Science.gov

Sample records for osteopontin specifically bound

  1. Phosphate is a specific signal for induction of osteopontin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Beck, G R; Zerler, B; Moran, E

    2000-07-18

    Osteopontin is a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted to the mineralizing extracellular matrix by osteoblasts during bone development. It is believed to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to the extracellular matrix, allowing them to perform their respective functions during osteogenesis. Several other functions have been suggested for this protein, and its up-regulation is associated with various disease states related to calcification, including arterial plaque formation and the formation of kidney stones. Although expression of this gene has been demonstrated in multiple tissues, its regulation is not well understood. Our previous studies on the roles of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and p300/CBP in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation revealed a link between osteopontin induction and the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase. In this paper, we describe results specifically linking induction of osteopontin to the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in the medium, which results in the generation of free phosphate. This elevation of free phosphate in the medium is sufficient to signal induction of osteopontin RNA and protein. The strong and specific induction of osteopontin in direct response to increased phosphate levels provides a mechanism to explain how expression of this product is normally regulated in bone and suggests how it may become up-regulated in damaged tissue.

  2. Antigen-Specific Induction of Osteopontin Contributes to the Chronification of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Anne M.; Renkl, Andreas C.; Schulz, Guido; Uebele, Tanja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Liaw, Lucy; Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu; Weiss, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated immune response, which in its relapsing chronic form is of high socioeconomic impact. The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) has chemotactic and Th1 cytokine functions and in various models is essential for robust T cell-mediated immunity. Here we demonstrate that OPN is abundantly expressed by both effector T cells and keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis lesions. T cells from nickel-allergic donors secrete high levels of OPN following antigen-specific stimulation. OPN may substitute for missing IFN-γ secretion in T effector cells because low IFN-γ-producing T cell clones secrete high levels of OPN, and OPN down-modulates their interleukin-4 expression. Furthermore, interferon-γ from T effector cells augments OPN in allergic contact dermatitis by inducing OPN in keratinocytes, which in turn polarizes dendritic cells and attracts inflammatory cells. In the murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model for allergic contact dermatitis, OPN is strongly induced in antigen-specific proliferating T cells, and OPN null mice display a reduced chronic CHS inflammatory response due to a decreased influx of effector T cells. Importantly, because of its function for chronic allergic contact dermatitis, OPN may well be a therapeutic target, because anti-OPN antibody treatment in part suppresses established chronic CHS. PMID:20008129

  3. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the degradation and dissolution of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals in MDCKII cells.

    PubMed

    Thurgood, Lauren A; Sørensen, Esben S; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2012-02-01

    In vivo, urinary crystals are associated with proteins located within the mineral bulk as well as upon their surfaces. Proteins incarcerated within the mineral phase of retained crystals could act as a defence against urolithiasis by rendering them more vulnerable to destruction by intracellular and interstitial proteases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin (OPN) on the degradation and dissolution of urinary calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals in cultured Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. [(14)C]-oxalate-labelled COD crystals with intracrystalline (IC), surface-bound (SB) and IC + SB OPN, were generated from ultrafiltered (UF) urine containing 0, 1 and 5 mg/L human milk OPN and incubated with MDCKII cells, using UF urine as the binding medium. Crystal size and degradation were assessed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and dissolution was quantified by the release of radioactivity into the culture medium. Crystal size decreased directly with OPN concentration. FESEM examination indicated that crystals covered with SB OPN were more resistant to cellular degradation than those containing IC OPN, whose degree of disruption appeared to be related to OPN concentration. Whether bound to the crystal surface or incarcerated within the mineral interior, OPN inhibited crystal dissolution in direct proportion to its concentration. Under physiological conditions OPN may routinely protect against stone formation by inhibiting the growth of COD crystals, which would encourage their excretion in urine and thereby perhaps partly explain why, compared with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, COD crystals are more prevalent in urine, but less common in kidney stones.

  4. Urinary Osteopontin Predicts Incident Chronic Kidney Disease, while Plasma Osteopontin Predicts Cardiovascular Death in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Feldreich, Tobias; Carlsson, Axel C; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Risérus, Ulf; Larsson, Anders; Lind, Lars; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2017-06-01

    The matricellular protein osteopontin is involved in the pathogenesis of both kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, whether circulating and urinary osteopontin levels are associated with the risk of these diseases is less studied. A community-based cohort of elderly men (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM]; n = 741; mean age: 77 years) was used to study the associations between plasma and urinary osteopontin, incident chronic kidney disease, and the risk of cardiovascular death during a median of 8 years of follow-up. There was no significant cross-sectional correlation between plasma and urinary osteopontin (Spearman ρ = 0.07, p = 0.13). Higher urinary osteopontin, but not plasma osteopontin, was associated with incident chronic kidney disease in multivariable models adjusted for age, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation [SD] of urinary osteopontin, 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.02, p = 0.048). Conversely, plasma osteopontin, but not urinary osteopontin, was independently associated with cardiovascular death (multivariable hazard ratio per SD increase, 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.58, p < 0.001, and 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.26, p = 0.99, respectively). The addition of plasma osteopontin to a model with established cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased the C-statistics for the prediction of cardiovascular death (p < 0.002). Higher urinary osteopontin specifically predicts incident chronic kidney disease, while plasma osteopontin specifically predicts cardiovascular death. Our data put forward osteopontin as an important factor in the detrimental interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system. The clinical implications, and why plasma and urinary osteopontin mirror different pathologies, remain to be established.

  5. Osteopontin expression in reactive lesions of gingiva.

    PubMed

    Elanagai, Rathinam; Veeravarmal, Veeran; Nirmal, Ramdas Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive proliferations of the gingiva comprise lesions such as pyogenic granuloma (PG), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), and peripheral giant cell lesion. Osteopontin (OPN) has a dual role, it promotes mineralization when it is bound to solid substrate, and on the other hand, it inhibits mineralization when it is seen in association with solution. Objectives The study aimed to evaluate the expression of osteopontin in normal gingival tissue and different types of focal reactive proliferations of gingival tissue, and its role in the development of calcification within it. Material and Methods The presence and distribution of osteopontin was assessed using immunohistochemistry in five cases of normal gingival tissue and 30 cases of focal reactive proliferations of gingiva. Results There was no expression of osteopontin in normal subjects. Few cases of pyogenic granuloma, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, and all the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma showed positivity for osteopontin in the inflammatory cells, stromal cells, extracellular matrix, and in the calcifications. Conclusion The expression of osteopontin in all the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma speculates that the majority of the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma originate from the periodontal ligament cells. The treatment modalities for peripheral ossifying fibroma should differ from other focal reactive proliferations of gingiva.

  6. Osteopontin in Immune-mediated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rittling, S.R.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since its initial identification as one of the genes most highly upregulated upon T-cell activation, osteopontin (or Eta-1, as it was designated then) has been demonstrated to have many roles in the regulation of the immune response on multiple levels. It contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases, and it regulates the host response to infection. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been elucidated, while other mechanistic functions of the protein remain obscure. The protein itself makes these analyses complex, since it binds to a series of different integrins, and in addition to its classically secreted form, an intracellular form of osteopontin has been identified, which participates in several aspects of immune regulation. In this review, we focus on the role of osteopontin in a series of immune-related diseases, particularly those where significant advances have been made in recent years: multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and related diseases, Sjögren’s disease, colitis, and 1 area of inflammatory pathology, alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. A recurring theme in these diseases is a link between osteopontin and pathogenic T cells, particularly T helper 17 cells, where osteopontin produced by dendritic cells supports IL-17 expression, contributing to pathology. In addition, a role for osteopontin in B-cell differentiation is becoming clear. In general, osteopontin contributes to pathology in these diseases, but there are examples where it has a protective role; deciphering the mechanisms underlying these differences and the specific receptors for osteopontin will be a research challenge for the future. Aside from its newly discovered role in the development of Sjögren’s disease, the role of osteopontin in inflammatory conditions in the oral cavity is still poorly understood. Elucidation of this role will be of interest. PMID:26341976

  7. The effect of intracrystalline and surface-bound osteopontin on the attachment of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in ultrafiltered human urine.

    PubMed

    Thurgood, Lauren A; Sørensen, Esben S; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effects of intracrystalline (IC), surface-bound (SB) and combined IC + SB osteopontin (OPN) on the binding of urinary calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells in ultrafiltered (UF) human urine. (14)C-oxalic acid-labelled urinary COD crystals containing IC OPN were generated in pooled UF human urine containing human milk OPN at concentrations of 0, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L. Additional labelled crystals were nucleated from a separate sample of the same pooled UF urine, to which were later added the same amounts of protein to produce crystals with SB OPN. COD crystals with IC+SB OPN were prepared using a combination of both techniques. Control crystals were prepared in the absence of OPN. Crystals were incubated with MDCK-II cells for up to 180 min in UF urine adjusted to 8 mm Ca(2+). Binding values for individual concentrations at specific time points and overall differences between binding curves were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Crystal morphology and attachment to the cells were confirmed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sizes of crystals precipitated from UF urine in the presence of 0, 1 and 5 mg/L OPN were 21.9 µm, 19.3 µm and 16.5 µm, indicating that OPN had inhibited crystal growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Binding curves for control crystals were smooth, while those of the IC and IC+SB COD crystals associated with 1 and 5 mg/L OPN were bimodal, as were those of the 1 mg/L SB crystals. This suggests that OPN induces or potentiates a transient response that enables MDCK-II cells to release COD crystals after they have attached. Although OPN generally reduced the binding of urinary COD crystals to MDCK-II cells, at times it also appeared to mediate adhesion. It is possible therefore that OPN can reduce or increase crystal binding, and that our data represent the net effect of its opposing inhibitory or promotory properties. In UF urine, OPN inhibits the growth of

  8. Nuclear osteopontin-c is a prognostic breast cancer marker

    PubMed Central

    Zduniak, K; Ziolkowski, P; Ahlin, C; Agrawal, A; Agrawal, S; Blomqvist, C; Fjällskog, M-L; Weber, G F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although Osteopontin has been known as a marker for cancer progression, the elevated production of this cytokine is not specific for cancer. We have identified the splice variant Osteopontin-c as being absent from healthy tissue but associated with about 75% of breast cancer cases. However, in previous studies of Osteopontin-c, follow-up information was not available. Methods: Here we have analysed 671 patients, comprising a cohort of 291 paraffin blocks plus a population-based case-control study of 380 arrayed breast tumor tissues. Results: We find that high staining intensity of nuclear Osteopontin-c is strongly associated with mortality in patients with early breast cancer. Cytosolic staining for exon 4, reflective of Osteopontin-a and -b also predicts poor outcome. By contrast, total Osteopontin does not correlate with prognosis. These diverse assessments of Osteopontin also do not correlate with each other, suggesting distinct expression patterns for the variant forms. Consistent with its role in tumor progression, not tumor initiation, Osteopontin-c is not correlated with proliferation markers (Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E and cyclin D), neither is it correlated with ER, PR or HER2. Conclusions: The addition of Osteopontin-c immunohistochemistry to standard pathology work-ups may have prognostic benefit in early breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:25625274

  9. BION web server: predicting non-specifically bound surface ions.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Kimmet, Taylor; Alexov, Emil

    2013-03-15

    Ions are essential component of the cell and frequently are found bound to various macromolecules, in particular to proteins. A binding of an ion to a protein greatly affects protein's biophysical characteristics and needs to be taken into account in any modeling approach. However, ion's bounded positions cannot be easily revealed experimentally, especially if they are loosely bound to macromolecular surface. Here, we report a web server, the BION web server, which addresses the demand for tools of predicting surface bound ions, for which specific interactions are not crucial; thus, they are difficult to predict. The BION is easy to use web server that requires only coordinate file to be inputted, and the user is provided with various, but easy to navigate, options. The coordinate file with predicted bound ions is displayed on the output and is available for download.

  10. Class-specific Error Bounds for Ensemble Classifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, R; Lemmond, T; Varshney, K; Chen, B; Hanley, W

    2009-10-06

    The generalization error, or probability of misclassification, of ensemble classifiers has been shown to be bounded above by a function of the mean correlation between the constituent (i.e., base) classifiers and their average strength. This bound suggests that increasing the strength and/or decreasing the correlation of an ensemble's base classifiers may yield improved performance under the assumption of equal error costs. However, this and other existing bounds do not directly address application spaces in which error costs are inherently unequal. For applications involving binary classification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, performance curves that explicitly trade off false alarms and missed detections, are often utilized to support decision making. To address performance optimization in this context, we have developed a lower bound for the entire ROC curve that can be expressed in terms of the class-specific strength and correlation of the base classifiers. We present empirical analyses demonstrating the efficacy of these bounds in predicting relative classifier performance. In addition, we specify performance regions of the ROC curve that are naturally delineated by the class-specific strengths of the base classifiers and show that each of these regions can be associated with a unique set of guidelines for performance optimization of binary classifiers within unequal error cost regimes.

  11. The association between osteopontin gene polymorphisms, osteopontin expression and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Hadas; Assayag, Miri; Schwartz, Assaf; Arish, Nissim; Fridlender, Zvi G; Berkman, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Osteopontin (SPP1, OPN) is an extra cellular matrix glycoprotein and cytokine with a known role in granuloma formation and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To determine whether plasma OPN levels are elevated in patients with sarcoidosis and compare the frequency of four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) variants in the OPN gene in sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Demographic and clinical information, radiological studies and pulmonary function tests were evaluated in 113 patients with sarcoidosis and in 79 healthy controls. Blood samples were analyzed for SNPs of the OPN gene and for plasma OPN and CRP levels. Association between clinical features of disease and OPN levels as well as SNP frequencies was determined. Plasma OPN levels were higher in sarcoidosis patients than in healthy subjects, (median: 217 vs 122ng/ml, p<0.001). Area under the curve for receiver operator curves (ROC) was 0.798 (0.686-0.909 95% CI.) No differences were observed between sarcoidosis patients and controls in the frequency of any of the SNPs evaluated. Presence of lung parenchymal involvement was associated with SNP distribution at rs1126772 (p = 0.02). We found no correlation between SNPs distribution and plasma OPN levels. Osteopontin protein levels are elevated in sarcoidosis. We found no evidence for an association between SNPs on the osteopontin gene and plasma OPN levels or the presence of sarcoidosis, however, an association between genotype and several phenotypic clinical parameters of disease was observed.

  12. Osteopontin is an oncogenic Vav1- but not wild-type Vav1-responsive gene: implications for fibroblast transformation.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Vered; Lazer, Galit; Katzav, Shulamit

    2006-06-15

    Mammalian wild-type Vav1 (wtVav1) encodes a specific GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor that is exclusively expressed in the hematopoietic system. Despite numerous studies, the mechanism underlying transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic Vav1 (oncVav1) is not well defined. We identified osteopontin, a marker for tumor aggressiveness, as an oncVav1-inducible gene. Osteopontin is highly expressed in oncVav1-transformed NIH3T3 cells (NIH/oncVav1) but is barely detected in NIH3T3 expressing wtVav1 (NIH/wtVav1) even following epidermal growth factor stimulation, which normally induces osteopontin. Depleting oncVav1 in NIH/oncVav1 using small interfering RNA led to a considerable decrease in osteopontin, whereas reducing osteopontin expression did not affect oncVav1 expression, suggesting that oncVav1 operates upstream of osteopontin. Vav1-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells, but not osteopontin-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells, exhibited impaired extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in NIH/oncVav1 cells led to a decrease in osteopontin expression, implying that the elevated osteopontin expression in these cells is dependent on ERK phosphorylation. Vav1-depleted or osteopontin-depleted NIH/oncVav1 cells lost their tumorigenic properties as judged by the soft agar and invasion assays, although loss of osteopontin expression had a less dramatic effect. Suppression of Vav1 expression in NIH/oncVav1 cells led to reversion to "normal" morphology, whereas when only osteopontin expression was diminished cells retained their transformed morphology. This work strongly supports a role for oncVav1 as a master oncogene and provides clues to the molecular mechanism underlying oncVav1 transformation.

