighth week after flexor tendon repair, both the cellular and the extracellular inflammation decreased significantly. Conclusion. A 4-strand core suture repair leads to a significantly better tendon healing process with less diastasis between the sutured tendon ends despite initially pronounced inflammatory response. PMID:27446949

  6. Impact of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle of adults.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle in adults. [Subjects] A total of 60 subjects were divided into an experimental group of 30 subjects and a control group of 30 subjects. [Methods] The experimental group received massage of the longus colli muscle, which is the deep neck flexor muscle, and the control group received superficial neck muscle massage. The strength and endurance of both the experimental group and the control group were measured before and after the intervention using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). [Results] After the experiment, the strength of DNF of the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase, and the endurance of DNF of the experimental group showed an increase in its average value. The independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significant differences in the groups. [Conclusion] Massage of the longus colli muscle, which is the deep neck flexor, was shown to improve its strength and endurance, which are measures of neck stabilization. Therefore, longus colli muscle massage can be performed for patients who cannot perform neck-stabilizing exercises or before performing other neck-stabilizing exercises.

  7. The Effects of Elbow Joint Angle Change on the Elbow Flexor Muscle Activation in Pulley with Weight Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position. PMID:24259930

  8. An examination of the strength and electromyographic responses after concentric vs. eccentric exercise of the forearm flexors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and electromyographic (EMG) responses in exercised and nonexercised limbs after concentric (CON) vs. eccentric (ECC) exercise of the forearm flexors. Twenty-five men (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 3.8 years; height, 179.7 ± 6.6 cm; body weight, 87.4 ± 14.6 kg) performed 6 sets of 10 maximal CON isokinetic (CON exercise) or ECC isokinetic (ECC exercise) muscle actions of the dominant (DOM) forearm flexors on 2 separate randomly ordered visits. Each subject performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of both the DOM and nondominant (NONDOM) forearm flexors before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the exercise interventions. The DOM limb was the only limb exercised for both interventions. A bipolar EMG signal was detected from the biceps brachii during each MVC. The results showed that there were significant 17 and 21% decreases in maximal strength after the CON exercise and ECC exercise, respectively. When collapsed across exercise conditions, strength for the DOM and NONDOM limbs significantly decreased 36 and 4% after exercise, respectively. Accompanied with the strength losses, normalized EMG amplitude for the DOM and NONDOM limbs also reduced 21 and 7%, respectively. These findings suggested that the CON exercise and ECC exercise interventions caused similar strength losses for the exercised arm. There was also a strength loss in the contralateral nonexercised arm that was likely because of neural factors.

  9. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667

  10. Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time-force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time-force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force-time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers. PMID:27491378

  11. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  12. Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vibration on the mechanical properties of arm flexors. A group of 12 international level boxers, all members of the Italian national team, voluntarily participated in the experiment: all were engaged in regular boxing training. At the beginning of the study they were tested whilst performing forearm flexion with an extra load equal to 5% of the subjects' body mass. Following this. one arm was given the experimental treatment (E; mechanical vibration) and the other was the control (no treatment). The E treatment consisted of five repetitions lasting 1-min each of mechanical vibration applied during arm flexion in isometric conditions with 1 min rest between them. Further tests were performed 5 min immediately after the treatment on both limbs. The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the average power in the arm treated with vibrations. The root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) had not changed following the treatment but, when divided by mechanical power, (P) as an index of neural efficiency, it showed statistically significant increases. It was concluded that mechanical vibrations enhanced muscle P and decreased the related EMG/P relationship in elite athletes. Moreover, the analysis of EMGrms recorded before the treatment and during the treatment itself showed an enormous increase in neural activity during vibration up to more than twice the baseline values. This would indicate that this type of treatment is able to stimulate the neuromuscular system more than other treatments used to improve neuromuscular properties.

  13. Facilitation from flexor digitorum superficialis to extensor carpi radialis in humans.

    PubMed

    Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Miyasaka, Takuji; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sato, Toshiaki; Fujii, Hiromi; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Effects of low-threshold afferents from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurons were examined using a post-stimulus time-histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in eight healthy human subjects. In the PSTH study in five of the eight subjects, electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the median nerve branch innervating FDS with the intensity below the motor threshold induced excitatory effects (facilitation) in 39 out of 92 ECR motor units. In 11 ECR motor units, the central synaptic delay of the facilitation was -0.1 ± 0.3 ms longer than that of the homonymous facilitation of ECR. Mechanical conditioning stimuli (MS) to FDS with the intensity below the threshold of the tendon(T)-wave-induced facilitation in 51 out of 51 ECR motor units. With the EMG-A method, early and significant peaks were produced by ES and MS in all the eight subjects. The difference between latencies of the peaks by ES and MS was almost equivalent to that of the Hoffmann- and T-waves of FDS by ES and MS. The peak was diminished by tonic vibration stimuli to FDS. These findings suggest that a facilitation from FDS to ECR exists in humans and group Ia afferents mediate the facilitation through a monosynaptic path. PMID:27010723

  14. Oligosynaptic inhibition of group I afferents between the brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis in humans.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shinozaki, Katsuhiro; Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Miyasaka, Takuji; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low threshold afferents between the brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were studied in eleven healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branch innervating BR with the intensity below the motor threshold (MT) induced an early and significant trough (inhibition) in 32/85 FCR motor units (MUs) in 9/9 subjects. Such inhibition was never provoked by cutaneous stimulation. The central synaptic delay (CSD) of the inhibition was approximately 1.1ms longer than that of the homonymous FCR facilitation. ES to the median nerve branch innervating FCR with the intensity below MT induced an inhibition in 27/71 BR-MUs in 10/10 subjects. CSD of the inhibition was about 1.1ms longer than that of the homonymous BR facilitation. These findings suggest that inhibition between BR and FCR exists in humans. Group I afferents seem to mediate the inhibition through an oligo(di or tri)-synaptic path. PMID:26996830

  15. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly.

  16. Enhanced physiological tremor deteriorates plantar flexor torque steadiness after bed rest.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Edwin R; Horstman, Astrid M; Gerrits, Karin; Massa, Mark; Kleine, Bert U; de Haan, Arnold; Belavý, Daniel L; Felsenberg, Dieter; Zwarts, Machiel; Stegeman, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of resistance training to preserve submaximal plantar flexor (PF) torque steadiness following 60 days of bed rest (BR). Twenty-two healthy male subjects underwent either BR only (CTR, n=8), or BR plus resistance training (RT, n=14). The magnitude of torque fluctuations during steady submaximal isometric PF contractions (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of maximum) were assessed before and after BR. Across contraction intensities, torque fluctuations (coefficient of variation, CV) increased more (P<0.05) after BR for CTR (from 0.31±0.10 to 0.92±0.63; P<0.001), than for RT (from 0.30±0.09 to 0.54±0.27; P<0.01). A shift in the spectral content of torque fluctuations towards increased rhythmic activity between 6.5 and 20Hz was observed in CTR only (P<0.05). H-reflex amplitude (H(max)/M(max) ratio) declined across groups from 0.57±0.18 before BR to 0.44±0.14 following BR (P<0.01) without correlation to CV. The present study showed that increased torque fluctuation after BR resulted from enhanced physiological tremor. Resistance training prevented the spectral shift in isometric PF torque fluctuation and offset ∼50% of the decline in performance associated with long-term BR.

  17. Effects of hip flexor training on sprint, shuttle run, and vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Deane, Russell S; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kim A

    2005-08-01

    Although hip flexion is integral in sports, hip flexion exercises are seldom emphasized in strength and conditioning for sports performance. This study aimed to determine whether a hip flexor resistance-training program could improve performance on a variety of tasks. Thirteen men and 11 women completed an 8-week hip flexion resistance-training program. Eleven men and 13 women served as controls. Isometric hip flexion strength, 40-yd dash time and the time for the first 10-yds, 4 x 5.8-m shuttle run time, and vertical jump height were evaluated at the beginning and end of the training and control period. Improvements were observed in the training group but not in the control group. Individuals in the training group improved hip flexion strength by 12.2% and decreased their 40-yd and shuttle run times by 3.8% and 9.0%, respectively. An increase in hip flexion strength can help to improve sprint and agility performance for physically active, untrained individuals.

  18. The relationships between active extensibility, and passive and active stiffness of the knee flexors.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A; Riemann, Bryan L; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2004-12-01

    Insufficient active knee flexor stiffness may predispose the anterior cruciate ligament to injury. Insufficient passive stiffness may result in insufficient active stiffness. Similarly, higher levels of musculotendinous extensibility may inhibit active and passive muscle stiffness, potentially contributing to an increased risk of injury. The literature is both limited and inconsistent concerning relationships between extensibility, passive stiffness, and active stiffness. Extensibility was measured as the maximal active knee extension angle from a supine position with the hip flexed to 90 degrees . Passive stiffness was calculated as the slope of the moment-angle curve resulting from passive knee extension. Active stiffness was assessed via acceleration associated with damped oscillatory motion about the knee. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that passive stiffness accounted for 25% of active muscle stiffness variance. The linear combination of extensibility and passive stiffness explained only 2% more variance compared to passive stiffness alone. Musculotendinous extensibility was moderately related to passive muscle stiffness, and weakly related to active muscle stiffness. The moderate relationship observed between active and passive stiffness emphasizes the dependence of active muscle stiffness on cross-bridge formation, and the relatively smaller contribution from parallel elastic tissues. Additionally, heightened extensibility does not appear to be a predisposing factor for reduced muscle stiffness. PMID:15491843

  19. Computer Vision Based Automatic Extraction and Thickness Measurement of Deep Cervical Flexor from Ultrasonic Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Baek; Song, Doo Heon; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Deep Cervical Flexor (DCF) muscles are important in monitoring and controlling neck pain. While ultrasonographic analysis is useful in this area, it has intrinsic subjectivity problem. In this paper, we propose automatic DCF extractor/analyzer software based on computer vision. One of the major difficulties in developing such an automatic analyzer is to detect important organs and their boundaries under very low brightness contrast environment. Our fuzzy sigma binarization process is one of the answers for that problem. Another difficulty is to compensate information loss that happened during such image processing procedures. Many morphologically motivated image processing algorithms are applied for that purpose. The proposed method is verified as successful in extracting DCFs and measuring thicknesses in experiment using two hundred 800 × 600 DICOM ultrasonography images with 98.5% extraction rate. Also, the thickness of DCFs automatically measured by this software has small difference (less than 0.3 cm) for 89.8% of extracted DCFs. PMID:26949411

  20. Comparison of treatment outcomes for superficial digital flexor tendonitis in National Hunt racehorses.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; Dedman, C; Harriss, F; Kelly, G; Chang, Y-M; Witte, T H

    2016-10-01

    Superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis is a common injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Injuries require prolonged rehabilitation, with unpredictable outcomes and a high incidence of re-injury. This observational case-control study aimed to compare race outcomes after commonly advocated treatments for tendon healing. Clinical and racing records were evaluated for 127 National Hunt racehorses treated between 2007 and 2011 for an SDF tendon injury. Two age- and sex-matched control horses were selected for each case horse to analyse the effect on post-injury racing outcomes of pre-injury data, lesion severity and treatment group [controlled exercise alone, bar firing, intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP), tendon splitting, tendon splitting combined with bar firing]. Control horses raced more often than case horses, with higher maximum racing post rating (RPRmax) and longer racing distances. Pre-injury racing performance was not associated with treatment group. Rate of return to racing was not associated with lesion severity or treatment group. Number of races, total distance raced post-injury and RPRmax were not associated with lesion severity or treatment group. Controlled exercise alone offered similar post-injury racing outcomes in National Hunt racehorses with SDF tendonitis to the other treatment options examined. Bar firing, either alone or in conjunction with tendon splitting, provided no additional benefit in rate of return to racing and race performance. PMID:27687944

  1. Determination of equine deep digital flexor muscle volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Lamers, A A H; van der Kolk, J H; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D

    2014-10-01

    In equine medicine the use of Botox® is experimental. Dosages are determined from human treatment-protocols and limited numbers of equine studies. Determination of target-muscle volume can be helpful to extrapolate human dosages. The aim of the study was to calculate a formula enabling the estimation of the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks. Nineteen cadaveric limbs were collected and distance A (top of olecranon to Os carpi accessorium) and B (circumference of limb) were measured. Converting mathematical formulas, C was calculated: π × (((0.5B)/π)(2)) × A. DDFM volume was determined by water displacement. Linear Regression Analysis was used to analyse data. The line best fitting the observed points was: Ln(volume[ml]) = -1.89 + 0.98 × Ln(value C[cm(3)]). Correlation was highest when natural logarithm was applied to both variables and was 0.97. The calculated formula enables estimating DDFM volume of a living horse. This estimated volume can be useful to apply human Botox® treatment-protocols. PMID:25264361

  2. Comparison of transfer sites for flexor digitorum longus in a cadaveric adult acquired flatfoot model.

    PubMed

    Vaudreuil, Nicholas J; Ledoux, William R; Roush, Grant C; Whittaker, Eric C; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) dysfunction (PTTD) is associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity. PTTD is commonly treated with a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer (FDLTT) to the navicular (NAV), medial cuneiform (CUN), or distal residuum of the degraded PTT (rPTT). We assessed the kinetic and kinematic outcomes of these three attachment sites using cadaveric gait simulation. Three transfer locations (NAV, CUN, rPTT) were tested on seven prepared flatfoot models using a robotic gait simulator (RGS). The FDLTT procedures were simulated by pulling on the PTT with biomechanically realistic FDL forces (rPTT) or by pulling on the transected FDL tendon after fixation to the navicular or medial cuneiform (NAV and CUN, respectively). Plantar pressure and foot bone motion were quantified. Peak plantar pressure significantly decreased from the flatfoot condition at the first metatarsal (NAV) and hallux (CUN). No difference was found in the medial-lateral center of pressure. Kinematic findings showed minimal differences between flatfoot and FDLTT specimens. The three locations demonstrated only minimal differences from the flatfoot condition, with the NAV and CUN procedures resulting in decreased medial pressures. Functionally, all three surgical procedures performed similarly. PMID:24115238

  3. Recruitment of the deep cervical flexor muscles during a postural-correction exercise performed in sitting.

    PubMed

    Falla, Deborah; O'Leary, Shaun; Fagan, Amy; Jull, Gwendolen

    2007-05-01

    Specific strategies to optimally facilitate postural muscles to retrain postural form are advocated in the clinical management of neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of selected cervical, thoracic and lumbar muscles during independent and facilitated postural correction in sitting in 10 subjects with chronic neck pain. Deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscle activity was recorded with custom electrodes inserted via the nose and fixed by suction to the posterior mucosa of the oropharynx. Surface electrodes were placed over the thoracic erector spinae and lumbar multifidus muscles. Root-mean-square EMG amplitude was measured for each muscle across two conditions. In the first condition, subjects were instructed to spontaneously "sit up straight" from a slumped posture without any other guidance from the therapist. In the second condition the therapist provided specific manual and verbal facilitation to assist the patient to correct to an upright pelvic position with a neutral spinal lumbo-pelvic position. Activation of the DCF and lumbar multifidus muscles (P<0.05) were significantly greater when the therapist facilitated postural correction compared to independent sitting correction. Specific postural-correction strategies result in better facilitation of key postural muscles compared to non-specific postural advice. The results of this study highlight the need for clinical skill and precision in postural training of patients with neck pain. PMID:16899388

  4. Comparison of treatment outcomes for superficial digital flexor tendonitis in National Hunt racehorses.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; Dedman, C; Harriss, F; Kelly, G; Chang, Y-M; Witte, T H

    2016-10-01

    Superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis is a common injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Injuries require prolonged rehabilitation, with unpredictable outcomes and a high incidence of re-injury. This observational case-control study aimed to compare race outcomes after commonly advocated treatments for tendon healing. Clinical and racing records were evaluated for 127 National Hunt racehorses treated between 2007 and 2011 for an SDF tendon injury. Two age- and sex-matched control horses were selected for each case horse to analyse the effect on post-injury racing outcomes of pre-injury data, lesion severity and treatment group [controlled exercise alone, bar firing, intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP), tendon splitting, tendon splitting combined with bar firing]. Control horses raced more often than case horses, with higher maximum racing post rating (RPRmax) and longer racing distances. Pre-injury racing performance was not associated with treatment group. Rate of return to racing was not associated with lesion severity or treatment group. Number of races, total distance raced post-injury and RPRmax were not associated with lesion severity or treatment group. Controlled exercise alone offered similar post-injury racing outcomes in National Hunt racehorses with SDF tendonitis to the other treatment options examined. Bar firing, either alone or in conjunction with tendon splitting, provided no additional benefit in rate of return to racing and race performance.

  5. Classification system for flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle variants within the leg: clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Hur, Mi-Sun; Won, Hyung-Sun; Oh, Chang-Seok; Chung, In-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun; Yoon, Young Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL), a variant leg muscle, can cause tarsal tunnel syndrome. This study was performed to classify the variants of the FDAL by dissection and to correlate the dissection results with clinical cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by this muscle. Eighty lower limbs of embalmed Korean cadavers were dissected. MR images of two clinical cases of tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by the FDAL were correlated with the dissection results. The FDAL was observed in nine out of 80 specimens (11.3%) and it was classified into three types depending on its site of origin and its relationship to the posterior tibial neurovascular bundle (PTNV) in the leg. In Type I (6.3%), the FDAL originated in the leg and ran superficially along the PTNV, either not crossing (Type Ia, 3.8%) or crossing (Type Ib, 2.5%) the neurovascular bundle. In Type II (6.3%), it originated in the tarsal tunnel. Most FDALs followed a similar course in the tarsal tunnel and the plantar pedis. On correlating the MR images of the clinical cases with this classification, the FDAL corresponded to Types Ia and II. All three types of FDAL can compress the tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel or the distal leg. Clarification of the topographical relationship between this muscle and the PTNV would help to improve the results of surgery for tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by the FDAL.

  6. Computer Vision Based Automatic Extraction and Thickness Measurement of Deep Cervical Flexor from Ultrasonic Images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Baek; Song, Doo Heon; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Deep Cervical Flexor (DCF) muscles are important in monitoring and controlling neck pain. While ultrasonographic analysis is useful in this area, it has intrinsic subjectivity problem. In this paper, we propose automatic DCF extractor/analyzer software based on computer vision. One of the major difficulties in developing such an automatic analyzer is to detect important organs and their boundaries under very low brightness contrast environment. Our fuzzy sigma binarization process is one of the answers for that problem. Another difficulty is to compensate information loss that happened during such image processing procedures. Many morphologically motivated image processing algorithms are applied for that purpose. The proposed method is verified as successful in extracting DCFs and measuring thicknesses in experiment using two hundred 800 × 600 DICOM ultrasonography images with 98.5% extraction rate. Also, the thickness of DCFs automatically measured by this software has small difference (less than 0.3 cm) for 89.8% of extracted DCFs. PMID:26949411

  7. Cardiovascular responses to sustained maximal isometric contractions of the finger flexors.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Misner, J E; Bloomfield, D K; Essandoh, L K

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular responses to 2 min sustained submaximal (20% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) voluntary isometric contractions of the finger flexors in healthy young women. Cardiovascular variables investigated were: heart rate (fc), mean arterial pressure (Pa), and stroke volume (SV). Doppler echocardiography was used to estimate SV from measures of aortic diameter (AD) and time-velocity integrals. Preliminary studies indicated that AD did not change significantly after 2 min sustained 100% MVC. Therefore, pre-exercise AD values were used to calculate SV before, during and after exercise. During the 2-min 100% MVC period, fc and Pa increased significantly during the first 30 s of contraction. fc then remained constant during the remainder of the 2-min contraction period, while Pa continued to rise. SV did not change significantly during the 100% MVC task but increased significantly during recovery from sustained 100% MVC. The data suggest that the magnitude of cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise is dependent on the specific task performed, and that there is a different pattern of response for fc, Pa, and SV during 20% and 100% MVC tasks. Unlike fc and Pa, SV did not change significantly during isometric exercise, but increased significantly after sustained 100% MVC. PMID:8375365

  8. Flexor and extensor muscle tone evaluated using the quantitative pendulum test in stroke and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent.

  9. Digital oedema, adhesion formation and resistance to digital motion after primary flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Chen, C H; Wu, Y F; Xu, X F; Xie, R G; Tang, J B

    2008-12-01

    The development of digital oedema, adhesion formation, and resistance to digital motion at days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 after primary flexor tendon repairs using 102 long toes of 51 Leghorn chickens was studied. Oedema presented as tissue swelling from days 3 to 7, which peaked at day 3. After day 7, oedema was manifest as hardening of subcutaneous tissue. The degree of digital swelling correlated with the resistance to tendon motion between days 3 and 7. At day 9, granulation tissues were observed around the tendon and loose adhesions were observed at day 14. Resistance to digital motion increased significantly from day 0 to day 3, but did not increase between days 3 and 9. The early postoperative changes appear to have three stages: initial (days 0-3, increasing resistance with development of oedema), delayed (days 4-7, higher resistance with continuing oedema) and late (after day 7-9, hardening of subcutaneous tissue with development of adhesions). PMID:18936126

  10. Parathyroid hormone 1-34 enhances extracellular matrix deposition and organization during flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel J; Southgate, Richard D; Farhat, Youssef M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Hammert, Warren C; Awad, Hani A; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 is known to enhance fracture healing. Tendon repair is analogous to bone healing in its dependence on the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, matrix formation, and tissue remodeling.(1,2,3) We hypothesized that PTH 1-34 enhances tendon healing in a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon repair model. C57Bl/6J mice were treated with either intraperitoneal PTH 1-34 or vehicle-control (PBS). Tendons were harvested at 3-28 days for histology, gene expression, and biomechanical testing. The metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion was reduced 1.5-2-fold in PTH 1-34 mice compared to control mice. The gliding coefficient, a measure of adhesion formation, was 2-3.5-fold higher in PTH 1-34 mice. At 14 days post-repair, the tensile strength was twofold higher in PTH 1-34 specimens, but at 28 days there were no differences. PTH 1-34 mice had increased fibrous tissue deposition that correlated with elevated expression of collagens and fibronectin as seen on quantitative PCR. PTH 1-34 accelerated the deposition of reparative tissue but increased adhesion formation.

  11. Effect of maturation and aging on material and ultrasonographic properties of equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Gillis, C; Sharkey, N; Stover, S M; Pool, R R; Meagher, D M; Willits, N

    1995-10-01

    Results of studies in human beings and other species have indicated that aging significantly influences the strength, modulus of elasticity, and energy storage ability of tendon. We wanted to determine the effects of aging on the material and ultrasonographic properties of equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendon. Ultrasonographic measurements of left forelimb SDF tendon cross-sectional area and mean echogenicity were made in 23 standing horses ranging in age from 2 to 23 years. All horses had not been in work for a minimum of 6 months prior to the study. After euthanasia, left forelimb bone-muscle-tendon-bone specimens were mounted in a materials testing system. The SDF tendon was cyclically loaded sinusoidally 100 times at 0.5 Hz from 1.5 to 5.0% strain, then was submitted to 10-minute creep-and-stress relaxation tests. Modulus of elasticity, load at 3% strain, and creep-and-stress relaxation were determined for each specimen. A significant positive correlation was found between elastic modulus and age. Correlation was not found between age and SDF tendon cross-sectional area or mean echogenicity. When 2-year-old horses were compared with older horses, the latter had tendons with a significantly (P = 0.007) greater modulus of elasticity. The authors conclude that increasing age through maturity is associated with a corresponding increase in equine SDF tendon elastic modulus.

  12. Flexor and extensor muscle tone evaluated using the quantitative pendulum test in stroke and parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Wei; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexor and extensor muscle tone of the upper limbs in patients with spasticity or rigidity and to investigate the difference in hypertonia between spasticity and rigidity. The two experimental groups consisted of stroke patients and parkinsonian patients. The control group consisted of age and sex-matched normal subjects. Quantitative upper limb pendulum tests starting from both flexed and extended joint positions were conducted. System identification with a simple linear model was performed and model parameters were derived. The differences between the three groups and two starting positions were investigated by these model parameters and tested by two-way analysis of variance. In total, 57 subjects were recruited, including 22 controls, 14 stroke patients and 21 parkinsonian patients. While stiffness coefficient showed no difference among groups, the number of swings, relaxation index and damping coefficient showed changes suggesting significant hypertonia in the two patient groups. There was no difference between these two patient groups. The test starting from the extended position constantly manifested higher muscle tone in all three groups. In conclusion, the hypertonia of parkinsonian and stroke patients could not be differentiated by the modified pendulum test; the elbow extensors showed a higher muscle tone in both control and patient groups; and hypertonia of both parkinsonian and stroke patients is velocity dependent. PMID:26765753

  13. Magnetic Versus Electrical Stimulation in the Interpolation Twitch Technique of Elbow Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulou, Sofia I.; Nowicky, Alexander V.; Marston, Louise

    2012-01-01

    new application of peripheral magnetic stimulation as an alternative to the conventional ITT for the assessment of BB voluntary activation. Key points The study compared peripheral electrical and magnetic stimulation in the assessment of voluntary activation using single pulse twitch interpolation of elbow flexors. Key similarities between magnetic and electrical stimulation in the assessment of voluntary activation with the single pulse Interpolation Twitch Technique were revealed. Voluntary activation at maximal contractions were similar for the two methods of stimulation and the twitch-voluntary force best fit with nonlinear functions for both magnetic and electrical stimulation. The fundamental similarities in voluntary activation assessment of elbow flexor, m. Biceps Brachii with these two methods of stimulation support the application of peripheral magnetic stimulation using the conventional Interpolation Twitch Technique. The painless assessment of voluntary activation with peripheral magnetic stimulation may strengthen its acceptance for clinical use in neuromuscular assessment. PMID:24150083

  14. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Resistance Training on Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscles.

    PubMed

    Pantović, Milan; Popović, Boris; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Jelena

    2015-07-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has recently drawn a lot of attention as means for strengthening of voluntary muscle contraction both in sport and rehabilitation. NMES training increases maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force output through neural adaptations. On the other hand, positive effects of resistance training (RT) on muscle strength are well known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a 5-week program of NMES compared to RT program of same duration. Sample of 15 students' of faculty of sport and physical education (age 22 ± 2) were randomized in two groups: NMES (N = 7) and RT (N = 8). NMES group performed NMES superimposed over voluntary muscle contraction, RT group performed resistance training with submaximal loads. Subjects were evaluated for knee isokinetic dynamometry on both sides (60° and 180° s). After intervention no significant difference between groups were observed in isokinetic dynamometry (p = 0.177). However, applying pair sample t test within each group revealed that peak torque increased in NMES-group (p = 0.002 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.003 for left, respectively, at 60° and p = 0.004 for left knee extensors muscles, at angular velocity 180°). In RT group (p = 0.033 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.029 for right knee flexor muscles, at angular velocity 60°). Our results indicate that NMES has equal potential if not in some way better than classical RT having in mind that overload on locomotor apparatus during NMES is minimal and force of muscle contraction is equal on both sides, for enhancement of knee muscles concentric peak torque.

  15. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  16. Enhanced propriospinal excitation from hand muscles to wrist flexors during reach-to-grasp in humans.

    PubMed

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Burke, David; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In humans, propriospinal neurons located at midcervical levels receive peripheral and corticospinal inputs and probably participate in the control of grip tasks, but their role in reaching movements, as observed in cats and primates, is still an open question. The effect of ulnar nerve stimulation on flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motor evoked potential (MEP) was tested during reaching tasks and tonic wrist flexion. Significant MEP facilitation was observed at the end of reach during reach-to-grasp but not during grasp, reach-to-point, or tonic contractions. MEP facilitation occurred at a longer interstimulus interval than expected for convergence of corticospinal and afferent volleys at motoneuron level and was not paralleled by a change in the H-reflex. These findings suggest convergence of the two volleys at propriospinal level. Ulnar-induced MEP facilitation was observed when conditioning stimuli were at 0.75 motor response threshold (MT), but not 1 MT. This favors an increased excitability of propriospinal neurons rather than depression of their feedback inhibition, as has been observed during tonic power grip tasks. It is suggested that the ulnar-induced facilitation of FCR MEP during reach may be due to descending activation of propriospinal neurons, assisting the early recruitment of large motoneurons for rapid movement. Because the feedback inhibitory control is still open, this excitation can be truncated by cutaneous inputs from the palmar side of the hand during grasp, thus assisting movement termination. It is concluded that the feedforward activation of propriospinal neurons and their feedback control may be involved in the internal model, motor planning, and online adjustments for reach-to-grasp movements in humans.