  13. The association between osteopontin gene polymorphisms, osteopontin expression and sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Hadas; Assayag, Miri; Schwartz, Assaf; Arish, Nissim; Fridlender, Zvi G.; Berkman, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Osteopontin (SPP1, OPN) is an extra cellular matrix glycoprotein and cytokine with a known role in granuloma formation and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Objective To determine whether plasma OPN levels are elevated in patients with sarcoidosis and compare the frequency of four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) variants in the OPN gene in sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Demographic and clinical information, radiological studies and pulmonary function tests were evaluated in 113 patients with sarcoidosis and in 79 healthy controls. Blood samples were analyzed for SNPs of the OPN gene and for plasma OPN and CRP levels. Association between clinical features of disease and OPN levels as well as SNP frequencies was determined. Results Plasma OPN levels were higher in sarcoidosis patients than in healthy subjects, (median: 217 vs 122ng/ml, p<0.001). Area under the curve for receiver operator curves (ROC) was 0.798 (0.686–0.909 95% CI.) No differences were observed between sarcoidosis patients and controls in the frequency of any of the SNPs evaluated. Presence of lung parenchymal involvement was associated with SNP distribution at rs1126772 (p = 0.02). We found no correlation between SNPs distribution and plasma OPN levels. Conclusions Osteopontin protein levels are elevated in sarcoidosis. We found no evidence for an association between SNPs on the osteopontin gene and plasma OPN levels or the presence of sarcoidosis, however, an association between genotype and several phenotypic clinical parameters of disease was observed. PMID:28253271

  14. The immunohistochemical expression profile of osteopontin in normal human tissues using two site-specific antibodies reveals a wide distribution of positive cells and extensive expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Yasuto; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Seitoh, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

    2009-09-01

    To elucidate the cellular distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in normal human tissues, we undertook immunohistochemistry using two site-specific OPN antibodies. The 10A16 monoclonal antibody was raised against the amino acid sequence just downstream of the thrombin cleavage site, while the O-17 polyclonal antibody was raised against the N-terminal peptide. Each antibody has been confirmed previously to react with both whole OPN and its relevant fragments. The expression pattern for these two antibodies was similar in distribution. In addition, we also identified expression in Ebner's gland, type II pneumocytes, Kupffer cells, cells of the endocrine organs, anterior lens capsule and ciliary body, synovial type A cells, mesothelia, adipocytes, and mast cells. Neurons and glia in the central nervous system and spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerve sheaths, ganglion cells in the sympathetic ganglion, intestinal plexuses, retina, and choroid plexus also regularly exhibited OPN positivity. Testicular germ cells, pancreatic exocrine cells, and follicular dendritic cells reacted with 10A16 only, whereas lutein cells and taste bud cells exhibited O-17 reactivity alone. These minor differences were hypothesized to reflect the state of OPN in the cells; that is, whether OPN was in its whole molecule or fragmented form. In conclusion, we demonstrate that OPN is widely distributed in normal human cells, particularly those comprising the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  15. Determination of the number of proteins bound non-specifically to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Liebesny, Paul; Goyal, Sachin; Dunlap, David; Family, Fereydoon; Finzi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the change in the number of proteins bound non-specifically to DNA as a function of applied force using force–extension measurements on tethered DNA. Using magnetic tweezers, single molecules of λ DNA were repeatedly stretched and relaxed in the absence and presence of 170 nM λ repressor protein (CI). CI binds to six specific sites of λ DNA with nanomolar affinity and also binds non-specifically with micromolar affinity. The force versus extension data were analyzed using a recently developed theoretical framework for quantitative determination of protein binding to the DNA. The results indicate that the non-specific binding of CI changes the force–extension relation significantly in comparison to that of naked DNA. The DNA tether used in our experiment would have about 640 bound repressors, if it was completely saturated with bound proteins. We find that as the pulling force on DNA is reduced from 4.81 to 0.13 pN, approximately 138 proteins bind to DNA, which is about 22% of the length of the tethered DNA. Our results show that 0.13 pN is not low enough to cause saturation of DNA by repressor and 4.81 pN is also not high enough to eliminate all the repressors bound to DNA. This demonstrates that the force–extension relation provides an effective approach for estimating the number of proteins bound non-specifically to a DNA molecule. PMID:21386587

  16. Neuroprotection by osteopontin in stroke.

    PubMed

    Meller, Robert; Stevens, Susan L; Minami, Manabu; Cameron, Jennifer A; King, Sonya; Rosenzweig, Holly; Doyle, Kristian; Lessov, Nikola S; Simon, Roger P; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2005-02-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted extracellular phosphoprotein involved in diverse biologic functions, including inflammation, cell migration, and antiapoptotic processes. Here we investigate the neuroprotective potential of OPN to reduce cell death using both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia. We show that incubation of cortical neuron cultures with OPN protects against cell death from oxygen and glucose deprivation. The effect of OPN depends on the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing motif as the protective effect of OPN in vitro was blocked by an RGD-containing hexapeptide, which prevents integrin receptors binding to their ligands. Osteopontin treatment of cortical neuron cultures caused an increase in Akt and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which is consistent with OPN-inducing neuroprotection via the activation of these protein kinases. Indeed, the protective effect of OPN was reduced by inhibiting the activation of Akt and p42/p44 MAPK using LY294002 and U0126, respectively. The protective effect of OPN was also blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of OPN required new protein synthesis. Finally, intracerebral ventricular administration of OPN caused a marked reduction in infarct size after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in a murine stroke model. These data suggest that OPN is a potent neuroprotectant against ischemic injury.

  17. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin by GIP in adipocytes - A role for the transcription factor NFAT and phosphodiesterase 3B

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Bilal; Banke, Elin; Guirguis, Emilia; Aakesson, Lina; Manganiello, Vincent; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Gomez, Maria F.; Degerman, Eva

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GIP-induced osteopontin expression is NFAT-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is PDE3-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteopontin expression is increased in PDE3B KO mice. -- Abstract: The incretin - glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) - and the pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin are known to have important roles in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. In this work we show that GIP stimulates lipogenesis and osteopontin expression in primary adipocytes. The GIP-induced increase in osteopontin expression was inhibited by the NFAT (the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells) inhibitor A-285222. Also, the NFAT kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3 was upregulated by GIP. To test whether cAMP might be involved in GIP-mediated effects on osteopontin a number of strategies were used. Thus, the {beta}3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 stimulated osteopontin expression, an effects which was mimicked by OPC3911, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3. Furthermore, treatment of phosphodiesterase 3B knock-out mice with CL316,243 resulted in a dramatic upregulation of osteopontin in adipose tissue which was not the case in wild-type mice. In summary, we delineate mechanisms by which GIP stimulates osteopontin in adipocytes. Given the established link between osteopontin and insulin resistance, our data suggest that GIP by stimulating osteopontin expression, also could promote insulin resistance in adipocytes.

  18. Surface Specific Heat of {sup 3}He and Andreev Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Davis, J. P.; Pollanen, J.; Halperin, W.P.

    2006-03-31

    High resolution measurements of the specific heat of liquid {sup 3}He in the presence of a silver surface have been performed at temperatures near the superfluid transition in the pressure range of 1-29 bar. The surface contribution to the heat capacity is identified with Andreev bound states of {sup 3}He quasiparticles that have a range of half a coherence length.

  19. Osteopontin: A non-invasive parameter of portal hypertension and prognostic marker of cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruha, Radan; Jachymova, Marie; Petrtyl, Jaromir; Dvorak, Karel; Lenicek, Martin; Urbanek, Petr; Svestka, Tomislav; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between osteopontin plasma concentrations and the severity of portal hypertension and to assess osteopontin prognostic value. METHODS: A cohort of 154 patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis (112 ethylic, 108 men, age 34-72 years) were enrolled in the study. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement and laboratory and ultrasound examinations were carried out for all patients. HVPG was measured using a standard catheterization method with the balloon wedge technique. Osteopontin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in plasma. Patients were followed up with a specific focus on mortality. The control group consisted of 137 healthy age- and sex- matched individuals. RESULTS: The mean value of HVPG was 16.18 ± 5.6 mmHg. Compared to controls, the plasma levels of osteopontin in cirrhotic patients were significantly higher (P < 0.001). The plasma levels of osteopontin were positively related to HVPG (P = 0.0022, r = 0.25) and differed among the individual Child-Pugh groups of patients. The cut-off value of 80 ng/mL osteopontin distinguished patients with significant portal hypertension (HVPG above 10 mmHg) at 75% sensitivity and 63% specificity. The mean follow-up of patients was 3.7 ± 2.6 years. The probability of cumulative survival was 39% for patients with HVPG > 10 mmHg and 65% for those with HVPG ≤ 10 mmHg (P = 0.0086, odds ratio (OR), 2.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-7.76). Osteopontin showed a similar prognostic value to HVPG. Patients with osteopontin values above 80 ng/mL had significantly lower cumulative survival compared to those with osteopontin ≤ 80 ng/mL (37% vs 56%, P = 0.00035; OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.06-4.68). CONCLUSION: Osteopontin is a non-invasive parameter of portal hypertension that distinguishes patients with clinically significant portal hypertension. It is a strong prognostic factor for survival. PMID:27022226

  20. Specificity of circulating and tissue-bound autoantibodies in Goodpasture syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, R; Melendez, E; Rumpf, K W; Sattler, K; Müller, G A; Strutz, F; Neilson, E G

    1996-03-01

    Goodpasture syndrome is an often fatal autoimmune disease associated with glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage. The clinical manifestations of this disease correlate well with the presence of circulating antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) autoantibodies. The primary target antigen in glomerular and alveolar basement membranes is thought to be the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen. Nearly all that is known about anti-GBM antibodies in humans comes from work on unbound circulating antibody. We recently had the unique and rare opportunity to obtain early postmortem antibody and tissues from a patient who died with catastrophic Goodpasture syndrome. The specificity of circulating, kidney-bound and lung-bound autoantibodies from this patient was evaluated against a variety of purified basement membrane constituents. The results indicate that the primary target for the circulating and tissue-bound autoantibodies is the NC1 domain of the alpha 3(IV) chain of type IV collagen. Additionally, all the antibodies recognize a cryptic epitope/s on the alpha 3(IV)NC1 hexamer. Furthermore, tissue-bound and circulating antibodies compete with one another for overlapping epitopes on the antigen. These findings demonstrate that circulating autoantibodies in Goodpasture syndrome are highly representative of those bound to organ tissues, strengthening the notion that pathogenic autoantibodies are targeted to the alpha 3(IV)NC1 collagen, and that previous reports of findings in the circulation may be applicable to tissue injury.

  1. Quantum bound on the specific entropy in strongly coupled scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aparicio Alcalde, M.; Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.

    2008-06-15

    We discuss the (g{sub 0}{phi}{sup p}){sub d} self-interacting scalar field theory, in the strong-coupling regime. We assume the presence of macroscopic boundaries confining the field in a hypercube of side L. We also consider that the system is in thermal equilibrium at temperature {beta}{sup -1}. For spatially bounded free fields, the Bekenstein bound states that the specific entropy satisfies the inequality (S/E)<2{pi}R, where R stands for the radius of the smallest sphere that circumscribes the system. Employing the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, we obtain the renormalized mean energy E and entropy S for the system up to the order (g{sub 0}){sup -(2/p)}, presenting an analytical proof that the specific entropy also satisfies in some situations a quantum bound. Defining {epsilon}{sub d}{sup (r)} as the renormalized zero-point energy for the free theory per unit length, the dimensionless quantity {xi}=({beta}/L) and h{sub 1}(d) and h{sub 2}(d) as positive analytic functions of d, for the case of high temperature, we get that the specific entropy satisfies (S/E)<2{pi}R(h{sub 1}(d)/h{sub 2}(d)){xi}. When considering the low-temperature behavior of the specific entropy, we have (S/E)<2{pi}R(h{sub 1}(d)/{epsilon}{sub d}{sup (r)}){xi}{sup 1-d}. Therefore the sign of the renormalized zero-point energy can invalidate this quantum bound. If the renormalized zero-point energy is a positive quantity, at intermediate temperatures and in the low-temperature limit, there is a quantum bound.

  2. Identification of an osteopontin-like protein in fish associated with mineral formation.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vera G; Laizé, Vincent; Valente, Marta S; Cancela, M Leonor

    2007-09-01

    Fish has been recently recognized as a suitable vertebrate model and represents a promising alternative to mammals for studying mechanisms of tissue mineralization and unravelling specific questions related to vertebrate bone formation. The recently developed Sparus aurata (gilthead seabream) osteoblast-like cell line VSa16 was used to construct a cDNA subtractive library aimed at the identification of genes associated with fish tissue mineralization. Suppression subtractive hybridization, combined with mirror orientation selection, identified 194 cDNA clones representing 20 different genes up-regulated during the mineralization of the VSa16 extracellular matrix. One of these genes accounted for 69% of the total number of clones obtained and was later identified as theS. aurata osteopontin-like gene. The 2138-bp full-length S. aurata osteopontin-like cDNA was shown to encode a 374 amino-acid protein containing domains and motifs characteristic of osteopontins, such as an integrin receptor-binding RGD motif, a negatively charged domain and numerous post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylations and glycosylations). The common origin of mammalian osteopontin and fish osteopontin-like proteins was indicated through an in silico analysis of available sequences showing similar gene and protein structures and was further demonstrated by their specific expression in mineralized tissues and cell cultures. Accordingly, and given its proven association with mineral formation and its characteristic protein domains, we propose that the fish osteopontin-like protein may play a role in hard tissue mineralization, in a manner similar to osteopontin in higher vertebrates.

  3. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact randomized'' upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using nonrandomized'' methods.

  4. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact ``randomized`` upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using ``nonrandomized`` methods.

  5. Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases.

  6. Bone Sialoprotein and Osteopontin in Bone Metastasis of Osteotropic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Thomas E.; Miller, Andrew H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Wang, Jinxi

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the “osteomimicry” of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the “switch” in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases. PMID:24071501

  7. Nucleotide specificity for the bidirectional transport of membrane-bounded organelles in isolated axoplasm.

    PubMed

    Leopold, P L; Snyder, R; Bloom, G S; Brady, S T

    1990-01-01

    Video microscopy of isolated axoplasm from the squid giant axon permits correlated quantitative analyses of membrane-bounded organelle transport both in the intact axoplasm and along individual microtubules. As a result, the effects of experimental manipulations on both anterograde and retrograde movements of membrane-bounded organelles can be evaluated under nearly physiological conditions. Since anterograde and retrograde fast axonal transport are similar but distinct cellular processes, a systematic biochemical analysis is important for a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms for each. In this series of experiments, we employed isolated axoplasm of the squid to define the nucleoside triphosphate specificity for bidirectional organelle motility in the axon. Perfusion of axoplasm with 2-20 mM ATP preserved optimal vesicle velocities in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. Organelle velocities decreased to less than 50% of optimal values when the axoplasm was perfused with 10-20 mM UTP, GTP, ITP, or CTP with simultaneous depletion of endogenous ATP with hexokinase. Under the same conditions, TTP and ATP-gamma-S were unable to support significant levels of transport. None of the NTPs tested had a differential effect on anterograde vs. retrograde movement of vesicles. Surprisingly, several inconsistencies were revealed when a comparison was made between these results and nucleoside triphosphate specificities that have been reported for putative organelle motors by using in vitro assays. These data may be used in conjunction with data from well-defined in vitro assays to develop models for the molecular mechanisms of axonal transport.

  8. Peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells by recombinant plate bound MHC/peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Esben G W; Buus, Søren; Thorn, Mette; Stryhn, Anette; Leisner, Christian; Claesson, Mogens H

    2009-01-01

    Development of methods for efficient in vitro stimulation and expansion of peptide specific CD8(+) T cells is compelling not only with respect to adoptive T cell therapy but also regarding analysis of T cell responses and search for new immunogenic peptides. In the present study, a new approach to in vitro T cell stimulation was investigated. By use of an antigenic peptide derived from the cytomegalovirus (CMVp) we tested the stimulatory efficacy of recombinant plate bound MHC molecules (PB-MHC), being immobilized in culture plates. A single stimulation of non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (NA-PBMCs) with PB-MHC/CMVp resulted in significant expansion of CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, which was comparable to that achieved by CMVp pulsed mature dendritic cells (DCs). By repeated exposure of NA-PBMCs to PB-MHC/CMVp more than 60% CMVp specific CD8(+) T cells, representing a 240-fold expansion, were reached after only two stimulations. Although stimulation with PB-MHC/CMVp clearly demonstrated efficient peptide specific expansion of CD8(+) T cells, there was a tendency to proliferative exhaustion of the cells after 3-4 stimulations. Thus, it will be of interest to examine the effect of new stimulatory cocktails, e.g. cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, by use of the present rapid and easy-to-use method of expanding peptide specific T cells.

  9. Tissue-specific extravasation of albumin-bound Evans blue in hypothermic and rewarmed rats.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Candace B; Sils, Ingrid V; Bastille, Amy M

    2002-03-01

    The effects of hypothermia and rewarming on endothelial integrity were examined in intestines, kidney, heart, gastrocnemius muscle, liver, spleen, and brain by measuring albumin-bound Evans blue loss from the vasculature. Ten groups of twelve rats, normothermic with no pentobarbital, normothermic sampled at 2, 3, or 4 h after pentobarbital, hypothermic to 20, 25, or 30 degrees C, and rewarmed from 20, 25, or 30 degrees C, were cooled in copper coils through which water circulated. Hypothermic rats were cooled to the desired core temperature and maintained there for 1 h; rewarmed rats were cooled to the same core temperatures, maintained there for 1 h, and then rewarmed. Following Evans blue administration, animals were euthanized with methoxyflurane, tissues removed, and Evans blue extracted. Because hypothermia and rewarming significantly decrease blood flow, organ-specific flow rates for hypothermic and rewarmed tissues were used to predict extravasation. Hypothermia decreased extravasation in tissues with continuous endothelium (brain, muscle) and increased it in tissues with discontinuous endothelium (liver, lung, spleen). All tissues exhibited significant (p < 0.05) differences from normothermic controls. These differences are attributed to a combination of anesthesia, flow, and (or) change in endothelial permeability, suggesting that appropriate choice of organ and temperature would facilitate testing pharmacological means of promoting return to normal perfusion.

  10. Specificity and promiscuity among naturally processed peptides bound to HLA-DR alleles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Naturally processed peptides were acid extracted from immunoaffinity- purified HLA-DR2, DR3, DR4, DR7, and DR8. Using the complementary techniques of mass spectrometry and Edman microsequencing, > 200 unique peptide masses were identified from each allele, ranging from 1,200 to 4,000 daltons (10-34 residues in length), and a total of 201 peptide sequences were obtained. These peptides were derived from 66 different source proteins and represented sets nested at both the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends with an average length of 15-18 amino acids. Strikingly, most of the peptides (> 85%) were derived from endogenous proteins that intersect the endocytic/class II pathway, even though class II molecules are thought to function mainly in the presentation of exogenous foreign peptide antigens. The predominant endogenous peptides were derived from major histocompatibility complex-related molecules. A few peptides derived from exogenous bovine serum proteins were also bound to every allele. Four prominent promiscuous self- peptide sets (capable of binding to multiple HLA-DR alleles) as well as 84 allele-specific peptide sets were identified. Binding experiments confirmed that the promiscuous peptides have high affinity for the binding groove of all HLA-DR alleles examined. A potential physiologic role for these endogenous self-peptides as immunomodulators of the cellular immune response is discussed. PMID:8315383

  11. Substrate specificity of mitochondrial intermediate peptidase analysed by a support-bound peptide library

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, M.F.M.; Alves, F.M.; Assis, D.M.; Hirata, I.Y.; Juliano, L.; Oliveira, V.; Juliano, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The substrate specificity of recombinant human mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (hMIP) using a synthetic support-bound FRET peptide library is presented. The collected fluorescent beads, which contained the hydrolysed peptides generated by hMIP, were sequenced by Edman degradation. The results showed that this peptidase presents a remarkable preference for polar uncharged residues at P1 and P1′ substrate positions: Ser = Gln > Thr at P1 and Ser > Thr at P1′. Non-polar residues were frequent at the substrate P3, P2, P2′ and P3′ positions. Analysis of the predicted MIP processing sites in imported mitochondrial matrix proteins shows these cleavages indeed occur between polar uncharged residues. Previous analysis of these processing sites indicated the importance of positions far from the MIP cleavage site, namely the presence of a hydrophobic residue (Phe or Leu) at P8 and a polar uncharged residue (Ser or Thr) at P5. To evaluate this, additional kinetic analyses were carried out, using fluorogenic substrates synthesized based on the processing sites attributed to MIP. The results described here underscore the importance of the P1 and P1′ substrate positions for the hydrolytic activity of hMIP. The information presented in this work will help in the design of new substrate-based inhibitors for this peptidase. PMID:26082885

  12. Crystal Structure of Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase Bound to DNA Elucidates Sequence-Specific Mismatch Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Morgan, M.T.; Pozharski, E.; Drohat, A.C.

    2009-05-19

    Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides produces m{sup 5}CpG, an epigenetic modification that is important for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability in vertebrate cells. However, m{sup 5}C deamination yields mutagenic G{center_dot}T mispairs, which are implicated in genetic disease, cancer, and aging. Human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG) removes T from G{center_dot}T mispairs, producing an abasic (or AP) site, and follow-on base excision repair proteins restore the G{center_dot}C pair. hTDG is inactive against normal A{center_dot}T pairs, and is most effective for G{center_dot}T mispairs and other damage located in a CpG context. The molecular basis of these important catalytic properties has remained unknown. Here, we report a crystal structure of hTDG (catalytic domain, hTDG{sup cat}) in complex with abasic DNA, at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. Surprisingly, the enzyme crystallized in a 2:1 complex with DNA, one subunit bound at the abasic site, as anticipated, and the other at an undamaged (nonspecific) site. Isothermal titration calorimetry and electrophoretic mobility-shift experiments indicate that hTDG and hTDG{sup cat} can bind abasic DNA with 1:1 or 2:1 stoichiometry. Kinetics experiments show that the 1:1 complex is sufficient for full catalytic (base excision) activity, suggesting that the 2:1 complex, if adopted in vivo, might be important for some other activity of hTDG, perhaps binding interactions with other proteins. Our structure reveals interactions that promote the stringent specificity for guanine versus adenine as the pairing partner of the target base and interactions that likely confer CpG sequence specificity. We find striking differences between hTDG and its prokaryotic ortholog (MUG), despite the relatively high (32%) sequence identity.

  13. Quantification of ferritin bound iron in human serum using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yao; Walczyk, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Ferritin is a hollow sphere protein composed of 24 subunits that can store up to 4500 iron atoms in its inner cavity. It is mainly found in the liver and spleen but also in serum at trace levels. Serum ferritin is considered as the best single indicator in assessing body iron stores except liver or bone marrow biopsy. However, it is confounded by other disease conditions. Ferritin bound iron (FBI) and ferritin saturation have been suggested as more robust biomarkers. The current techniques for FBI determination are limited by low antibody specificity, low instrument sensitivity and possible analyte losses during sample preparation. The need for a highly sensitive and reliable method is widely recognized. Here we describe a novel technique to detect serum FBI using species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SS-IDMS). [(57)Fe]-ferritin was produced by biosynthesis and in vitro labeling with the (57)Fe spike in the form of [(57)Fe]-citrate after cell lysis and heat treatment. [(57)Fe]-ferritin for sample spiking was further purified by fast liquid protein chromatography. Serum ferritin and added [(57)Fe]-ferritin were separated from other iron species by ultrafiltration followed by isotopic analysis of FBI using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Repeatability of our assay is 8% with an absolute detection limit of 18 ng FBI in the sample. As compared to other speciation techniques, SS-IDMS offers maximum control over sample losses and species conversion during analysis. The described technique may therefore serve as a reference technique for clinical applications of FBI as a new biomarker for assessing body iron status.

  14. A tracer study with systemically and locally administered dinitrophenylated osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Nanci, Antonio; Wazen, Rima M; Zalzal, Sylvia F; Fortin, Micheline; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K; Ghitescu, Dorin-Lucian

    2004-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a major non-collagenous matrix protein of bone, is also found in tissue fluids and in the circulation. It is still not clear whether circulating OPN contributes to bone formation. To elucidate this question, rat OPN was tagged with dinitrophenol groups and administered to rats either intravenously or by infusion with an osmotic minipump through a "surgical window" in the bone of the hemimandible. Dinitrophenylated rat albumin (ALB) was used as a control. The presence and distribution of tagged proteins were revealed by immunogold labeling on sections of tibia and alveolar bone. Tagged molecules of OPN were found in mineralization foci, surfaces and interfaces, and matrix accumulations among calcified collagen fibrils. Even though dinitrophenylated ALB was administered at several-fold higher concentrations, it did not accumulate in these sites. These results show that circulating OPN can be incorporated into specific compartments of forming bone and suggest that such molecules may play a more important role than previously suspected.

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus SidA is a highly specific ornithine hydroxylase with bound flavin cofactor.

    PubMed

    Chocklett, Samuel W; Sobrado, Pablo

    2010-08-10

    Ferrichrome is a hydroxamate-containing siderophore produced by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus under iron-limiting conditions. This siderophore contains N(5)-hydroxylated l-ornithines essential for iron binding. A. fumigatus siderophore A (Af SidA) catalyzes the flavin- and NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of l-ornithine in ferrichrome biosynthesis. Af SidA was recombinantly expressed and purified as a soluble tetramer and is the first member of this class of flavin monooxygenases to be isolated with a bound flavin cofactor. The enzyme showed typical saturation kinetics with respect to l-ornithine while substrate inhibition was observed at high concentrations of NADPH and NADH. Increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide were measured as a function of reduced nicotinamide coenzyme concentration, indicating that inhibition was caused by increased uncoupling. Af SidA is highly specific for its amino acid substrate, only hydroxylating l-ornithine. An 8-fold preference in the catalytic efficiency was determined for NADPH compared to NADH. In the absence of substrate, Af SidA can be reduced by NADPH, and a C4a-(hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate is observed. The decay of this intermediate is accelerated by l-ornithine binding. This intermediate was only stabilized by NADPH and not by NADH, suggesting a role for NADP(+) in the stabilization of intermediates in the reaction of Af SidA. NADP(+) is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, demonstrating that Af SidA forms a ternary complex with NADP(+) and l-ornithine during catalysis. The data suggest that Af SidA likely proceeds by a sequential kinetic mechanism.

  16. Testis-specific transcriptional regulators selectively occupy BORIS-bound CTCF target regions in mouse male germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Hinojosa, Samuel; Kang, Sungyun; Lobanenkov, Victor V.; Zentner, Gabriel E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite sharing the same sequence specificity in vitro and in vivo, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and its paralog brother of the regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) are simultaneously expressed in germ cells. Recently, ChIP-seq analysis revealed two classes of CTCF/BORIS-bound regions: single CTCF target sites (1xCTSes) that are bound by CTCF alone (CTCF-only) or double CTCF target sites (2xCTSes) simultaneously bound by CTCF and BORIS (CTCF&BORIS) or BORIS alone (BORIS-only) in germ cells and in BORIS-positive somatic cancer cells. BORIS-bound regions (CTCF&BORIS and BORIS-only sites) are, on average, enriched for RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) binding and histone retention in mature spermatozoa relative to CTCF-only sites, but little else is known about them. We show that subsets of CTCF&BORIS and BORIS-only sites are occupied by several testis-specific transcriptional regulators (TSTRs) and associated with highly expressed germ cell-specific genes and histone retention in mature spermatozoa. We also demonstrate a physical interaction between BORIS and one of the analyzed TSTRs, TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 7-like (TAF7L). Our data suggest that CTCF and BORIS cooperate with additional TSTRs to regulate gene expression in developing male gametes and histone retention in mature spermatozoa, potentially priming certain regions of the genome for rapid activation following fertilization. PMID:28145452

  17. Specificity of neomycin analogues bound to the packaging region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

    PubMed

    McPike, Mark P; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2004-04-15

    -neo must be directed away from the binding pocket when these analogues are bivalently bound to RNA. This study showed how variations in the structure of aminoglycosides lead to different binding specificity to part of the packaging region of HIV-1. Such knowledge will be important in design of drugs to target this region.

  18. CD10 and osteopontin expression in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Masloub, Shaimaa M; Abdel-Azim, Adel M; Elhamid, Ehab S Abd

    2011-05-24

    To investigate the expression of CD10 and osteopontin in dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma and to correlate their expression with neoplastic potentiality of dentigerous cyst and local invasion and risk of local recurrence in ameloblastoma. CD10 and osteopontin expression was studied by means of immunohistochemistry in 9 cases of dentigerous cysts (DC) and 17 cases of ameloblastoma. There were 7 unicystic ameloblastoma (UCA) and 10 multicystic ameloblastoma (MCA). Positive cases were included in the statistical analysis, carried on the tabulated data using the Open Office Spreadsheet 3.2.1 under Linux operating system. Analysis of variance and correlation studies were performed using "R" under Linux operating system (R Development Core Team (2010). Tukey post-hoc test was also performed as a pair-wise test. The significant level was set at 0.05. High CD10 and osteopontin expression was observed in UCA and MCA, and low CD10 and osteopontin expression was observed in DC. Significant correlation was seen between CD10 and osteopontin expression and neoplastic potentiality of DC and local invasion and risk of recurrences in ameloblastoma. In DC, high CD10 and osteopontin expression may indicate the neoplastic potentiality of certain areas. In UCA & MCA, high CD10 and osteopontin expression may identify areas with locally invasive behavior and high risk of recurrence.