  17. Pseudotendon formation causing painful tethering of ruptured flexor carpi radialis tendons.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Six patients (five male, one female) between 51 and 64 years of age sustained ruptures of the right dominant flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon. Prior to rupture, within the past 3 months to 1 year, each had received one or two corticosteroid injections of the FCR tendon sheath for stenosing tenosynovitis. Three of six patients demonstrated radiographic findings but none had clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis at the scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid joint. The pain and disability declared by these patients appeared out of proportion to the relatively innocuous nature of a ruptured FCR tendon, with an average pre-operative Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score of 32. In all patients there was a palpable, tender mass of retracted, ruptured FCR tendon around 6 cm proximal to the wrist crease as well as a palpable cord of pseudotendon formed within the residual sheath. Pain along the course of the pseudotendon was consistently provoked by wrist extension and gripping. The patients were initially treated non-surgically with stretching, manual therapy, ultrasound, and oral medications for 2-4 months. None obtained sufficient relief, and the patients requested more definitive care. The painful tethering of the ruptured FCR was solved by complete excision of both pseudotendon and the retracted tendon stump, resulting in complete relief of symptoms with an average post-operative DASH score of 3. Pre-operative and post-operative DASH scores were analyzed with the paired Student's t-test, using a p-value of 0.05, and found to have a statistically significant difference. PMID:24426661

  18. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered. PMID:27580111

  19. The effects of passive stretching plus vibration on strength and activation of the plantar flexors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Mosier, Eric M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effects of passive stretching only (PS+CON) and passive stretching with the addition of continuous vibration (VIB) during post-passive stretching tests (PS+VIB) on peak torque (PT), percent voluntary inactivation (%VI), single stimulus twitch torque (TTSINGLE), and doublet stimuli twitch torque (TTDOUBLET) of the plantar flexors at a short (20° plantar flexion (PF)) and long muscle length (15° dorsiflexion (DF)). Fourteen healthy men (age = 22 ± 3 years) performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions at PF and DF, and passive range of motion (PROM) assessments before and after 8 × 30-s passive stretches without (PS+CON) or with VIB (PS+VIB) administered continuously throughout post-passive stretching tests. The passive properties of the muscle tendon unit were assessed pre- and post-passive stretching via PROM, passive torque (PASSTQ), and musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) measurements. PT, TTSINGLE, and TTDOUBLET decreased, whereas, %VI increased following passive stretching at PF and DF (P < 0.05) with no significant differences between PS+CON and PS+VIB. PASSTQ and MTS decreased while PROM increased post-passive stretching during both trials (P < 0.05). The stretching-induced force/torque deficit and increases in %VI were evident following passive stretching at short and long muscle lengths. Although not statistically significant, effect size calculations suggested large and moderate differences in the absolute changes in PT (Cohen's d = 1.14) and %VI (Cohen's d = 0.54) from pre- to post-passive stretching between treatments, with PS+VIB having greater decreases of PT and higher %VI than PS+CON. The decrement in PT following passive stretching may be primarily neural in origin. PMID:27512816

  20. The effect of knee joint angle on plantar flexor power in young and old men.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian H; Allen, Matti D; Power, Geoffrey A; Vandervoort, Anthony A; Rice, Charles L

    2014-04-01

    Human adult aging is associated with a loss of strength, contractile velocity and hence, power. The principal plantar flexors, consisting of the bi-articular gastrocnemeii and the mono-articular soleus, appear to be affected differently by the aging process. However, the age-related effect of knee joint angle on the torque-angular velocity relationship and power production of this functionally important muscle group is unknown. The purpose was to determine whether flexing the knee, thereby reducing the gastrocnemius contribution to plantar flexion, would exacerbate the age-related decrements in plantar flexion power, or shift the torque-angular velocity relationship differently in older compared with young men. Neuromuscular properties were recorded from 10 young (~25 y) and 10 old (~78 y) men with the knee extended (170°) and flexed (90°), in a randomized order. Participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs), followed by maximal velocity-dependent shortening contractions at pre-set loads, ranging from 15 to 75% MVC. The young men were ~20-25% stronger, ~12% faster and ~30% more powerful than the old for both knee angles (P<0.05). In both age groups, isometric MVC torque was ~17% greater in the extended than flexed knee position, with no differences in voluntary activation (>95%). The young men produced 7-12% faster angular velocities in the extended knee position for loads ≤30% MVC, but no differences at higher loads; whereas there were no detectable differences in angular velocity between knee positions in the old across all relative loads. For both knee angles, young men produced peak power at 43.3±9.0% MVC, whereas the old men produced peak power at 54.8±7.9% MVC. These data indicate that the young, who have faster contracting muscles compared with the old, can rely more on velocity than torque for generating maximal power.

  1. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1.

  2. Relationships of ultrasound measures of intrinsic foot muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume with maximum toe flexor muscle strength and physical performance in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takashi; Tayashiki, Kota; Nakatani, Miyuki; Watanabe, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationships between toe flexor muscle strength with (TFS-5-toes) and without (TFS-4-toes) the contribution of the great toe, anatomical and physiological muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of intrinsic toe flexor muscle and physical performance were measured. [Subjects] Seventeen men (82% sports-active) and 17 women (47% sports-active), aged 20 to 35 years, volunteered. [Methods] Anatomical CSA was measured in two intrinsic toe flexor muscles (flexor digitorum brevis [FDB] and abductor hallucis) by ultrasound. Muscle volume and muscle length of the FDB were also estimated, and physiological CSA was calculated. [Results] Both TFS-5-toes and TFS-4-toes correlated positively with walking speed in men (r=0.584 and r=0.553, respectively) and women (r=0.748 and r=0.533, respectively). Physiological CSA of the FDB was significantly correlated with TFS-5-toes (r=0.748) and TFS-4-toes (r=0.573) in women. In men, physiological CSA of the FDB correlated positively with TFS-4-toes (r=0.536), but not with TFS-5-toes (r=0.333). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that physiological CSA of the FDB is moderately associated with TFS-4-toes while toe flexor strength correlates with walking performance. PMID:26957721

  3. Dynamic stability of the elbow: electromyographic analysis of the flexor pronator group and the extensor group in pitchers with valgus instability.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C D; Glousman, R E; Jobe, F W; Brault, J; Pink, M; Perry, J

    1996-01-01

    The medical collateral ligament is a common site of injury in baseball pitchers, causing substantial morbidity and loss of pitching time. Twenty-six skilled baseball pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency were studied before surgery with high-speed cinematography and fine-wire electromyography of eight muscles around the elbow. Data from the pitchers with injured elbows were compared with data obtained from uninjured pitchers. The flexor carpi radialis muscle in the pitchers with medial collateral ligament deficiencies revealed significantly decreased firing during the acceleration and deceleration phase of the fastball when compared with that of the pitchers with normal elbows, and the flexor carpi radialis muscle was significantly depressed during the early cocking and deceleration phases. The extensor muscles revealed slightly increased activity in the injured elbows; however, this was not statistically significant. Although the muscles of the flexor pronator group (especially the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles) are anatomically positioned to provide dynamic stability of the elbow, they did not demonstrate increased electrical activity in pitchers with medial collateral ligament deficiencies. This finding suggests that the muscles on the medial side of the elbow do not supplant the role of the medial collateral ligament during the fastball pitch.

  4. Assessing Finger Joint Biomechanics by Applying Equal Force to Flexor Tendons In Vitro Using a Novel Simultaneous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tai-Hua; Lu, Szu-Ching; Lin, Wei-Jr; Zhao, Kristin; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Jou, I-Ming; Lee, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) are critical for finger flexion. Although research has recently focused on these tendons’ coactivity, their contributions in different tasks remain unclear. This study created a novel simultaneous approach to investigate the coactivity between the tendons and to clarify their contributions in different tasks. Methods Ten human cadaveric hands were mounted on our custom frame with the FDS and FDP of the third finger looped through a mechanical pulley connected to a force transducer. Joint range of motion, tendon excursion and loading force were recorded during individual joint motion and free joint movement from rest to maximal flexion. Each flexor tendon’s moment arm was then calculated. Results In individual motions, we found that the FDP contributed more than the FDS in proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 1.34 and all FDP-to-FDS excursion (P/S) ratios greater than 1.0 with force increase. However, the FDP contributed less than the FDS in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 0.95 and P/S ratios smaller than 1.0 throughout the whole motion except between 1.9% and 13.1% force. In free joint movement, the FDP played a greater role than the FDS, with an overall ratio of 1.37 and all P/S ratios greater than 1.0. Conclusions The new findings include differences in finger performance and excursion amounts between the FDS and FDP throughout flexion. Such findings may provide the basis for new hand models and treatments. PMID:27513744

  5. Isokinetic and isometric muscle function of the knee extensors and flexors during simulated soccer activity: effect of exercise and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ajmol; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dehydration during soccer-type intermittent exercise on isokinetic and isometric muscle function. Eight soccer players performed two 90-min high-intensity intermittent shuttle-running trials without (NF) or with (FL) fluid ingestion (5 ml · kg(-1) before and 2 ml · kg(-1) every 15 min). Isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of knee flexors and knee extensors were measured pre-exercise, at half-time and post-exercise using isokinetic dynamometry. Sprint performance was monitored throughout the simulated-soccer exercise. Isokinetic knee strength was reduced at faster (3.13 rad · s(-1); P = 0.009) but not slower (1.05 rad · s(-1); P = 0.063) contraction speeds with exercise; however, there was no difference between FL and NF. Peak isometric strength of the knee extensors (P = 0.002) but not the knee flexors (P = 0.065) was significantly reduced with exercise with no difference between FL and NF. Average muscular power was reduced over time at both 1.05 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.01) and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.033) but was not different between FL and NF. Mean 15-m sprint time increased with duration of exercise (P = 0.005) but was not different between FL and NF. In summary, fluid ingestion during 90 min of soccer-type exercise was unable to offset the reduction in isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of the knee extensors and flexors.

  6. The Effect of Suture Preloading on the Force to Failure and Gap Formation After Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Vanhees, Matthias; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Larson, Dirk R.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gap formation is a common and severe complication after flexor tendon repair that can affect the outcome and prolong tendon healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that a pretensional force applied to the suture during tendon repair has on the repair strength and force that causes gap formation. Methods We used a total of 48 flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 12 human cadaver hands. We employed a core tendon suture, using the modified Pennington technique, and a running suture for flexor tendon repair. Before tying the knots of the core suture, we preloaded the sutures in each tendon end 0, 5, 10, or 15 N for 10 seconds to compare the effect of loading magnitude on repaired tendon peak force to failure and force causing gap formation. Results The force to form a gap of 2 mm in the 15-N preload group was significantly increased compared with the 0-N and 5-N preload groups. At the 3-mm gap formation, the force of all preload groups was significantly higher than the nonpreload group. The peak force with a preload of 10 N and 15 N was significantly higher than 0-N preload. Conclusions These findings suggest that pretensioning with 10 to 15 N at the suture–tendon interface before tying the knot has a beneficial effect on both the tendon gap formation and the peak force to failure. Clinical relevance When the surgeons perform tendon repair, pretensioning at the suture–tendon conjunction will increase the repair strength. PMID:23261189

  7. Effect of an eccentrically biased hamstring strengthening home program on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship.

    PubMed

    Orishimo, Karl F; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to document relative activation intensities of the hamstrings and gluteus maximus during 4 eccentric hamstring strengthening exercises and to assess the effects of a short-term strengthening program comprised of these exercises on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) activities from the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gluteus maximus were recorded as subjects performed (a) standing hip extension with elastic resistance, (b) trunk flexion in single limb stance (diver), (c) standing split (glider), and (d) supine sliding bridge (slider). Baseline isometric knee flexor strength was measured at 90, 70, 50, and 30° of flexion at the knee with the subject seated and the hip flexed to 50° from horizontal. After completing the 4-week training program, strength tests were repeated. Repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare EMG activity between muscles and to assess angle-specific strength improvements. Hamstring activity exceeded gluteus maximus activity for resisted hip extension, glider, and slider exercises (p < 0.001) but not for the diver (p = 0.087). Hamstring activation was greatest during the slider and resisted hip extension and lowest during the glider and the diver. Knee flexor strength improved by 9.0% (p = 0.005) but was not angle specific (training by angle p = 0.874). The short-term home training program effectively targeted the hamstrings and resulted in strength gains that were similar at short and long muscle lengths. These data demonstrate that hamstring strength can be improved using eccentrically biased unilateral exercises without the use of weights or other equipments. PMID:25226327

  8. Effects of age and muscle action type on acute strength and power recovery following fatigue of the leg flexors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Stock, Matt S

    2015-12-01

    Short-term strength and power recovery patterns following fatigue have received little research attention, particularly as they pertain to age-specific responses, and the leg flexors (i.e., hamstrings) muscle group. Thus, research is warranted addressing these issues because both age-related alterations in the neuromuscular system and mode of muscle action (e.g., eccentric, concentric, isometric) may differentially influence recovery responses from fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength and power recovery responses for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions of the leg flexors in young and older men following an isometric, intermittent fatigue-inducing protocol. Nineteen young (age = 25 ± 3 years) and nineteen older (71 ± 4) men performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions followed by a fatigue protocol of intermittent (0.6 duty cycle) isometric contractions of the leg flexors at 60% of isometric MVC. MVCs of each muscle action were performed at 0, 7, 15, and 30 min following fatigue. Peak torque (PT) and mean power values were calculated from the MVCs and the eccentric/concentric ratio (ECR) was derived. For PT and mean power, young men showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, whereas the older men had recovered by 7 min. Eccentric and isometric muscle actions showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, but concentric recovered by 7 min, independent of age. The ECR was depressed for up to 30 min following fatigue. More rapid and pronounced recovery in older men and concentric contractions may be related to physiological differences specific to aging and muscle action motor unit patterns. Individuals and clinicians may use these time course responses as a guide for recovery following activity-induced fatigue.

  9. Interference screw fixation and short harvest using flexor digitorum longus (FDL) transfer for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a technique.

    PubMed

    Bussewitz, Bradly W; Hyer, Christopher F

    2010-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common clinical entity treated by foot and ankle specialists, and numerous surgical treatments are available to the modern foot and ankle surgeon. Fixation methods are constantly evolving as new products are developed and new uses for existing products are attempted. Interference screw fixation is the gold standard fixation for tendon autograft and allograft in orthopedic sports medicine. The technique that we describe in this article uses a less extensive harvest of the flexor digitorum longus tendon and a sound fixation method using an interference screw positioned in the tarsal navicular. PMID:20797592

  10. Sensitivity of different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm to corticosteroid-induced skin blanching.

    PubMed

    Meyer, E; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M

    1992-10-01

    The intensity of corticosteroid-induced blanching has been found to vary at different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm. A retrospective analysis of 38,880 observations of skin blanching in 56 volunteers was conducted to assess the sensitivity of forearm skin to betamethasone 17-valerate. The mid-forearm appears to be more sensitive to the blanching response than do the areas close to the wrist or elbow. These results indicate that each preparation under evaluation should be applied to several sites along the forearm when using the human skin blanching assay in order to obtain an accurate comparative assessment of corticosteroid release from topical delivery vehicles.

  11. Cerebral Palsy Tendon Transfers: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris to Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis and Extensor Pollicis Longus Reroutement.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anchal; Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2016-08-01

    The flexor carpi ulnaris to extensor carpi radialis brevis transfer and extensor pollicis longus rerouting combined with thenar release are 2 successful surgical interventions for children with spastic cerebral palsy. The goal of both procedures is to improve quality of life for patients who have previously failed conservative management, and the degree of expected improvement is predicated on several patient variables, making careful patient selection crucial for ensuring successful outcomes. Here, surgical technique is described; risk factors are discussed, and outcomes related to both procedures are presented. PMID:27387086

  12. [Symptomatic os trigonum with irritation of the flexor hallucis longus tendon - arthroscopic management via a dorsal approach].

    PubMed

    Pass, G; Hofstaetter, S G; Trieb, K

    2015-03-01

    Therapy-resistant pain in the region of the medial mallelous in the presence of an os trigonum is suggestive for irritation of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Two patients were treated by arthroscopy in the prone position via a dorsal approach; the os trigonum was removed and the tendon released. Under the conditions of blunt dissection, dorsal arthroscopy of the os trigonum is a safe and expedient operation in our toolbox. After two weeks of partial load-bearing with 2 crutches, pain-free full load-bearing is already possible and after 3 weeks the patients can return to work.

  13. Development of the deep flexor tendons and lumbricalis muscle in the hand and foot: a histological study using human mid-term foetuses.

    PubMed

    Cho, K H; Kim, J H; Ha, Y S; Murakami, G; Cho, B H; Abe, S

    2012-08-01

    To revisit foetal development of the deep flexor tendons of the hand and foot, we examined the paraffin-embedded histology of 20 mid-term foetuses at 8-15 weeks of estimated gestational age (35-118 mm crown-rump length or CRL). At 8-9 weeks, in front of the metacarpal bones, the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles provided a plate-like, common tendon from which the lumbricalis muscles originated. However, in the foot, we had no evidence of such a common tendon. The flexor pollicis tendon was separated from the common tendon at 9-10 weeks possibly due to mechanical stress from the laterally growing thumb. Notably, at the lumbricalis muscle origins at 10-12 weeks, the FDP and flexor digitorum longus tendons remained undifferentiated and the primitive tenocytes were dispersed from them. The dispersed cells seemed to develop into an interface tissue between the lumbricalis muscle fibre and the deep tendon. In 3 of 5 specimens at 15 weeks, we found an excess number of the FDP tendons (5-7) in the proximal side of the lumbricalis muscle origin. However, the excess tendons dispersed in the lumbricalis muscle origin. The development of the lumbricalis muscle origin might follow the tendon splitting for four fingers. However, conversely, we hypothesised that the developing lumbricalis muscles re-arranged the deep flexor tendons to provide a configuration of one deep tendon per one finger (or toe). The quadrates plantae muscle seemed not to contribute on the re-arrangement.

  14. Do rhythms exist in elbow flexor torque, oral temperature and muscle thickness during normal waking hours?

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Counts, Brittany R; Barnett, Brian E; Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Halliday, Tanya M; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of "time" on isometric elbow flexion torque, body temperature and muscle size without interrupting the sleep wake cycle in college aged males. Two hours following the participants normal wake time, oral temperature was measured, followed by muscle thickness of the upper and lower body using ultrasound, as well as elbow flexor torque via a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Measurements were repeated every 2h for 12h (Time points 1-7). To examine the repeatability of the rhythm, participants returned and completed the same procedures as before within 14days of their first circadian visit (Circadian visit 2). There was no time×day interaction for body temperature (p=0.29), nor were there main effects for time (p=0.15) or day (p=0.74). For MVC, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.93) or main effect for day (p=0.50), however, there was a main effect for time (p=0.01). MVC at time points 1 (86.4±6.4Nm) and 2 (87.1±6.2Nm) was greater than time points 4 (84.2±6.6Nm) and 6 (83.4±6.8Nm, p<0.05). Additionally, time point 5 MVC was greater than time point 4. For upper body muscle thickness, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.34), nor was there a main effect for day (p=0.38), or time (p=0.06). For lower body muscle thickness, there was no time×day interaction (p=0.57), nor was there a main effect for day (p=0.75), or time (p=0.13). Cosinor analyses revealed no group level rhythms for oral temperature, muscle thickness or strength (p>0.05), however, there were some individual rhythms noted for muscle thickness and strength. Results suggest that, when accounting for an individuals normal wake time, circadian rhythms of strength, temperature and muscle thickness are not apparent in most individuals.

  15. Strength Training for the Intrinsic Flexor Muscles of the Foot: Effects on Muscle Strength, the Foot Arch, and Dynamic Parameters Before and After the Training

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance. PMID:24707086

  16. Presence of a long accessory flexor tendon of the toes in surgical treatment for tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon: case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome. PMID:26962495

  17. Strength training for the intrinsic flexor muscles of the foot: effects on muscle strength, the foot arch, and dynamic parameters before and after the training.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance.

  18. Prevention of peritendinous adhesions using a hyaluronan-derived hydrogel film following partial-thickness flexor tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchun; Skardal, Aleksander; Shu, Xiao Zheng; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2008-04-01

    Peritendinous adhesions are an important complication of flexor tendon injury. Three hyaluronan (HA)-derived biomaterials were evaluated for the reduction of peritendinous adhesions following partial-thickness tendon injury in rabbits. Rabbits (n = 24) were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group), which were used for gross evaluation, histologic assessment, or biomechanical testing. The fourth and third toes from both hindpaws of each rabbit were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (i) untreated control, (ii) Seprafilm, (iii) Carbylan-SX in situ crosslinked hydrogel, and (iv) preformed Carbylan-SX film. Rabbits were sacrificed at 3 weeks postsurgery and evaluated anatomically, histologically, and mechanically. All materials used reduced adhesions relative to untreated controls for all three evaluations. Both the gross anatomic and histologic results revealed that Carbylan-SX film was statistically superior to Seprafilm and Carbylan-SX gel in preventing tendon adhesion formation. In biomechanical tests, the Carbylan-SX film-treated hindpaws required the least force to pull the tendon from the sheath. This force was statistically indistinguishable from that required to extrude an unoperated tendon (n = 8). Carbylan-SX gel was less effective than Carbylan-SX film but superior to Seprafilm for all evaluations. A crosslinked HA-derived film promoted healing of a flexor tendon injury without the formation of fibrosis at 3 weeks postoperatively.

  19. Moments of muscular strength of knee joint extensors and flexors during physiotherapeutic procedures following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in males.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate maximal muscular strength moments of knee joint extensors and flexors in males subjected to physiotherapeutic procedures. 120 males were selected for the study. The first group consisted of 54 patients who underwent a 6 month physiotherapy programme following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The control group comprised 54 males without knee joint injuries. The measurement of muscular strength moments was performed in healthy and affected knee joint flexor and extensor muscles postoperatively, during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy. The patients' results were next compared with the results obtained in the control group. During the 13th week of physiotherapy, the values of postoperative maximal strength moments in knee joints were significantly lower compared to the results obtained in non-operated limbs and in the control group. The introduction of individual loads adjusted to the course of ACL graft reconstruction and fixation in the bone tunnel resulted in the improvement of maximal muscle strength values in the patients' knee joints from 13 to 21 weeks postoperatively. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the values of the muscular strengths in the operated limbs were similar to those obtained in non-operated limbs of the patients and in the control group.

  20. Distinct and developmentally regulated activity-dependent plasticity at descending glutamatergic synapses on flexor and extensor motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Lenschow, Constanze; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) is paramount to synaptic processing and maturation. However, identifying the ADSP capabilities of the numerous synapses converging onto spinal motoneurons (MNs) remain elusive. Using spinal cord slices from mice at two developmental stages, 1–4 and 8–12 postnatal days (P1–P4; P8–P12), we found that high-frequency stimulation of presumed reticulospinal neuron axons in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) induced either an NMDA receptor-dependent-long-term depression (LTD), a short-term depression (STD) or no synaptic modulation in limb MNs. Our study shows that P1–P4 cervical MNs expressed the same plasticity profiles as P8–P12 lumbar MNs rather than P1–P4 lumbar MNs indicating that ADSP expression at VLF-MN synapses is linked to the rostrocaudal development of spinal motor circuitry. Interestingly, we observed that the ADSP expressed at VLF-MN was related to the functional flexor or extensor MN subtype. Moreover, heterosynaptic plasticity was triggered in MNs by VLF axon tetanisation at neighbouring synapses not directly involved in the plasticity induction. ADSP at VLF-MN synapses specify differential integrative synaptic processing by flexor and extensor MNs and could contribute to the maturation of spinal motor circuits and developmental acquisition of weight-bearing locomotion. PMID:27329279

  1. Feedforward activity of the cervical flexor muscles during voluntary arm movements is delayed in chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Falla, D; Jull, G; Hodges, P W

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare onset of deep and superficial cervical flexor muscle activity during rapid, unilateral arm movements between ten patients with chronic neck pain and 12 control subjects. Deep cervical flexor (DCF) electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded with custom electrodes inserted via the nose and fixed by suction to the posterior mucosa of the oropharynx. Surface electrodes were placed over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and anterior scalene (AS) muscles. While standing, subjects flexed and extended the right arm in response to a visual stimulus. For the control group, activation of DCF, SCM and AS muscles occurred less than 50 ms after the onset of deltoid activity, which is consistent with feedforward control of the neck during arm flexion and extension. When subjects with a history of neck pain flexed the arm, the onsets of DCF and contralateral SCM and AS muscles were significantly delayed ( p<0.05). It is concluded that the delay in neck muscle activity associated with movement of the arm in patients with neck pain indicates a significant deficit in the automatic feedforward control of the cervical spine. As the deep cervical muscles are fundamentally important for support of the cervical lordosis and the cervical joints, change in the feedforward response may leave the cervical spine vulnerable to reactive forces from arm movement.

  2. Effects of extensor and flexor group I afferent volleys on the excitability of individual soleus motoneurones in man

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Peter; Labelle, Keith

    1977-01-01

    The contour of the postsynaptic potential (PSP) produced in a neurone by an afferent volley can be derived from the contour of the post-stimulus time histogram (PSTH) of that neurone when it is discharging rhythmically. In the present study the PSTH of the firing of individual soleus motor units after stimulation of the popliteal or peroneal nerve was used to explore the effects of extensor and flexor group I afferent volleys on the excitability of single soleus motoneurones in man. Extensor group I volleys resulted in an early peak of increased impulse density in the PSTH of 75% of soleus motoneurones. The latency suggests an analogy with the Ia EPSP. The mean duration of the peak of increased impulse density, equivalent to the rise time of the EPSP, was 3.6 ms. Flexor group I volleys result in a period of reduced impulse density in the PSTH of five out of nine soleus motoneurones. The latency suggests an analogy with the Ia IPSP. We conclude that this method could be used to explore the afferent connections to single motoneurones in man and to derive some of the characteristics of the postsynaptic potentials from a variety of afferent nerve fibres in single human motoneurones. PMID:599368

  3. Effect of deep cervical flexor muscles training using pressure biofeedback on pain and disability of school teachers with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Rajan, Reena; Khan, Sohrab Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] The job of secondary school teachers involves a lot of head down posture as frequent reading, assignment correction, computer use and writing on a board put them at risk of developing occupational related neck pain. Available studies of neck pain experienced by teachers are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether training of deep cervical flexor muscles with pressure biofeedback has any significant advantage over conventional training for pain and disability experienced by school teachers with neck pain. [Subjects] Thirty teachers aged 25-45 years with neck pain and poor craniocervical flexion test participated in this study. [Methods] A pretest posttest experimental group design was used in which experimental group has received training with pressure biofeedback and conventional exercises while control group received conventional exercises only. Measurements of dependent variables were taken at baseline, and after 2 and 4 weeks of training. Pain intensity was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale and functional disability was assessed using the neck disability index. [Results] The data analysis revealed that there was significant improvement in pain and disability in both the groups and the results were better in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Addition of pressure biofeedback for deep cervical flexor muscles training gave a better result than conventional exercises alone. Feedback helps motor learning which is the set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to permanent changes in ability to respond. PMID:24259822

  4. Effect of deep cervical flexor muscles training using pressure biofeedback on pain and disability of school teachers with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Rajan, Reena; Khan, Sohrab Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] The job of secondary school teachers involves a lot of head down posture as frequent reading, assignment correction, computer use and writing on a board put them at risk of developing occupational related neck pain. Available studies of neck pain experienced by teachers are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether training of deep cervical flexor muscles with pressure biofeedback has any significant advantage over conventional training for pain and disability experienced by school teachers with neck pain. [Subjects] Thirty teachers aged 25-45 years with neck pain and poor craniocervical flexion test participated in this study. [Methods] A pretest posttest experimental group design was used in which experimental group has received training with pressure biofeedback and conventional exercises while control group received conventional exercises only. Measurements of dependent variables were taken at baseline, and after 2 and 4 weeks of training. Pain intensity was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale and functional disability was assessed using the neck disability index. [Results] The data analysis revealed that there was significant improvement in pain and disability in both the groups and the results were better in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Addition of pressure biofeedback for deep cervical flexor muscles training gave a better result than conventional exercises alone. Feedback helps motor learning which is the set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to permanent changes in ability to respond.