  19. Osteopontin deficiency increases bone fragility but preserves bone mass.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Philipp J; Chen, Carol G; Ionova-Martin, Sophi; Sun, Luling; Harman, Adam; Porter, Alexandra; Ager, Joel W; Ritchie, Robert O; Alliston, Tamara

    2010-06-01

    The ability of bone to resist catastrophic failure is critically dependent upon the material properties of bone matrix, a composite of hydroxyapatite, collagen type I, and noncollagenous proteins. These properties include elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. Like other aspects of bone quality, matrix material properties are biologically-defined and can be disrupted in skeletal disease. While mineral and collagen have been investigated in greater detail, the contribution of noncollagenous proteins such as osteopontin to bone matrix material properties remains unclear. Several roles have been ascribed to osteopontin in bone, many of which have the potential to impact material properties. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in bone quality, we evaluated the structure, composition, and material properties of bone from osteopontin-deficient mice and wild-type littermates at several length scales. Most importantly, the results show that osteopontin deficiency causes a 30% decrease in fracture toughness, suggesting an important role for OPN in preventing crack propagation. This significant decline in fracture toughness is independent of changes in whole bone mass, structure, or matrix porosity. Using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to evaluate osteopontin-deficient bone matrix at the micrometer level, we observed a significant reduction in elastic modulus and increased variability in calcium concentration. Matrix heterogeneity was also apparent at the ultrastructural level. In conclusion, we find that osteopontin is essential for the fracture toughness of bone, and reduced toughness in osteopontin-deficient bone may be related to the increased matrix heterogeneity observed at the micro-scale. By exploring the effects of osteopontin deficiency on bone matrix material properties, composition and organization, this study suggests that reduced fracture toughness is one mechanism by which loss of noncollagenous proteins contribute

  20. Osteopontin Deficiency Increases Bone Fragility but Preserves Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Thurner, Philipp J.; Chen, Carol G.; Ionova-Martin, Sophi; Sun, Luling; Harman, Adam; Porter, Alexandra; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Alliston, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The ability of bone to resist catastrophic failure is critically dependent upon the material properties of bone matrix, a composite of hydroxyapatite, collagen type I, and noncollagenous proteins. These properties include elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. Like other aspects of bone quality, matrix material properties are biologically-defined and can be disrupted in skeletal disease. While mineral and collagen have been investigated in greater detail, the contribution of noncollagenous proteins such as osteopontin to bone matrix material properties remains unclear. Several roles have been ascribed to osteopontin in bone, many of which have the potential to impact material properties. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in bone quality, we evaluated the structure, composition, and material properties of bone from osteopontin-deficient mice and wild-type littermates at several length scales. Most importantly, the results show that osteopontin deficiency causes a 30% decrease in fracture toughness, suggesting an important role for OPN in preventing crack propagation. This significant decline in fracture toughness is independent of changes in whole bone mass, structure, or matrix porosity. Using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to evaluate osteopontin-deficient bone matrix at the micrometer level, we observed a significant reduction in elastic modulus and increased variability in calcium concentration. Matrix heterogeneity was also apparent at the ultrastructural level. In conclusion, we find that osteopontin is essential for the fracture toughness of bone, and reduced toughness in osteopontin-deficient bone may be related to the increased matrix heterogeneity observed at the micro-scale. By exploring the effects of osteopontin-deficiency on bone matrix material properties, composition and organization, this study suggests that reduced fracture toughness is one mechanism by which loss of noncollagenous proteins contribute

  1. Identification of a GTP-bound Rho specific scFv molecular sensor by phage display selection

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, Marine; Chinestra, Patrick; Lajoie-Mazenc, Isabelle; Medale-Giamarchi, Claire; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background The Rho GTPases A, B and C proteins, members of the Rho family whose activity is regulated by GDP/GTP cycling, function in many cellular pathways controlling proliferation and have recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. Although overexpression of Rho GTPases has been correlated with tumorigenesis, only their GTP-bound forms are able to activate the signalling pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. Thus, the focus of much recent research has been to identify biological tools capable of quantifying the level of cellular GTP-bound Rho, or determining the subcellular location of activation. However useful, these tools used to study the mechanism of Rho activation still have limitations. The aim of the present work was to employ phage display to identify a conformationally-specific single chain fragment variable (scFv) that recognizes the active, GTP-bound, form of Rho GTPases and is able to discriminate it from the inactive, GDP-bound, Rho in endogenous settings. Results After five rounds of phage selection using a constitutively activated mutant of RhoB (RhoBQ63L), three scFvs (A8, C1 and D11) were selected for subsequent analysis. Further biochemical characterization was pursued for the single clone, C1, exhibiting an scFv structure. C1 was selective for the GTP-bound form of RhoA, RhoB, as well as RhoC, and failed to recognize GTP-loaded Rac1 or Cdc42, two other members of the Rho family. To enhance its production, soluble C1 was expressed in fusion with the N-terminal domain of phage protein pIII (scFv C1-N1N2), it appeared specifically associated with GTP-loaded recombinant RhoA and RhoB via immunoprecipitation, and endogenous activated Rho in HeLa cells as determined by immunofluorescence. Conclusion We identified an antibody, C1-N1N2, specific for the GTP-bound form of RhoB from a phage library, and confirmed its specificity towards GTP-bound RhoA and RhoC, as well as RhoB. The success of C1-N1N2 in discriminating activated Rho in

  2. Association of Salivary Osteopontin Levels with Glycaemic Status and Microalbuminuria - in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rajagambeeram, Reeta; Venkatkumar, Shruthi; Vijayan, Mohana Valli; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Gopal, Shyam Prakash; Ramsamy, Sathiya; Alwar, Velayutharaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The monitoring of glycaemic status in patients with T2DM is mainly through blood tests (Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c), which are invasive and involves painful pricks. This leads to poor patient compliance and soon could lead to various micro and macro vascular complications, which hamper the quality of life. There are no sensitive and specific markers to predict these complications at the earliest. Sialochemistry has recently gained attention for monitoring chronic diseases. Osteopontin is a phospho-glycoprotein molecule, elevated in many inflammatory conditions. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of serum and salivary osteopontin in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods In this case-control study, we recruited 33 cases of T2DM and 31 age and gender matched healthy controls. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist/Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist Circumference (WC) and blood pressure was recorded. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), salivary glucose, HbA1c, microalbuminuria, systolic BP, serum and salivary osteopontin levels were estimated. Results FPG, salivary glucose, HbA1c, microalbuminuria, systolic BP, BMI, waist / hip ratio serum and salivary osteopontin levels were significantly high in T2DM cases compared to control subjects. Serum and salivary osteopontin levels were significantly correlated with HbA1c and microalbuminuria in T2DM cases. Conclusion Serum and salivary osteopontin levels are significantly elevated in subjects with T2DM and are associated with glycaemic control and microalbuminuria. PMID:27656430

  3. Acrylic microspheres in vivo. X. Elimination of circulating cells by active targeting using specific monoclonal antibodies bound to microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Laakso, T.; Andersson, J.; Artursson, P.; Edman, P.; Sjoeholm, I.

    1986-01-13

    The elimination from the blood of /sup 51/Cr-labelled mouse erythrocytes modified with trinitrophenyl (TNP) groups was followed in mice. After 24 hours, when a stable concentration of the labelled erythrocytes has been attained, monoclonal anti-TNP-antibodies were given intravenously, either in free, soluble form, or bound to microparticles containing immobilized protein A. The anti-TNP-antibodies induced a rapid elimination of the TNP- and /sup 51/Cr-labelled erythrocytes. Over the 8-hours time period studied, the elimination rate was significantly faster when the antibodies were administered bound to the particles. After the elimination of the target cells, the radioactivity was found in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. These results and relevant control experiments indicate that a solid carrier (1) can be directed to a specific target cell with a specific antibody and (2) can induce a rapid elimination of the target cell from the circulation. 31 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. The fibroblast Tiam1-osteopontin pathway modulates breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Tian, Xuejun; Oh, Sun Y; Movassaghi, Mohammad; Naber, Stephen P; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Buchsbaum, Rachel J

    2016-01-28

    The tumor microenvironment has complex effects in cancer pathophysiology that are not fully understood. Most cancer therapies are directed against malignant cells specifically, leaving pro-malignant signals from the microenvironment unaddressed. Defining specific mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment contributes to breast cancer metastasis may lead to new therapeutic approaches against advanced breast cancer. We use a novel method for manipulating three-dimensional mixed cell co-cultures, along with studies in mouse xenograft models of human breast cancer and a histologic study of human breast cancer samples, to investigate how breast cancer-associated fibroblasts affect the malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells. Altering fibroblast Tiam1 expression induces changes in invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cell characteristics in associated breast cancer cells. These changes are both dependent on fibroblast secretion of osteopontin and also long-lasting even after cancer cell dissociation from the fibroblasts, indicating a novel Tiam1-osteopontin pathway in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts. Notably, inhibition of fibroblast osteopontin with low doses of a novel small molecule prevents lung metastasis in a mouse model of human breast cancer metastasis. Moreover, fibroblast expression patterns of Tiam1 and osteopontin in human breast cancers show converse changes correlating with invasion, supporting the hypothesis that this pathway in tumor-associated fibroblasts regulates breast cancer invasiveness in human disease and is thus clinically relevant. These findings suggest a new therapeutic paradigm for preventing breast cancer metastasis. Pro-malignant signals from the tumor microenvironment with long-lasting effects on associated cancer cells may perpetuate the metastatic potential of developing cancers. Inhibition of these microenvironment signals represents a new therapeutic strategy against cancer metastasis that

  5. Hydroxyapatite growth inhibition by osteopontin hexapeptide sequences.

    PubMed

    Silverman, L D; Saadia, M; Ishal, J S; Tishbi, N; Leiderman, E; Kuyunov, I; Recca, B; Reitblat, C; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-15

    The effects of three acidic hexapeptides on in vitro hydroxyapatite growth were characterized by pH-stat kinetic studies, adsorption isotherms, and molecular modeling. The three peptides, pSDEpSDE, SDESDE, and DDDDDD, are equal-length model compounds for the acidic sequences in osteopontin, a protein that inhibits mineral formation in both calcified and noncalcified tissues. Growth rates from 1.67 mM calcium and 1.00 mM phosphate solution were measured at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C in 150 mM NaCl. pSDEpSDE was a strong growth inhibitor when preadsorbed onto hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds from > or = 0.67 mM solutions, concentrations where adsorption isotherms showed relatively complete surface coverage. The nonphosphorylated SDESDE control showed no growth inhibition. Although it adsorbed to almost the same extent as pSDEpSDE, it rapidly desorbed under the pH-stat growth conditions while pSDEpSDE did not. DDDDDD exhibited weak inhibition as its concentration was increased and similar adsorption/desorption behavior to pSDEpSDE. Molecular modeling yielded binding energy trends based on simple adsorption of peptides on the [100] surface that were consistent with observed inhibition, but not for the [001] surface. The relatively unfavorable binding energies for peptides on the [001] surface suggest that their absorption will be primarily on the [100] face. The kinetic and adsorption data are consistent with phosphorylation of osteopontin acting to control mineral formation.

  6. Effect of osteopontin on the initial adhesion of dental bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L; Sutherland, Duncan S; Städler, Brigitte

    2012-12-28

    Bacterial biofilms are involved in numerous infections of the human body, including dental caries. While conventional therapy of biofilm diseases aims at eradication and mechanical removal of the biofilms, recent therapeutic approaches target the mechanisms of biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion in particular. The effect of bovine milk osteopontin, a highly phosphorylated whey protein, on adhesion of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, three prominent colonizers in dental biofilms, to saliva-coated surfaces was investigated. While adhesion of A. naeslundii was not affected by osteopontin, a strong, dose-dependent reduction in the number of adhering S. mitis was shown. No difference in bacterial adhesion was observed for caseinoglycomacropeptide, another phosphorylated milk protein. Osteopontin did not affect bacterial viability, but changed bacterial surface hydrophobicity, and may be suggested to prevent the adhesins of S. mitis from interacting with their salivary receptors. The antiadhesive effect of osteopontin may be useful for caries prevention.

  7. Osteopontin Upregulates the Expression of Glucose Transporters in Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, I-Shan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Even after the traditional standard surgical therapy, metastasis still occurs in a high percentage of patients. Glucose is an important source of metabolic energy for tumor proliferation and survival. Tumors usually overexpress glucose transporters, especially hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3. Osteopontin, hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1, and glucose transporter 3 are overexpressed in many types of tumors and have been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of glucose transporters by osteopontin in osteosarcoma. We observed that both glucose transporters and osteopontin were upregulated in hypoxic human osteosarcoma cells. Endogenously released osteopontin regulated the expression of glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3 in osteosarcoma and enhanced glucose uptake into cells via the αvβ3 integrin. Knockdown of osteopontin induced cell death in 20% of osteosarcoma cells. Phloretin, a glucose transporter inhibitor, also caused cell death by treatment alone. The phloretin-induced cell death was significantly enhanced in osteopontin knockdown osteosarcoma cells. Combination of a low dose of phloretin and chemotherapeutic drugs, such as daunomycin, 5-Fu, etoposide, and methotrexate, exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects in three osteosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of glucose transporters markedly potentiated the apoptotic sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma. These results indicate that the combination of a low dose of a glucose transporter inhibitor with cytotoxic drugs may be beneficial for treating osteosarcoma patients. PMID:25310823

  8. Soluble bone-derived osteopontin promotes migration and stem-like behavior of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Graciella M.; Xia, Ying; Piaseczny, Matthew M.; Chu, Jenny E.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, with the majority of these deaths caused by metastasis to distant organs. The most common site of breast cancer metastasis is the bone, which has been shown to provide a rich microenvironment that supports the migration and growth of breast cancer cells. Additionally, growing evidence suggests that breast cancer cells that do successfully metastasize have a stem-like phenotype including high activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and/or a CD44+CD24- phenotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these ALDHhiCD44+CD24- breast cancer cells interact with factors in the bone secondary organ microenvironment to facilitate metastasis. Specifically, we focused on bone-derived osteopontin and its ability to promote the migration and stem-like phenotype of breast cancer cells. Our results indicate that bone-derived osteopontin promotes the migration, tumorsphere-forming ability and colony-forming ability of whole population and ALDHhiCD44+CD24- breast cancer cells in bone marrow-conditioned media (an ex vivo representation of the bone microenvironment) (p≤0.05). We also demonstrate that CD44 and RGD-dependent cell surface integrins facilitate this functional response to bone-derived osteopontin (p≤0.05), potentially through activation of WNK-1 and PRAS40-related pathways. Our findings suggest that soluble bone-derived osteopontin enhances the ability of breast cancer cells to migrate to the bone and maintain a stem-like phenotype within the bone microenvironment, and this may contribute to the establishment and growth of bone metastases. PMID:28498874

  9. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients.

  10. Specificities of a chemically modified laccase from Trametes hirsuta on soluble and cellulose-bound substrates.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M; Heumann, S; Silva, C J S M; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Guebitz, G M

    2006-05-01

    Laccases could prevent fabrics and garments from re-deposition of dyes during washing and finishing processes by degrading the solubilized dye. However, laccase action must be restricted to solubilized dye molecules thereby avoiding decolorization of fabrics. Chemical modification of enzymes can provide a powerful tool to change the adsorption behaviour of enzymes on water insoluble polymers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was covalently attached onto a laccase from Trametes hirsuta. Different molecular weights of the synthetic polymer were tested in terms of adsorption behaviour and retained laccase activity. Covalent attachment of PEG onto the laccase resulted in enhanced enzyme stability while with increasing molecular weight of attached PEG the substrate affinity for the laccase conjugate decreased. The activity of the modified laccases on fibre bound dye was drastically reduced decreasing the adsorption of the enzyme on various fabrics. Compared to the 5 kDa PEG laccase conjugate (K/S value 47.60) the K/S value decreased much more (47.96-46.35) after the treatment of dyed cotton fabrics with native laccase.

  11. Organ-specific extravasation of albumin-bound Evans blue during nonresuscitated hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jan; Binkowski, Kathrin; Dendorfer, Andreas; Klotz, Karl-Friedrich

    2003-12-01

    Shock-induced enhanced capillary permeability is associated with alterations in the interstitial matrix composition and contributes to organ damage. This study was designed to evaluate albumin extravasation in various organ tissues during severe, hemorrhagic shock without fluid resuscitation and reperfusion. Target value of hemorrhagic shock was a reduction of cardiac output (CO) by 50% induced by removal of blood. Twelve anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (260-325 g) kept under continuous hemodynamic monitoring were randomly assigned to a group of hemorrhagic shock (n = 6) and a control group of normovolemic animals (n = 6). After 30 min of shock 50 mg/kg b.w. Evans blue (EB) was injected intravenously followed by an incubation period of 20 min. Exsanguination and wash out of the intravascular space was performed by a pressure-controlled perfusion with heparinized saline before harvesting organs to quantify albumin-bound EB extravasation. We found that withdrawal of 4.7 +/- 0.4 mL (mean, +/-SEM) blood, which accounts for 21.1% of the calculated total blood volume, resulted in a reduction of CO from 36.1 +/- 3.1 to 19.4 +/- 2.7 mL/min. Simultaneously, MAP decreased from 98 +/- 6 to 40 +/- 1 mmHg. In hemorrhaged rats, the interstitial concentration of EB in lung and kidney was significantly higher than observed in intact animals, whereas heart, spleen, liver, ileum, skeletal muscle, and skin showed no significant microvascular damage. We conclude that despite the absence of fluid resuscitation and reperfusion, microvascular damage in lung and kidney is evident within the first thirty minutes of hemorrhagic shock.