  5. Bundles of Spider Silk, Braided into Sutures, Resist Basic Cyclic Tests: Potential Use for Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hennecke, Kathleen; Redeker, Joern; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Strauss, Sarah; Allmeling, Christina; Kasper, Cornelia; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Repair success for injuries to the flexor tendon in the hand is often limited by the in vivo behaviour of the suture used for repair. Common problems associated with the choice of suture material include increased risk of infection, foreign body reactions, and inappropriate mechanical responses, particularly decreases in mechanical properties over time. Improved suture materials are therefore needed. As high-performance materials with excellent tensile strength, spider silk fibres are an extremely promising candidate for use in surgical sutures. However, the mechanical behaviour of sutures comprised of individual silk fibres braided together has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we characterise the maximum tensile strength, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and fatigue response of silk sutures produced using different braiding methods to investigate the influence of braiding on the tensile properties of the sutures. The mechanical properties of conventional surgical sutures are also characterised to assess whether silk offers any advantages over conventional suture materials. The results demonstrate that braiding single spider silk fibres together produces strong sutures with excellent fatigue behaviour; the braided silk sutures exhibited tensile strengths comparable to those of conventional sutures and no loss of strength over 1000 fatigue cycles. In addition, the braiding technique had a significant influence on the tensile properties of the braided silk sutures. These results suggest that braided spider silk could be suitable for use as sutures in flexor tendon repair, providing similar tensile behaviour and improved fatigue properties compared with conventional suture materials. PMID:23613793

  6. DAS Writeback: A Collaborative Annotation System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Centralised resources such as GenBank and UniProt are perfect examples of the major international efforts that have been made to integrate and share biological information. However, additional data that adds value to these resources needs a simple and rapid route to public access. The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) provides an adequate environment to integrate genomic and proteomic information from multiple sources, making this information accessible to the community. DAS offers a way to distribute and access information but it does not provide domain experts with the mechanisms to participate in the curation process of the available biological entities and their annotations. Results We designed and developed a Collaborative Annotation System for proteins called DAS Writeback. DAS writeback is a protocol extension of DAS to provide the functionalities of adding, editing and deleting annotations. We implemented this new specification as extensions of both a DAS server and a DAS client. The architecture was designed with the involvement of the DAS community and it was improved after performing usability experiments emulating a real annotation task. Conclusions We demonstrate that DAS Writeback is effective, usable and will provide the appropriate environment for the creation and evolution of community protein annotation. PMID:21569281

  7. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability.

  8. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability. PMID:26990722

  9. Flexor Carpi Radialis to Palmaris Longus Tendon Transfer for Spontaneous Rupture of the Flexor Carpi Radialis Tendon-A Review of an Uncommon Finding and Surgical Technique for Operative Correction.

    PubMed

    Shearin, Jonathan Winkworth; Walters, Brian; Yang, S Steven

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the flexor carpi radialis tendon (FCR) are rare and associated with systemic inflammatory diseases, localized tendinopathy related to scaphotrapezial-trapezoidal arthritis, or chronic immunosuppression from corticosteroids. While most cases do not require operative intervention, some patients develop weakness, impaired range of motion, and persistent pain. Previously reported surgical options include synovectomy, tendon stump resection, and osteophyte removal. We describe a surgical technique for patients with persistent symptomatology following FCR rupture in which the FCR is transposed end-to-side to the palmaris longus tendon. Three cases using this technique are presented with follow-up of 4-9 months that were collected at Lenox Hill Hospital. All three patients did well regarding specific outcome measures: grip strength, range of motion, and functional activity. FCR transfer to palmaris is an alternative to other surgical options for the spontaneous rupture of the FCR tendon in patients who remain symptomatic despite a course of non-operative therapy. PMID:27595965

  10. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on the flexor reflex and involvement of supraspinal mechanisms: an experimental study in mononeuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, B; Linderoth, B; Meyerson, B A

    1996-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms responsible for pain relief caused by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) are essentially unknown and recent experimental data are sparse. In the present study the authors explored the possible involvement of supraspinal mechanisms in the effects of SCS applied in rats with experimental mononeuropathy produced by sciatic nerve ligation according to the method of Bennett and Xie or that of Seltzer, et al. Confirming results of a previous study undertaken by the authors, the thresholds of the early component of the flexor reflex (latency 8-12 msec), which is mediated by A fibers, were significantly lower in the nerve-ligated than in the intact leg. In halothane-anesthetized animals the spinal cord was exposed and SCS was applied with parameters similar to those used in clinical SCS. Ten minutes of SCS produced a significant elevation of the lowered threshold of the early flexor component only in the nerve-ligated leg, and this augmentatory effect of SCS persisted for 30 to 40 minutes after cessation of the stimulation. The threshold elevation amounted to between 50% and 80% of the prestimulatory value and it was related to the intensity of SCS. The threshold of the late, C-fiber-mediated component of the flexor reflex was not influenced in either of the legs. After transection of the spinal cord at the T-6 level, there was a moderate threshold increase in both the early and late components in both legs, but the threshold of the early component in the nerve-ligated leg remained lower. Spinal cord stimulation produced an almost identical threshold increase in the early component in the nerve-ligated leg with the same time course as before the transection. There was no effect on the late component of the reflex in either leg. The results indicate that this effect of SCS in mononeuropathic rats does not necessarily involve supraspinal mechanisms; instead SCS is operative at a spinal, segmental level. In view of the similarities between the effects

  11. Effects of a Lubricin-Containing Compound on the Results of Flexor Tendon Repair in a Canine Model in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Sun, Yu-Long; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tendon surface modification with a synthetic biopolymer, carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin with the addition of lubricin (CHL), has been shown to reduce gliding resistance after tendon repair in an in vitro model. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether CHL would reduce adhesion formation and improve digital function after flexor tendon repair in a canine model in vivo. Methods: Sixty dogs were randomly assigned to either a biopolymer-treated group (n = 30) or an untreated control group (n = 30). The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from each dog were lacerated fully at the zone-II area and then repaired. Passive synergistic motion therapy was started on the fifth postoperative day and continued until the dogs were killed on day 10, day 21, or day 42. The repaired tendons were evaluated for adhesions, normalized work of flexion, gliding resistance, repair strength, stiffness, and histological characteristics. Results: The normalized work of flexion of the repaired tendons treated with CHL was significantly lower than that of the non-CHL-treated repaired tendons at all time points (p < 0.05), and the prevalence of severe adhesions was also significantly decreased in the CHL-treated tendons at day 42 (p < 0.05). However, the repair failure strength and stiffness of the CHL-treated group were also significantly reduced compared with those of the control group at days 21 and 42 (p < 0.05) and the rate of tendon rupture was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group at day 42 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Treatment with the lubricin-containing gel CHL appears to be an effective means of decreasing postoperative flexor tendon adhesions, but it is also associated with some impairment of tendon healing. Future studies will be necessary to determine if the positive effects of CHL on adhesion formation can be maintained while reducing its adverse effect on the structural integrity of the

  12. Effects of the Index Finger Position and Force Production on the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Moment Arms at the Metacarpophalangeal Joints- an Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joel R.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging to measure the moment arm of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon about the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers when the position and force production level of the index finger was altered. A secondary goal was to create regression models using anthropometric data to predict moment arms of the flexor digitorum superficialis about the metacarpophalangeal joint of each finger. Methods The hands of subjects were scanned using a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger was placed in: flexion, neutral, and extension. For each joint configuration subjects produced no active force (passive condition) and exerted a flexion force to resist a load at the fingertip (active condition). Results The following was found: (1) The moment arm of the flexor digitorum superficialis at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger (a) increased with the joint flexion and stayed unchanged with finger extension; and (b) decreased with the increase of force at the neutral and extended finger postures and did not change at the flexed posture. (2) The moment arms of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of the middle, ring, and little fingers (a) did not change when the index metacarpophalangeal joint position changed (p > 0.20); and (b) The moment arms of the middle and little fingers increased when the index finger actively produced force at the flexed metacarpophalangeal joint posture. (4) The moment arms showed a high correlation with anthropometric measurements. Interpretation Moment arms of the flexor digitorum superficialis change due to both changes in joint angle and muscle activation; they scale with various anthropometric measures. PMID:22192658

  13. Changes in the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Geometry in the Carpal Tunnel Due to Force Production and Posture of Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Index Finger: an MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joel R.; Paclet, Florent; Latash, Mark. L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is a disorder caused by increased pressure in the carpal tunnel associated with repetitive, stereotypical finger actions. Little is known about in vivo geometrical changes in the carpal tunnel caused by motion at the finger joints and exerting a fingertip force. Methods The hands and forearms of five subjects were scanned using a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger was placed in: flexion, neutral and extension. For each joint posture subjects either produced no active force (passive condition) or exerted a flexion force to resist a load (~4.0 N) at the fingertip (active condition). Changes in the radii of curvature, position and transverse plane area of the flexor digitorum profundus tendons at the carpal tunnel level were measured. Results The radius of curvature of the flexor digitorum profundus tendons, at the carpal tunnel level, was significantly affected by posture of the index finger metacarpophalangeal joint (p<0.05) and the radii was significantly different between fingers (p<0.05). Actively producing force caused a significant shift (p<0.05) in the flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the ventral (palmar) direction. No significant change in the area of an ellipse containing the flexor digitorum profundus tendons was observed between conditions. Interpretation The results show that relatively small changes in the posture and force production of a single finger can lead to significant changes in the geometry of all the flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the carpal tunnel. Additionally, voluntary force production at the fingertip increases the moment arm of the FDP tendons about the wrist joint. PMID:23219762

  14. Development of an Acute Care Plastic Surgery Service in the Saskatoon Health Region: Effects on flexor tendon management

    PubMed Central

    Wilgenbusch, Chelsea S; Dust, Peter W; Sunderland, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute care surgery model has gained favour in general surgery, but has yet to be widely adopted in other specialties. An Acute Care Plastic Surgery (ACS) Service was recently implemented in the Saskatoon Health Region in an effort to improve trauma care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of ACS on the management of flexor tendon lacerations. The authors hypothesize that ACS has resulted in more timely intervention, improved outcomes and decreased ‘after hours’ surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated for flexor tendon lacerations from 2007 to 2013 was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on whether they received treatment before (group A) or after (group B) ACS implementation. Variables included dates and times of patient referral, consultation and tendon repair; postoperative complications; and admissions. A surgeon survey was administered on the perceived impact of ACS. RESULTS: Group A was more likely to have surgery performed after hours (P=0.0019) and be admitted to hospital (P=0.0211) compared with group B. Time from referral to consultation and injury-to-surgery interval were slightly increased post-ACS (Group B). Surgeons were highly satisfied with the new system, citing benefits to patients and surgeons. CONCLUSION: ACS was designed to improve trauma care, while favourably impacting surgeon workload. Surprisingly, the injury-to-surgery interval was slightly increased. However, this was not clinically significant and did not lead to increased postoperative complications. This finding was likely due to a favourable change in practice patterns observed after ACS implementation. ACS has resulted in fewer hospital admissions, decreased after-hours surgeries and improved surgeon satisfaction. PMID:26361628

  15. Analysis of the gliding pattern of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon through the A2 pulley.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Amadio, Peter C; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Friction between a tendon and its pulley was first quantified using the concept of the arc of contact. Studies of human tendons conformed closely to a theoretical nylon cable/nylon rod model. However, we observed differences in measured friction that depended on the direction of motion in the canine model. We hypothesized that fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon affected the measurements and attempted to develop a theoretical model to explain the observations we made. Two force transducers were connected to each end of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon and the forces were recorded when it was moved through the A2 pulley toward a direction of flexion by an actuator and then reversed a direction toward extension. The changes of a force as a function of tendon excursion were evaluated in 20 canine paws. A bead cable/rod model was developed to simulate the canine tendon-pulley complex. To interpret the results, a free-body diagram was developed. The two prominent fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon were found to be responsible for deviation from a theoretical nylon cable gliding around the rod model, in a fashion analogous to the effect of the patella on the quadriceps mechanism. A bead cable/rod model qualitatively reproduced the findings observed in the canine tendon-pulley complex. Frictional coefficient of the canine flexor tendon-pulley was 0.016+/-0.005. After accounting for the effect created by the geometry of two fibrocartilaginous nodules within the tendon, calculation of frictional force in the canine tendon was possible. PMID:18328488

  16. Ultrasonographic assessment of the flexor pronator muscles as a dynamic stabilizer of the elbow against valgus force.

    PubMed

    Otoshi, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Shishido, Hiroaki; Konno, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Flexor pronator muscles (FPMs) play a key role in stabilizing the elbow joint against valgus forces. However, no studies have investigated the in vivo kinematics of FPMs against these forces on the elbow. This study aimed to clarify the in vivo contribution of each FPM as a dynamic stabilizer in a clinical situation.Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The elbow was flexed to 90 degrees, and the forearm was placed in the neutral position. Manual valgus stress was applied to the elbow joint until maximal shoulder external rotation was achieved. The width of the ulnohumeral joint space and the ulnar shift of the sublime tubercle were measured before and after isometric contraction of FPMs using ultrasonography.The horizontal distances were decreased 1.1±0.6 mm after forearm pronation, 0.6±0.5 mm after wrist palmar flexion, 0.1±0.4 mm after wrist ulnar flexion, and 0.2±0.5 mm after finger flexion. Significant changes were observed during forearm pronation, wrist palmar flexion, and finger flexion but not during wrist ulnar flexion (p<0.05). The sublime tubercle was significantly shifted 0.5±0.1 mm medially after forearm pronation, 0.2±0.1 mm medially after wrist palmar flexion, and 0.1±0.1 mm laterally after wrist ulnar flexion and finger flexion (p<0.05). The FPMs, especially the pronator teres and the flexor carpi radialis, function as dynamic stabilizers against elbow valgus stress. The results of this study may be useful in developing injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies for throwing injuries of the elbow. PMID:25283981

  17. Frequency dependence of power and its implications for contractile function of muscle fibers from the digital flexors of horses

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E.A.; Syme, Douglas A.; Hermanson, John W.; Chase, P. Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The digital flexors of horses must produce high force to support the body weight during running, and a need for these muscles to generate power is likely limited during locomotion over level ground. Measurements of power output from horse muscle fibers close to physiological temperatures, and when cyclic strain is imposed, will help to better understand the in vivo performance of the muscles as power absorbers and generators. Skinned fibers from the deep (DDF) and superficial (SDF) digital flexors, and the soleus (SOL) underwent sinusoidal oscillations in length over a range of frequencies (0.5–16 Hz) and strain amplitudes (0.01–0.06) under maximum activation (pCa 5) at 30°C. Results were analyzed using both workloop and Nyquist plot analyses to determine the ability of the fibers to absorb or generate power and the frequency dependence of those abilities. Power absorption was dominant at most cycling frequencies and strain amplitudes in fibers from all three muscles. However, small amounts of power were generated (0.002–0.05 Wkg−1) at 0.01 strain by all three muscles at relatively slow cycling frequencies: DDF (4–7 Hz), SDF (4–5 Hz) and SOL (0.5–1 Hz). Nyquist analysis, reflecting the influence of cross‐bridge kinetics on power generation, corroborated these results. The similar capacity for power generation by DDF and SDF versus lower for SOL, and the faster frequency at which this power was realized in DDF and SDF fibers, are largely explained by the fast myosin heavy chain isoform content in each muscle. Contractile function of DDF and SDF as power absorbers and generators, respectively, during locomotion may therefore be more dependent on their fiber architectural arrangement than on the physiological properties of their muscle fibers. PMID:25293602

  18. Speckle-Tracking Sonographic Assessment of Longitudinal Motion of the Flexor Tendon and Subsynovial Tissue in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Doesburg, Margriet H. M.; Yoshii, Yuichi; Henderson, Jacqueline; Villarraga, Hector R.; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to image both tendon and subsynovial connective tissue movement in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control volunteers, using sonography with speckle tracking. To estimate accuracy of this tracking method, we used in vivo measurements during surgery to validate the motion estimated with sonography. Methods We recruited 22 healthy volunteers and 18 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Longitudinal sonograms of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and subsynovial connective tissue were obtained during finger flexion and extension. The images were analyzed with a speckle-tracking algorithm. The ratio of the sub-synovial connective tissue velocity to tendon velocity was calculated as the maximum velocity ratio, and the shear index, the ratio of tendon to subsynovial connective tissue motion, was calculated. For validation, we recorded flexor digitorum superficialis tendon motion during open carpal tunnel release. Results The shear index was higher in patients than controls (P < .05), whereas the maximum velocity ratio in extension was lower in patients than controls (P < .05). We found good intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.08) for shear index and maximum velocity ratio measurements between speckle-tracking and in vivo measurements. Bland-Altman analyses showed that all measurements remained within the limits of agreement. Conclusions Speckle tracking is a potentially useful method to assess the biomechanics within the carpal tunnel and to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. This method, however, needs to be further developed for clinical use, with the shear index and maximum velocity ratio as possible differentiating parameters between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy individuals. PMID:22733858

  19. In Vivo Measurements of Flexor Tendon and Suspensory Ligament Forces During Trotting Using the Thoroughbred Forelimb Model

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; AIDA, Hiroko; HIRAGA, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to create a lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred horse for measuring the force in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons (SDFT and DDFT), and the suspensory ligament (SL) during a trot. The mass, centers of gravity, and inertial moments in the metacarpus, pastern, and hoof segments were measured in 4 Thoroughbred horses. The moment arms of the SDFT, DDFT, and SL in the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints were measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The relationship between the fetlock joint angle and the force in the SL was assessed in 3 limbs of 2 Thoroughbred horses. The forces in the SDFT, DDFT, and SL during a trot were also measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The mass of the 3 segments, and the moment arms of the SDFT and DDFT in the fetlock joint of the Thoroughbred horses were smaller than those of the Warmblood horses, whereas the other values were almost the same in the 2 types. The calculated force in the SDFT with this Thoroughbred model reached a peak (4,615 N) at 39.3% of the stance phase, whereas that in the DDFT reached a peak (5,076 N) at 51.2% of the stance phase. The force in the SL reached a peak (11,957 N) at 49.4% of the stance phase. This lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred can be applied to studying the effects of different shoe types and change of hoof angle for the flexor tendon and SL forces. PMID:24834009

  20. Sensitivity of dynamic simulations of gait and dynamometer experiments to hill muscle model parameters of knee flexors and extensors.

    PubMed

    De Groote, F; Van Campen, A; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2010-07-20

    We assessed and compared sensitivities of dynamic simulations to musculotendon (MT) parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments. Our aim with this comparison was to investigate whether dynamometer experiments could provide information about MT-parameters that are important to reliably study MT-function during gait. This would mean that dynamometer experiments could be used to estimate these parameters. Muscle contribution to the joint torque (MT-torque) rather than relative MT-force primarily affects the resulting gait pattern and torque measured by the dynamometer. In contrast to recent studies, therefore, we assessed the sensitivity of the MT-torque, rather than the sensitivity of the relative MT-force. Based on sensitivity of the MT-torque to a parameter perturbation, MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors were classified in three categories: low, medium, and high. For gait, classification was based on the average sensitivity during a gait cycle. For isometric and isokinetic dynamometer experiments, classification was based on the highest sensitivity found in the experiments. The calculated muscle contributions to the knee torque during gait and dynamometer experiments had a high sensitivity to only a limited number of MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors, suggesting that not all MT-parameters need to be estimated. In general, the highest sensitivity was found for tendon slack length. However, for some muscles the sensitivity to the optimal fibre length or the maximal isometric muscle force was also high or medium. The classification of the individual MT-parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments was largely similar. We therefore conclude that dynamometer experiments provide information about MT-parameters important to reliably study MT-function during gait, so that subject-specific estimates of MT-parameters could be made based on dynamometer experiments.

  1. Intrasession and interrater reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging measures of the deep neck flexors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Janna; Ellison, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the intrasession and interrater reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) to measure the deep neck flexors (DNF). Two investigators traced the DNF muscle borders in eight female subjects aged 33 ± 11.2 years. Of the eight subjects, five subjects reported a greater than 6-month history of neck pain, and three subjects were asymptomatic healthy controls. Cross-sectional area (CSA) (cm(2)) of right and left muscle groups were calculated. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for CSA measures were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.27-0.87) for rater 1 with a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 0.06 cm(2); 0.87 (95% CI: 0.65-0.96) for rater 2 with an SEM of 0.09 cm(2); and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.44-0.87) for interrater reliability between rater 1 and rater 2 with an SEM of 0.11 cm(2). The mean difference between CSA (cm(2)) measures were 0.00 ± 0.10 cm(2) for rater 1 and 0.09 ± 0.13 cm(2) for rater 2. The mean differences for CSA were 0.04 ± 0.12 cm(2). This pilot investigation suggests that RUSI could be used to reliably assess the size of the deep neck flexors.

  2. Force production characteristics of leg extensor, trunk flexor and extensor muscles in male and female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, K

    1991-09-01

    Eleven male and nine female basketball players from two teams at the same relative competitive level were studied for the force production characteristics of their leg extensor, trunk flexor and extensor muscles. As expected, the male players demonstrated greater (p less than 0.001) absolute maximal strength in the three muscle groups than the females. When the force values were related to body weight, the differences became smaller but the male group could still produce higher values especially for the trunk flexor (p less than 0.01) and extensor muscles (p less than 0.05). The males demonstrated higher (p less than 0.001) values than the females for maximal vertical jumping height both in the squat jump (41.5 +/- 3.0 and 21.5 +/- 2.4 cm) and in the counter movement jump (43.9 +/- 4.0 and 24.8 +/- 2.5 cm). As expected, the times required to produce the same absolute force levels in the isometric force-time curves were significantly (p less than 0.001) shorter in the male team than in the female. However, the times needed to produce the same relative force levels were also shorter (p less than 0.05) in the male group. In the whole subject sample the individual values in maximal leg extension force correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the vertical jumping height. The present results suggest that the differences observed in force production characteristics between the male and female groups may not be explained only by the sexual difference but also by the differences in the overall volume and/or the type of strength and power training during the preparatory training season(s).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Hallux saltans due to flexor hallucis longus entrapment at a previously unreported site in an unskilled manual laborer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Rajesh; Karuppal, Raju; Inassi, Jojo; Valsalan, Rejith

    2012-01-01

    Triggering of the big toe, or hallux saltans, is commonly due to stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus at the fibro-osseous tunnel below the sustentaculum tali. It is a rare condition described mainly in female ballet dancers. This is hypothesized to be due to the en pointe position used in ballet, which puts enormous supraphysiologic loads on the flexor hallucis longus, predisposing it to injury. Trigger hallux is extremely uncommon in the general population. We are reporting a case of hallux saltans in an unskilled manual laborer, with the site of tendon entrapment just proximal to the medial malleolus in the distal leg, a hitherto unreported location of stenosis. PMID:22459424

  4. Comparison of a multifilament stainless steel suture with FiberWire for flexor tendon repairs--an in vitro biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E; Gordon, J A; Buckley, J M; Gordon, L

    2013-05-01

    Our goal was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of multifilament stainless steel suture (MFSS) and polyethylene multi-filament core FiberWire in flexor tendon repairs. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired in human cadaver hands with either a 4-strand cruciate cross-lock repair or 6-strand modified Savage repair using 4-0 and 3-0 multifilament stainless steel or FiberWire. The multifilament stainless steel repairs were as strong as those performed with FiberWire in terms of ultimate load and load at 2 mm gap. This study suggests that MFSS provides as strong a repair as FiberWire. The mode of failure of the MFSS occurred by the suture pulling through the tendon, which suggests an advantage in terms of suture strength. PMID:22745156

  5. Effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang-Hyun; Boo, Jung-A; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain (CKC) in hemiplegia patients. [Methods] This study used a reversal design (A-B-A’) for a stroke with hemiplagia. The intervention program consisted of 30 min sessions, once a day, for 15 days. The subjects were trained for 15 sessions in total. Pelvic movements (anterior ·posterior tilting, elevation, depression, forward·backward rotation) during walking and gait speed were measured in hemiplegia patients. [Results] Overall, the angle of pelvic movements was increased in Treatment and, Baseline II compared with Baseline I. The gait speed was maximally increased in Baseline II, followed by Treatment and Baseline I. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain had a positive effect on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients. Also, after treatment, its effect on gait of hemiplegia patients was maintained. PMID:26957780

  6. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced.

  7. The ratio of change in muscle thickness between superficial and deep cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test and a suggestion regarding clinical treatment of patients with musculoskeletal neck pain.

    PubMed

    Goo, Miran; Kim, Seong-Gil; Jun, Deokhoon

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test by using ultrasonography and to propose the optimal level of pressure in clinical craniocervical flexion exercise for people with neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 18 students (9 males and 9 females) with neck pain at D University in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, participated in this study. The change in muscle thickness in superficial and deep cervical flexor muscles during the craniocervical flexion test was measured using ultrasonography. The ratio of muscle thickness changes between superficial and deep muscles during the test were obtained to interpret the imbalance of muscle recruitment in cervical flexor muscles. [Results] The muscle thickness ratio of the sternocleidomastoid muscle/deep cervical flexor muscles according to the incremental pressure showed significant differences between 22 mmHg and 24 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 28 mmHg, between 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg, and between 26 mmHg and 28 mmHg. [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be applied for examination of cervical flexor muscles in clinical environment, and practical suggestion for intervention exercise of craniocervical flexors can be expected on the pressure level between 24 mmHg and 26 mmHg enabling the smallest activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

  8. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Joyeeta; Henry, Brandon M.; Pękala, Przemysław A.; Vikse, Jens; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Walocha, Jerzy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL), also known as the Gantzer’s muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN) and the Median Nerve (MN). The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0. Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347–0.540]). An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%), and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%). The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166–0.521]). In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731–1.0]) and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924–0.993]). Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account by

  9. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Joyeeta; Henry, Brandon M; Pękala, Przemysław A; Vikse, Jens; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Walocha, Jerzy A; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL), also known as the Gantzer's muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN) and the Median Nerve (MN). The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0. Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347-0.540]). An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%), and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%). The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166-0.521]). In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731-1.0]) and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924-0.993]). Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account by physicians to

  10. Effect of pre-exercise phototherapy applied with different cluster probe sizes on elbow flexor muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Mateus; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Sakugawa, Raphael L; Lazzari, Caetano D; Baroni, Bruno M; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Phototherapy has been used for reducing muscle fatigue. In view of the various types of phototherapy cluster probes available in the market, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a similar phototherapy dosage with two different cluster probes on elbow flexor muscle fatigue: small cluster probe (SC = 9 diodes; 7.5 cm(2)) vs. large cluster probe (LC = 33 diodes; 30.2 cm(2)). Ten physically active male aged 18-35 years participate in a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which each participant was submitted to the same testing protocol in four sessions (separated by at least 48 h) with different treatments: LC-phototherapy, SC-phototherapy, LC-placebo, and SC-placebo. The elbow flexion maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) was performed before and after a fatigue protocol (60 % of MIVC until exhaustion). Electromyography (EMG) of the biceps brachii muscle was collected during all testing procedure. Phototherapy with dose of 60 J per muscle [LC: 33 diodes = 5 lasers (850 nm), 12 LEDs (670 nm), 8 LEDs (880 nm), and 8 LEDs (950 nm); SC: 9 diodes = 5 lasers (850 nm) and 4 LEDs (670 nm)] or placebo applications occurred before fatigue protocol. Two-way ANOVA (treatment and time factors) and one-way ANOVA were used, followed by LSD post hoc. Time to exhaustion was significantly higher in active LC (15 %; p = 0.031) and SC (14 %; p = 0.038) in comparison with their respective placebo treatments, without differences between LC and SC (p > 0.05) or between placebo conditions (p > 0.05). This larger exercise tolerance in phototherapy conditions was not accompanied by a higher decrement in the volunteers' maximal strength capacity (11-15 %; p > 0.05 for all). EMG signals presented no difference between the four condition tested here. In both large and small cluster probes (according parameters tested in this study) led to reduced fatigue in elbow flexor muscles, without

  11. Influence of ankle plantar flexor muscle architecture and strength on gait in boys with haemophilia in comparison to typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Stephensen, D; Drechsler, W I; Scott, O M

    2014-05-01

    Altered gait patterns, muscle weakness and atrophy have been reported in young boys with severe haemophilia when compared to unaffected peers. The aim of this study was to determine whether lateral gastrocnemius muscle size and architecture influenced biomechanical walking patterns of boys with haemophilia and if these relationships differed from age-matched typically developing boys. Biomechanical function of the knee and ankle during level walking, lateral gastrocnemius anatomical cross-sectional area, thickness, width, fascicle length and pennation angle and ankle plantar flexor muscle strength were recorded in 19 typically developing boys aged 7-12 years and 19 age-matched haemophilic boys with a history of ankle joint bleeding. Associations between gait, strength and architecture were compared using correlations of peak gait values. Haemophilic boys walked with significantly larger (P < 0.05) ankle dorsi flexion angles and knee flexion moments. The ankle plantar flexor muscles of haemophilic boys were significantly weaker and smaller when compared to typically developing peers. In the typically developing boys there was no apparent association between muscle architecture, strength and walking patterns. In haemophilic boys maximum muscle strength and ACSA normalized torque of the ankle plantar flexors together with the muscle width, thickness, fascicle length and angulation (P < 0.05) were associated with motion at the ankle and peak moments at the knee joint. Muscle strength deficits of the ankle plantar flexors and changes in muscle size and architecture may underpin the key biomechanical alterations in walking patterns of haemophilic boys with a history of ankle joint bleeding.