  12. Wheat genome specific granule-bound starch synthase I differentially influence grain starch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Geetika; Jaiswal, Sarita; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2014-12-19

    Wheat grain development is a complex process and is characterized by changes in physicochemical and structural properties of starch. The present study deals with endosperm starch physicochemical properties and structure during development in different granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) null also known as waxy (Wx) genotypes. The study was conducted with pure starch isolated from wheat grains at 3-30 days post anthesis (DPA), at 3-day intervals. Amylose concentration increased throughout grain development in non-waxy (7.2-30.5%) and partial waxy genotypes (6.0-26.8%). Completely waxy genotype showed 7.0% amylose at 3 and 6 DPA, which declined during development and reached non-detectable quantities by 30 DPA. Amylopectin structure had a higher content of short chains at 3 DPA, which decreased continuously until 12 DPA, after which there were only minor changes in amylopectin chain length distribution. Similarly, the average degree of polymerization (DP) increased from 3 DPA (12.3) to 12 DPA (15.0), and then did not differ significantly up to 30 DPA (15.0). This suggests the formation of basic amylopectin architecture in wheat by 12 DPA. Wx-B and Wx-D affected amylopectin short chains mostly of DP 6-8 at 3 and 6 DPA. Wx-A affected the same fraction of chains at 9 and 12 DPA, and Wx-D affected DP 18-25 chains from 18 to 30 DPA, suggesting differential effect of waxy isoproteins on amylopectin structure formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Osteopontin in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486

  14. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, J R; Pietrzyk, R A; Liu, H; Whitson, P A

    1999-11-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  15. Osteopontin traffic in hypoxic renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Dierk J; Sansome, Christine; Romanov, Victor I; Kowalski, Aaron J; Denhardt, David T; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secretory RGD-containing phosphoprotein, is induced in acute renal injury where it plays a renoprotective role. To investigate in depth the mode of OPN secretion under stress conditions, we analyzed OPN traffic in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC). Western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed trace amounts of OPN in intact cells, whereas cytoplasmic OPN levels were significantly increased after 24-48 h hypoxia. Immunoelectron microscopy of RPTEC showed predominantly apical localization of gold-labeled OPN under normal conditions. Hypoxia (24 h) increased 2.5-fold immunodetectable gold-labeled OPN at the apical plasma membrane; further reoxygenation (2 h) augmented apical and basolateral labeling 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Analysis of apical and basolateral medium conditioned by RPTEC grown on semipermeable membranes using a specially developed ELISA showed a global decrease in secreted OPN after hypoxia, which recovered following 2 h reoxygenation. Agents known to disrupt the function of the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A, monensin) or actin cytoskeleton (cytochalasin B) significantly inhibited OPN-GFP secretion in normoxic cells. In cells recovering from hypoxia, however, OPN secretion required functional Golgi apparatus, but was not affected by cytochalasin B. These findings demonstrate that stress inhibits OPN secretion by the process dependent on the functional Golgi apparatus and actin cytoskeleton; recovery restores OPN secretion, although its polarity may become perturbed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  17. Osteopontin is a tumor autoantigen in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tilli, Tatiana M; Silva, Eloísio A; Matos, Lívia C; Faget, Douglas V; Dias, Bianca F P; Vasconcelos, Juliana S P; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Gimba, Etel R P

    2011-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibodies act as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Osteopontin (OPN) is overexpressed in PCa cells and contributes to the progression of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether OPN evokes a humoral immune response in PCa patients and whether the reactivity levels of anti-OPN antibodies may be used to better differentiate PCa from benign and healthy donor plasma samples. Plasma samples from biopsy-proven PCa patients (29), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (18) and control healthy donors (HD) (30) were tested by immunoblots using the recombinant human OPN. The frequency of anti-OPN antibodies was significantly higher in PCa (66%) plasma samples as compared to BPH (33%) and HD controls (10%). Anti-OPN antibodies were detected in a high proportion of plasma samples from patients with a Gleason score of less than 6 (57%), prostate-specific antigen levels lower than 10 ng/ml (67%) and pT2 organ-confined disease (70%), suggesting that anti-OPN antibodies may be used as an early serum marker for PCa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of OPN as a tumor autoantigen and one of the most reactive individual autoantigens described thus far. These data support the inclusion of OPN in a multiplex of tumor antigens in order to perform antibody profiling in PCa as well as in other malignancies overexpressing OPN.

  18. Osteopontin expression in primary sarcomas of the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Gaumann, A; Petrow, P; Mentzel, T; Mayer, E; Dahm, M; Otto, M; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kriegsmann, J

    2001-11-01

    Primary tumors of the great vessels (aorta, pulmonal artery, and inferior vena cava) are rare and represent in most cases vascular leiomyosarcomas. Furthermore, there also exists a group of sarcomas arising from the intima, known as intimal sarcomas, associated with early metastasis and a very poor prognosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to alphav integrins, thereby promoting cell attachment, chemotaxis, and signal transduction. The reported association of OPN with malignancy and metastasis prompted us to examine the expression of this protein in seven sarcomas of the pulmonary artery. Strong OPN-specific staining could be detected in tumor cells and the adjacent extracellular matrix. Using a double labeling procedure, proliferating cells showed a strong positive reaction with antibodies against OPN. In addition, this protein could be demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD44, a putative receptor of OPN, was expressed on the cellular surface of tumor-associated lymphocytes. The expression of OPN in macrophages and tumor cells indicates that this molecule could possibly mediate cellular adhesion of both cell types in pulmonary sarcomas. The detection in the extracellular matrix shows that OPN is actively secreted and may interact with the corresponding receptor, CD44, on the surface of lymphocytes. Although the function of OPN is not yet fully understood, our data indicate that strong expression of this molecule in poorly differentiated sarcomas could play a role in the progression of malignancy and metastasis as described previously for carcinomas.

  19. Osteopontin is a tumor autoantigen in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    TILLI, TATIANA M.; SILVA, ELOÍSIO A.; MATOS, LÍVIA C.; FAGET, DOUGLAS V.; DIAS, BIANCA F.P.; VASCONCELOS, JULIANA S.P.; YOKOSAKI, YASUYUKI; GIMBA, ETEL R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibodies act as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Osteopontin (OPN) is overexpressed in PCa cells and contributes to the progression of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether OPN evokes a humoral immune response in PCa patients and whether the reactivity levels of anti-OPN antibodies may be used to better differentiate PCa from benign and healthy donor plasma samples. Plasma samples from biopsy-proven PCa patients (29), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (18) and control healthy donors (HD) (30) were tested by immunoblots using the recombinant human OPN. The frequency of anti-OPN antibodies was significantly higher in PCa (66%) plasma samples as compared to BPH (33%) and HD controls (10%). Anti-OPN antibodies were detected in a high proportion of plasma samples from patients with a Gleason score of less than 6 (57%), prostate-specific antigen levels lower than 10 ng/ml (67%) and pT2 organ-confined disease (70%), suggesting that anti-OPN antibodies may be used as an early serum marker for PCa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of OPN as a tumor autoantigen and one of the most reactive individual autoantigens described thus far. These data support the inclusion of OPN in a multiplex of tumor antigens in order to perform antibody profiling in PCa as well as in other malignancies overexpressing OPN. PMID:22870138

  20. A phosphorylation pattern-recognizing antibody specifically reacts to RNA polymerase II bound to exons

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jungwon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Sunyoung; Yoon, Soomin; Yoon, Aerin; Hwang, Do B; Lee, Hwa K; Kim, Min S; Lee, Yujean; Yang, Won J; Youn, Hong-Duk; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II is an unusual series of repeated residues appended to the C-terminus of the largest subunit and serves as a flexible binding scaffold for numerous nuclear factors. The binding of these factors is determined by the phosphorylation patterns on the repeats in the domain. In this study, we generated a synthetic antibody library by replacing the third heavy chain complementarity-determining region of an anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) antibody (trastuzumab) with artificial sequences of 7–18 amino-acid residues. From this library, antibodies were selected that were specific to serine phosphopeptides that represent typical phosphorylation patterns on the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD). Antibody clones pCTD-1stS2 and pCTD-2ndS2 showed specificity for peptides with phosphoserine at the second residues of the first or second heptamer repeat, respectively. Additional clones specifically reacted to peptides with phosphoserine at the fifth serine of the first repeat (pCTD-1stS5), the seventh residue of the first repeat and fifth residue of the second repeat (pCTD-S7S5) or the seventh residue of either the first or second repeat (pCTD-S7). All of these antibody clones successfully reacted to RNA polymerase II in immunoblot analysis. Interestingly, pCTD-2ndS2 precipitated predominately RNA polymerase II from the exonic regions of genes in genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis, which suggests that the phosphoserine at the second residue of the second repeat of the functional unit (YSPTSPS)2 is a mediator of exon definition. PMID:27857068

  1. N-Glycan structures of an osteopontin from human bone.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Takahashi, N; Tsukamoto, Y; Honma, H; Kohri, K

    2000-02-24

    N-Glycan structures of osteopontin (a bone matrix protein) from human bone (lumbar vertabrate) are reported in detail. Asn-linked glycan portion was released from 100 microg of osteopontin by digestion with glycoamidase A (from sweet almond), and the reducing ends of the N-glycans were reductively aminated with 2-aminopyridine. The derivatized N-glycans were separated and structurally identified by a multidimensional mapping technique on HPLC columns. Two major N-glycan structures were also confirmed by mass spectrometry. The proposed structures are shown below. The result should permit future comparison with the N-glycan structures of osteopontins obtained from other sources (kidney tissues, macrophages, urinary stones, human milk, etc.).

  2. Osteopontin: roles in implantation and placentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Greg A; Burghardt, Robert C; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E

    2003-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family of extracellular matrix proteins/cytokines that undergoes extensive posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, glycosylation, and cleavage, yielding molecular mass variants ranging in size from 25 to 75 kDa. The result is a versatile protein(s) with multiple functions arising from its role as a mediator of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) communication that encompass both normal and tumorigenic developmental processes, immunological responses during inflammation and wound healing, and biomineralization. Studies in primates, pigs, sheep, and rodents have revealed that OPN is a major constituent of the uterine-placental microenvironment with influence as 1) a component of histotroph required for adhesion and signal transduction at the uterine-placental interface throughout pregnancy, 2) a gene product expressed by uterine stroma contributing to a decidualization-like transformation that correlates with the degree of conceptus invasiveness, and 3) a product of resident uterine and placental immune cells that may regulate their behavior and cytokine production. This minireview summarizes information regarding uterine and placental expression of OPN that has accumulated over the past 15 yr, and we briefly describe structural/functional properties of this protein that are likely relevant to its role(s) during pregnancy. Comparative studies have offered insights into the potential hormonal/cytokine, cellular, and molecular mechanisms underlying OPN-mediated adhesion, remodeling, and cell-cell/cell-ECM communication within the uterus and placenta. OPN has the potential to profoundly impact pregnancy, and investigators are now challenged to focus on the mechanistic nature of the functions of this multifaceted and major component of the uterine-placental microenvironment.

  3. Osteopontin Is Upregulated in Human and Murine Acute Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Syn, Wing-Kin; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Cunha, Pedro Henrique Diniz; Caporali, Julia Fonseca Morais; Trindade, Guilherme Vaz de Melo; Santos, Elisângela Trindade; Souza, Márcia Maria; Andrade, Zilton Araújo; Witek, Rafal P; Secor, William Evan; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-10-01

    Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection. Serum/plasma osteopontin levels were measured by ELISA in patients with acute (n = 28), hepatointestinal (n = 26), hepatosplenic (n = 39) schistosomiasis and in uninfected controls (n = 21). Liver osteopontin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in needle biopsies of 5 patients. Sera and hepatic osteopontin were quantified in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni during acute (7 and 8 weeks post infection, n = 10) and chronic (30 weeks post infection, n = 8) phase. Circulating osteopontin levels are increased in patients with acute schistosomiasis (p = 0.0001). The highest levels of OPN were observed during the peak of clinical symptoms (7-11 weeks post infection), returning to baseline level once the granulomas were modulated (>12 weeks post infection). The plasma levels in acute schistosomiasis were even higher than in hepatosplenic patients. The murine model mirrored the human disease. Macrophages were the major source of OPN in human and murine acute schistosomiasis, while the ductular reaction maintains OPN production in hepatosplenic disease. Soluble egg antigens from S. mansoni induced OPN expression in primary human kupffer cells. S. mansoni egg antigens induce the production of OPN by macrophages in the necrotic-exudative granulomas characteristic of acute schistosomiasis mansoni. Circulating OPN levels are upregulated in human and murine acute schistosomiasis and could be a non-invasive biomarker of

  4. Osteopontin Is Upregulated in Human and Murine Acute Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Syn, Wing-Kin; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Cunha, Pedro Henrique Diniz; Caporali, Julia Fonseca Morais; Trindade, Guilherme Vaz de Melo; Santos, Elisângela Trindade; Souza, Márcia Maria; Andrade, Zilton Araújo; Witek, Rafal P; Secor, William Evan; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum/plasma osteopontin levels were measured by ELISA in patients with acute (n = 28), hepatointestinal (n = 26), hepatosplenic (n = 39) schistosomiasis and in uninfected controls (n = 21). Liver osteopontin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in needle biopsies of 5 patients. Sera and hepatic osteopontin were quantified in the murine model of schistosomiasis mansoni during acute (7 and 8 weeks post infection, n = 10) and chronic (30 weeks post infection, n = 8) phase. Circulating osteopontin levels are increased in patients with acute schistosomiasis (p = 0.0001). The highest levels of OPN were observed during the peak of clinical symptoms (7–11 weeks post infection), returning to baseline level once the granulomas were modulated (>12 weeks post infection). The plasma levels in acute schistosomiasis were even higher than in hepatosplenic patients. The murine model mirrored the human disease. Macrophages were the major source of OPN in human and murine acute schistosomiasis, while the ductular reaction maintains OPN production in hepatosplenic disease. Soluble egg antigens from S. mansoni induced OPN expression in primary human kupffer cells. Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni egg antigens induce the production of OPN by macrophages in the necrotic-exudative granulomas characteristic of acute schistosomiasis mansoni. Circulating OPN levels are upregulated in human and

  5. Phosphoglucan-bound structure of starch phosphatase Starch Excess4 reveals the mechanism for C6 specificity.

    PubMed

    Meekins, David A; Raththagala, Madushi; Husodo, Satrio; White, Cory J; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kötting, Oliver; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S

    2014-05-20

    Plants use the insoluble polyglucan starch as their primary glucose storage molecule. Reversible phosphorylation, at the C6 and C3 positions of glucose moieties, is the only known natural modification of starch and is the key regulatory mechanism controlling its diurnal breakdown in plant leaves. The glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4) is a position-specific starch phosphatase that is essential for reversible starch phosphorylation; its absence leads to a dramatic accumulation of starch in Arabidopsis, but the basis for its function is unknown. Here we describe the crystal structure of SEX4 bound to maltoheptaose and phosphate to a resolution of 1.65 Å. SEX4 binds maltoheptaose via a continuous binding pocket and active site that spans both the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain. This extended interface is composed of aromatic and hydrophilic residues that form a specific glucan-interacting platform. SEX4 contains a uniquely adapted DSP active site that accommodates a glucan polymer and is responsible for positioning maltoheptaose in a C6-specific orientation. We identified two DSP domain residues that are responsible for SEX4 site-specific activity and, using these insights, we engineered a SEX4 double mutant that completely reversed specificity from the C6 to the C3 position. Our data demonstrate that the two domains act in consort, with the CBM primarily responsible for engaging glucan chains, whereas the DSP integrates them in the catalytic site for position-specific dephosphorylation. These data provide important insights into the structural basis of glucan phosphatase site-specific activity and open new avenues for their biotechnological utilization.

  6. Shadow-cast electron microscopy of fibrinogen with antibody fragments bound to specific regions.

    PubMed Central

    Price, T M; Strong, D D; Rudee, M L; Doolittle, R F

    1981-01-01

    Specimens of human fibrinogen mixed with Fab fragments of antibodies that were specific for various portions of the fibrinogen molecule were tungsten shadow-cast and examined by electron microscopy. Typical trinodular fibrinogen molecules were observed when Fab fragments were omitted or when fragments from nonimmune sera were used. In the experimental fibrinogen-Fab preparations, a significant number of molecules were found with an extra nodule. In the case of Fab fragments from antibodies directed to fragment E, the additional nodule was attached to the central sphere of the fibrinogen molecule. Similarly, anti-fragment D preparations yielded molecules that were derivatized on the terminal spheres. Fragments from antibodies raised against a cyanogen bromide fragment of fibrinogen alpha chains (residues 241-476) also led to exclusive derivatization of the terminal domains, although in these cases the additional material was often separated discretely from the terminal sphere by a gap. These experiments confirm longstanding notions that the central domain of a trinodular fibrinogen molecule corresponds to the plasmin-derived fragment E and that the terminal spheres correspond to fragments D. Moreover, the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of alpha chains protrude from the extremities of the molecule, as had been inferred on the basis of indirect biochemical data. Images PMID:6941244

  7. Substrate-specific interactions with the heme-bound oxygen molecule of nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chartier, François J M; Couture, Manon

    2007-07-20

    We report the characterization by resonance Raman spectroscopy of the oxygenated complex (Fe(II)O(2)) of nitric-oxide synthases of Staphylococcus aureus (saNOS) and Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS) saturated with N(omega)-hydroxy-l-arginine. The frequencies of the nu(Fe-O) and nu(O-O) modes were 530 and 1135 cm(-), respectively, in both the presence and absence of tetrahydrobiopterin. On the basis of a comparison of these frequencies with those of saNOS and bsNOS saturated with l-arginine (nu(Fe-O) at 517 cm(-1) and nu(O-O) at 1123 cm(-1)) and those of substrate-free saNOS (nu(Fe-O) at 517 and nu(O-O) at 1135 cm(-1)) (Chartier, F. J. M., Blais, S. P., and Couture, M. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9953-9962), we propose two models that account for the frequency shift of nu(Fe-O) (but not nu(O-O)) upon N(omega)-hydroxy-l-arginine binding as well as the frequency shift of nu(O-O) (but not nu(Fe-O)) upon l-arginine binding. The implications of these substrate-specific interactions with respect to catalysis by NOSs are discussed.

  8. Structures of substrate- and nucleotide-bound propionate kinase from Salmonella typhimurium: substrate specificity and phosphate-transfer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Mathivanan, Subashini; Chittori, Sagar; Savithri, Handanahal Subbarao; Murthy, Mathur Ramabhadrashastry Narasimha

    2015-08-01

    Kinases are ubiquitous enzymes that are pivotal to many biochemical processes. There are contrasting views on the phosphoryl-transfer mechanism in propionate kinase, an enzyme that reversibly transfers a phosphoryl group from propionyl phosphate to ADP in the final step of non-oxidative catabolism of L-threonine to propionate. Here, X-ray crystal structures of propionate- and nucleotide-bound Salmonella typhimurium propionate kinase are reported at 1.8-2.0 Å resolution. Although the mode of nucleotide binding is comparable to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily, propionate is bound at a distinct site deeper in the hydrophobic pocket defining the active site. The propionate carboxyl is at a distance of ∼ 5 Å from the γ-phosphate of the nucleotide, supporting a direct in-line transfer mechanism. The phosphoryl-transfer reaction is likely to occur via an associative SN2-like transition state that involves a pentagonal bipyramidal structure with the axial positions occupied by the nucleophile of the substrate and the O atom between the β- and the γ-phosphates, respectively. The proximity of the strictly conserved His175 and Arg236 to the carboxyl group of the propionate and the γ-phosphate of ATP suggests their involvement in catalysis. Moreover, ligand binding does not induce global domain movement as reported in some other members of the ASKHA superfamily. Instead, residues Arg86, Asp143 and Pro116-Leu117-His118 that define the active-site pocket move towards the substrate and expel water molecules from the active site. The role of Ala88, previously proposed to be the residue determining substrate specificity, was examined by determining the crystal structures of the propionate-bound Ala88 mutants A88V and A88G. Kinetic analysis and structural data are consistent with a significant role of Ala88 in substrate-specificity determination. The active-site pocket-defining residues Arg86, Asp143 and the Pro116-Leu117-His118 segment are also likely to

  9. Osteopontin CD44 Interaction: A Novel Mechanism for the Selective Homing of Breast Tumor Cells into Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Introduction cancer pharmacology, and im- structure - function analysis of munology he served on the fac- extracellular matrix molecules What are the traits...isolated a hexa peptide from osteopontin that is chemotactic to tumor cells. Antibodies raised against this peptide neutralize the chemotactic response of ...circulating breast tumor cells expressing specific CD44v splice variants. We have isolated a peptide analogue of the chemotactic domain (PepL) that

  10. Osteogenic potential of cissus qudrangularis assessed with osteopontin expression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Vibha; Singh, R K; Pant, A B; Pal, U S; Malkunje, Laxman R; Mehta, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Fracture healing involves complex processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. Many factors are involved, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, bone breakdown (osteoclast) and bone building (osteoblast) cells, hormones, amino acids, and uncounted nutrients. We studied the osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a plant that has been customarily used in the Indian subcontinent to hasten the process of healing in bone fractures. Total of 60 patients (age, 20-35 years) of mandible fracture was divided in two groups. Patients of group 1 were given capsules of CQ and fracture healing was assessed with osteopontin expression during treatment. Group 2 was control group. Clinical and radiological analysis in our study was suggestive of better healing of fractures in group 1. All the samples of group 1 examined for osteopontin expression using western blot analysis and flow cytometry showed significant levels of expression of osteopontin protein and CD4+ T cells expressing osteopontin, respectively. We conclude that CQ accelerates fracture healing and also causes early remodeling of fracture callus.

  11. Osteogenic potential of cissus qudrangularis assessed with osteopontin expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Vibha; Singh, R. K.; Pant, A. B.; Pal, U. S.; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Mehta, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fracture healing involves complex processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. Many factors are involved, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, bone breakdown (osteoclast) and bone building (osteoblast) cells, hormones, amino acids, and uncounted nutrients. We studied the osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a plant that has been customarily used in the Indian subcontinent to hasten the process of healing in bone fractures. Materials and Methods: Total of 60 patients (age, 20-35 years) of mandible fracture was divided in two groups. Patients of group 1 were given capsules of CQ and fracture healing was assessed with osteopontin expression during treatment. Group 2 was control group. Results: Clinical and radiological analysis in our study was suggestive of better healing of fractures in group 1. All the samples of group 1 examined for osteopontin expression using western blot analysis and flow cytometry showed significant levels of expression of osteopontin protein and CD4+ T cells expressing osteopontin, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that CQ accelerates fracture healing and also causes early remodeling of fracture callus. PMID:24163553

  12. Circulating osteopontin: a dual marker of bone destruction and angiogenesis in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The matrix protein osteopontin has been shown to be a marker of osteoclastic activity in multiple myeloma patients, as well as a regulator of angiogenesis. We measured serum levels of osteopontin in 50 untreated multiple myeloma patients (in 25, also after treatment) and examined the relation to markers of osteolytic and angiogenic activity. The median (range) of serum osteopontin was 85 (5-232) in the patient group vs. 36 (2-190) ng/ml in the control group. Serum osteopontin levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced stage or grade of myeloma disease. All patients with serum osteopontin levels >100 ng/ml had advanced stage (II or III) or high grade bone disease, whereas stage I or low grade patients had serum osteopontin levels <100ng/ml. Serum osteopontin levels significantly decreased after treatment. There was a positive correlation of osteopontin with the bone turnover marker N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (NTx) and the angiogenic markers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone marrow microvessel density (r: 0.35, 0.47 and 0.30 respectively, p < 0.05). These results support osteopontin as a dual marker of bone destruction and angiogenic activity in myeloma patients. Osteopontin represents a useful biomarker for monitoring myeloma disease activity. PMID:21548993

  13. Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

  14. Protein-bound polysaccharide activates dendritic cells and enhances OVA-specific T cell response as vaccine adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Abbi L.; Sun, Guan-Cheng; Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren R.; Strobe, Katie; Yang, Yi; Dang, Yushe; Disis, Mary L; Lu, Hailing

    2013-01-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor mushroom. It has been used traditionally in Asian countries for its immune stimulating and anti-cancer effects. We have recently found that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 is highly expressed on dendritic cells (DC), so the currently study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on DC activation and the potential of using PSK as a vaccine adjuvant. In vitro experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) demonstrated that PSK induces DC maturation as shown by dose-dependent increase in the expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII, and CD40. PSK also induces the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines by DC, including IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo experiments using PSK as an adjuvant to OVAp323-339 vaccine showed that PSK as adjuvant leads to enlarged draining lymph nodes with higher number of activated DC. PSK also stimulates proliferation of OVA-specific T cells, and induces T cells that produce multiple cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α. Altogether, these results demonstrate the ability of PSK to activate DC in vitro and in vivo and the potential of using PSK as a novel vaccine adjuvant. PMID:23735481

  15. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-11-08

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. Inmore » vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. As a result, this improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants.« less

  16. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. In vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. This improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants. PMID:27688773

  17. Prognostic utility of pre-operative circulating osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and CRP in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sim, S H; Messenger, M P; Gregory, W M; Wind, T C; Vasudev, N S; Cartledge, J; Thompson, D; Selby, P J; Banks, R E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Objectively measured circulating biomarkers of prognosis complementing existing clinicopathological models are needed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Blood samples collected from 216 RCC patients in Leeds before nephrectomy (median follow-up 7 years) were analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), osteopontin (OPN) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and prognostic significance determined. Results: CA9, OPN and CRP were univariately prognostic for overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with CRP and CA9 being independently prognostic for OS/CSS and OS, respectively. Including CA9, OPN and CRP with other conventional prognostic factors gave a superior predictive capacity when compared with a previously published pre-operative clinical nomogram (Karakiewicz et al, 2009). Osteopontin outperformed this nomogram and the post-operative SSIGN score for OS but not for CSS, being significantly predictive for non-cancer deaths. Osteopontin, CRP and CA9 outperformed stage (c-index 76% compared with 70% for stage) and OPN or CA9 identified several subsets of poor prognosis patients including in T1 patients, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy and increased surveillance. Conclusion: Circulating CA9, OPN and CRP add value to existing clinicopathological prognostic factors/models and support further studies to investigate their potential use in improving the clinical management of RCC. PMID:22918393

  18. Osteopontin Ribozymes in Prostate Cancer Cells: Application to Bony Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    data which are subject to such limitations, shall be included on any reproduction hereof which includes any part of the portions subject to such...by Mr. Jan Brunn (University of Texas-Houston, Dental Branch), in typical outstanding fashion. OPN 1 and OPN2 were provided by Mr. Jeff Safran ...Physiol. (Endocrinol. Metab.) 36: E599-E605, 1997. 21. Safran , J.B., Butler, W.T., and Farach-Carson, M.C. Modulation of osteopontin post- translational

  19. Extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit regulates cell migration with implications in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Bellavista, Elena; Liepe, Juliane; Verderio, Claudia; Martucci, Morena; Santoro, Aurelia; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Luca Gigliotti, Casimiro; Boggio, Elena; Ferrara, Benedetta; Riganti, Loredana; Keller, Christin; Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Fenoglio, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Cantello, Roberto; Kloetzel, Peter M.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Galimberti, Daniela; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Mishto, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in several diseases including multiple sclerosis. Secreted osteopontin is cleaved by few known proteases, modulating its pro-inflammatory activities. Here we show by in vitro experiments that secreted osteopontin can be processed by extracellular proteasomes, thereby producing fragments with novel chemotactic activity. Furthermore, osteopontin reduces the release of proteasomes in the extracellular space. The latter phenomenon seems to occur in vivo in multiple sclerosis, where it reflects the remission/relapse alternation. The extracellular proteasome-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent a general mechanism to control inflammation in inflammatory diseases. PMID:28276434

  20. Osteopontin: A novel regulator at the cross roads of inflammation, obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, Florian; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since its first description more than 20 years ago osteopontin has emerged as an active player in many physiological and pathological processes, including biomineralization, tissue remodeling and inflammation. As an extracellular matrix protein and proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin is thought to facilitate the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and to mediate cytokine secretion in leukocytes. Modulation of immune cell response by osteopontin has been associated with various inflammatory diseases and may play a pivotal role in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we summarize recent findings on the role of osteopontin in metabolic disorders, particularly focusing on diabetes and obesity. PMID:24944898

  1. Extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit regulates cell migration with implications in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, Chiara; Bellavista, Elena; Liepe, Juliane; Verderio, Claudia; Martucci, Morena; Santoro, Aurelia; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Luca Gigliotti, Casimiro; Boggio, Elena; Ferrara, Benedetta; Riganti, Loredana; Keller, Christin; Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Fenoglio, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Cantello, Roberto; Kloetzel, Peter M; Stumpf, Michael P H; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Galimberti, Daniela; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Mishto, Michele

    2017-03-09

    Osteopontin is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in several diseases including multiple sclerosis. Secreted osteopontin is cleaved by few known proteases, modulating its pro-inflammatory activities. Here we show by in vitro experiments that secreted osteopontin can be processed by extracellular proteasomes, thereby producing fragments with novel chemotactic activity. Furthermore, osteopontin reduces the release of proteasomes in the extracellular space. The latter phenomenon seems to occur in vivo in multiple sclerosis, where it reflects the remission/relapse alternation. The extracellular proteasome-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent a general mechanism to control inflammation in inflammatory diseases.

  2. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination with carrier-bound Bet v 1 peptides lacking allergen-specific T cell epitopes reduces Bet v 1-specific T cell responses via blocking antibodies in a murine model for birch pollen allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, B; Narayanan, M; Focke-Tejkl, M; Wrba, F; Vrtala, S; Valenta, R

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccines consisting of allergen-derived peptides lacking IgE reactivity and allergen-specific T cell epitopes bound to allergen-unrelated carrier molecules have been suggested as candidates for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Objective To study whether prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination with carrier-bound peptides from the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 lacking allergen-specific T cell epitopes has influence on Bet v 1-specific T cell responses. Methods Three Bet v 1-derived peptides, devoid of Bet v 1-specific T cell epitopes, were coupled to KLH and adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide to obtain a Bet v 1-specific allergy vaccine. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with the peptide vaccine before or after sensitization to Bet v 1. Bet v 1- and peptide-specific antibody responses were analysed by ELISA. T cell and cytokine responses to Bet v 1, KLH, and the peptides were studied in proliferation assays. The effects of peptide-specific and allergen-specific antibodies on T cell responses and allergic lung inflammation were studied using specific antibodies. Results Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination with carrier-bound Bet v 1 peptides induced a Bet v 1-specific IgG antibody response without priming/boosting of Bet v 1-specific T cells. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination of mice with the peptide vaccine induced Bet v 1-specific antibodies which suppressed Bet v 1-specific T cell responses and allergic lung inflammation. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Vaccination with carrier-bound allergen-derived peptides lacking allergen-specific T cell epitopes induces allergen-specific IgG antibodies which suppress allergen-specific T cell responses and allergic lung inflammation. PMID:24447086

  3. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  4. An Investigation of the Interrelationships Among Certain Specific Predictor Variables and Two College Bound High School Student Reading Enhancement Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph Carlton; Jacobson, Milton D.