  12. Small longitudinal S incision and page turning style of annular ligament partial resection to treat stenosing tenosynovitis of thumb flexor tendon

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-ping; Du, Yan-ying; Wang, Ming-ming; Li, Ming; Liu, Shi-you; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background To present the treatment outcome for patients with stenosing tenosynovitis of thumb flexor tendon treated with a small S incision and page turning style of annular ligament partial resection. Material/Methods During a 2-year period between August 2011 and July 2013, 12 consecutive patients (mean age, 45.8 years) with stenosing tenosynovitis of the thumb flexor tendon were prospectively enrolled into this study. All 12 patients underwent longitudinal S skin incision to expose annular ligament and thumb flexor tendon, and with page turning style of annular ligament partial resection to finish the operation. The average range of motion of metacarpophalangeal thumb joint, Quick disability of arm, shoulder, and hand and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction score of arm and hand were primary outcome measures. Results There were 9 cases of stiff metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb and 3 cases of snapping thumb for stenosing tenosynovitis. At 1-year follow-up, all stenosing tenosynovitis had healed by an average of 4 weeks. The average range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint was 37.1° (range, 34–40°). No patients had recurrence, cicatricial contraction, or postoperative infection. The average disability of arm, shoulder, and hand was 0.3 out of 100 (range, 0–1.67), and average Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment Dysfunction score of arm and hand was 6.9 out of 40 (range, 0–15.6). All 12 patients stated that they were highly satisfied. Conclusions Small S incision and page turning style of annular ligament partial resection for stenosing tenosynovitis of thumb flexor tendon is a safe, simple, and reliable alternative treatment with minimal soft-tissue irritation, good functional results and recovery can be expected. PMID:24759493

  13. Exposure-dependent increases in IL-1beta, substance P, CTGF, and tendinosis in flexor digitorum tendons with upper extremity repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    Fedorczyk, Jane M; Barr, Ann E; Rani, Shobha; Gao, Helen G; Amin, Mamta; Amin, Shreya; Litvin, Judith; Barbe, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Upper extremity tendinopathies are associated with performance of forceful repetitive tasks. We used our rat model of repetitive strain injury to study changes induced in forelimb flexor digitorum tendons. Rats were trained to perform a high repetition high force (HRHF) handle-pulling task (12 reaches/min at 60 +/- 5% maximum pulling force [MPF]), or a low repetition negligible force (LRNF) reaching and food retrieval task (three reaches/min at 5 +/- 5% MPF), for 2 h/day in 30 min sessions, 3 days/week for 3-12 weeks. Forelimb grip strength was tested. Flexor digitorum tendons were examined at midtendon at the level of the carpal tunnel for interleukin (IL)-1beta, neutrophil, and macrophage influx, Substance P, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and periostin-like factor (PLF) immunoexpression, and histopathological changes. In HRHF rats, grip strength progressively decreased, while IL-1beta levels progressively increased in the flexor digitorum peritendon (para- and epitendon combined) and endotendon with task performance. Macrophage invasion was evident in week 6 and 12 HRHF peritendon but not endotendon. Also in HRHF rats, Substance P immunoexpression increased in week 12 peritendon as did CTGF- and PLF-immunopositive fibroblasts, the increased fibroblasts contributing greatly to peritendon thickening. Endotendon collagen disorganization was evident in week 12 HRHF tendons. LRNF tendons did not differ from controls, even at 12 weeks. Thus, we observed exposure-dependent changes in flexor digitorum tendons within the carpal tunnel, including increased inflammation, nociceptor-related neuropeptide immunoexpression, and fibrotic histopathology, changes associated with grip strength decline.

  14. Neglected Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated with Flexor Hallucis Longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flap and reinforced with plantaris tendon.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haijiao; Shi, Zengyuan; Xu, Dachuan; Liu, Zhenxin

    2015-09-01

    Neglected Achilles Tendon Ruptures are commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. In cases resistant to conservative treatment, a variety of surgical procedures have been utilized in the past. The senior -surgeon at our institution has utilized a technique -employing two turndown fascia flaps fashioned from the proximal Achilles tendon augmented by a tenomyodesis of the flexor hallucis longus and plantaris tendon. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of all patients who underwent this procedure. The medical records of 10 cases that underwent this procedure were retrospectively reviewed. We completed data collection sets using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores, isokinetic evaluation, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 year of follow-up. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores improved from 64.4±3.54. Isokinetic testing at 30º/sec and 120º/sec revealed an mean deficits of 24.5%, respectively, in the plantar flexion peak torque of the involved ankle than non-involved ankle. The flexor hallucis longus tendon, gastrocnemius fascia flap and plantaris were well -integrated into the Achilles tendon forming a homogenous tendon, which was confirmed in MRI. Our subjective and objective data indicate that the reconstructive technique using flexor hallucis longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flaps and plantaris tendon is a good option for repairing large gap defect of Achilles tendon.

  15. In vitro mechanical properties of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in horses in relation to age.

    PubMed

    Becker, C K; Savelberg, H H; Barneveld, A

    1994-11-01

    The material properties of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL) of 21 forelimbs from horses between ages one day and 15 years were determined. The force (634-11416 N), failure stress (45-138 N/mm2), failure strain (7-24%) and tangent modulus (33-1639 MPa) are presented in relation to age. Tangent modulus did not indicate changes in elasticity due to age. The results demonstrate that complete ligament failures (CLF) of ALs of older horses (mean 7835 N) occur at lower forces than ALs of young adult horses (mean 8894 N). Sudden decreases, 'dips', in the force-time curves were noticed in ligaments from foals and yearlings and in ligaments from horses > 10 years. They were interpreted as the failure of a number of fibres which either fail at lower forces or are subject to higher forces than the rest. These differences in mechanical properties could be the result of age related differences in the material properties of ALs of older horses similar to alterations in collagenous tissue in other species. When analysing the data of the proximal, middle and distal regions of the ligaments separately, higher strain and elasticity were found in the distal compared to the proximal parts. It is suggested that the clinical occurrence of desmitis of the AL of older horses could be due to fibrillar failure caused by differences in the material properties of the ligaments.

  16. The effect of age and spontaneous exercise on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of chicken superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Romero Nakagaki, Wilson; Rosa Pimentel, Edson; Pereira Benevides, Gustavo; Gomes, Laurecir

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if spontaneous (nonforced active) exercise and age (maturation process) alter the biomechanical and biochemical properties of superficial digital flexor tendon. Chickens aged 1, 5, and 8 months were divided into two groups: caged and penned. The caged group was reared in an area of 0.5 m(2) (3 animals/cage), while the penned group was reared in an area of 60 m(2) (3 animals/area). For biochemical analysis, the tendon was divided into tensile and compressive regions for quantification of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan content. Biomechanical properties were analyzed from tensile tests of intact tendons. The biomechanical measurements were taken at maximum load and maximum stress. In both the caged and penned groups, maximum load and energy absorption increased with maturation; however, the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and maximum strain did not increase with maturation. Exercise resulted in a higher load, stress, and elastic modulus in the fifth month. Collagen content increased with age in the penned group and with exercise in the fifth and eighth months. Exercise results in a higher expression of glycosaminoglycans in young tendons compared to mature tendons. Thus, low-intensity mechanical stimuli promote the synthesis and possible rearrangement of molecules in immature tendons, whereas inactivity leads to deleterious effects on the material properties (maximum stress and elastic modulus) during growth and maturation.

  17. Development of Antisense Oligonucleotide (ASO) Technology Against Tgf-β Signaling to Prevent Scarring During Flexor Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Yukata, Kiminori; Geary, Michael B.; Kondabolu, Sirish; Shi, Shanshan; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Awad, Hani A.; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendons (FT) in the hand provide near frictionless gliding to facilitate hand function. Upon injury and surgical repair, satisfactory healing is hampered by fibrous adhesions between the tendon and synovial sheath. In the present study we used antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), specifically targeted to components of Tgf-β signaling, including Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf, to test the hypothesis that local delivery of ASOs and suppression of Tgf-β1 signaling would enhance murine FT healing by suppressing adhesion formation while maintaining strength. ASOs were injected in to the FT repair site at 2, 6 and 12 days post-surgery. ASO treatment suppressed target gene expression through 21 days. Treatment with Tgf-β1, Smad3 or Ctgf ASOs resulted in significant improvement in tendon gliding function at 14 and 21 days, relative to control. Consistent with a decrease in adhesions, Col3a1 expression was significantly decreased in Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf ASO treated tendons relative to control. Smad3 ASO treatment enhanced the max load at failure of healing tendons at 14 days, relative to control. Taken together, these data support the use of ASO treatment to improve FT repair, and suggest that modulation of the Tgf-β1 signaling pathway can reduce adhesions while maintaining the strength of the repair. PMID:25761254

  18. Treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction without flexor digitorum tendon transfer: a retrospective study of 34 patients.

    PubMed

    Didomenico, Lawrence; Stein, Dawn Y; Wargo-Dorsey, Mari

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study of patients who underwent gastrocnemius recession, double calcaneal osteotomy (Evans osteotomy and percutaneous calcaneal displacement osteotomy), and medial column fusion for the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was conducted. The senior author performed the procedures between November 2002 and January 2009 on 34 patients who displayed at least Johnson and Strom stage II deformity and had undergone 12 months of failed conservative treatment. The coauthors evaluated the patients' radiographs before and after the operation. At a mean of 14 (range 3 to 44) months after surgery, radiographic measurements demonstrated statistically significant changes in the structural alignment of the feet. Based on our experience with these patients, we believe that a double calcaneal osteotomy combined with a gastrocnemius recession and stabilization of the medial column for the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction provides satisfactory correction, stability, and realignment of the foot. Furthermore, we feel that the use of flexor digitorum longus transfer, as well as triple arthrodesis, can be avoided without compromising the outcome when surgically treating posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. PMID:21397524

  19. Development of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology against Tgf-β signaling to prevent scarring during flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Alayna E; Yukata, Kiminori; Geary, Michael B; Kondabolu, Sirish; Shi, Shanshan; Jonason, Jennifer H; Awad, Hani A; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-06-01

    Flexor tendons (FT) in the hand provide near frictionless gliding to facilitate hand function. Upon injury and surgical repair, satisfactory healing is hampered by fibrous adhesions between the tendon and synovial sheath. In the present study we used antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), specifically targeted to components of Tgf-β signaling, including Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf, to test the hypothesis that local delivery of ASOs and suppression of Tgf-β1 signaling would enhance murine FT healing by suppressing adhesion formation while maintaining strength. ASOs were injected in to the FT repair site at 2, 6 and 12 days post-surgery. ASO treatment suppressed target gene expression through 21 days. Treatment with Tgf-β1, Smad3 or Ctgf ASOs resulted in significant improvement in tendon gliding function at 14 and 21 days, relative to control. Consistent with a decrease in adhesions, Col3a1 expression was significantly decreased in Tgf-β1, Smad3 and Ctgf ASO treated tendons relative to control. Smad3 ASO treatment enhanced the maximum load at failure of healing tendons at 14 days, relative to control. Taken together, these data support the use of ASO treatment to improve FT repair, and suggest that modulation of the Tgf-β1 signaling pathway can reduce adhesions while maintaining the strength of the repair. PMID:25761254

  20. The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

    PubMed

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles on the biomechanical properties of human flexor digitorum superficialis tendons.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dejie; Sun, Kang; Tian, Shaoqi; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Cailong; Wang, Wenhao; Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Jihua; Deng, Yujie

    2012-01-10

    An increasing number of tissue banks have begun to focus on gamma irradiation and freeze-thaw in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligaments using allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of human tendons after exposure to gamma radiation and repeated freeze-thaw cycles and to compare them with fresh specimens. Forty flexor digitorum superficialis tendons were surgically procured from five fresh cadavers and divided into four groups: fresh tendon, gamma irradiation, freeze-thaw and gamma irradiation+freeze-thaw. The dose of gamma irradiation was 25 kGy. Each freeze-thaw cycle consisted of freezing at -80 °C for 7 day and thawing at 25 °C for 6 h. These tendons underwent 4 freeze-thaw cycles. Biomechanical properties were analyzed during load-to-failure testing. The fresh tendons were found to be significantly different in ultimate load, stiffness and ultimate stress relative to the other three groups. The tendons of the gamma+freeze-thaw group showed a significant decrease in ultimate load, ultimate stress and stiffness compared with the other three groups. Gamma irradiation and repeated freezing-thawing (4 cycles) can change the biomechanical properties. However, no significant difference was found between these two processes on the effect of biomechanical properties. It is recommended that gamma irradiation (25 kGy) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles (4 cycles) should not be adopted in the processing of the allograft tendons.

  2. Age related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the leg extensors and flexors in young, middle-aged and old men.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Ryan, Eric D; Sobolewski, Eric J; Conchola, Eric C; Cramer, Joel T

    2013-02-01

    The decline in maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics may compromise functional living abilities in aging adults while loco-motor muscle groups, such as the leg extensors and flexors, may exhibit different torque-time age related decreases. The purpose of the present study was to examine the age-related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the leg extensor and flexor muscle groups in young, middle-aged, and old men. Sixty-five healthy men were categorized by age as young (n=25; mean±SD age=24.9±3.0 years), middle-aged (n=22; age=50.6±4.0 years), and old (n=18; age=66.8±4.5 years). Participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg extensors and flexors and an estimated thigh cross sectional area (eThighCSA) assessment. Peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak), absolute RTD and the contractile impulse (IMPULSE) were calculated at time intervals of 30, 50, 100 and 200 ms from the torque-time curve. Relative RTD was calculated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of MVC from the normalized torque-time curves. PT, RTDpeak and later rapid torque variables (RTD100, RTD200, and IMPULSE200) were greater (P≤0.05) in the young and middle-aged when compared to the old men for both muscle groups. Early (RTD30,50; IMPULSE30,50) and late (IMPULSE100) rapid torque variables were greater (P≤0.05) for the young and middle-aged than the old men for the leg extensors but not the leg flexors, except for RTD30, in which there was no difference between young and old. There were no differences for all relative RTD variables between age groups (P>0.05). eThighCSA was lower in the old compared to the young (P=0.001) and middle-aged (P=0.016) men. Maximal and rapid torque characteristics were preserved in middle-aged men but greatly reduced in older men with differential effects at early and late portions of the torque-time curve between the leg extensors and flexors. Significant decreases in absolute maximal and rapid

  3. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  4. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  5. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women.

    PubMed

    Csapo, R; Malis, V; Hodgson, J; Sinha, S

    2014-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4-5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11-12% vs. SW: 6-8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction.

  6. Bilateral Knee Extensor Fatigue Modulates Force and Responsiveness of the Corticospinal Pathway in the Non-fatigued, Dominant Elbow Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Šambaher, Nemanja; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Behm, David George

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF) maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation (BPES) were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control). For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5 s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5 s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). In both conditions, overall, EF MVC force (p < 0.001) decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, Δ10.3%) decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG) activity (p = 0.43), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) amplitude (p = 0.908) or MEP silent period (SP; p = 0.776). However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/cervicomedullary MEP (CMEP) ratio (p = 0.042, ES = 2.5, Δ25%) and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p = 0.08, ES = 0.5, Δ20.4%). These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF. PMID:26869902

  7. The Effects of Temporal and Spatial Predictions on Stretch Reflexes of Ankle Flexor and Extensor Muscles While Standing

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how stretch reflex (SR) responses in the ankle extensor (soleus: SOL) and flexor (tibialis anterior: TA) muscles would be modulated with temporal and/or spatial predictions of external perturbations and whether their effects are specific to the standing posture. SR responses in the SOL/TA were elicited by imposing quick ankle toes-up/toes-down rotations while standing upright and in the supine position. We designed four experimental conditions based on pre-information about perturbations: no information (No Cue), the timing of the perturbation onset (TIM), the direction of the perturbation (DIR), and both the timing and direction of the perturbation (TIM/DIR). Each condition was separated and its order was counterbalanced. In the SR of TA evoked by toes-down rotation, integrated electromyography activities of the late component were significantly reduced in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with those in the No Cue and DIR conditions. The occurrence rate of late SR components that reflects how often the reflex response was observed was also lower in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with that in the No Cue and DIR conditions. On the other hand, no significant changes were seen among the four conditions in the early SR component in the TA and both SR components in the SOL. The same results in the occurrence rate were found in the supine position. The present results suggest (1) only temporal predictions have a remarkable effect on the SR excitability of the TA, and (2) this effect is independent of posture. PMID:27385043

  8. Relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and paratenon in zone V increases with wrist flexion angle.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), a paratenon-like structure inside the carpal tunnel. This pathology suggests repetitive and/or excessive shear forces are involved in injury development. We assessed relative motion between the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent paratenon in Zone V using colour Doppler imaging as 16 healthy participants completed three long finger movements (metacarpophalangeal joint flexion, proximal and distal interphalangeal joint flexion, full finger flexion) in three wrist postures (30° extension, 0°, 30° flexion). While the type of finger movement did not affect tendon-paratenon relative motion, we found a significant main effect of wrist posture (p < 0.001). Relative displacement between the FDS tendon and paratenon (as a percentage of tendon displacement) increased from 27.2% (95%CI = 24.8-29.5%) in 30° wrist extension to 39.9% (95%CI = 37.3-42.4%) in 30° wrist flexion. Optical motion capture confirmed that wrist posture did not affect metacarpophalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.265) or proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion (p = 0.582). These results indicate that relative motion increased due to paratenon strain when the wrist was flexed. While our findings agree with previous cadaveric research in wrist flexion, we found that relative displacement decreased in 30° wrist extension (compared to 0°). These results differ from cadaveric research, possibly due to challenges maintaining anatomic fidelity of the viscoelastic paratenon tissue in vitro. Overall, our study suggests a greater susceptibility to shear injury during repetitive finger movements, particularly when the wrist is flexed. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1248-1255, 2016. PMID:26686976

  9. Functional results from reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the central third of the patellar ligament and flexor tendons☆

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Leao, Marcos George; Pampolha, Abelardo Gautama Moreira; Orlando Junior, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate knee function in patients undergoing reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using the central third of the patellar ligament or the medial flexor tendons of the knee, i.e. quadruple ligaments from the semitendinosus and gracilis (ST-G), by means of the Knee Society Score (KSS) and the Lysholm scale. Methods This was a randomized prospective longitudinal study on 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between September 2013 and August 2014. They comprised 37 males and three females, with ages ranging from 16 to 52 years. The patients were numbered randomly from 1 to 40: the even numbers underwent surgical correction using the ST-G tendons and the odd numbers, using the patellar tendon. Functional evaluations were made using the KSS and Lysholm scale, applied in the evening before the surgical procedure and six months after the operation. Results From the statistical analysis, it could be seen that the patients’ functional capacity was significantly greater after the operation than before the operation. There was strong evidence that the two forms of therapy had similar results (p = >0.05), in all the comparisons. Conclusions The results from the ACL reconstructions were similar with regard to functional recovery of the knee and improvement of quality of life, independent of the type of graft. It was not possible to identify the best method of surgical treatment. The surgeon's clinical and technical experience and the patient are the factors that determine the choice of graft type for use in ACL surgery. PMID:27218084

  10. Influence of length-restricted strength training on athlete's power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Kleinöder, Heinz; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether different length-restricted strength training regimens affect voluntary explosive concentric power-load curves of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HAM) muscles. Thirty-two athletes were divided into 3 different training groups (G1-G3): G1 performed isometric training at knee joint angles corresponding to long muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length for QF and HAM; G2 conducted concentric-eccentric contraction cycles that were restricted to a knee joint range of motion corresponding to predominantly long MTU length for QF and HAM; and G3 combined the protocols of G1 and G2. Knee joint angle-dependent power-load curves during maximal voluntary explosive concentric knee extensions and flexions were measured for loads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of individual 1 repetition maximum at 5 different occasions: 2 times before, after 5 and 8 weeks of training, and 4 weeks post training. Power values of each subject were normalized to the largest value produced at any knee joint position (percent maximum). Obtained by curve fitting, the optimal knee joint angle for power production of QF and HAM remained unaltered throughout the course of the study for all testing loads and training groups. Therefore, different strength training regimens with a common restriction to long MTU lengths failed to induce length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves of knee extensors and flexors. The approach to develop strength training programs that induce systematic shifts in length-dependent power production of QF and HAM is of direct practical relevance for athletic activities such as cycling, ice skating, and skiing. However, restricting the muscle excursion range during loading seems to be an inappropriate trigger to cause length-dependent alterations in athlete's voluntary concentric power-load curves.

  11. Acute effects of passive stretching and vibration on the electromechanical delay and musculotendinous stiffness of the plantar flexors.

    PubMed

    Herda, T J; Ryan, E D; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Hoge, K M; Uribe, B P; McLagan, J R; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of passives stretching versus prolonged vibration on the active and passive properties of voluntary and evoked muscle actions of the plantar flexors. Eleven healthy men performed the isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and passive range of motion (PROM) assessments before and after 20 min of passive stretching (PS), vibration (VIB), and control (CON) conditions. In addition, percent voluntary activation was calculated from superimposed and potentiated doublets during the MVCs. Voluntary peak torque (PT) decreased by 11% and 4%, while surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude decreased by 8% and 16% for the PS and VIB, respectively, with no changes during the CON The electromechanical delay (EMD) decreased and PROM increased following the PS, but was unchanged during the VIB and CON conditions. Musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) decreased at all joint angles following the PS, but decreased only at the furthest joint angle following the VIB. There were no changes in peak twitch torque (PTT), M-wave amplitude, and EMG amplitude during the PROM assessments for all conditions. Both PS and VIB elicited similar decreases in muscle activation, which may be the same centrally-mediated mechanism (i.e., y loop impairment). Changes in the EMD were inversely proportional to the changes in MTS, which occurred only following PS. The present findings indicated that the stretching- and vibration-induced force deficits may have resulted in part from similar centrally-mediated neural deficits, while an elongation of the series elastic component may also have affected the stretching-induced force deficit.

  12. Cortical and Spinal Excitability during and after Lengthening Contractions of the Human Plantar Flexor Muscles Performed with Maximal Voluntary Effort

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Daniel; Hoffman, Ben W.; Carroll, Timothy J.; Cresswell, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17±8% and 9±8% was found during and 2.5–3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p≤0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p≤0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature. PMID:23166794

  13. Neuromuscular adjustments of the knee extensors and plantar flexors following match-play tennis in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Périard, Julien D; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that impairments in lower limb maximal strength and voluntary activation (VA) are exacerbated following match-play tennis in hot compared with cool conditions. Methods Torque and VA were evaluated during brief (5 s) and sustained (20 s) maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) in 12 male tennis players before (pre) and after (post, 24 h and 48 h) ∼115 min of play in hot (∼37°C) and cool (∼22°C) conditions. Results Rectal temperature was higher following play in hot than in cool (∼39.2 vs ∼38.5°C; p<0.05). Torque production decreased from prematch to postmatch during the brief and sustained contractions in hot (KE: ∼22%; PF: ∼13%) and cool (KE: ∼9%, PF: ∼7%) (p<0.05). KE strength losses in hot were greater than in cool (p<0.05) and persisted for 24 h (p<0.05). Postmatch brief and sustained KE VA was lower in hot than in cool (p<0.05), in which VA was maintained. PF VA was maintained throughout the protocol. Peak twitch torque and maximum rates of torque development and relaxation in the KE and PF were equally reduced postmatch relative to prematch in hot and cool conditions (p<0.05), and were restored near baseline within 24 h. Conclusions Neuromuscular system integrity of the lower limbs is compromised immediately following match-play tennis in hot and cool conditions due to the development of peripheral fatigue. The larger and persistent KE strength losses observed under heat stress are associated with greater levels of central fatigue especially during sustained contractions. PMID:24668379

  14. Effect of thoracic manipulation and deep craniocervical flexor training on pain, mobility, strength, and disability of the neck of patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Won-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of thoracic manipulation and deep craniocervical flexor training on the muscle strength and endurance, range of motion, and the disability index of the neck of patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-six patients with chronic neck pain participated. They received an intervention for 35 minutes a day, three times a week for 10 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups: group A (thoracic manipulation combined with deep craniocervical flexor training, n=16), group B (deep craniocervical flexor training, n=15), and group C (active self-exercise as a control group, n=15). Muscle strength and endurance, pain, neck disability index, and range of motion of the cervical and thoracic spine were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] Group A showed significant increases in muscle strength, endurance, and cervical and thoracic range of motion, and significant decreases in the pain and neck disability index, compared with groups B and C. [Conclusion] Although deep craniocervical flexor training is effective at improving neck function, thoracic manipulation combined with deep craniocervical flexor training was a more effective intervention for pain relief and improving the range of motion, muscle function, and neck disability of patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain. PMID:26957752

  15. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON CLINICAL MEASURES OF DEEP CERVICAL FLEXOR ENDURANCE AND CERVICAL ACTIVE RANGE OF MOTION: IS HISTORY OF CONCUSSION A FACTOR?

    PubMed Central

    Ruediger, Thomas; Alsalaheen, Bara; Bean, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one million adolescent athletes participated in organized high school sanctioned football during the 2014-15 season. These athletes are at risk for sustaining concussion. Although cervical spine active range of motion (AROM) and deep neck flexor endurance may serve a preventative role in concussion, and widespread clinical use of measurements of these variables, reference values are not available for this population. Cost effective, clinically relevant methods for measuring neck endurance are also well established for adolescent athletes. Purpose The purpose of this study was to report reference values for deep cervical flexor endurance and cervical AROM in adolescent football players and examine whether differences in these measures exist in high school football players with and without a history of concussion. Methods Concussion history, cervical AROM, and deep neck flexor endurance were measured in 122 high school football players. Reference values were calculated for AROM and endurance measures; association were examined between various descriptive variables and concussion. Results No statistically significant differences were found between athletes with a history of concussion and those without. A modest inverse correlation was seen between body mass and AROM in the sagittal and transverse planes. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the participants with larger body mass had less cervical AROM in some directions. While cervical AROM and endurance measurements may not be adequate to identify adolescents with a history of previous concussions among high school football players. However, if a concussion is sustained, these measures can offer a baseline to examine whether cervical AROM is affected as compared to healthy adolescents. Level of Evidence 2c PMID:27104049

  17. Short Term Effects of Mobilization Techniques on Neck Pain and Deep Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance in Patients with Mechanical Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kılınç, Hasan Erkan; Harput, Gülcan; Baltacı, Gül; İnce, Deniz İnal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate short term effects of cervical and scapular mobilization techniques on neck pain and deep cervical muscles endurance in chronical mechanical neck pain patients. Methods: 22 chronical mechanic neck pain patients four male 18 female (mean age: mean±sd 35.59± 15.85) were included. Before treatment, neck pain level (visual analog scale) and deep neck flexor muscles endurance (in supine position with digital chronometer) of all patients were evaluated. Cyriax cervical mobilization for 10 minutes and scapular mobilization for 10 repetition 10 sets were performed to patients as treatment protocol. After treatment, 24 hours after and a week after evaluations of neck pain and deep cervical muscles endurance were repeated. Results: Before treatment Neck pain Visual Analog Scale scores was 5.78±1.43 point, 2.80±1.99 point after treatment, 24 hours later 3.36±2.12 point, one week later 3.91±2.24 point. This alteration was found significant statistically (p<0.01). Before treatment deep cervical flexor muscle endurance score was 27.25±17.74 sec, after treatment 39.46±25.20 sec, 24 hours later 38.67±28.43 and one week later 40.11±27.82 sec. This alteration was also found significant statistically (p=0.01). Conclusion: Initially neck pain scores in our subjects decreased quickly, after 24 hours these scores increased but last scores were below first neck pain level in a week follow-up. Deep neck cervical flexor muscles test scores also increased quickly, after 24 hours later this scores were stable along a week. Mobilization techniques are effective methods on neck pain and endurance in chronical mechanic neck pain patients.

  18. Dietary protein intake is associated with maximal and explosive strength of the leg flexors in young and older aged blue collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brennan J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Sobolewski, Eric J.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary PRO intake and maximal and rapid strength of the leg flexors in blue collar (BC) working men. Twenty-four young (age=23.2±2.1 yrs), and nineteen older aged (age=52.8±5.2 yrs) men employed in BC occupations completed a three day dietary record and isometric strength testing of the leg flexors. Food logs were analyzed for total protein (TPRO) and essential amino acid (EAA) intake. Rapid and maximal strength capacities were examined from the rate of torque development at 50ms (RTD50) and peak torque (PT) of the torque-time curves, respectively. Pearson correlations and partial correlations were used to examine the relationships between TPRO and EAA intake on strength variables. PT was positively correlated to TPRO and EAA intake in the young (r=0.439 and 0.431;P<0.05) and older aged (r=0.636 and 0.605; P<0.01) men and RTD50 was correlated to TPRO and EAA intake in the young (r=0.512 and 0.310; P=0.01) and older aged (r=0.662 and 0.665; P<0.01) men, respectively. There were no relationships (P>0.05) between TPRO and strength variables when controlling for EAA intake. TPRO intake explained 20–44% of the variance in rapid and maximal strength for both age groups. EAA intake was largely responsible for the positive relationship between PRO intake and strength. Across young and older aged blue collar working male populations, protein consumption was associated with both maximal and explosive strength capacities of the leg flexors muscle group. PMID:25753919

  19. Are Repeated Single-Limb Heel Raises and Manual Muscle Testing Associated With Peak Plantar-Flexor Force in People With Inclusion Body Myositis?

    PubMed Central

    Shrader, Joseph A.; Davenport, Todd E.; Joe, Galen; Rakocevic, Goran; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeated heel raises have been proposed as a method of ankle plantar-flexor strength testing that circumvents the limitations of manual muscle testing (MMT). Objective The study objective was to examine the relationships among ankle plantar-flexion isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), repeated single-limb heel raises (SLHRs), and MMT in people with myositis. Design This was a cross-sectional study with a between-group design. The ability to complete 1 SLHR determined group assignment (SLHR group, n=24; no-SLHR group, n=19). Methods Forty-three participants with myositis (13 women; median age=64.9 years) participated. Outcome measures included MVC, predicted MVC, Kendall MMT, and Daniels-Worthingham MMT. Results The Kendall MMT was unable to detect significant ankle plantar-flexor weakness established by quantitative methods and was unable to discriminate between participants who could and those who could not perform the SLHR task. Ankle plantar-flexion MVC was not associated with the number of heel-raise repetitions in the SLHR group (pseudo R2=.13). No significant relationship was observed between MVC values and MMT grades in the SLHR and no-SLHR groups. However, a moderate relationship between MVC values and MMT grades was evident in a combined-group analysis (ρ=.50–.67). Limitations The lower half of both MMT grading scales was not represented in the study despite the profound weakness of the participants. Conclusions Both Kendall MMT and Daniels-Worthingham MMT had limited utility in the assessment of ankle plantar-flexor strength. Repeated SLHRs should not be used as a proxy measure of ankle plantar-flexion MVC in people with myositis. PMID:24309617

  20. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  1. Addressing stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: biomechanically repairing the osseous structures without the need of performing the flexor digitorum longus transfer.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Thomas, Zachary M; Fahim, Ramy

    2014-07-01

    The clinical presentation of adult flatfoot can range from a flexible deformity with normal joint integrity to a rigid, arthritic flat foot. Debate still exists regarding the surgical management of stage II deformities, especially in the presence of medial column instability. This article reviews and discusses various surgical options for the correction of stage II flatfoot reconstructive procedures. The authors discuss their opinion that is not always necessary to transfer the flexor digitorum longus tendon to provide relief and stability in this patient population. The anatomy, diagnosis, and current treatments of flexible flatfoot deformity are discussed. PMID:24980929

  2. Modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon: operative technique and case study.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C M; Silhanek, A D; Connolly, F G

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an operative technique for modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The procedure uses two stacked posterolateral subtalar joint portals, rather than the customary anterolateral and posterolateral portal combination. By visualizing the os trigonum with an arthroscope positioned in a distal portal and introducing instrumentation through a proximal portal, the ossicle may be quickly exposed and excised with minimal dissection. A case study with a 22-month follow-up and a discussion of os trigonum syndrome are included to illustrate this procedure as an alternative to open excision or traditional arthroscopic excision.

  3. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature.

  4. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature. PMID:26564735

  5. Biometric study of the relationships between palmar neurovascular structures, the flexor retinaculum and the distal wrist crease

    PubMed Central

    OLAVE, E.; DEL SOL, M.; GABRIELLI, C.; MANDIOLA, E.; RODRIGUES, C. F. S.

    2001-01-01

    During surgical exposure of the carpal tunnel it is possible to injure the neurovascular structures closely related to the flexor retinaculum, such as the superficial palmar arch and the communicating branch between the ulnar and median nerves. Because of the importance of these structures and with the purpose of increasing knowledge of anatomical details concerning to their location, a biometric study was performed on the retinaculum and the communicating branch, and between the communicating branch and the distal wrist crease, as well as between the retinaculum and the superficial palmar arch. We dissected 56 hands from 28 Brazilian formalin-preserved cadavers of both sexes (24 male) at the Federal University of São Paulo–Escola Paulista de Medicina, Brazil. The communicating branch was observed in 96.4% of cases and the superficial palmar arch in 78.6%. The communicating branch was found between the common palmar digital nerve of the 4th interosseous space (from the ulnar nerve) to the homonymous nerve of the 3rd interosseous space (from the median nerve). In males, the distance between the distal wrist crease and the site where the communicating branch originates from the ulnar component had an average of 33.9±5.5 mm on the right side and 30.2±8.2 mm on the left. The distance between the distal wrist crease and the junction of the communicating branch with the common palmar digital nerve of the 3rd interosseous space was 43.6±6.9 mm on the right and 40.2±6.2 mm on the left side. Conversely, in 14.8% of cases (1 female), the communicating branch was observed to emerge from the common palmar digital nerve of the 3rd interosseous space. The distance between the retinaculum and the superficial palmar arch in the axial line of the 4th metacarpal bone was on average 7.3±4.3 mm on the right and 8.3±3.5 mm on the left side. At the same level, the distance between the retinaculum and the communicating branch was 6.2±3.7 mm on the right side and 5.1±2.8 mm on

  6. Treating trigger finger in diabetics using excision of the ulnar slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis with or without A1 pulley release.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alexander M; Culver, James E; Hunt, Thomas R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of excision of the ulnar slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, with or without A1 pulley release, for the treatment of trigger finger in diabetic patients. We performed a retrospective review with long-term follow-up examinations. Short-term data was obtained on 18 consecutive patients (37 fingers). Long-term information was collected on 14 of these patients (24 fingers) at an average of 48 months after surgery. Short-term follow-up revealed average proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) flexion of 81 degrees . One patient had slight residual triggering. At long-term follow-up, 93% of patients were completely or very satisfied with the procedure. Total active finger motion averaged 218 degrees , and PIP extension deficit averaged less than 5 degrees . Pinch strength was equal to the contralateral corresponding finger. There were no significant complications. One finger had minimal residual triggering. In conclusion, this procedure is a safe and effective treatment for the often-difficult problem of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in the diabetic patient. PMID:18780058

  7. Independent effects of weight and mass on plantar flexor activity during walking: implications for their contributions to body support and forward propulsion

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C. P.; Neptune, R. R.; Kram, R.

    2008-01-01

    The ankle plantar flexor muscles, gastrocnemius (Gas) and soleus (Sol), have been shown to play important roles in providing body support and forward propulsion during human walking. However, there has been disagreement about the relative contributions of Gas and Sol to these functional tasks. In this study, using independent manipulations of body weight and body mass, we examined the relative contribution of the individual plantar flexors to support and propulsion. We hypothesized that Gas and Sol contribute to body support, whereas Sol is the primary contributor to forward trunk propulsion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring muscle activity while experimentally manipulating body weight and mass by 1) decreasing body weight using a weight support system, 2) increasing body mass alone using a combination of equal added trunk load and weight support, and 3) increasing trunk loads (increasing body weight and mass). The rationale for this study was that muscles that provide body support would be sensitive to changes in body weight, whereas muscles that provide forward propulsion would be sensitive to changes in body mass. Gas activity increased with added loads and decreased with weight support but showed only a small increase relative to control trials when mass alone was increased. Sol activity showed a similar increase with added loads and with added mass alone and decreased in early stance with weight support. Therefore, we accepted the hypothesis that Sol and Gas contribute to body support, whereas Sol is the primary contributor to forward trunk propulsion. PMID:18556431

  8. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  9. Flexor Tendon Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  10. BIOMECHANICS AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN RABBIT FLEXOR TENDONS REPAIRED USING THREE SUTURE TECHNIQUES (FOUR AND SIX STRANDS) WITH EARLY ACTIVE MOBILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  11. The effect of core suture flexor tendon repair techniques on gliding resistance during static cycle motion and load to failure: a human cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, T.; Larson, M. C.; Zhao, C.; An, K.-N.; Amadio, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a modification of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MMGH) tendon repair and to compare it with three other suture techniques. Twenty human flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were randomly assigned to the modified Pennington (MP) suture and the MMGH suture. These were compared to the modified Kessler (MK) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) sutures, using data from a previous study. All tendons were repaired with a similar epitendinous stitch and core sutures of 4-0 FiberWire. There was no significant difference in the normalized gliding resistance within the two-strand or four-strand core repair groups. The MP suture had significantly higher 2 mm gap force and ultimate load to failure than the MK suture. The MMGH suture had significantly higher 2 mm gap force and maximum failure ultimate load than the MGH suture. All repairs failed by knot unravelling. PMID:21987278

  12. The effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections on motor unit activity of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy sound Royal Dutch sport horses.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Hardeman, Lotte C; van der Meij, Bram R; Veraa, Stefanie; Back, Willem; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2013-12-01

    Therapeutic reduction of the activity of the deep digital flexor (DDF) muscle may play a role in treatment of laminitic horses. Clostridium botulinum toxin type A induces reduced muscle activity and has a spasmolytic effect in horses. In this study, the effectiveness of 200 IU C. botulinum toxin type A on reduction of DDF muscle activity was measured in seven healthy, sound, adult Royal Dutch sport horses. C. botulinum toxin type A was injected using ultrasound and electromyographic (EMG) guidance. The effectiveness was assessed by interference pattern analysis (IPA) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) analysis. All needle EMG MUAP variables, along with IPA amplitude/turn and turns/s, were significantly reduced after C. botulinum toxin type A injections. The strongest effect occurred within the first 3 days after injection. The reduced muscle induced by C. botulinum toxin type A may have benefits in the treatment of horses with laminitis. PMID:24360760

  13. Cyclic modulation of the H-reflex in a wrist flexor during rhythmic flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral foot.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, F; Cavallari, P; Leocani, L

    1998-02-01

    In 12 subjects, each sitting on an armchair with the right forearm prone, the H-reflex elicited in the resting flexor carpi radialis muscle underwent cyclic excitability changes correlated with rhythmic flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral foot (frequency of oscillations between 1.5 and 2.5 Hz). During foot plantar flexion, the H-reflex underwent a clear-cut increase, the maximum facilitation falling, in most subjects, within the second half of that phase; then, a gradual reduction in size led the reflex amplitude back to the initial value at the end of foot dorsal extension. If present also when the wrist and the ankle are moved together, this facilitation should favour the in-phase (isodirectional) association between movements and, conversely, hinder the anti-phase coupling.

  14. Quantification of level of effort at the plantarflexors and hip extensors and flexor muscles in healthy subjects walking at different cadences.

    PubMed

    Requião, L F; Nadeau, S; Milot, M H; Gravel, D; Bourbonnais, D; Gagnon, D

    2005-08-01

    The plantarflexor, hip extensor and hip flexor muscle groups contribute by their concentric action to generate most of the energy during level gait in healthy subjects. The goal of the present study was to determine, during the main energy generation phases, the relative demand of these three groups in 14 healthy subjects walking at four cadences (self-selected, 60, 80 and 120 steps/min). The muscular utilization ratio (MUR), that compares the net joint moment obtained during gait to the maximal potential moment (MPM) at each percentage of the gait cycle, was used to estimate the mechanical relative demand. The MPM values were obtained by regression equations developed from torque data measured with a Biodex dynamometric system. The results showed that the peak MURs increased with gait cadence. The peak values were not significantly different between sides for all cadences despite mean absolute lateral differences ranging from 7% to 10%. The mean peak MURs of both sides ranged from 51.3% to 62.6%, from 20.7% to 49.9% and from 14.9% to 42.5%, for the plantarflexors, hip flexors and hip extensors, respectively. Highly significant associations were found between the MURs and net moments (numerator of the MUR ratio), with Pearson coefficients (r) superior to 0.80 for all muscles groups. The association between the MURs and the maximal potential moments (denominator of MUR ratio) was lower (0.01

  15. EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking.

    PubMed

    Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J

    2015-09-18

    Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, P<0.001). No differences were observed in the relative contribution of the force under the big toe to the entire sole between different plantarflexion torque levels (F=0.836, P=0.529). On the contrary, in the push-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL.

  16. A SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SURGICAL TENSIONING ON LATERAL PINCH FORCE FOLLOWING BRACHIORADIALIS TO FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS TRANSFER

    PubMed Central

    Mogk, Jeremy P.M.; Johanson, M. Elise; Hentz, Vincent R.; Saul, Katherine R.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical simulations of tendon transfers performed following tetraplegia suggest that surgical tensioning influences clinical outcomes. However, previous studies have focused on the biomechanical properties of only the transferred muscle. We developed simulations of the tetraplegic upper limb following transfer of the brachioradialis (BR) to the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) to examine the influence of residual upper limb strength on predictions of post-operative transferred muscle function. Our simulations included the transfer, ECRB, ECRL, the three heads of the triceps, brachialis, and both heads of the biceps. Simulations were integrated with experimental data, including EMG and joint posture data collected from five individuals with tetraplegia and BR-FPL tendon transfers during maximal lateral pinch force exertions. Given a measured co-activation pattern for the non-paralyzed muscles in the tetraplegic upper limb, we computed the highest activation for the transferred BR for which neither the elbow nor the wrist flexor moment was larger than the respective joint extensor moment. In this context, the effects of surgical tensioning were evaluated by comparing the resulting pinch force produced at different muscle strength levels, including patient-specific scaling. Our simulations suggest that extensor muscle weakness in the tetraplegic limb limits the potential to augment total pinch force through surgical tensioning. Incorporating patient-specific muscle volume, EMG activity, joint posture, and strength measurements generated simulation results that were comparable to experimental results. Our study suggests that scaling models to the population of interest facilitates accurate simulation of post-operative outcomes, and carries utility for guiding and developing rehabilitation training protocols. PMID:21092963

  17. The acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on postural sway and gastrocnemius muscle activity during single-leg balance tasks.

    PubMed

    Lima, Bráulio N; Lucareli, Paulo R G; Gomes, Willy A; Silva, Josinaldo J; Bley, Andre S; Hartigan, Erin H; Marchetti, Paulo H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on surface electromyography (sEMG) and the center of pressure (COP) during a single-leg balance task in both lower limbs. Fourteen young healthy, non-athletic individuals performed unipodal quiet standing for 30s before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch) a unilateral ankle plantar flexor static- stretching protocol [6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort (POD)]. Postural sway was described using the COP area, COP speed (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions) and COP frequency (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions). Surface EMG (EMG integral [IEMG] and Median frequency[FM]) was used to describe the muscular activity of gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion increased in the stretched limb before and after the static-stretching protocol (mean ± SD: 15.0° ± 6.0 and 21.5° ± 7.0 [p < 0.001]). COP area and IEMG increased in the stretch limb between pre-stretching and immediately post-stretching (p = 0.015 and p = 0.036, respectively). In conclusion, our static- stretching protocol effectively increased passive ankle ROM. The increased ROM appears to increase postural sway and muscle activity; however these finding were only a temporary or transient effect. Key PointsThe postural control can be affected by static- stretching protocol.The lateral gastrocnemius muscle action was increased after the static- stretching protocol.The static- stretching effects remain for less than 10 minutes.

  18. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure to microgravity: a pilot study examining the effects on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate ∼220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by ∼20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading. PMID:19286573

  19. Long-term follow-up of flexor digitorum longus transfer and calcaneal osteotomy for stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, C; Whitehouse, S L; Saxby, T S

    2015-03-01

    Flexor digitorum longus transfer and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy is a well-recognised form of treatment for stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Although excellent short- and medium-term results have been reported, the long-term outcome is unknown. We reviewed the clinical outcome of 31 patients with a symptomatic flexible flat-foot deformity who underwent this procedure between 1994 and 1996. There were 21 women and ten men with a mean age of 54.3 years (42 to 70). The mean follow-up was 15.2 years (11.4 to 16.5). All scores improved significantly (p < 0.001). The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 48.4 pre-operatively to 90.3 (54 to 100) at the final follow-up. The mean pain component improved from 12.3 to 35.2 (20 to 40). The mean function score improved from 35.2 to 45.6 (30 to 50). The mean visual analogue score for pain improved from 7.3 to 1.3 (0 to 6). The mean Short Form-36 physical component score was 40.6 (sd 8.9), and this showed a significant correlation with the mean AOFAS score (r = 0.68, p = 0.005). A total of 27 patients (87%) were pain free and functioning well at the final follow-up. We believe that flexor digitorum longus transfer and calcaneal osteotomy provides long-term pain relief and satisfactory function in the treatment of stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. PMID:25737518

  20. Clinical and biomechanical evaluation of three bioscaffold augmentation devices used for superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in donkeys (Equus asinus): An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed A.; Karrouf, Gamal I.; Zaghloul, Adel E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to carry out an in vivo and in vitro comparative evaluation of three bio-scaffold augmentation devices used for superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in donkeys. Twenty-four clinically healthy donkeys were assigned for three treatment trials (n = 8) using one of three bioscaffold materials (glycerolized bovine pericardium xenograft, tendon allograft and allograft with glycerolized by bovine pericardium). In addition, eight clinically healthy donkeys were selected to serve as control. Clinical signs of each animal were scored and the sum of all clinical indexes was calculated at each time point of the experiment. Four donkeys from each group were euthanized at 45 and 90 days postoperatively, respectively, for biomechanical and histopathological evaluation of treated superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). The failure stress in allograft shielding group significantly increased compared to the corresponding values of the other groups at 45 (62.7 ± 6.5 N mm−2) and 90 (88.8 ± 3.5 N mm−2) days postoperatively. The fetlock angle in the allograft shielding group at both 45 (112.8° ± 4.4) and 90 (123.8° ± 1.1) days postoperatively showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) relative to the values of the other groups and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared to normal angle (125° ± 0). However, the histomorphological findings revealed no remarkable changes between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the failure stress, fetlock angle and histomorphological findings may provide useful information about the healing characteristics of SDFT tenorrhaphy. The bio-scaffold augmentation devices, either xenogenic or allogenic, provide good alternative techniques accelerating SDFT healing with minimal adhesions in donkeys. PMID:25685407

  1. Evaluation of early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic proteins 12 and 2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes and bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Shannon J.; Santangelo, Kelly S.; Bertone, Alicia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate early cellular influences of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)12 and BMP2 on equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes (SDFTNs) and equine bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs). Animals 9 adult clinically normal horses. Procedures BMDMSCs and SDFTNs were cultured in monolayer, either untreated or transduced with adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein, adenovirus encoding BMP12, or adenovirus encoding BMP2. Cytomorphologic, cytochemical, immunocytochemical, and reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses were performed on days 3 and 6. Genetic profiling for effects of BMP12 was evaluated by use of an equine gene expression microarray on day 6. Results BMDMSCs and SDFTNs had high BMP12 gene expression and remained viable and healthy for at least 6 days. Type l collagen immunocytochemical staining for SDFTNs and tenocyte-like morphology for SDFTNs and BMDMSCs were greatest in BMP12 cells. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, as determined via RT-qPCR assay, and chondroitin sulfate, as determined via gene expression microarray analysis, were upregulated relative to control groups in SDFTN-BMP12 cells. The BMDMSCs and SDFTNs became mineralized with BMP2, but not BMP12. Superficial digital flexor tenocytes responded to BMP12 with upregulation of genes relevant to tendon healing and without mineralization as seen with BMP2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Targeted equine SDFTNs may respond to BMP12 with improved tenocyte morphology and without mineralization, as seen with BMP2. Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells may be able to serve as a cell delivery method for BMP12. PMID:20043789

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I improves cellular and molecular aspects of healing in a collagenase-induced model of flexor tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Linda A; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Bertram, John E A; Starrak, Greg S; Nixon, Alan J

    2002-09-01

    Flexor tendinitis is a common and debilitating injury of elite and recreational athletes. Healing may be improved through intratendinous injection of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which has been shown in vitro to stimulate mitogenesis and enhance tendon matrix production. This study investigated the effects of intratendinous injection of IGF-I on tendon healing in an equine model of flexor tendinitis. Collagenase-induced lesions were created in the tensile region of theflexor digitorum superficialis tendon of both forelimbs of eight horses. Treated tendons were injected with 2 microg rhlGF-I intralesionally every other day for 10 injections, while controls received 0.9% NaCl. Tendon fiber deposition and organization were evaluated serially using ultrasonography throughout the 8 week trial period. Following euthanasia, the tendons were harvested and DNA, hydroxyproline, and glycosaminoglycan content determined, mechanical strength and stiffness evaluated, gene expression and spatial arrangement of collagen types I and III assessed by northern blot and in situ hybridization, and tendon fiber architecture assessed by polarized light microscopy. Local soft tissue swelling was reduced in the IGF-I treated limbs. Similarly, lesion size in IGF-I treated tendons was smaller 3 and 4 weeks after initiation of treatment. Cell proliferation and collagen content of the IGF-I treated tendons were increased compared to controls. Mechanically, IGF-I treated tendons showed a trend toward increased stiffness compared to saline treated controls. Considered together with the decreased soft tissue swelling and improved sonographic healing, these data support the potential use of intralesional IGF-I for treatment of debilitating tendon injuries.

  3. Frequency of Penetration of the Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath and Distal Interphalangeal Joint Using a Direct Endoscopic Approach to the Navicular Bursa in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Study Design Cadaveric study. Sample Population Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Methods Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Results Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10–80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Conclusion Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. PMID:26971252

  4. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  5. Evidence of Motor Programming Deficits in Children Diagnosed with DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Maassen, Ben; van der Meulen, Sjoeke

    2003-01-01

    Five children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), 5 controls (ages 5-6), and 6 adults produced utterances in a normal condition and in a bite-block condition in which the mandible was in a fixed position. In children with DAS, the bite-block had large effects on coarticulatory patterns and vowel quality. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  7. A Prospective Case-Control Study of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Spastic Plantar Flexor Muscles in Very Young Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Du, Lin; Shan, Ling; Dong, Hanyu; Feng, Junyan; Kiessling, Maren C; Angstman, Nicholas B; Schmitz, Christoph; Jia, Feiyong

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on plantar flexor muscle spasticity and gross motor function in very young patients with cerebral palsy (CP).The design was case-control study (level of evidence 3).The setting was the Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurorehabilitation, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.Those with a diagnosis of CP and spastic plantar flexor muscles were recruited between April 2014 and April 2015.According to the parents' decision, patients received 1 ESWT session per week for 3 months, with 1500 radial shock waves per ESWT session and leg with positive energy flux density of 0.03 mJ/mm, combined with traditional conservative therapy (rESWT group) or traditional conservative therapy alone (control group).The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (primary outcome measure) and passive range of motion (pROM) measurements were collected at baseline (BL), 1 month (M1), and 3 months (M3) after BL. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 was collected at BL and M3.Sixty-six patients completed the final review at 3 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 60 months (mean age 27.0 ± 13.6 months; median age 22.0 months; 33.3% female). For the rESWT group (n = 34), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.6, 1.9, and 1.5 on the left side and 1.9, 1.7, and 1.2 on the right side. For the control group (n = 32), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1 on the left side and 1.8, 1.8, and 1.5 on the right side. The within-subject effects time × side and time × treatment were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Similar results were found for the improvement of mean pROM. GMFM-88 improved from BL to M3, but showed no statistically significant difference between the groups. There were no significant complications.This study demonstrates that the combination of rESWT and traditional conservative therapy is more effective than

  8. Powered ankle exoskeletons reveal the metabolic cost of plantar flexor mechanical work during walking with longer steps at constant step frequency.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    We examined the metabolic cost of plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanical work during human walking. Nine healthy subjects walked at constant step frequency on a motorized treadmill at speeds corresponding to 80% (1.00 m s(-1)), 100% (1.25 m s(-1)), 120% (1.50 m s(-1)) and 140% (1.75 m s(-1)) of their preferred step length (L(*)) at 1.25 m s(-1). In each condition subjects donned robotic ankle exoskeletons on both legs. The exoskeletons were powered by artificial pneumatic muscles and controlled using soleus electromyography (i.e. proportional myoelectric control). We measured subjects' metabolic energy expenditure and exoskeleton mechanics during both unpowered and powered walking to test the hypothesis that ankle plantarflexion requires more net metabolic power (W kg(-1)) at longer step lengths for a constant step frequency (i.e. preferred at 1.25 m s(-1)). As step length increased from 0.8 L(*) to 1.4 L(*), exoskeletons delivered approximately 25% more average positive mechanical power (P=0.01; +0.20+/-0.02 W kg(-1) to +0.25+/-0.02 W kg(-1), respectively). The exoskeletons reduced net metabolic power by more at longer step lengths (P=0.002; -0.21+/-0.06 W kg(-1) at 0.8 L(*) and -0.70+/-0.12 W kg(-1) at 1.4 L(*)). For every 1 J of exoskeleton positive mechanical work subjects saved 0.72 J of metabolic energy ('apparent efficiency'=1.39) at 0.8 L(*) and 2.6 J of metabolic energy ('apparent efficiency'=0.38) at 1.4 L(*). Declining ankle muscle-tendon ;apparent efficiency' suggests an increase in ankle plantar flexor muscle work relative to Achilles' tendon elastic energy recoil during walking with longer steps. However, previously stored elastic energy in Achilles' tendon still probably contributes up to 34% of ankle muscle-tendon positive work even at the longest step lengths we tested. Across the range of step lengths we studied, the human ankle muscle-tendon system performed 34-40% of the total lower-limb positive mechanical work but accounted for only 7-26% of

  9. A Prospective Case-Control Study of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Spastic Plantar Flexor Muscles in Very Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Du, Lin; Shan, Ling; Dong, Hanyu; Feng, Junyan; Kiessling, Maren C.; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Schmitz, Christoph; Jia, Feiyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on plantar flexor muscle spasticity and gross motor function in very young patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was case-control study (level of evidence 3). The setting was the Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurorehabilitation, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China. Those with a diagnosis of CP and spastic plantar flexor muscles were recruited between April 2014 and April 2015. According to the parents’ decision, patients received 1 ESWT session per week for 3 months, with 1500 radial shock waves per ESWT session and leg with positive energy flux density of 0.03 mJ/mm2, combined with traditional conservative therapy (rESWT group) or traditional conservative therapy alone (control group). The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (primary outcome measure) and passive range of motion (pROM) measurements were collected at baseline (BL), 1 month (M1), and 3 months (M3) after BL. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88 was collected at BL and M3. Sixty-six patients completed the final review at 3 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 60 months (mean age 27.0 ± 13.6 months; median age 22.0 months; 33.3% female). For the rESWT group (n = 34), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.6, 1.9, and 1.5 on the left side and 1.9, 1.7, and 1.2 on the right side. For the control group (n = 32), mean MAS grades at BL, M1, and M3 were 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1 on the left side and 1.8, 1.8, and 1.5 on the right side. The within-subject effects time × side and time × treatment were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Similar results were found for the improvement of mean pROM. GMFM-88 improved from BL to M3, but showed no statistically significant difference between the groups. There were no significant complications. This study demonstrates that the combination of rESWT and traditional conservative therapy is more