    The general reading attainment realized by 44 college-bound senior high school students in a 12-week program was studied. The effects of intelligence, sex, race, high school attended, college board scores, age, college choice, and socioeconomic status on the criterion variables of reading rate, vocabulary, and comprehension were also studied. The…

  5. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  6. The adhesive and migratory effects of osteopontin are mediated via distinct cell surface integrins. Role of alpha v beta 3 in smooth muscle cell migration to osteopontin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, L; Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Cheresh, D A; Schwartz, S M; Giachelli, C M

    1995-01-01

    Osteopontin is an arginine-glycine-aspartate containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate adhesion, migration, and biomineralization in diverse tissues. The mechanisms explaining this multifunctionality are not well understood, although it is known that one osteopontin receptor is the alpha v beta 3 integrin. In this work, we studied human smooth muscle cells varying in alpha v beta 3 levels to identify additional osteopontin receptors. We report that, in addition to alpha v beta 3, both alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 are osteopontin receptors. Moreover, the presence or absence of alpha v beta 3 on the cell surface altered the adhesive and migratory responses of smooth muscle cells to osteopontin. Adhesion of alpha v beta 3-deficient cell populations to osteopontin was only half that of cells containing alpha v beta 3, and migration toward an osteopontin gradient in the Boyden chamber was dependent on cell surface alpha v beta 3. Although alpha v beta 3-deficient smooth muscle cells were unable to migrate to osteopontin, they did migrate significantly in response to vitronectin and fibronectin. These findings represent the first description of alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 as osteopontin receptors and suggest that, while adhesion to osteopontin is supported by integrins containing beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5, migration in response to osteopontin appears to depend on alpha v beta 3. Thus, interaction with distinct receptors is one mechanism by which osteopontin may initiate multiple functions. Images PMID:7532190

  7. Extracellular matrix remodelling in myocardial hypertrophy and failure : focus on osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Francia, Pietro; Uccellini, Arianna; Frattari, Alessandra; Modestino, Anna; Ricotta, Agnese; Balla, Cristina; Scialla, Ludovica; Volpe, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    Cardiac remodelling refers to molecular and cellular changes of the myocardium, as well as adapting alterations in size, shape and function of the heart in response to changing loading conditions. It represents the final common pathway of different heart diseases, and is recognized as a crucial aspect of cardiac and myocardial dysfunction and a well established determinant of the clinical course of heart failure.Osteopontin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein secreted by osteoblasts, osteoclasts, macrophages, T cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. Osteopontin is not expressed in healthy cardiac tissue, although its expression can be triggered by pressure or volume overload, hypoxia and angiotensin II. Indeed, osteopontin has been reported in macrophages and interstitial tissues early after myocardial infarction and in cardiac macrophage-like cells of inflammatory lesions in experimental models of cardiomyopathy. Pressure overload is associated with osteopontin overexpression as well. Indeed, myocardial osteopontin messenger RNA is upregulated in rats following renovascular hypertension or aortic banding. In humans, a significant correlation exists between increased osteopontin immunoreactivity in cardiac myocytes and impaired left ventricular function or cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.The present article focuses on the role of osteopontin in myocardial hypertrophy and remodelling. In general, evidence supports the concept that osteopontin plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix remodelling following myocardial adaptation to hypertrophic, inflammatory and neurohormonal stimuli in the overloaded heart.

  8. Visualization of the genomic loci that are bound by specific multiprotein complexes by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis on Drosophila polytene chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huai; Kerppola, Tom K

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a procedure that visualizes the genomic loci that are bound by complexes formed by a specific combination of chromatin-binding proteins. This procedure is based on imaging bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) complexes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. BiFC complexes are formed by the facilitated association of two fluorescent protein fragments that are fused to proteins that interact with, or are in close proximity to, each other. The intensity of BiFC complex fluorescence at individual genomic loci is greatly enhanced by the parallel alignment of hundreds of chromatids within the polytene chromosomes. The loci that are bound by the complexes are mapped by comparing the locations of BiFC complex fluorescence with the stereotypical banding patterns of the chromosomes. We describe strategies for the design, expression and validation of fusion proteins for the analysis of BiFC complex binding on polytene chromosomes. We detail protocols for the preparation of polytene chromosome spreads that have been optimized for the purpose of BiFC complex visualization. Finally, we provide guidance for the interpretation of results from studies of BiFC complex binding on polytene chromosomes and for comparison of the genomic loci that are bound by BiFC complexes with those that are bound by subunits of the corresponding endogenous complexes. The visualization of BiFC complex binding on polytene chromosomes provides a unique method to visualize multiprotein complex binding at specific loci, throughout the genome, in individual cells. PMID:28336073

  9. Osteopontin and allergic disease: pathophysiology and implications for diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Denis F; Weiss, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoglycoprotein that is expressed by various immune cells in a secreted and intracellular form. It has cytokine, chemotactic and cell signaling functions enhancing Th1 and Th17 immunity and protects against apoptosis. Recent studies found OPN to be modulatory in cell-mediated and immediate-type allergic diseases. In allergic asthma, OPN enhances sensitization but downmodulates Th2-driven IL-4-dominated inflammation. The finding that OPN expression is augmented during specific immunotherapy supports a Th2 suppressive effect of OPN. In Th1-driven delayed-type allergy, such as allergic contact dermatitis, OPN supports dendritic cell migration and IL-12 expression and is secreted by T effector cells and keratinocytes, augmenting Th1-mediated allergy and supporting disease chronification. There are numerous missing links as to how OPN variants modulate allergic inflammation through different OPN receptors. OPN research in allergy is an interesting, rapidly expanding field that has high potential for translational research.

  10. Osteopontin is a multi-faceted pro-tumorigenic driver for central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Doeppler, Heike; Marlow, Laura A.; Kim, Betty Y.S.; Radisky, Derek C.; Storz, Peter; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is the most upregulated gene in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) compared to non-CNS diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We show here that OPN is a key mediator of intracerebral tumor growth, invasion, and dissemination in CNS lymphoma, and that these effects depend upon activation of NF-κB. We further show that activation of NF-κB by OPN occurs through a unique mechanism in which intracellular OPN (iOPN) causes transcriptional downregulation of the NF-κB inhibitors, A20/TNFAIP3 and ABIN1/TNIP1, and secretory OPN (sOPN) promotes receptor-mediated activation of NF-κB. We also identify NF-κB-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) as a specific feature of OPN-mediated tissue invasion. These results implicate OPN as a candidate for development of targeted therapy for patients with PCNSL. PMID:27050077

  11. Osteopontin: Relation between Adipose Tissue and Bone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Viggiano, Emanuela; Valenzano, Anna; Esposito, Teresa; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein mainly associated with bone metabolism and remodeling. Besides its physiological functions, OPN is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, such as obesity and osteoporosis. Importantly, during the last decades obesity and osteoporosis have become among the main threats to health worldwide. Because OPN is a protein principally expressed in cells with multifaceted effects on bone morphogenesis and remodeling and because it seems to be one of the most overexpressed genes in the adipose tissue of the obese contributing to osteoporosis, this mini review will highlight recent insights about relation between adipose tissue and bone homeostasis. PMID:28194185

  12. Fetuin, Matrix-Gla Protein and Osteopontin in Calcification of Renal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Johan M.; Martino, Filippo; Scheffner, Irina; Bröcker, Verena; Leitolf, Holger; Haller, Hermann; Gwinner, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcification of renal allografts is common in the first year after transplantation and is related to hyperparathyroidism. It is associated with an impaired long-term function of the graft (Am J Transplant 5∶1934-41, 2005). Aim of this study is to examine the role of the anti-calcifying/calcifying factors in the pathophysiology of renal allograft calcification. Methods We analyzed protocol allograft biopsies, blood and urine samples of 31 patients with and 27 patients without allograft calcification taken at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after transplantation. Patient demographical data, cold ischemia time, initial graft function and donor characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Biopsies were stained for osteopontin, fetuin, and matrix-gla-protein. Serum and urine electrolytes, matrix-gla-protein, fetuin, Vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone in serum and osteopontin (OPN) in urine were examined. Results Serum levels of fetuin and matrix-Gla protein as well as urinary levels of OPN showed specific time dependent changes (6 weeks vs. 3 months vs. 6 months; all p<0.0001). In patients with calcifications, urinary levels of OPN were decreased by 55% at 6 weeks and increased thereafter, showing 54% higher levels at 6 months compared to patients without calcification (6 weeks: p<0.01, 6 months: p<0.05). Local protein expression of fetuin-A, matrix-Gla protein and OPN in the graft was specifically increased around calcified plaques, without differences in the mRNA tissue expression. Conclusion Anticalcifying factors show significant changes in the early phase after renal transplantation, which may be important for the prevention of allograft calcification. The differences in OPN indicate an involvement of this factor in the regulation of calcification. PMID:23284864

  13. Fetuin, matrix-Gla protein and osteopontin in calcification of renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Johan M; Martino, Filippo; Scheffner, Irina; Bröcker, Verena; Leitolf, Holger; Haller, Hermann; Gwinner, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Calcification of renal allografts is common in the first year after transplantation and is related to hyperparathyroidism. It is associated with an impaired long-term function of the graft (Am J Transplant 5∶1934-41, 2005). Aim of this study is to examine the role of the anti-calcifying/calcifying factors in the pathophysiology of renal allograft calcification. We analyzed protocol allograft biopsies, blood and urine samples of 31 patients with and 27 patients without allograft calcification taken at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after transplantation. Patient demographical data, cold ischemia time, initial graft function and donor characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Biopsies were stained for osteopontin, fetuin, and matrix-gla-protein. Serum and urine electrolytes, matrix-gla-protein, fetuin, Vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone in serum and osteopontin (OPN) in urine were examined. Serum levels of fetuin and matrix-Gla protein as well as urinary levels of OPN showed specific time dependent changes (6 weeks vs. 3 months vs. 6 months; all p<0.0001). In patients with calcifications, urinary levels of OPN were decreased by 55% at 6 weeks and increased thereafter, showing 54% higher levels at 6 months compared to patients without calcification (6 weeks: p<0.01, 6 months: p<0.05). Local protein expression of fetuin-A, matrix-Gla protein and OPN in the graft was specifically increased around calcified plaques, without differences in the mRNA tissue expression. Anticalcifying factors show significant changes in the early phase after renal transplantation, which may be important for the prevention of allograft calcification. The differences in OPN indicate an involvement of this factor in the regulation of calcification.

  14. Serum Midkine and Osteopontin Levels as Diagnostic Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hodeib, Hossam; ELshora, Ola; Selim, Amal; Sabry, Nesreen Mohammed; EL-ashry, Heba Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver; it is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein which is implicated in enhancing invasive and metastatic progression of many tumors. Midkine (MDK) is a 13-kDa small heparin-binding growth factor which plays a significant role in carcinogenesis related activities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of serum Midkine and Osteopontin levels as diagnostic biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Methods This study was carried out from January 2014 to January 2016 in Internal Medicine, Clinical Oncology and Tropical Medicine Departments of Tanta University Hospital (Egypt). One hundred forty subjects were enrolled in our study, they were divided into four groups: Group I included 35 patients presented with HCV without cirrhosis; Group II included 35 patients presented with HCV with liver cirrhosis; Group III included 35 patients presented with HCC on top of cirrhosis; and Group IV included 35 apparently healthy subjects as a control group. The studied groups were age and sex matched. Routine and specific (OPN and MDK) laboratory investigations were performed in all included subjects. Results The main finding of the present work was that the mean serum levels of OPN and MDK were significantly elevated in HCC patients either by comparing HCC patients vs. HCV patients without cirrhosis, HCC patients vs. HCV patients with cirrhosis or HCC patients vs. healthy subjects. Interestingly, by performing a ROC analysis, serum MDK levels had better sensitivity and specificity than OPN and AFP levels in the diagnosis of HCC (98.4 %, 97.1% and 97%) and (96.2%, 95.3% and 95%) for MDK, OPN and AFP respectively. Conclusion Serum MDK and OPN levels are comparable to AFP levels and could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers of HCC in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis and in the prediction of liver cirrhosis in HCV patients without cirrhosis

  15. Prognostic values of osteopontin-c, E-cadherin and β-catenin in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hui; Lu, Hailing; Song, Hongtao; Meng, Qingwei; Zhao, Yanbin; Liu, Na; Lan, Fei; Liu, Ying; Yan, Suhong; Dong, Xiaoqun; Cai, Li

    2013-12-01

    To determine the correlation of cell adhesion molecules (osteopontin-c, E-cadherin and β-catenin) with clinicopathological characteristics in breast cancer. Immunostaining of osteopontin-c, E-cadherin and β-catenin were conducted in 170 samples of breast cancer and 30 samples of adjacent normal breast tissues. The correlation of osteopontin-c, E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level with clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by Pearson's chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Univariate and multivariate Cox hazard regression model was used to assess the prognostic values of osteopontin-c, E-cadherin and β-catenin in clinical outcome of breast cancer. A higher level of osteopontin-c whereas lower levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin were observed in breast cancer as compared with the normal breast tissues. The expression of osteopontin-c was negatively associated with the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. The expression of osteopontin-c correlated with lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage and histologic grade. The expression of E-cadherin correlated with low histologic grade; and β-catenin with low TNM stage and histological grade. Moreover, high osteopontin-c level correlated with tumor recurrence or metastasis as well as triple negative subtype. The expression of osteopontin-c was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and overall survival of breast cancer patients. The data suggest that the expression of osteopontin-c could serve as a prognostic factor of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Up-Regulation and Profibrotic Role of Osteopontin in Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Annie; Gibson, Kevin; Cisneros, José; Richards, Thomas J; Yang, Yinke; Becerril, Carina; Yousem, Samueal; Herrera, Iliana; Ruiz, Victor; Selman, Moisés; Kaminski, Naftali

    2005-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Methods and Findings Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to αvβ3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-αvβ3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. Conclusions Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease. PMID:16128620

  17. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching.

  18. Elevated Osteopontin Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Yin, Xue Song; Guo, Hong; Han, Rong Kun; He, Rui Dong; Chi, Li Jun

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the function of OPN in AD and MCI progression is not well defined. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from 35 AD patients, 31 MCI patients, and 20 other noninflammatory neurologic diseases (OND). Concentrations of OPN in the CSF and plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During a 3-year clinical followup, 13 MCI patients converted to AD (MCI converters), and 18 were clinically stable (MCI nonconverters). CSF OPN concentrations were significantly increased in AD and MCI converters compared to OND, and increased levels of OPN in AD were associated with MMSE score; OPN protein levels both in the CSF and plasma of newly diagnosed AD patients were higher than that of chronical patients. In MCI converters individuals tested longitudinally, both plasma and CSF OPN concentrations were significantly elevated when they received a diagnosis of AD during followup. Further wide-scale studies are necessary to confirm these results and to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in AD. PMID:23576854

  19. Sarafotoxin S6c is a relatively weak displacer of specifically bound /sup 125/I-endothelin

    SciTech Connect

    Nayler, W.G.; Gu, X.H.; Casley, D.J.

    1989-05-30

    Sarafotoxin S6a, S6b and S6c are chemically related vasoconstrictor polypeptides obtained from the venom of the snake, Atractaspis engaddensis. Each contains twenty one amino acid residues, two intrachain cysteine linkages and a long hydrophobic tail. Structurally these polypeptides resemble endothelin. Binding studies with /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that /sup 125/I-endothelin bound to rat ventricular membranes is totally displaceable by sarafotoxin S6b and endothelin, with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.16 nM, respectively. Sarafotoxin S6c, which differs from sarafotoxin S6b in containing threonine instead of serine at residue 2, arginine instead of lysine at residue 4, and glutamic acid instead of lysine at residue 9, only weakly displaced bound /sup 125/I-endothelin (IC50, 854 nM). These results indicate that the ability of the sarafotoxins to interact with the endothelin binding site is not solely dependent on the long hydrophobic tail or the cysteine linkages.