  10. Twenty‐eight‐joint counts invalidate the DAS28 remission definition owing to the omission of the lower extremity joints: a comparison with the original DAS remission

    PubMed Central

    Landewé, R; van der Heijde, D; van der Linden, S; Boers, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare 28 joint disease activity score (DAS28) remission with comprehensive joint count DAS remission in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 620 actually measured paired observations of DAS28 and DAS were analysed in 155 patients. Discordant observations (either DAS or DAS28 below remission cut off level: 1.6 for DAS and 2.6 for DAS28) and concordant observations (both DAS and DAS28 below their remission cut off level) were analysed separately. Results 91 of 620 paired DAS observations (15%) were discordant; 87 (in 53 patients) comprised observations in which the DAS28 remission criterion, but not the DAS remission criterion, was met. The reverse was found in only four observations, which were therefore omitted. With the original DAS as standard, DAS28 sensitivity was 95% and specificity 84%. Probability plots showed a swollen joint count >0 in 75% of discordant pairs v 48% of concordant pairs. The same was found for total joint count (TJC >0 in 90% v 40%; median TJC, 0 v 6) and patient global assessment, but not for ESR. Individual joint analysis showed that 51% of discordant v 18% of concordant observations (p<0.0005) had involvement of lower extremity joints that are not included in the DAS28. Conclusions DAS remission is more conservative than DAS28 remission. Activity (tenderness and swelling) in joints not included in the reduced joint counts (ankles, feet) mainly account for the discrepancy between the two assessments. DAS28 remission at a cut off level of 2.6 has insufficient construct validity and should be used with caution in clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:16219709

  11. Surgical reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: prospective comparison of flexor digitorum longus substitution combined with lateral column lengthening or medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Marks, Richard M; Long, Jason T; Ness, Mary Ellen; Khazzam, Michael; Harris, Gerald F

    2009-01-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) may require surgical intervention when nonoperative measures fail. Different methods of bony reconstruction may supplement tendon substitution. This study compares two types of bony procedures used to reinforce reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon-the lateral column lengthening (LCL), and the medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO). Twenty patients with PTTD were evaluated before and after scheduled reconstruction comprised of either flexor digitorum longus (FDL) substitution combined with MDCO (MDCO group, 14 patients) or FDL substitution with LCL fusion or osteotomy (LCL group, 6 patients). Foot/ankle kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters were analyzed using the Milwaukee Foot Model, and results were compared to a previously evaluated normal population of 25 patients. Post-operatively, both patient groups demonstrated significantly improved stride length, cadence and walking speed, as well as improved hindfoot and forefoot position in the sagittal plane. The LCL group also demonstrated greater heel inversion. All post-operative subjects revealed significant improvement in the talo-MT1 angle in the A/P and lateral planes, calcaneal pitch and medial cuneiform-MT5 height. Surgical reconstruction of PTTD with either the LCL or MDCO shows comparable improvements in gait parameters, with better heel inversion seen with the LCL, but improved 1st ray plantarflexion and varus with the MDCO. Both procedures demonstrated comparable improvements in radiographic measurements. PMID:18603429

  12. Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Autologous Cultured Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Mononucleated Cells in Collagenase-Induced Tendinitis of Equine Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Crovace, Antonio; Lacitignola, Luca; Rossi, Giacomo; Francioso, Edda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment with cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs), bone marrow Mononucleated Cells (BMMNCs), and placebo to repair collagenase-induced tendinitis in horses. In six adult Standardbred horses, 4000 IU of collagenase were injected in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Three weeks after collagenase treatment, an average of either 5.5 × 106 cBMSCs or 1.2 × 108 BMMNCs, fibrin glue, and saline solution was injected intralesionally in random order. In cBMSC- and BMMNCS-treated tendons, a high expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and type I collagen, but low levels of type III collagen were revealed by immunohistochemistry, with a normal longitudinally oriented fiber pattern. Placebo-treated tendons expressed very low quantities of COMP and type I collagen but large numbers of randomly oriented type III collagen fibers. Both cBMSC and BMMNCS grafts resulted in a qualitatively similar heling improvement of tendon extracellular matrix, in terms of the type I/III collagen ratio, fiber orientation, and COMP expression. PMID:20445779

  13. Preparation and characterization of antiadhesion barrier film from hyaluronic acid-grafted electrospun poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous membranes for prevention of flexor tendon postoperative peritendinous adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Hao; Shalumon, K T; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Peritendinous adhesion is one of the common complications encountered after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, and it can be minimized by introducing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. An electrospun hyaluronic acid-grafted poly(caprolactone) (PCL-g-HA) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) is proposed as an alternative to current antiadhesion barrier films. HA is covalently grafted to surface-aminolyzed PCL nanofibers, using carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Pristine PCL and PCL-g-HA NFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. In vitro cell culture with fibroblasts showed that PCL-g-HA NFMs reduced cellular adhesion on the membrane surface while maintaining cell proliferation. Animal experiments using a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model confirmed the efficacy of PCL-g-HA in reducing peritendinous adhesion, based on gross observation, histology, joint flexion-angle measurements, gliding tests, and biomechanical evaluation. PMID:25187711

  14. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. PMID:25760389

  15. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance.

    PubMed

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-12-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers. PMID:27284509

  16. The effects of plantar flexor static stretching and dynamic stretching using an aero-step on foot pressure during gait in healthy adults: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Je-myung; Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Hwan-hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine whether plantar flexor static stretching and dynamic stretching using an Aero-Step results in changes in foot pressure during gait in healthy adults. [Subjects] Eighteen normal adults were randomly allocated to either a dynamic stretching using an Aero-Step group (DSUAS) group (n = 8) or a static stretching (SS) group (n = 10). [Methods] The DSUAS and SS participants took part in an exercise program for 15 minutes. Outcome measures were foot plantar pressure, which was measured during the subject’s gait stance phase; the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet; and the visual analogue scale (VAS) measured during the interventions. [Results] There were significant differences in the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet and VAS between the two groups after intervention. However, there were no significant differences in foot plantar pressure during the gait stance phase within both groups. [Conclusion] DSUSAS is an effective stretching method, as pain during it is lower than that with SS, which can minimize the asymmetric ratio of foot pressure for both feet during gait due to asymmetric postural alignment. PMID:26311944

  17. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-03-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  18. Arthroscopic Release of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Sheath in Female Ballet Dancers: Dynamic Pathology, Surgical Technique, and Return to Dancing Performance.

    PubMed

    Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-12-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers.

  19. The effect of feedback respiratory exercise on muscle activity, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index of the neck flexors of patients with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalenus anterior muscle, which are agonists of neck and breathing accessory muscles, by implementing breathing exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen subjects were selected for the experimental group, which performed feedback respiratory exercises with McKenzie exercises, and 12 subjects were selected for the control group, which performed McKenzie exercises alone. The intervention program was performed for 30 minutes a session, once a day, four times a week, and for 2 weeks before conducting the experiment. Before intervention, muscle activity was measured using surface electromyogram, and the neck disability index was evaluated. [Results] There were meaningful differences in activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalenus anterior muscle, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index within both the experimental group and control group after intervention. There also were meaningful differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle and neck disability index changes between groups. [Conclusion] Neck flexors as accessory respiratory muscle can affect inefficient respiratory imbalance of forward head posture patients. Multimodal intervention method should be studied continually and not be exposed to upper chest breathing patterns by preventing such phenomenon. PMID:27799674

  20. Fractionation of 50kGy electron beam irradiation: effects on biomechanics of human flexor digitorum superficialis tendons treated with ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Yujie; Yang, Xu; Tian, Shaoqi; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Zhaoning; Hu, Baiqiang; Tian, Zhen; Sun, Kang

    2013-02-22

    The electron beam (Ebeam) irradiation has begun to be considered as an efficient alternative to gamma irradiation in the sterilization of allografts in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of human tendons after exposure to electron beam and free radical scavenger ascorbate. Forty human flexor digitorum superficialis tendons were prepared from five fresh cadavers and divided randomly into four groups: A, fresh (0kGy); B, 50kGy Ebeam irradiation; C, fractionated 50kGy Ebeam irradiation; D, fractionated 50kGy Ebeam on ascorbate-treated tendons. The fractionation of 50kGy was achieved by repeated irradiation of 2.5kGy for 20 repetitions. Biomechanical properties were analyzed during load-to-failure testing. The fresh tendons were found to be significant different in ultimate load, ultimate elongation relative to tendons in group B. Statistical differences were found between group B and C in ultimate load. No differences were detected between group A and C in all the parameters. Compare tendons in group C and D, significant differences were found in ultimate load and ultimate stress. It is recommended that fractionated 50kGy electron beam irradiation and free radical scavenger ascorbate should be applied in the sterilization of allografts tendons.

  1. DAS: A Data Management System for Instrument Tests and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Conforti, V.; Zoli, A.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Dadina, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Data Access System (DAS) is a and data management software system, providing a reusable solution for the storage of data acquired both from telescopes and auxiliary data sources during the instrument development phases and operations. It is part of the Customizable Instrument WorkStation system (CIWS-FW), a framework for the storage, processing and quick-look at the data acquired from scientific instruments. The DAS provides a data access layer mainly targeted to software applications: quick-look displays, pre-processing pipelines and scientific workflows. It is logically organized in three main components: an intuitive and compact Data Definition Language (DAS DDL) in XML format, aimed for user-defined data types; an Application Programming Interface (DAS API), automatically adding classes and methods supporting the DDL data types, and providing an object-oriented query language; a data management component, which maps the metadata of the DDL data types in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS), and stores the data in a shared (network) file system. With the DAS DDL, developers define the data model for a particular project, specifying for each data type the metadata attributes, the data format and layout (if applicable), and named references to related or aggregated data types. Together with the DDL user-defined data types, the DAS API acts as the only interface to store, query and retrieve the metadata and data in the DAS system, providing both an abstract interface and a data model specific one in C, C++ and Python. The mapping of metadata in the back-end database is automatic and supports several relational DBMSs, including MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  2. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  4. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  5. The effects of multiple-strand suture techniques on the tensile properties of repair of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon to bone.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Hollstien, S B; Fayazi, A H; Adler, P; Gelberman, R H; Boyer, M I

    1998-10-01

    We examined the effects of multiple-strand suture techniques on the tensile properties of flexor digitorum profundus tendon-to-bone repairs in a human cadaver finger model. Forty-four fingers were obtained from the cadavera of fifteen donors who had been an average of seventy-four years old (range, fifty-four to eighty-nine years old) at the time of death. Four or eight-strand proximal grasping sutures were secured to the distal phalanx of each finger with use of either a suture anchor or a dorsally placed button. There were four subgroups of eleven fingers each. We found that repairs performed with use of a dorsally placed button had greater yield force, ultimate force, and rigidity than those performed with use of an anchor and that repairs performed with eight strands had greater ultimate force than those performed with four strands. These differences were significant (p < 0.05). We could detect no differences among the four types of repairs with regard to the amount of relative tendon-bone elongation at twenty newtons of force. The repairs performed with eight strands and a dorsally placed button had an average yield force (and 95 per cent confidence interval) of 50.0 +/- 14.1 newtons, an average ultimate force of 68.5 +/- 14.6 newtons, an average rigidity of 744 +/- 327 newton/(millimeter/millimeter), and an average tendon-bone elongation of 3.4 +/- 0.7 millimeters at twenty newtons of force. Multiple-comparison testing showed that the eight-strand repairs performed with a dorsally placed button had greater ultimate force than the other three types of repairs as well as greater yield force and rigidity than the four and eight-strand repairs performed with a suture anchor.

  6. Lengthening osteotomy of the calcaneus and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer in flexible flatfoot deformity improves talo-1st metatarsal-Index, clinical outcome and pedographic parameter.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martinus; Zech, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Lengthening osteotomy of the calcaneus (LO) and flexor digitorum longus tendon (FDL) transfer to the navicular is one option for the treatment of flexible flatfoot deformity (FD). The aim of the study was to analyse the amount of correction and clinical outcome including pedographic assessment. In a prospective consecutive non-controlled clinical followup study, all patients with FD that were treated with LO and FDL from September 1st 2006 to August 31st, 2009 were included. Assessment was performed before surgery and at 2-year-followup including clinical examination (with staging of posterior tibialis insufficiency) weight bearing radiographs (Talo-1st metatarsal angles (TMT)), pedography (increased midfoot contact area and force) and Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA). 112 feet in 102 patients were analysed (age, 57.6 (13-82), 42% male). In 12 feet (9%) wound healing delay without further surgical measures was registered. All patients achieved full weight bearing during the 7th postoperative week. Until followup, revision surgery was done in 3 patients (fusion calcaneocuboid joint (n=2), correction triple arthrodesis (n=1)). 101 feet (90%) completed 2-year-followup. TMT dorsoplantar/lateral/Index and VAS FA scores were increased, and posterior tibialis insufficiency stage, pedographic midfoot contact area and force percentage were decreased (each p<.05). All relevant parameters (stage of posterior tibialis insufficiency, TMT angles and Index, pedographic midfoot contact area and force percentage, VAS FA) were improved 2 years after LO and FDL transfer to the navicular in FD. The complication rate was low. This method allows safe and predictable correction.

  7. Electromyographic Activity of the Cervical Flexor Muscles in Patients With Temporomandibular Disorders While Performing the Craniocervical Flexion Test: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Rony; Fuentes, Jorge; da Costa, Bruno R.; Gadotti, Inae C.; Warren, Sharon; Major, Paul W.; Thie, Norman M.R.; Magee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Most patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been shown to have cervical spine dysfunction. However, this cervical dysfunction has been evaluated only qualitatively through a general clinical examination of the cervical spine. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with TMD had increased activity of the superficial cervical muscles when performing the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT) compared with a control group of individuals who were healthy. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods One hundred fifty individuals participated in this study: 47 were healthy, 54 had myogenous TMD, and 49 had mixed TMD. All participants performed the CCFT. Data for electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and anterior scalene (AS) muscles were collected during the CCFT for all participants. A 3-way mixed-design analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to evaluate the differences in EMG activity for selected muscles while performing the CCFT under 5 incremental levels. Effect size values were calculated to evaluate the clinical relevance of the results. Results Although there were no statistically significant differences in electromyographic activity in the SCM or AS muscles during the CCFT in patients with mixed and myogenous TMD compared with the control group, those with TMD tended to have increased activity of the superficial cervical muscles. Limitations The results obtained in this research are applicable for the group of individuals who participated in this study under the protocols used. They could potentially be applied to people with TMD having characteristics similar to those of the participants of this study. Conclusion This information may give clinicians insight into the importance of evaluation and possible treatment of the deep neck flexors in patients with TMD. However, future research should test the effectiveness of this type of program through a randomized controlled

  8. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    PubMed

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR. PMID:26173440

  9. An ultrastructural and histochemical study of the flexor tibialis muscle fiber types in male and female stick insects (Eurycantha calcarata, L).

    PubMed

    Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2015-10-01

    In this study the ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the flexor tibialis muscle fibers of the specialized metathoracic legs in the male and those of homologous and unspecialized ones in the female stick insects, Eurycantha calcarata, L, were examined. For the ultrastructural analysis, the muscle was divided longitudinally and vertically to produce a total of 12 sample parts e.g., anterior-dorsal-distal (ADD), posterior-ventral-medial (PVM) and so on. Light and electron microscopes were used to observe the muscle tissue. The methods for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide- tetrazolium (NADH-TR) staining were modified from the methods of (Stokes et al., '79; Anttila et al., 2009; Anttila and Manttari, 2009). Sections with thickness of 22 μm, were cut from the anterior and the posterior surfaces of the muscle, using a cryostat. The histochemical and ultrastructural results showed that the muscles of both the male and the female were mixtures of physiological fiber types, with predominantly fast fibers. The muscles were composed of fibers with different staining properties for both mATPase and NADH-TR activities. The population of fibers within the muscles was heterogeneous. The differences between the population of the male and that of the female were significant. The means of most criteria e.g., mitochondrial amount and sarcoplasmic reticulum area predicted that the muscle of the male contained more fast fibers than the female. The histochemical examination also showed that the muscle of the male contained more fibers stained darkly for mATPase and lightly for NADH-TR.

  10. A biomechanical characterisation of acellular porcine super flexor tendons for use in anterior cruciate ligament replacement: investigation into the effects of fat reduction and bioburden reduction bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Anthony; Jones, Gemma L; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2015-01-01

    The decellularisation of xenogenic and allogeneic biological grafts offers a promising solution to replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the biomechanical effects of additional fat reduction and bioburden reduction steps in the decellularisation of porcine super flexor tendon (pSFT). Study 1 investigated the use of acetone or chloroform-methanol as a fat reduction agent. The most effective of these was then carried forward into Study 2, which investigated the use of antibiotics or peracetic acid (PAA) as a bioburden reduction agent. Stress relaxation data was analysed using a Maxwell-Wiechert viscoelastic model and, in addition to classical material properties, the tangent modulus of the toe-region was determined from strength testing data. In both studies, the majority of decellularised groups demonstrated no statistical differences for material properties such as tensile strength and Young's modulus compared to native controls. Different trends were observed for many of the viscoelastic parameters, but also for the tangent modulus in the toe-region indicating a change in performance at low strains. The most severe deviations from the profile of the native tangent modulus were found to occur in Study 2 when PAA was used for bioburden reduction. Classic material properties (E, UTS etc.) are often used to compare the characteristics of native and decellularised tissues, however they may not highlight changes occurring in the tissues at low strains. In this study, this represented the physiological strains encountered by substitute acellular ACL grafts. Acetone was chosen as the fat reduction step whereas, antibiotics was preferable over PAA as a bioburden reduction step. PMID:25443884

  11. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  12. Functional pools of fast and slow twitch fibers observed by /sup 31/P-NMR during exercise of flexor wrist muscles in man

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Park, C.R.; Brown, R.L.; Chance, B.

    1987-05-01

    Functional compartments of fast and slow twitch fibers have been observed by /sup 31/P-NMR spectroscopy during exercise of the wrist flexor muscles in a sedentary, young male subject. Values of Pi, phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenine nucleotides were determined at rest and during an exercise protocol. The subject flexed his wrist muscles at 20% of maximum strength every 5 sec for 6 min and then increased his effort in the next two 6 min intervals to 40% and 60% of maximum. With exercise, the Pi/PCr rose rapidly to the exceptionally high value of 2.2 at 60% effort. As the Pi increased, the initial single peak (pH 7.0-6.9) split into two distinct components with pH values of 6.8 and 6.3. Quantitatively, distribution of the Pi was 40% in the pH 6.8 peak and 60% in the pH 6.3 peak as determined by area estimation following curve fitting. This presumably reflects two pools of Pi corresponding to the oxidative (slow twitch, high pH) and glycolytic (fast twitch, low pH) fibers. In the second identical exercise sequence which followed immediately, only one Pi peak (pH 6.8-6.9) appeared. This suggested that the glycolytic contribution to energy production was largely exhausted and the residual energy was derived from oxidative metabolism. During exercise at high levels, total phosphate decreased due primarily to loss of NMR visible adenine nucleotides. Similar phenomena have been observed in three other sedentary individuals, but not in trained athletes.

  13. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  14. A study of the distribution of color Doppler flows in the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds during their training periods

    PubMed Central

    HATAZOE, Takashi; ENDO, Yoshiro; IWAMOTO, Yohei; KOROSUE, Kenji; KURODA, Taisuke; INOUE, Saemi; MURATA, Daiki; HOBO, Seiji; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of exercise and tendon injury with Doppler flows appearing in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of young Thoroughbreds during training periods. The forelimb SDFTs of 24 one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds clinically free of any orthopaedic disorders were evaluated using grey-scale (GS) and color Doppler (CD) images during two training periods between December 2013 to April 2015. Twelve horses per year were examined in December, February, and April in training periods that began in September and ended in April. The SDFT was evaluated in 3 longitudinal images of equal lengths (labelled 1, 2, 3 in order from proximal to distal), and 6 transversal images separated by equal lengths (labelled 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in order from proximal to distal) of the metacarpus using both GS and CD. The running (canter and gallop) distance for 1 month before the date of the ultrasonographic examinations was increased in December, February, and April in both of the two training periods. CD flows defined as rhythmically blinking or pulsatory colored signals were found in 56 of 864 (6.4%) transversal CD images, in 28, 12, 13, and 3 images of 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B, respectively, and in 7, 14, and 35 images captured in December, February, and April, respectively. There were no longitudinal or transversal GS images indicating injury in the SDFTs in either of the two training periods. The increase of CD flows in the proximal regions of the SDFT are possibly related to the increase of the running distance during the training periods of the one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds. Because no injury was diagnosed in the SDFTs by GS images during the training periods, the increase of CD flows in the proximal parts of SDFT is not necessarily predictive of tendon injury in the near future during the training period of young Thoroughbreds. PMID:26858574

  15. On the Law of Inertia. Translation of: Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    This article is a translation of Ludwig Lange: "Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz" in: Berichte ueber Verhandlungen der Koenigl. Saechsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, math.-physik. Klasse (Leipzig, 1885), SS. 333-351. Translated by Herbert Pfister, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; herbert.pfister@uni-tuebingen.de. Kind assistance by Julian Barbour is acknowledged.

  16. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  17. Discrepancies in assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome by DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP

    PubMed Central

    Olesińska, Marzena; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Mańczak, Małgorzata; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Wojdasiewicz, Piotr; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a difference exists between DAS28 from CRP and DAS28 from ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). Material and methods One group comprised patients with RA and sSS, the control group comprised patients with RA. The inclusion criteria for the RA and sSS group have been specified as follows: presence of at least one symptom of dryness, and also presence of anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B or at least focus score of one in biopsy. Results The disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was assessed using both ESR and CRP in 60 patients with RA and sSS and 59 patients with RA alone. However, concordance between these two methods was good (Cohen's κ coefficient κ = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.75 in the first group and κ = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.86 in the control group). In the group with RA and sSS, the mean value of DAS28-ESR = 5.2, whereas the mean value of DAS28-CRP = 4.7 (p < 0.0001). In the group with RA alone, mean DAS28-ESR = 4.7 while mean DAS28-CRP = 4.6; no significant difference was identified. Moreover, in RA patients with sSS, mean ESR = 39 mm/h compared with mean CRP at 25 mg/l. 79% of all patients demonstrated dysproteinaemia. There were connections between higher ESR and dysproteinaemia. In the control group there was no statistically significant difference between CRP and ESR. Conclusions Both DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP are useful outcome measures in RA. However, in patients with RA and sSS, DAS28 should be evaluated based on CRP. PMID:27536205

  18. Gliding Resistance and Strength of a Braided Polyester/Monofilament Polyethylene Composite (FiberWire®) Suture in Human Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Repair: An In-Vitro Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jose M.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Zobitz, Mark E.; Amadio, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose While the strength of a tendon repair is clearly important, the friction of the repair is also a relevant consideration. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frictional coefficient, gliding resistance and breaking strength of suture materials and a suture construct commonly used for flexor tendon repair. Methods We measured the friction coefficients of 3-0 braided nylon enclosed in a smooth nylon outer shell (Supramid, S. Jackson, Alexandria, VA), 3-0 braided polyester coated with polybutilate (Ethibond, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and a 3-0 braided polyester/monofilament polyethylene composite (FiberWire, Arthrex, Naples, FL) sutures. We also measured the gliding resistance, linear breaking strength and resistance to gapping of zone 2 modified Pennington tendon repairs with the two lowest friction sutures in 20 human cadaveric flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons. Results The braided polyester/monofilament polyethylene composite had a significantly lower friction coefficient (0.054) than either the coated polyester (0.076) or nylon (0.130) sutures (p<0.001). The gliding resistances of the repaired tendons with braided/monofilament polyethylene composite suture and coated, braided polyester were similar (p> 0.05). The strength of the two repairs, force to produce a 2mm gap, and resistance to gap formation than coated, braided polyester repairs were also not significantly different. Conclusion Braided polyester composite is a low friction suture material. However, when this suture was used for tendon repair with a locking suture technique, it did not show a significant effect on the gliding resistance and repair strength compared with the same repair using coated polyester suture. PMID:19121735

  19. Next-Generation DAS for the Russian VLBI-Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosov, E.

    2011-07-01

    The digital DAS R1002M was developed by Institute of Applied Astronomy. The system consists of 16 Base Band Converters (BBC) with digital signals processing on video frequencies and provides the total data recording rate up to 2048 Mbps. The data format is VSI-H. Input frequency range is 100-1000 MHz. Selectable bandwidths of BBC's are from 0.5 to 32 MHz. The sample rate of ADC is 64 Msps. R1002M system is compatible to analog systems and is intended for their replacement. Two R1002M systems have been installed in Svetloe and Zelenchukskaya observatories. The results of Svetloe-Zelenchukskaya observation with use of R1002M are considered. In 2011 the same system will be established in Badary.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  1. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  2. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  3. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners... General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following coordinates in...

  4. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  5. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VMS and DAS requirements for vessel... UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.10 VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators. (a) VMS Demarcation Line. The VMS Demarcation Line is defined by straight lines connecting the following...

  6. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  7. ESCAPS study protocol: a feasibility randomised controlled trial of ‘Early electrical stimulation to the wrist extensors and wrist flexors to prevent the post-stroke complications of pain and contractures in the paretic arm’

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sprigg, Nikola; James, Marilyn; Walker, Marion F; Allatt, Kate; Mehta, Rajnikant; Pandyan, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of patients with stroke experience impaired arm function, which is persistent and disabling for an estimated 40%. Loss of function reduces independence in daily activities and impacts on quality of life. Muscles in those who do not recover functional movement in the stroke affected arm are at risk of atrophy and contractures, which can be established as early as 6 weeks following stroke. Pain is also common. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of delivering early intensive electrical stimulation (ES) to prevent post-stroke complications in the paretic upper limb. Methods and analysis This is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (n=40) with embedded qualitative studies (patient/carer interviews and therapist focus groups) and feasibility economic evaluation. Patients will be recruited from the Stroke Unit at the Nottingham University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Trust within 72 h after stroke. Participants will be randomised to receive usual care or usual care and early ES to the wrist flexors and extensors for 30 min twice a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. The initial treatment(s) will be delivered by an occupational therapist or physiotherapist who will then train the patient and/or their nominated carer to self-manage subsequent treatments. Ethics and dissemination This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, East Midlands Nottingham1 Research Ethics Committee (ref: 15/EM/0006). To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind of the early application (within 72 h post-stroke) of ES to both the wrist extensors and wrist flexors of stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. The results will inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial. Dissemination will include 2 peer-reviewed journal publications and presentations at national conferences. Trial

  8. Crosslinking effect of dialdehyde starch (DAS) on decellularized porcine aortas for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan; Li, Li; Yang, Xu; Yu, Xixun

    2015-08-01

    Biological tissue-derived biomaterials must be chemically modified to avoid immediate degradation and immune response before being implanted in human body to replace malfunctioning organs. DAS with active aldehyde groups was employed to replace glutaraldehyde (GA), a most common synthetic crosslinking reagent in clinical practice, to fix bioprostheses for lower cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to evaluate fixation effect of DAS. The tensile strength, crosslinking stability, cytotoxicity especially the anti-calcification capability of DAS-fixed tissues were investigated. The tensile strength and resistance to enzymatic degradation of samples were increased after DAS fixation, the values maintained stably in D-Hanks solution for several days. Meanwhile, ultrastructure of samples preserved well and the anti-calcification capability of samples were improved, the amount of positive staining points in the whole visual field of 15% DAS-fixed samples was only 0.576 times to GA-fixed ones. Moreover, both unreacted DAS and its hydrolytic products were nontoxic in cytotoxicity study. The results demonstrated DAS might be an effective crosslinking reagent to fix biological tissue-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering. PMID:26038106

  9. Effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections into the deep digital flexor muscle on the range of motion of the metacarpus and carpus, and the force distribution underneath the hooves, of sound horses at the walk.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, Lotte C; van der Meij, Bram R; Oosterlinck, Maarten; Veraa, Stefanie; van der Kolk, Johannes H; Wijnberg, Inge D; Back, Willem

    2013-12-01

    In the treatment of laminitis, reducing deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) activity might diminish its pull on the distal phalanx, thereby preventing displacement and providing pain relief. Injection of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A into the DDFM of horses is potentially therapeutic. However, the effects of C. botulinum toxin type A on the gait characteristics of sound horses at the walk are not known. The aim of this study was to test if a reduced DDFM activity would lead to (1) alterations of the sagittal range of motion of the metacarpus (SROM) and range of motion of the carpal joint (CROM); (2) changes in the force distribution underneath the hoof (toe vs. heel region: balance index); and (3) changes in the force distribution between the treated and untreated limb (symmetry index). The DDFMs of the left forelimbs of seven sound Royal Dutch Sport Horses were injected with 200 IU C. botulinum toxin type A using electromyography and ultrasound guidance. Measurements using an inertial sensor system and dynamically calibrated pressure plate were performed before and after injections. The SROM and CROM of the treated limb were significantly increased after C. botulinum toxin type A injections. No significant changes were detected in the balance index or in the symmetry index, indicating that no lameness was induced. C. botulinum toxin type A injections into the DDFM of sound horses do not appear to result in substantial gait alterations at the walk. PMID:24360731

  10. Compositional safety of herbicide-tolerant DAS-81910-7 cotton.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Fast, Brandon J; Johnson, Tempest Y; Sabbatini, Jane; Rudgers, Gary W

    2013-11-27

    DAS-81910-7 cotton is a transgenic event that was transformed to contain the aad-12 and pat genes. These genes code for the AAD-12 and PAT proteins, which confer tolerance to the herbicides 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Crop composition studies were conducted with DAS-81910-7 cotton (both nonsprayed and sprayed with 2,4-D and glufosinate) to comply with requirements of regulatory authorities responsible for evaluating crop safety. Results indicate compositional equivalence between DAS-81910-7 cottonseed and nontransgenic cottonseed and between sprayed and nonsprayed DAS-81910-7 cottonseed. This study builds on the results from many prior studies which support the conclusion that transgenesis is less likely to unexpectedly alter the composition of crops as compared with traditional breeding.

  11. Highlighting young investigators: guest editor Ramanuj DasGupta. Ram DasGupta: pushing the boundaries of β-catenin signaling and drug development.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    From generating the TOP-GAL mouse to pioneering high-throughput RNAi, and small molecule chemical genetic screens in Drosophila and mammalian cells, Ram DasGupta has consistently developed innovative technological tools of immense value to the fields in which he has chosen to work.

  12. Transverse Carpal Ligament and Forearm Fascia Release for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Change the Entrance Angle of Flexor Tendons to the A1 Pulley: The Relationship between Carpal Tunnel Surgery and Trigger Finger Occurence

    PubMed Central

    Karalezli, Nazım; Kütahya, Harun; Güleç, Ali; Toker, Serdar; Karabörk, Hakan; Ogun, Tunc C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The appearance of trigger finger after decompression of the carpal tunnel without a preexisting symptom has been reported in a few articles. Although, the cause is not clear yet, the loss of pulley action of the transverse carpal ligament has been accused mostly. In this study, we planned a biomechanical approach to fresh cadavers. Methods. The study was performed on 10 fresh amputees of the arm. The angles were measured with (1) the transverse carpal ligament and the distal forearm fascia intact, (2) only the transverse carpal ligament incised, (3) the distal forearm fascia incised to the point 3 cm proximal from the most proximal part of the transverse carpal ligament in addition to the transverse carpal ligament. The changes between the angles produced at all three conditions were compared to each other. Results. We saw that the entrance angle increased in all of five fingers in an increasing manner from procedure 1 to 3, and it was seen that the maximal increase is detected in the middle finger from procedure 1 to procedure 2 and the minimal increase is detected in little finger. Discussion. Our results support that transverse carpal ligament and forearm fascia release may be a predisposing factor for the development of trigger finger by the effect of changing the enterance angle to the A1 pulley and consequently increase the friction in this anatomic area. Clinical Relevance. This study is a cadaveric study which is directly investigating the effect of a transverse carpal ligament release on the enterance angle of flexor tendons to A1 pulleys in the hand. PMID:23878529

  13. The WHO-DAS II: Measuring Outcomes of Hearing Aid Intervention for Adults

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Rachel; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Abrams, Harvey B.; Wilson, Richard H.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument that provides six domain scores and a total, aggregate score. Two of the domain scores, communication and participation, and the total score, have good validity, internal-consistency reliability, and test-retest stability in individuals with adult-onset hearing loss. As such, these two domain scores and the total WHO-DAS II score may be useful as generic outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of hearing aid intervention for this population. Before the use of the WHO-DAS II in hearing aid clinical trials, however, the responsiveness of the instrument and the short- and long-term outcomes to hearing aid intervention had to be determined. Responsiveness and outcomes were assessed in 380 veterans (approximately half received hearing aids and half served as controls) by examining group differences, effect-size estimates, and individual differences as a function of hearing aid intervention. For comparison, data also were obtained on two disease-specific measures, the APHAB and the HHIE. The WHO-DAS II communication domain and total scores were sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention for use in future studies in which group differences are to be detected. The WHO-DAS II participation domain was not sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention. The APHAB and HHIE, both disease-specific measures, were more sensitive to hearing aid intervention than the generic measure. The short- and long-term outcomes of hearing aid intervention were also examined in the present study. Group outcomes for hearing aid intervention can be expected to be stable for at least 6 months when measured by WHO-DAS II total score and for at least 12 months when measured by the WHO-DAS II communication domain scores. Effect-size estimates and examination of the number of individuals exhibiting change scores exceeding 90% critical differences for true changes in

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  15. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  16. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  17. Visualization of DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI: the magic carpets of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Futó, Gábor; Somogyi, Attila; Szekanecz, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    There has been continuous debate regarding the applicability of various composite measures for the assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to further dissect this issue, we numerically and graphically modeled 28-joint disease activity scale (DAS28), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) by three-dimensional (3D) plotting. We wished to graphically visualize the relative contribution of various elements in the three activity indices to each other. We calculated DAS28 (3 variables), SDAI, and CDAI by the standard equations. We plotted 3D "carpets" showing all combinations of the corresponding variables yielding to DAS28 = 5.1, DAS28 = 3.2, DAS28 = 2.6, SDAI = 26, SDAI = 11, and SDAI = 3.3. We also plotted the 3D carpet for CDAI. In patients with high or moderate disease activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP) was not a major confounding factor when calculating DAS28 and SDAI, respectively. In contrast, ESR and CRP highly overshadowed changes in joint counts and global assessments in patients with low disease activity (LDA) or those in remission. No reliable assessment of LDA can be performed in cases where ESR >54 mm/h or CRP >20 mg/dl. Similarly, remission cannot be determined if ESR >19 mm/h or CRP >5 mg/dl. As CDAI does not include acute phase reactants, CDAI may be a useful tool even in states of remission or LDA. Our results suggest that acute phase reactants are indeed major confounding factors and should be omitted when assessing RA disease activity at least in special cases. PMID:24599677

  18. Knaurs moderne Astronomie. Das Standardwerk völlig neu bearbeitet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störig, H. J.

    This elementary textbook covers the following topics: cosmic dimensions, the sun as a star, the solar system, basic knowledge about stars, binary and variable stars, the cosmic windows, birth and death of stars, the Milky Way, extragalactic systems and cosmology. Contents: 1. Weißt du, wieviel Sterne stehen... 2. Die Sonne als Durchschnittsstern. 3. Das Sonnensystem im Überblick. 4. Grundwissen über Sterne. 5. Doppelsterne und Veränderliche. 6. Fenster zum Weltall. 7. Geburt und Tod der Sterne. 8. Die Milchstraße. 9. Extragalaktische Systeme. 10. Das Weltganze in Raum und Zeit.

  19. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  20. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  1. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  2. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  3. Das Prinzip Bewegung - Herz und Gehirn als Metaphern des menschlichen Lebens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Laura

    In diesem Jahr, in dem wir Charles Darwins gedenken, möchte ich etwas riskieren und eine Frage erörtern, die für die Literatur ebenso wie für die Biologie zentral ist: Was ist das Leben? Die Antwort auf diese Frage finden wir nicht in der Bibliothek und nicht im Labor, zumindest nicht an diesen erkenntnisproduzierenden Stellen allein. Als Literaturwissenschaftlerin und ehemalige Naturwissenschaftlerin glaube ich, dass wir das Leben nur verstehen werden, wenn wir seinen Wirkungen überall nachforschen, inklusive in der Literatur.

  4. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  5. A Brief History of the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2008-01-01

    The J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre celebrated its 40th anniversary on September 1, 2007, followed by The University of Alberta's 100th anniversary in 2008. The year 2008 also brought the appointment of a new Director for the Centre. As the immediate past Director of the Centre, the author recounts some of the history of the J.P. Das…

  6. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  7. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  8. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  9. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dante Fratta

    2016-03-31

    This metadata submission includes the coordinates of the DAS and DTS surface and borehole arrays, the list of file names, and the list of recorded files during testing at the PoroTomo Natural Laboratory at Brady Hot Spring in Nevada. Testing was completed during March 2016.

  10. Ulnar Nerve Injury after Flexor Tendon Grafting.

    PubMed

    McCleave, Michael John

    2016-10-01

    A 43-year-old female is presented who underwent a two-stage tendon reconstruction and developed a low ulnar nerve palsy postoperatively. Exploration found that the tendon graft was passing through Guyon's canal and that the ulnar nerve was divided. This is a previously unreported complication. The reconstruction is discussed, the literature reviewed and a guide is given on how to identify the correct tissue plane when passing a tendon rod. PMID:27595967

  11. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. NSOPF:88/93: Public Access Data Analysis System (DAS).[CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM (for both MS-DOS and Windows) contains data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) and all other available National Center for Education Statistics data analysis systems (DAS). The DAS is a menu-driven system that allows the user to produce frequencies, cross tabulations, and correlation matrices without access…

  12. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  13. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  14. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  15. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  16. Proposal of adaptive wireless cell configuration for RoF-DAS over WDM-PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Fukada, Youichi; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Radio on fiber (RoF) - distributed antenna system (DAS) over wavelength division multiplexing - passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) has been proposed as a next generation radio access network (RAN). This system employs optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) over one WDM channel to multiplex and transmit various types of wireless interfaces such as 3.9G, Wireless LAN and WiMAX. A combination of star and bus topologies has employed to cover a wider service area. The optical transmission loss is caused notably at remote base stations (RBSs) quipped on a WDM bus link. The loss is relatively small, but at the RBS far from the center station (CS), the RBS suffers the large accumulated loss, so the reduction of cell size provides the increasing of the number of RBSs, causes the degradation of the SNR of RoF link. This paper addresses this trade-off problem, and considers the application to the actual service area by the channel capacity investigation of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON with computer simulation. Then, this paper focuses on the flexibility of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON, considers the adaptive wireless cell configuration according to population fluctuations of day and night, or densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas, respectively.

  17. Assimilation of SBUV Version 8 Radiances into the GEOS Ozone DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Martin D.; Stajner, Ivanka; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    In operational weather forecasting, the assimilation of brightness temperatures from satellite sounders, instead of assimilation of 1D-retrievals has become increasingly common practice over the last two decades. Compared to these systems, assimilation of trace gases is still at a relatively early stage of development, and efforts to directly assimilate radiances instead of retrieved products have just begun a few years ago, partially because it requires much more computation power due to the employment of a radiative transport forward model (FM). This paper will focus on a method to assimilate SBUV/2 radiances (albedos) into the Global Earth Observation System Ozone Data Assimilation Scheme (GEOS-03DAS). While SBUV-type instruments cannot compete with newer sensors in terms of spectral and horizontal resolution, they feature a continuous data record back to 1978, which makes them very valuable for trend studies. Assimilation can help spreading their ground coverage over the whole globe, as has been previously demonstrated with the GEOS-03DAS using SBUV Version 6 ozone profiles. Now, the DAS has been updated to use the newly released SBUV Version 8 data. We will compare pre]lmlnarv results of SBUV radiance assimilation with the assimilation of retrieved ozone profiles, discuss methods to deal with the increased computational load, and try to assess the error characteristics and future potential of the new approach.

  18. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  19. Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-08-01

    Event DAS-40278-9 maize grain (containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein), a non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain, or one of three commercial maize grains were included in the diets of broiler chickens for six weeks. Growth, feed conversion, and carcass measurements indicated no significant difference between the groups fed the diets containing the DAS-40278-9 maize grain and those fed diets containing the matched control grain. The absence of adverse effects in this study supports the dietary safety of the AAD-1 protein expressed in event DAS-40278-9 maize.

  20. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  1. The S2 VLBI Systems: DAS, RT/PT and Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William T.; Bujold, Marc; Cannon, Wayne H.; Carlson, Brent R.; Dewdney, Peter E.; Feil, Georg H.; Newby, Paul; Novikov, Alexander; Popelar, Josef; Wietfeldt, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The S2 VLBI system synthesizes wide IF bandwidths by rapidly switching the local oscillator (LO) frequency in a small (1-4) number of baseband converters (BBC's). Data are recorded on video cassettes using an array of 8 VHS transports. Characteristics of the S2 Data Acquisition System (DAS), the S2 Record and Playback Terminals (RT and PT) and the S2 Correlator are summarized. The bandwidth synthesis (BWS) frequency switching sequence used in a series of system validation experiments is presented.

  2. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  3. Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode: The history of an unsuccessful book.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers an introduction to Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode (1883), and recounts the history of its controversial reception by Cohen's early sympathizers, who would become the so-called 'Marburg school' of Neo-Kantianism, as well as the reactions it provoked outside this group. By dissecting the ambiguous attitudes of the best-known representatives of the school (Paul Natorp and Ernst Cassirer), as well as those of several minor figures (August Stadler, Kurd Lasswitz, Dimitry Gawronsky, etc.), this paper shows that Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode is a unicum in the history of philosophy: it represents a strange case of an unsuccessful book's enduring influence. The "puzzle of Cohen's Infinitesimalmethode," as we will call it, can be solved by looking beyond the scholarly results of the book, and instead focusing on the style of philosophy it exemplified. Moreover, the paper shows that Cohen never supported, but instead explicitly opposed, the doctrine of the centrality of the 'concept of function', with which Marburg Neo-Kantianism is usually associated. PMID:27474182

  4. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  5. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  6. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  7. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  8. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-05

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  9. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  10. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the professionalization of these teachers in the field of primary science education. With the development of this instrument, we sought to fulfill the need for a statistically and theoretically valid and reliable instrument to measure pre-service and in-service teachers' attitudes. The DAS Instrument is based on a comprehensive theoretical framework for attitude toward (teaching) science. After pilot testing, the DAS was revised and subsequently validated using a large group of respondents (pre-service and in-service primary teachers) (N = 556). The theoretical underpinning of the DAS combined with the statistical data indicate that the DAS possesses good construct validity and that it proves to be a promising instrument that can be utilized for research purposes, and also as a teacher training and coaching tool. This instrument can therefore make a valuable contribution to progress within the field of science education.

  11. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  12. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  13. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  14. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-01

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  15. Software strategies and hardware upgrades to the PPL data acquisition system (DAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.M.; Roney, P.; Gibney, T.; Funk, P.; Keller, M.; Sauthoff, N.; Davis, S.; Bates, G.; Corneliussen, M.; Fishman, H.

    1987-08-01

    This paper describes upgrades to the Data Acquisition System for the Experimental Projects Department at PPL, especially in support of the PBX-M upgrade to be completed this year. Hardware and software maintenance problems with the old configuration, consisting of a DEC KL-10 and eight PDP-11's, are described. The real-time software and hardware performance requirements and projections for CAMAC I/O and data analysis and display are presented. Described are three applications that have realtime requirements and are located on separate processors, connected to PPPL's VAX Cluster by an Ethernet link. Building upon a previous large software base, general-purpose subroutine libraries and utilities are being emphasized. The most useful of these are described. The use of software packages from DEC, third-party vendors, and the fusion community, is also described. The new approaches to software development that are being incorporated into the DAS efforts are discussed. Specific future challenges are also described.

  16. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  17. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  18. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  19. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  20. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  2. Phase Velocity and Full-Waveform Analysis of Co-located Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Channels and Geophone Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L.; Mellors, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A 762-meter Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array with a channel spacing of one meter was deployed at the Garner Valley Downhole Array in Southern California. The array was approximately rectangular with dimensions of 180 meters by 80 meters. The array also included two subdiagonals within the rectangle along which three-component geophones were co-located. Several active sources were deployed, including a 45-kN, swept-frequency, shear-mass shaker, which produced strong Rayleigh waves across the array. Both DAS and geophone traces were filtered in 2-Hz steps between 4 and 20 Hz to obtain phase velocities as a function of frequency from fitting the moveout of travel times over distances of 35 meters or longer. As an alternative to this traditional means of finding phase velocity, it is theoretically possible to find the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity at each point of co-location as the ratio of DAS and geophone responses, because DAS is sensitive to ground strain and geophones are sensitive to ground velocity, after suitable corrections for instrument response (Mikumo & Aki, 1964). The concept was tested in WPP, a seismic wave propagation program, by first validating and then using a 3D synthetic, full-waveform seismic model to simulate the effect of increased levels of noise and uncertainty as data go from ideal to more realistic. The results obtained from this study provide a better understanding of the DAS response and its potential for being combined with traditional seismometers for obtaining phase velocity at a single location. This analysis is part of the PoroTomo project (Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology, http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  3. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  4. Using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to Evaluate Ground Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.; Chalari, A.; Karaulanov, R.; Nigbor, R. L.; Lancelle, C.; Castongia, E.

    2014-12-01

    Since its introduction by Park, et al. (1999), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) has become an invaluable geophysical technique for geotechnical site investigation. The technique is primarily focused on developing 2-D and 3-D shear stiffness vs. depth images of the near surface. MASW involves measuring surfaces waves of various frequencies produced by a seismic source, such as a sledgehammer or vibroseis source, which is evaluated to determine the velocity of the shear waves propagating through the subsurface at shallow depths. Traditionally, this technique relies on a long string of geophones as receivers. However, our study utilized a Distributed Acoustic Sensor array to detect ground motion caused by passing surface waves at a spatial resolution of one meter. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the effectiveness of using a DAS array for MASW data collection instead of traditional geophones. Data were collected at the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation's Garner Valley Downhole Array site (NEES's GVDA). Various time-frequency filtering and moving window cross correlation (MWCC) techniques were examined for extracting the surface wave dispersion. The results were found to be in good agreement with those previously obtained by Stokoe et al. (2004).

  5. Das Universum der Sterne. Himmelsbeobachtungen und Streifzüge durch die moderne Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English original published in 1990 (see 52.003.046). Contents: 1. Der Halleysche Komet. 2. Alpha Centauri - Der sonnennächste Stern. 3. Sirius und sein Begleiter, ein Weißer Zwerg. 4. Polaris - Der Polarstern. 5. Wega - Ein Planetensystem im Entstehen? 6. Mira - Der erste bekannte veränderliche Stern. 7. Der Ring-Nebel - "Todeskampf" eines sonnenähnlichen Sterns. 8. Der Orion-Nebel - Die Geburt neuer Sterne. 9. Delta Cephei - Die Meßlatte des Weltalls. 10. Algol - Der Teufelsstern. 11. Nova Aquilae - Der neue Stern von 1918. 12. Der Krebs-Nebel - Die Supernova des Jahres 1054. 13. Die Hyaden und Plejaden - Sternhaufen. 14. Die Milchstraße - Unsere Galaxis. 15. Die Magellanschen Wolken - Unsere Nachbarn im Weltall. 16. Der Andromeda-Nebel - Zwilling unserer Galaxis. 17. Messier 87 - Eine Radiogalaxie. 18. 3C 273 - Rätselhafter Quasar. 19. Messier 82 - Eine "Starburst"-Galaxie. 20. Der Virgo-Haufen - Ein reicher Galaxienhaufen. 21. Das Universum.

  6. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  7. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative CTM predictions of Antarctic ozone recovery to GCM and DAS generated meteorological fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D; Bergmann, D

    2003-12-04

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using the output of a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 K and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Relative changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation due to a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is {approx}20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl{sub y} at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  8. Alice Vance ("Das Bärenweib"): a historical case of Nievergelt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urban, M; Krüger, S

    1998-03-01

    Several malformed individuals were presented at the World Exhibition in Antwerp in 1894. Among them was Mrs. Alice Vance from Mount Pleasant, Texas, with congenital limb defects, and Mr. Eugen Berry, who had asymmetrical, monstrous enlargement and macrodactyly of the feet, i.e., Proteus syndrome. After the World Exhibition Mrs. Vance presented herself to the public in Castan's Panopticon imitating a bear. She became famous under the stage name "Das Bärenweib" ("the bear-like woman") and was examined by several German clinicians, and her malformations were considered to be of high scientific interest. Mrs. Vance had mesomelic dwarfism and her mother was known to have similar malformations. Her limb deficiencies were generally considered a unique congenital condition those days, and the diagnosis of "a maternally inherited malformation of the forearms and the shanks" [Daffner 1898: Munch Med Wochenschr 25:782] was made. Virchow [1897: Verh Berl Ges Ethnol Urgeschichte 29:624], feeling attacked by a daily newspaper stating that the physicians as well as the police of Berlin had missed the diagnosis of an "English disease," eventually exercised his authority and diagnosed Alice Vance as a "phocomelic." Clearly, she was not a phocomelic according to past and current definition of this term. Thus, from a historical point of view, the story illustrates how pressure from the daily press altered the definition of an up-to-then precisely defined medical term for decades. According to the clinical data and an X-ray report available from the literature, Alice Vance had a dominantly inherited type of mesomelic dwarfism. We propose the diagnosis of Nievergelt syndrome. PMID:9511977

  9. Natural convection in a wavy open porous cavity filled with a nanofluid: Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Pop, I.; Shenoy, A.

    2016-03-01

    Natural convective heat transfer and fluid flow in an open porous cavity filled with a nanofluid is studied numerically using the Tiwari and Das nanofluid model. The transport equations for mass, momentum and energy formulated in dimensionless stream function and temperature are solved numerically using a second-order accurate finite difference method. Particular efforts are focused on the effects of the governing parameters on the heat and fluid flow. It is found that an increase in undulation number of the wavy vertical wall leads to an attenuation of convective flow and a decrease in the heat transfer rate.

  10. Efficacy of Soybean's Event DAS-81419-2 Expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ac to Manage Key Tropical Lepidopteran Pests Under Field Conditions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, L H; Castro, B A; Rossetto, J; Silva, O A B N; Moscardini, V F; Zobiole, L H S; Santos, A C; Valverde-Garcia, P; Babcock, J M; Rule, D M; Fernandes, O A

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) event DAS-81419-2 (Conkesta technology) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expresses Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins to provide protection from feeding by several lepidopteran pests. A total of 27 field experiments across nine locations were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in southern and central Brazil to characterize the efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybean infested with Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R2 and R4) crop developmental stages. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was compared to that of a non-Bt isogenic variety managed with or without applications of commercial foliar insecticides for lepidopteran control. DAS-81419-2 soybean consistently experienced defoliation levels of 0.5% or less (compared with 20.05-56.74% in the non-Bt, nonsprayed treatment) and larval survival of < 0.1% in all four species across the vegetative and reproductive plant stages evaluated. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was significantly higher than commercial foliar insecticides applied to the non-Bt variety. DAS-81419-2 soybeans containing two highly effective Bt proteins are expected to be a more robust IRM tool compared to single-trait Bt technologies. The consistent efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybeans across years, locations, and crop stages suggests that it will be a valuable product for management of hard-to-control key lepidopteran pests in South American soybean production. PMID:27401112

  11. Predictors of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good response, DAS-28 remission and sustained responses to TNF-inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study in refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Farahat, Faisal; Kewan, Hanady H; Bukhari, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey factors related to EULAR good response, the DAS-28 definition of remission, ACR 50 response, sustained response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-I) therapy in biologic naïve patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis. This was a single center observational clinical prospective 2 years' study, EULAR response criteria, DAS 28, HAQ and radiographic changes were recorded. Eighty patients included (64 females and 16 males, mean age was 48.4 + -17.9 years, mean disease duration 7.3 + -5.9 years). At 6 months 70% achieved EULAR good response, 51.8% achieved DAS-28 remission. Good response/sustained responses inversely correlated with baseline DAS-28 and radiographic erosions P <0.05. EULAR good response/remission by 6 months, sustained response at 2 years positively correlated with the decline in RF titers (r = 0.33, P < 0.05 & r = 0.30, P < 0.03 respectively), negatively correlated with the baseline HAQ. Regression analysis identified higher serum hemoglobin concentration, lower baseline HAQ scores, and the absence of radiographic erosions as significant predictors of good as well as sustained responses after adjustment for potential covariates. Methotrexate was associated with favorable responses and remission at 6 months (ORs = 1.13, 1.30 respectively). The study concluded that a lower baseline DAS-28 and HAQ scores, the lack of radiographic erosions favored EULAR good response and were significant predictors of sustained response to TNF-I.

  12. Human flexor tendon tissue engineering: revitalization of biostatic allograft scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Woon, Colin Y L; Farnebo, Simon; Schmitt, Taliah; Kraus, Armin; Megerle, Kai; Pham, Hung; Yan, Xinrui; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Chang, James

    2012-12-01

    Cadaveric tendon allografts form a readily available and underutilized source of graft material. Because of their material properties, allografts are biomechanically and biologically superior to synthetic scaffolds. However, before clinical use, allografts must undergo decellularization to reduce immunogenicity and oxidation to increase porosity, leaving a nonvital biostatic scaffold. Ex vivo seeding, or revitalization, is thought to hasten graft incorporation and stimulate intrinsic tendon healing, permitting early mobilization and return to function. In this study, we examined physical and biochemical augmentation methods, including scaffold surface scoring (physical) and rehydration of lyophilized scaffolds in serum (biochemical). Scaffolds were divided into four groups: (1) scored scaffolds, (2) lyophilized scaffolds rehydrated in fetal calf serum (FCS), (3) scaffolds both scored and rehydrated in FCS, and (4) control scaffolds. Scaffolds were reseeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Reseeding efficacy was quantified by a live cell and total cell assays and qualified histologically with hematoxylin and eosin, live/dead and SYTO green nucleic acid stains, TUNEL apoptosis stains, procollagen stains, and transmission electron microscopy. Scaffold-seeded cell viability at up to 2 weeks in vitro and up to 4 weeks in vivo was demonstrated with bioluminescent imaging of scaffolds seeded with luciferase-positive ADSCs. The effect of seeding on scaffold biomechanical properties was demonstrated with evaluation of ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and an elastic modulus (EM). We found that scaffold surface scoring led to an increase in live and total cell attachment and penetration (MTS assay, p<0.001 and DNA assay, p=0.003, respectively). Histology confirmed greater total cell number in both construct core and surface in scored compared with unscored constructs. Cells reseeded on scored constructs displayed reduced apoptosis, persistent procollagen production, and had a similar ultrastructural relationship to the surrounding matrix as native tenocytes on transmission electron microscopy. Rehydration of lyophilized scaffolds in serum did not improve reseeding. Seeded constructs demonstrated greater UTS and EM than unseeded constructs. Scaffolds seeded with ADSC-luc2-eGFP demonstrated persistent viability for at least 2 weeks in vitro. In conclusion, tendon surface scoring increases surface and core reseeding in vitro and may be incorporated as a final step in allograft processing before clinical implantation.

  13. Measurement of friction between pulley and flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    An, K N; Berglund, L; Uchiyama, S; Coert, J H

    1993-01-01

    When tendon excursion takes place through the pulley, friction and drag are encountered at the interface. Repetitive exposure to such friction and attrition of the tendon has been considered one of the important factors causing cumulative trauma and leading to disorders such as tendinitis and tenosynovitis. In this study, development of an experimental method to evaluate friction and drag between the pulley and tendon under different loading conditions and joint configurations is considered. Verification of the model under an ideal situation of sutures across a mechanical pulley was performed.

  14. Interlimb communication to the knee flexors during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Andrew J T; Geertsen, Svend S; Andersen, Jacob B; Sinkjær, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    A strong coordination between the two legs is important for maintaining a symmetric gait pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. In humans as well as animals, receptors arising from the quadriceps muscle group influence the activation of ipsilateral muscles. Moreover, strong contralateral spinal connections arising from quadriceps and hamstring afferents have been shown in animal models. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess if such connections also exist in humans and to elucidate on the possible pathways. Contralateral reflex responses were investigated in the right leg following unexpected unilateral knee joint rotations during locomotion in either the flexion or extension direction. Strong reflex responses in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) muscle with a mean onset latency of 76 ± 6 ms were evoked only from ipsilateral knee extension joint rotations in the late stance phase. To investigate the contribution of a transcortical pathway to this response, transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation were applied. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but not transcranial electrical stimulation, were facilitated when elicited at the time of the cBF response to a greater extent than the algebraic sum of the cBF reflex and motor evoked potentials elicited separately, indicating that a transcortical pathway probably contributes to this interlimb reflex. The cBF reflex response may therefore be integrated with other sensory input, allowing for responses that are more flexible. We hypothesize that the cBF reflex response may be a preparation of the contralateral leg for early load bearing, slowing the forward progression of the body to maintain dynamic equilibrium during walking. PMID:23918771

  15. Properties of Noise Cross Correlation Functions Obtained from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.; Clarke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The field test of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) conducted at Garner Valley, California on September 11-12, 2013 provided a continuous overnight record of ambient noise. The DAS array recorded ground motions every one meter of optical cable that was arranged approximately in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 160 m by 80 m. The long dimension of the array was adjacent to a state highway. Three hours of record were used to compute noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) in one-minute windows. The trace from each sensor channel was pre-processed by downsampling to 200 Hz, followed by normalization in the time-domain and bandpass filtering between 2 and 20 Hz (Bensen et al., 2007). The one-minute NCFs were then stacked using the time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking method (Schimmel & Gallart, 2007). The NCFs between channels were asymmetrical reflecting the direction of traffic noise. The group velocities were found using the frequency-time analysis method. The energy was concentrated between 5 and 15 Hz, which falls into the typical traffic noise frequency band. The resulting velocities were between 100 and 300 m/s for frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz, which are in the same range as described in the results for surface-wave dispersion obtained using an active source for the same site (Lancelle et al., 2015). The group velocity starts to decrease for frequencies greater than ~10 Hz, which was expected on the basis of a previous shear-wave velocity model (Steidl et al., 1996). Then, the phase velocity was calculated using the multichannel analysis of surface wave technique (MASW - Park et al., 1999) with 114 NCFs spaced one meter apart. The resulting dispersion curve between 5 and 15 Hz gave phase velocities that ranged from approximately 170 m/s at 15 Hz to 250 m/s at 5 Hz. These results are consistent with other results of active-source DAS and seismometer records obtained at the Garner Valley site (e.g., Stokoe et al. 2004). This analysis is

  16. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  17. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  18. Der vollständige Brief Brahes an Sørensen über das Erscheinen des Kometen von 1577

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stefan

    Es ist erstaunlich, daß sowohl Friis als auch Dreyer in ihrer Ausgabe der Briefe Tycho Brahes den Brief vom 14. November 1577 an Peter Sørensen, die erste bekannte Nachricht Brahes von seiner Entdeckung des Kometen von 1577, nur unvollständig, und zwar ohne den astronomischen Inhalt, ediert haben. Der Brief, dessen Original sehr wahrscheinlich nicht mehr existiert, wurde von dem Kieler Arzt und Medizinprofessor Johann Daniel Major (1634 - 1693) in Kopenhagen in sein Reisetagebuch kopiert. Das Original des Majorschen Reisetagebuches ist verschollen, doch es existieren zwei Abschriften davon (Kopenhagen, Königl. Bibl., Ny Kgl. Sml., 365, Fol. u. Ledreborg, 410, Fol.). Im folgenden wird nach einer kurzen Beschreibung des Stellenwerts, den der Komet von 1577 für Brahe besaß, der Brief nach diesen beiden Abschriften kritisch ediert, mit einer deutschen Übersetzung versehen und kurz kommentiert.

  19. Development of a surface-wave imaging system for geotechnical applications based on distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and ambient noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Tang, D. G.; Zhang, R.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Lindsey, N.; Bjella, K.; Pevzner, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed fiber-optic sensing methods have been used since the 1980's for continuous monitoring of near-surface soil properties, typically exploiting Raman scattering to measure temperature (DTS) or stimulated Brillouin scattering to measure strain (DSS). Recent advances in high speed measurement of Rayleigh scattering has enabled distributed recording of seismic waves over long sections of fiber; this approach, referred to as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has the potential to allow nearly continuous monitoring of near-surface mechanical properties, a crucial target for geotechnical management of infrastructure dependent on soil strength. We present initial results from our effort to build a real-time soil property monitoring system based on DAS; our approach employs seismic interferometry and dispersion analysis of ambient noise generated by infrastructure to provide a continuously updated model of shear modulus. Our preliminary results include an in-depth investigation of DAS fiber response in the context of active sources; this component of our study verifies classical models for the azimuthal response of straight fibers to propagating surface waves. We also explore the "noisescape" of linear infrastructure and show a usable seismic signal band of 8-40 hz at a series of sites, primarily consisting of Rayleigh waves. Finally, we present preliminary results from a DAS monitoring array installed at the Richmond Field Station near a heavily used road and compare interferometric processing of the acquired data to that generated by surface deployment of geophones.

  20. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  1. Development and evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for rapid detection of Tembusu virus using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  2. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Daniel K. W.; Lee, Edmond P. F.; Dyke, John M.

    2016-05-01

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (˜800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  3. Entomological fauna from Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brazil: I. Morphospecies composition.

    PubMed

    Almeida; Marchon-Silva; Ribeiro; Serpa-Filho; Almeida; Costa

    2000-05-01

    Atol das Rocas, the unique atoll in the South-western Atlantic, is located 144 nautical miles (266 Km) northeast from the city of Natal, NE Brazil and 80 nautical miles from Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, with geographic co-ordinates 3 masculine51'S and 33 masculine49"W. It's of volcanic origin and coralline formation. The reef is ellipsoid, its largest axis (E-W) is approximately 3.7 km long, and the shortest (N-S) is 2.5 km. Inside the lagoon, there are two islands: the Ilha do Farol and Ilha do Cemitério, which comprehend 7.2 Km2 of emerged area. The Atol das Rocas lodges 143,000 birds, mainly by Sula dactilatra, S. leucogaster, Anous stolidus, A. minuta and Sterna fuscata. Due to their remote location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by the human activities. Aiming to a first characterization of the entomological diversity and the general trophic niches of atoll's entomofauna, three collects were made (1994, 1995 and 1996) utilizing several methods for a wide sample. One thousand six hundred and six insect specimens were collected belonging to eight orders: 1. Coleoptera - 333 individuals of Dermestidae (Dermestes cadaverinus); Tenebrionidae (Phaleria testacea and morphospecies) and Curculionidae (one morphospecies); 2. Dermaptera - 50 individuals of Carcinophoridae (Anisolabis maritima); 3. Diptera - 281 individuals of Ephydridae (Scatella sp. and Hecamede sp.) and Hippoboscidae (one morphospecies); 4. Hymenoptera - 45 individuals of Formicidae (Brachymyrmex sp.); 5. Lepidoptera - 111 individuals of Microlepidoptera (one morphospecies); 6. Mallophaga - 18 individuals in birds (two morphospecies); 7. Orthoptera - 237 individuals of Acrididae (Schistocerca cancellata), Tridactylidae (one morphospecies) and Blattidae (three morphospecies); 8. Thysanoptera -531 individuals (one morphospecies). Also were collected 112 individuals of Arachnida. The taxa of the Order Araneae were represented by the families: 1. Miturgidae (Cheiracanthium inclusum); 2

  4. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  5. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  6. Free convection in a parallelogrammic porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model.

    PubMed

    Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Sheremet, Mikhail A; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The free convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluids in a parallelogrammic enclosure filled with porous media is numerically analyzed. The bottom and top of the enclosure are insulated while the sidewalls are subject to limited temperature difference. The Darcy flow and the Tiwari and Das' nanofluid models are considered. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations are numerically solved using a finite difference code. The results are reported for isotherms and streamlines as well as Nusselt number as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, porosity, types of the porous matrix, inclination angle, aspect ratio and different Rayleigh numbers. It is found that the presence of the nanoparticles inside the enclosure deteriorates the heat transfer rate, which is caused due to the increase of dynamic viscosity by the presence of nanoparticles. Therefore, in applications in which the nanofluids are used for their advantages, such as enhanced dielectric properties or antibacterial properties, more caution for the heat transfer design of the enclosure is necessary. PMID:25993540

  7. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  8. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  9. Latent factor structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: a confirmatory factor analysis in a Chinese setting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Das, J P

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children. Test-retest reliability was examined in a random subsample of 30 children at a five-week interval. The clinical discrimination of the D-N CAS was also examined by comparing children with and without ADHD (18 children in each group) and by comparing children with and without Chinese reading disabilities (18 children in each group). The current Chinese sample demonstrated a four-factor solution for cognitive performance among children with normal development: Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing and Successive processing (χ2(48)=91.90, p=.000; χ2/df=1.92, RMSEA=.050, GFI=.966, CFI=.954). Moreover, all subtests of the battery demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (r=.72-.90, p<.01) at a five-week interval among the subjects of the small subsample. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children on the Attention factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS, and children with Chinese reading disabilities performed significantly worse than normal children on the Simultaneous processing factor (p<.01), the Successive processing factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS. These findings suggested that the current four-factor structure of the D-N CAS was similar to the original factor structure of the test. The latent factor of the D-N CAS was fairly stable across the cultures. Moreover, the D-N CAS can distinguish between children with ADHD or Chinese reading disabilities and normally developed children. PMID:21571501

  10. Kernfusion und das Energieproblem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1982-05-01

    The present understanding of the physics and technology problems of confining a hot plasma ring by magnetic fields and of heating it to such temperatures that thermonuclear fusions between deuterium and tritium nuclei provide the energy required to maintain this temperature seems to allow to predict the possibility of a self-sustaining thermonuclear reactor. Imbedding this chance into world energy scenarios for the next fifty years, it is shown that fusion reactors of a type of which each may supply about ten slow fission reactors with fissionable material may play a critical rôle by drastically reducing the number of required fast fission breeder reactors.

  11. Das motorische Intentionspotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidel, Matthias

    1983-04-01

    Autocorrelation of the EEG was used to registrate a potential from the intact human scalp during intended, but not executed movements (dorsalflexion of the right hallux, imaginated in equal time intervals). This “Motor Intention Potential” (MIP) is a possible electrophysiological sign of the otherwise purely introspectively experienced intention of a voluntary movement and the cortex of the frontal lobes is suspected to be its origin. The average maximum amplitude height is 6 μV, and the potential shows a continuous decrease from the frontal to occipital region. The duration of MIP is in the range of seconds. Methodological questions are discussed, and the MIP is differentiated from other event-, movement- and imagination-related potentials. An attempt is made to place the motor intention potential in the context of existing movement theories.

  12. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  13. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    Since 2007 the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC research team has implemented a geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Fogo volcano by means of applying different geochemical methods in a regularly basis (diffuse degassing surveys, fumarole gas sampling, etc.). This program was improved by setting up a geochemical permanent station (CHA01) to perform continuous measurements of soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities at Chã das Caldeiras, more specific in Portela village, since April 20, 2013. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion and/or advection mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn activities were performed by an alpha-spectrometer after pumping the soil gas from a thermally isolated PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground. Even though during the study period the recorded data did not show high 222Rn activity values, a change in the temporal evolution of soil gas 222Rn activity was observed. During the first six months, from April to October, 2013, recorded time series of 222Rn and 220Rn activities showed normal background levels with values of 80.5 and 55.2 Bqm-3, respectively. However, from October, 2013, to February, 2014, 222Rn time series showed an increase trend reaching peak values of 396 Bqm-3 and having an average activity of 134 Bqm-3 until the removal of the station on November 25, 2014 due to the potential danger of being destroyed by the lava flows. The observed increase in the soil gas 222Rn activity from October 2013 to February 2014 occurs almost at the same time of slight observed changes in the vertical displacements detected by the geodetic network installed at the Fogo Island by the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC/Nagoya University research team. Since seismic data are not available, we cannot conclude if the observed changes in soil

  14. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  15. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  16. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  17. DasPy 1.0 - the Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework in combination with the Community Land Model 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, X.; He, G.; Kumbhar, P.; Montzka, C.; Kollet, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Rosolem, R.; Zhang, Y.; Vereecken, H.; Franssen, H.-J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data from multiple model state variables into a simulation model. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. We developed an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with the C++ and Fortran programming languages. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be introduced by perturbed atmospheric forcing data, and represented by perturbed soil and vegetation parameters and model initial conditions. The Community Land Model (CLM) was integrated as the model operator. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM), COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) and the Two-Source Formulation (TSF) were integrated as observation operators for the assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy has been evaluated in several assimilation studies of neutron count intensity (soil moisture), L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid Message Passing Interface and Open Multi-Processing techniques. All the input and output data flows are organized efficiently

  18. Development of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of four events of genetically modified maize: DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON863 and MON88017.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Mano, Junichi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous event-specific detection of four events of GM maize, i.e., DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON88017, and MON863. The single laboratory examination of analytical performance using simulated DNA mixtures containing GM DNA at various concentrations in non-GM DNA suggested that the limits of detection (LOD) of the multiplex PCR method were 0.16% for MON863, MIR604, and MON88017, and 0.078% for DAS-59122-7. We previously developed a nonaplex (9plex) PCR method for eight events of GM maize, i.e., Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, T25, and TC1507. Together with the nonaplex PCR method, the newly developed method enabled the detection and identification of eleven GM maize events that are frequently included in commercial GM seed used in Japan. In addition, this combinational analysis may be useful for the identification of combined event products of GM maize. PMID:20595789

  19. Development of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of four events of genetically modified maize: DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON863 and MON88017.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Mano, Junichi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous event-specific detection of four events of GM maize, i.e., DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON88017, and MON863. The single laboratory examination of analytical performance using simulated DNA mixtures containing GM DNA at various concentrations in non-GM DNA suggested that the limits of detection (LOD) of the multiplex PCR method were 0.16% for MON863, MIR604, and MON88017, and 0.078% for DAS-59122-7. We previously developed a nonaplex (9plex) PCR method for eight events of GM maize, i.e., Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, T25, and TC1507. Together with the nonaplex PCR method, the newly developed method enabled the detection and identification of eleven GM maize events that are frequently included in commercial GM seed used in Japan. In addition, this combinational analysis may be useful for the identification of combined event products of GM maize.

  20. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    PubMed

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  1. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  2. Short-term monitoring of a gas seep field in the Katakolo bay (Western Greece) using Raman spectra DTS and DAS fibre-optic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Finfer, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Kordella, S.; Papatheodorou, G.; Geraga, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    2012-12-01

    A wide submarine seep of thermogenic gas in the Katakolo bay, Western Greece, was monitored passively using the intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS) and Ultima Raman spectra Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS), in order to study the thermal and noise signal of the bubble plumes released from the seafloor. Katakolo is one one of the most prolific thermogenic gas seepage zones in Europe and the biggest methane seep ever reported in Greece. Very detailed repetitive offshore gas surveys, including marine remote sensing (sub-bottom profiling, side scan sonar), underwater exploration by a towed instrumented system (MEDUSA), long-term monitoring benthic station (GMM), compositional and isotopic analyses, and flux measurements of gas, showed that: (a) gas seepage takes place over an extended area in the Katakolo harbour and along two main normal faults off the harbour; (b) at least 823 gas bubble ( 10-20 cm in diameter) plumes escaping over an area of 94,200 m2, at depths ranging from 5.5 to 16 m; (c) the gas consists mainly of methane and has H2S levels of hundreds to thousands ppmv, and shows significant amounts of other light hydrocarbons like ethane, propane, iso-butane and C6 alkanes, (d) offshore and onshore seeps release the same type of thermogenic gas; (e) due to the shallow depth, more than 90 % of CH4 released at the seabed enters the atmosphere, and (f) the gas seeps may produce severe geohazards for people, buildings and construction facilities due to the explosive and toxicological properties of methane and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. For the short-term monitoring, the deployment took place on a site located inside the harbour of Katakolo within a thermogenic gas seepage area where active faults are intersected. The iDAS system makes it possible to observe the acoustical signal along the entire length of an unmodified optical cable without introducing any form of point sensors such as Bragg gratings. When the bubble plumes are released by the

  3. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  4. Effect of thermal stratification on free convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Dinarvand, S.; Pop, I.

    2015-05-01

    Natural convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid in conditions of thermal stratification has been numerically studied. The mathematical model has been formulated in terms of the dimensionless stream function and temperature using the Darcy-Boussinesq approximation and Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model with new more realistic empirical correlations for the physical properties of the nanofluids. Formulated partial differential equations along with the corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by the finite difference method. Particular efforts have been focused on the effects of the Rayleigh number, thermal stratification parameter, porosity of the porous medium, solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles, and the solid matrix of the porous medium (glass balls and aluminum foam) on the local and average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms. It has been observed an essential effect of thermal stratification parameter on heat and fluid flow fields.

  5. Application of a Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) for Shallow Seismic Investigations of a Fractured Dolostone Aquifer in Guelph, Ontario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, J. D.; Parker, B. L.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock aquifers requires detailed characterization of the discrete features that control flow, as well as the properties of the rock matrix. This requires multiple, high-resolution, depth discrete datasets that provide different, but complementary information. Distributed fibre optic sensing is a relatively new technology used to continuously monitor properties along the entire length of an optical fibre. Technological advances over the past few years have brought the sensitivity and spatial resolution to the point where shallow (<200m) borehole applications are practicable. Recent studies using fibre optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS) have shown excellent application of DTS for characterizing groundwater flow in both continuously sealed and open boreholes. This presentation highlights the results of a field trial at the Bedrock Aquifer Research Station on the University of Guelph campus (Ontario, Canada) where a single fibre optic cable was interrogated by both a DTS (Ultima-DTS) and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS). DAS is a relatively recent development that allows an optical fibre to be used as a receiver for seismic imaging. These seismic images are produced by sending an optical pulse down the fibre and analyzing the effects of seismic waves on the propagating light. Numerous vertical seismic profiles were collected and the effects of different fibre optic cable structures and coupling techniques were examined. The seismic profiles will help delineate structural features and lithological contacts away from the borehole wall, and will assist in correlating other geophysical, hydraulic, or geological logs collected in the boreholes across the site. Preliminary results show promise for shallow seismic imaging and continued field trials will allow refinement of the technique.

  6. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment.

  7. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment. PMID:25698666

  8. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance <10%, are of 745, 777, 836 and 1022 Ma. The 777 ± 4 Ma age obtained for the Chácara das Pedras orthogneiss is the first Early Cryogenian magmatic age determined for granitoids in the Porto Alegre region, although

  9. Massa do gás e das estrelas em aglomerados: eficiência da formação estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganá, T. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados de galáxias apresentam um interesse especial para a cosmologia observacional. Eles são as maiores estruturas ligadas pela gravitação no Universo e relaxadas na região central. A comparação entre a massa do gás intra-aglomerado (responsável por ~25% da massa total, inferida a partir de observações em raios-X), a massa contida nas estrelas (i.e., nas galáxias) e a massa total (incluindo a matéria escura não bariônica), nos dá informações importantes sobre os processos de formação e evolução de aglomerados. Por exemplo, a razão entre a massa do gás e a massa total é uma medida da fração de bárions no Universo (razão entre a matéria bariônica e matéria escura) e, utilizando a densidade de bárions predita pela nucleosíntese primordial, podemos deduzir a densidade de matéria escura no Universo (cf. White et al. 1993). O objetivo deste trabalho é obter as razões entre as massas do gás, estelar (contida nas galáxias), e a total (massa dinâmica). As massas do gás e total são obtidas a partir das análises fotométrica e espectroscópica em raios-X enquanto que a massa estelar é obtida pela análise fotométrica das galáxias. Esta análise foi aplicada ao aglomerado Abell 496 observado pelo satélite XMM-Newton. A massa contida nas galáxias foi estimada a partir da função de luminosidade obtida por Durret et al. (2002). Para determinar as massas dinâmica e do gás nos precisamos determinar os perfis radiais de densidade e temperatura. Nós apresentaremos aqui estes resultados e suas implicações na eficiência da formação estelar em Abell 496.

  10. Water Quality-Quantity Evaluation of the Ribeirão das Posses Watershed, Brazil, applying the AgES-W model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. R.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Santos, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Brazil is under a period of drought that has impacted the conservation of watersheds and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. In this context agro-hydrological modeling tools can generate information of water response over time in response to climate and landuse changes. A 12-km2 watershed which has suffered from anthropogenic activities is the Ribeirão das Posses watershed that is located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais State and is a headwater catchment of the Jaguari river, one of the contributing rivers of the Cantareira Reservoir Complex in the state of São Paulo. This watershed had its landscape changed over the last century from native forests to more homogeneous vegetation for pastures and small crops and some forest plantations fragments with eucalyptus. Currently, the Conservative Waters project has planted some small areas with vegetation of native species, especially where there are springs and at the top of the hills, in order to recover degraded areas and improve the hydrogeochemistry in this study basin. In this context, the AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model is presented to simulate the water movement and storage in agricultural watersheds with different spatial resolutions of land areas or hydrological responses units. The objectives are to evaluate the quality and quantity of water in Ribeirão das Posses Basin using measured data, then simulate these responses in space and time to test the AgES-W model. The period chosen for research was from 2011 to 2015, because the water quality data were collected during this period. The answers that we hope to find out are: How well does the AgES-W model simulate this Brazilian watershed in the tropics? What are the future prospects of the quality and quantity of water in this basin? The results will help to guide hydrological simulations in similar tropical environments in Brazil in this and other agricultural watersheds with AgES-W.

  11. Migration of inorganic ions from the leachate of the Rio das Ostras landfill: a comparison of three different configurations of protective barriers.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Cláudia Virgínia; Ritter, Elisabeth; Pires, João Antônio da Costa; de Castro, José Adilson

    2014-11-01

    Batch tests and diffusion tests were performed to analyze the efficiency of a protective barrier in a landfill consisting of compacted soil with 10% bentonite compared to the results obtained for only compacted soil and for compacted soil covered with a 1-mm-thick HDPE geomembrane; the soil and leachate were collected from the Rio das Ostras Landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diffusion tests were performed for periods of 3, 10 and 60 days. After the test period, the soil pore water was analyzed and the profiles for chloride, potassium and ammonium were determined along a 6-cm soil depth. The results of the batch tests performed to define sorption parameters were used to adjust the profiles obtained in the diffusion cell experiment by applying an ion transfer model between the interstitial solution and the soil particles. The MPHMTP model (Multi Phase Heat and Mass Transfer Program), which is based upon the solution of the transport equations of the ionic contaminants, was used to solve the inverse problem of simultaneously determining the effective diffusion coefficients. The results of the experimental tests and of the model simulation confirmed that the compacted soil with 10% bentonite was moderately efficient in the retention of chloride, potassium and ammonium ions compared to the configurations of compacted soil with a geomembrane and compacted soil alone, representing a solution that is technically feasible and requires potentially lower costs for implementation in landfills. PMID:25042116

  12. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  13. Pollen analysis of Holocene sediments from the Poço das Antas National Biological Reserve, Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luciane G; Barth, Ortrud M; Araujo, Dorothy S Dde

    2008-09-01

    The Poço das Antas National Biological Reserve is located in Rio de Janeiro State, southeast Brazil. This paper presents information on past environmental characteristics of the area through pollen analysis. Two sedimentary columns were collected and five samples were selected for radiocarbon dating. The following ages of the columns from bottom to top were detected: column 1 - 1.20-1.16 m: 6080 +/-40 years BP, 0.775-0.735 m: 4090 +/-40 years BP, 0.385-0.345 m: 1880 +/-80 years BP; column 2 - 1.22-1.18 m: 3520 +/-40 years BP, 0.23-0.19 m: 1810 +/-40 years BP. Three samples from column 1 and two samples from column 2 were selected for pollen analysis: 1.20 m, 0.77 m and 0.37 m of column 1 and 1.22 m and 0.21 m of column 2. Chemical treatment followed standard methodology. The palynological analysis shows that around 6080 years BP the study area was dominated by a rain forest and from around 4090 years BP the vegetation changed to a fragmented forest, restricted to low hills and surrounded by an open area of grassland and pioneer plants, swamps and peat areas. The pollen assemblage of the samples 3520, 1880 and 1810 years BP suggest the permanence of this kind of vegetation between 4000 years BP and the actual.

  14. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages. PMID:27276381

  15. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages.

  16. Guidelines on Management of Human Infection with the Novel Virus Influenza A (H1N1) – A Report from the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Schout, Denise; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; de Camargo Teixeira, Jose Manoel; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; de Arruda Martins, Milton; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July, 2009. Since then, 9.249 cases were confirmed in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. The Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. The purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence concerning diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. In addition, we propose guidelines for the management of this pandemic emphasizing Hospital das Clínicas “bundles” for the control of the pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1). PMID:19841710

  17. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Ser

  18. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  19. Das singuläre Modell der über der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrikas lokalisierten Elektronenzustände

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeyev, O. F.; Lysov, B. A.; Pavlova, O. S.; Ternov, I. M.

    Wir schlagen ein neues Modell zur Beschreibung der in der Nähe der Oberfläche von Kryodielektrika lokalisierten Elektronenzustände vor. Dabei wird die Nichteindeutigkeit der selbstadjungierten Erweiterung des Hamilton-Operators der elektrostatischen Bildkräfte an der flachen Grenze Dielektrikum-Vakuum benutzt. Im Unterschied zum bekannten Modell von Grimes enthält das von uns vorgeschlagene Modell nur einen einzigen phänomenologischen Parameter, den Vermischungswinkel. Es zeigt sich, daß die entsprechende Wahl des Vermischungswinkels es erlaubt, die spektroskopischen Daten von elektrischen Dipolübergängen zwischen den Einteilchen-Elektronenzuständen, die über der Oberfläche flüssigen 4He und 3He sowie festen Wasserstoffe lokalisiert sind, vollständig zu beschreiben.Translated AbstractA Singular Model of Electronic States, Localized over the Surface of Cryogenized DielectricA new model for the description of localized electronic states near the surface of a cryogenized dielectric is proposed. In this model an ambiguity of the self-adjoined extention of the Hamiltonian for the problem of the motion of an electron in the field of the electrostatic image at flat boundary dielectric-vacuum is used. The proposed model, in contrast with the well known model of Grimes, contains as only phenomenological parameter the mixing angle. It is shown that the proper choise of the mixing angle makes it possible to completely account for the spectroscopic data on electric dipole transitions between singleparticle electronic states localized over the surfaces of 4He, 3He and also solid hydrogen.

  20. Using the DAS-ELISA Test to Establish an Effective Distance Between Bait Stations for Control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Natural Areas.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinbo; Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Gerard, Patrick; Scott, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Linepithema humile (Mayr), the Argentine ant, is an invasive pest that has spread throughout the United States and is a problem in natural and managed habitats in South Carolina. Foraging patterns and the effectiveness of liquid baits for control of this pest have been studied in urban areas. However, similar studies have not been conducted in natural areas such as parks, picnic grounds, or campsites. L. humile populations can be large and widespread, making them a major nuisance pest for visitors to these natural areas. The primary objective of this study was to determine an effective distance between bait stations for control of L. humile in a natural area. A double antibody-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) procedure was used to detect individual ants that consumed rabbit immunoglobin (IgG) protein for marking and tracking. In both lab and field conditions, there was a significant difference in the detection of IgG in ants fed protein marker mixed with sugar water compared with ants only fed sugar water. Additional field studies revealed that an individual ant could retain detectable levels of protein marker for 3 d and that an ant feeding on IgG containing bait could be detected over 15 m from the original bait source. Overall, we found that using liquid ant baits, with a placement of 20 m between stations, was effective in reducing L. humile numbers between April to October, 2012 in a natural park area of Lake Greenwood State Park, SC.