  20. Two distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs—functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Terrak, Mohammed; Wu, Guanming; Stafford, Walter F.; Lu, Renne C.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no longer interacts with the IQ motif, resulting in an extended conformation of Mlc1p. The two light chain structures relate to two distinct subfamilies of IQ motifs, one of which does not interact with the N-lobes of calmodulin-like light chains. The correlation between light chain structure and IQ sequence is demonstrated further by sedimentation velocity analysis of complexes of Mlc1p with IQ motifs from Myo2p and Iqg1p. The resulting ‘free’ N-lobes of myosin light chains in the extended conformation could mediate the formation of ternary complexes during protein localization and/or partner recruitment. PMID:12554638

  1. Tumor-derived osteopontin isoforms cooperate with TRP53 and CCL2 to promote lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Giopanou, Ioanna; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Agalioti, Theodora; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Spella, Magda; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-01-01

    The lungs are ubiquitous receptacles of metastases originating from various bodily tumors. Although osteopontin (SPP1) has been associated with tumor dissemination, the role of its isoforms in lung-directed metastasis is incompletely understood. We employed syngeneic mouse models of spontaneous and induced lung-targeted metastasis in C57BL/6 mice competent and deficient in both Spp1 alleles. Tumor-derived osteopontin expression was modulated using either stable anti-Spp1 RNA interference, or forced overexpression of intracellular and secreted Spp1 isoforms. Identified osteopontin's downstream partners were validated using lung adenocarcinoma cells conditionally lacking the Trp53 gene and Ccr2-deficient mice. We determined that host-derived osteopontin was dispensable for pulmonary colonization by different tumor types. Oppositely, tumor-originated intracellular osteopontin promoted tumor cell survival by preventing tumor-related protein 53-mediated apoptosis, while the secretory osteopontin functioned in a paracrine mode to accelerate lung metastasis by enhancing tumor-derived C-C-motif chemokine ligand 2 signaling to cognate host receptors. As new ways to target osteopontin signaling are becoming available, the cytokine may constitute an important therapeutic target against pulmonary involvement by cancers of other organs.

  2. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Hatoum, Hassan; Dy, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007) is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel). A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC. PMID:24399877

  3. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer - specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Hatoum, Hassan; Dy, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007) is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel). A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.

  4. The Role of Osteopontin in the Pathogenesis and Complications of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

    PubMed Central

    Talat, Mohamed A.; Sherief, Laila Metwaly; El-Saadany, Hosam Fathy; Rass, Anwar Ahmed; Saleh, Rabab M.; Sakr, Maha Mahmoud Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence. Osteopontin plays a significant role in the development and progression of several autoimmune diseases. Moreover, osteopontin promotes adipose tissue inflammation, dysfunction, and insulin resistance. To investigate the levels of serum osteopontin in pediatric patients with T1DM and to explore if these levels have a role in the prediction of diabetes complications. Methods: This was a case–control study conducted at the Endocrinology unit of the Children’s Hospital of Zagazig University in Egypt, from October 2014 to December 2015. Sixty patients with T1DM and 60 healthy subjects were enrolled. A detailed medical history was taken from all patients/parents. A full clinical examination including ophthalmoscopy was performed on all patients. Fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and serum osteopontin levels were also determined in all subjects. Results: Patients with T1DM had significantly higher serum osteopontin levels compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 13.7±3.4 μg/L vs. 8.9±2.9 μg/L, p<0.001). Also, serum osteopontin concentrations were higher in patients with microalbuminuria than in patients with normal albumin excretion rate and in the control group. Similarly, those who had retinal disease had higher osteopontin concentrations than those without (16.8±2 vs. 12.4±3 mg/L; p=0.005). Serum osteopontin levels correlated with a diagnosis of T1DM, and in diabetic patients, correlated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index values and with lower high density lipoprotein values, diagnosis of retinopathy, and microalbuminuria. No correlation was found between osteopontin levels and HbA1c, insulin dose, co-medications, and diabetes duration in T1DM patients. The association between high osteopontin levels and T1DM was independent from all confounders

  5. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed Central

    Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik

    2017-01-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions. PMID:28765824

  6. Is nonhomogeneous expression of tissue mast cells or allergen specific IgEs bound to tissue mast cells possible?

    PubMed

    Türk, Murat; Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik; Yılmaz, İnsu

    2017-07-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are widely used to demonstrate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to a specific allergen. However, local allergic conditions cannot be diagnosed with SPTs. Local specific IgE production was only presented before in mucosal tissues. We present a patient with house dust mite sensitization that had variable SPTs results in different body regions.

  7. Altered specificity of single-chain antibody fragments bound to pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza virus after conversion of the phage-bound to the soluble form.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Okutani, Akiko; Inoue, Satoshi; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Hotta, Akitoyo; Suzuki, Michio; Sugiura, Naoko; Yamada, Akio

    2012-09-04

    In 2009, a novel influenza A/H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm) quickly spread worldwide and co-circulated with then-existing seasonal H1N1 virus (sH1N1). Distinguishing between these 2 viruses was necessary to better characterize the epidemiological properties of the emergent virus, including transmission patterns, pathogenesis, and anti-influenza drug resistance. This situation prompted us to develop a point-of-care virus differentiation system before entering the 2009-2010 influenza season. Aiming to establish H1N1pdm-specific detection tools rapidly, we employed phage display libraries to select H1N1pdm-specific single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Human single-fold scFv libraries (Tomlinson I + J) underwent selection for the ability to bind H1N1pdm virus particles. Three rounds of panning brought 1152 phage-bound scFvs, of which 58 clones reacted with H1N1pdm specifically or preferentially over sH1N1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After conversion of the scFvs to soluble form, 7 clones demonstrating high/stable expression were finally obtained. However, all the soluble scFvs except No. 29 were found to have lost their specificity/preference for H1N1pdm in ELISA. The specificity/preference of No. 29 was also confirmed by immunofluorescence assay and immunoprecipitation, and the viral nucleoprotein was identified by ELISA as its target protein. The change in specificity associated with scFv conversion from phage-bound to soluble form could be due to loss of phage scaffold pIII protein, which likely provides structural support for the scFv antigen-binding site. It is also possible that the similar antigenic properties of H1N1pdm and sH1N1 led to the observed alterations in scFv specificity. Using a phage display library, we obtained 7 soluble scFv clones reactive against H1N1pdm; however, only 1 showed specificity/preference toward H1N1pdm. Our results confirmed that using phage display libraries was highly advantageous for the rapid development of

  8. Osteopontin Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, Davide; Boggio, Elena; Favero, Francesco; Soluri, Maria Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the immune response at multiple levels. Physiologically, it regulates the host response to infections by driving T helper (Th) polarization and acting on both innate and adaptive immunity; pathologically, it contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been described, but many aspects of the OPN function remain elusive. This is in part ascribable to the fact that OPN is a complex molecule with several posttranslational modifications and it may act as either an immobilized protein of the extracellular matrix or a soluble cytokine or an intracytoplasmic molecule by binding to a wide variety of molecules including crystals of calcium phosphate, several cell surface receptors, and intracytoplasmic molecules. This review describes the OPN structure, isoforms, and functions and its role in regulating the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in autoimmune diseases. PMID:28097158

  9. Tumorigenic properties of alternative osteopontin isoforms in mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Sergey V.; Ivanova, Alla V.; Goparaju, Chandra M.V.; Chen, Yuanbin; Beck, Amanda; Pass, Harvey I.

    2009-05-08

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is an inflammatory cytokine that we previously characterized as a diagnostic marker in patients with asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma (MM). While SPP1 shows both pro- and anti-tumorigenic biological effects, little is known about the molecular basis of these activities. In this study, we demonstrate that while healthy pleura possesses all three differentially spliced SPP1 isoforms (A-C), in clinical MM specimens isoform A is markedly up-regulated and predominant. To provide a clue to possible functions of the SPP1 isoforms we next performed their functional evaluation via transient expression in MM cell lines. As a result, we report that isoforms A-C demonstrate different activities in cell proliferation, wound closure, and invasion assays. These findings suggest different functions for SPP1 isoforms and underline pro-tumorigenic properties of isoforms A and B.

  10. Effects of Hypergravity on Osteopontin Expression in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuai; Zu, Yan; Sun, Zhenglong; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Yang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli play crucial roles in bone remodeling and resorption. Osteopontin (OPN), a marker for osteoblasts, is important in cell communication and matrix mineralization, and is known to function during mechanotransduction. Hypergravity is a convenient approach to forge mechanical stimuli on cells. It has positive effects on certain markers of osteoblast maturation, making it a possible strategy for bone tissue engineering. We investigated the effects of hypergravity on OPN expression and cell signaling in osteoblasts. Hypergravity treatment at 20 g for 24 hours upregulated OPN expression in MC3T3-E1 cells at the protein as well as mRNA level. Hypergravity promoted OPN expression by facilitating focal adhesion assembly, strengthening actin bundles, and increasing Runx2 expression. In the hypergravity-triggered OPN expression pathway, focal adhesion assembly-associated FAK phosphorylation was upstream of actin bundle assembly. PMID:26046934

  11. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  12. Osteopontin, a protein with cytokine-like properties: a possible involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baroni, A; De Filippis, A; Buommino, E; Satriano, R A; Cozza, V

    2012-04-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by severe and chronic course, histopathologically characterized by infiltration of a large quantity of eosinophils, neutrophils, and activated Th1 and Th2 cells around the blister. Polarization of Th cells to Th1 or Th2 phenotypes, a critical aspect of cell-mediated immunity, is influenced by production of early cytokines, including osteopontin. To determine the involvement of osteopontin in pemphigus vulgaris patients in active stage of the disease, auto-antibodies to desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3 and plasmatic osteopontin levels were examined by ELISA tests. In this work, significant plasmatic level of osteopontin in PV patients with active stage of disease were found particularly in those patients with both skin and oral pemphigus. OPN might drive the immune responses playing an important role in pemphigus onset.

  13. The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    DAMD17-96-1-6075 TITLE: The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATION: Dr. Frances O’Malley Alan B. Tuck...1997 Annual (I Jun 96 - 31 May 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma DAMD17...OPN in the malignancy of human breast cancer will be of potential importance not only in the interpretation of prognostic information gained through

  14. Administering and Assessing Culture-Specific Interventions to Address Culture-Bound Issues among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Josephine M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how researchers can design and use a culture-sensitive intervention model to inform and influence attitudes of various cultural groups toward seeking professional counseling services. Special emphasis is given to the implications of culture specificity in the processes of designing and conducting intervention studies with…

  15. Osteopontin protects against high phosphate-induced nephrocalcinosis and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Paloian, Neil J; Leaf, Elizabeth M; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2016-05-01

    Pathologic calcification is a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. The precise mechanisms of ectopic calcification are not fully elucidated, but it is known to be caused by an imbalance of procalcific and anticalcific factors. In the chronic kidney disease population, an elevated phosphate burden is both highly prevalent and a known risk factor for ectopic calcification. Here we tested whether osteopontin, an inhibitor of calcification, protects against high phosphate load-induced nephrocalcinosis and vascular calcification. Osteopontin knockout mice were placed on a high phosphate diet for 11 weeks. Osteopontin deficiency together with phosphate overload caused uremia, nephrocalcinosis characterized by substantial renal tubular and interstitial calcium deposition, and marked vascular calcification when compared with control mice. Although the osteopontin-deficient mice did not exhibit hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia, they did show abnormalities in the mineral metabolism hormone fibroblast growth factor-23. Thus, endogenous osteopontin plays a critical role in the prevention of phosphate-induced nephrocalcinosis and vascular calcification in response to high phosphate load. A better understanding of osteopontin's role in phosphate-induced calcification will hopefully lead to better biomarkers and therapies for this disease, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease and other at-risk populations.

  16. A specific CD4 epitope bound by tregalizumab mediates activation of regulatory T cells by a unique signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Bianca; König, Martin; Dälken, Benjamin; Engling, Andre; Krömer, Wolfgang; Heim, Katharina; Wallmeier, Holger; Haas, Jürgen; Wildemann, Brigitte; Fritz, Brigitte; Jonuleit, Helmut; Kubach, Jan; Dingermann, Theodor; Radeke, Heinfried H; Osterroth, Frank; Uherek, Christoph; Czeloth, Niklas; Schüttrumpf, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a specialized subpopulation of T cells, which are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. The immunomodulatory effects of Tregs depend on their activation status. Here we show that, in contrast to conventional anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the humanized CD4-specific monoclonal antibody tregalizumab (BT-061) is able to selectively activate the suppressive properties of Tregs in vitro. BT-061 activates Tregs by binding to CD4 and activation of signaling downstream pathways. The specific functionality of BT-061 may be explained by the recognition of a unique, conformational epitope on domain 2 of the CD4 molecule that is not recognized by other anti-CD4 mAbs. We found that, due to this special epitope binding, BT-061 induces a unique phosphorylation of T-cell receptor complex-associated signaling molecules. This is sufficient to activate the function of Tregs without activating effector T cells. Furthermore, BT-061 does not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results demonstrate that BT-061 stimulation via the CD4 receptor is able to induce T-cell receptor-independent activation of Tregs. Selective activation of Tregs via CD4 is a promising approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases where insufficient Treg activity has been described. Clinical investigation of this new approach is currently ongoing. PMID:25512343

  17. A Locus on Chromosome 7 Determines Dramatic Up-Regulation of Osteopontin in Dystrophic Cardiac Calcification in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Axtner, Susanne B.; Kaczmarek, Piotr M.; Jurat, Alexandra; Korff, Susanne; Doehring, Lars C.; Weichenhan, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Ivandic, Boris T.

    2004-01-01

    Calcification of necrotic tissue is frequently observed in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis. A similar response of myocardium to injury, referred to as dystrophic cardiac calcinosis (DCC), occurs in certain inbred strains of mice. We now examined a putative inhibitor of calcification, osteopontin, in DCC after transdiaphragmal myocardial freeze-thaw injury. Strong osteopontin expression was found co-localizing with calcification in DCC-susceptible strain C3H/HeNCrlBr, which exhibited low osteopontin plasma concentrations otherwise. Osteopontin mRNA induction was 20-fold higher than in resistant strain C57BL/6NCrlBr, which exhibited fibrous lesions without calcification and little osteopontin expression. Sequence analysis identified several polymorphisms in calcium-binding and phosphorylation sites in osteopontin cDNA. Their potential relevance for DCC was tested in congenic mice, which shared the osteopontin locus with C57BL/6NCrlBr, but retained a chromosomal segment from C3H/HeNCrlBr on proximal chromosome 7. These mice exhibited strong osteopontin expression and DCC comparable to C3H/HeNCrlBr suggesting that a trans-activator of osteopontin transcription residing on chromosome 7 and not the osteopontin gene on chromosome 5 was responsible for the genetic differences in osteopontin expression. A known osteopontin activator encoded by a gene on chromosome 7 is the transforming growth factor-β1, which was more induced (3.5×) in C3H/HeNCrlBr than in C57BL/6NCrlBr mice. PMID:15039225

  18. Sliding of Proteins Non-specifically Bound to DNA: Brownian Dynamics Studies with Coarse-Grained Protein and DNA Models

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Tadashi; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    DNA binding proteins efficiently search for their cognitive sites on long genomic DNA by combining 3D diffusion and 1D diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. Recent experimental results and theoretical analyses revealed that the proteins show a rotation-coupled sliding along DNA helical pitch. Here, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations using newly developed coarse-grained protein and DNA models for evaluating how hydrodynamic interactions between the protein and DNA molecules, binding affinity of the protein to DNA, and DNA fluctuations affect the one dimensional diffusion of the protein on the DNA. Our results indicate that intermolecular hydrodynamic interactions reduce 1D diffusivity by 30%. On the other hand, structural fluctuations of DNA give rise to steric collisions between the CG-proteins and DNA, resulting in faster 1D sliding of the protein. Proteins with low binding affinities consistent with experimental estimates of non-specific DNA binding show hopping along the CG-DNA. This hopping significantly increases sliding speed. These simulation studies provide additional insights into the mechanism of how DNA binding proteins find their target sites on the genome. PMID:25504215

  19. Functional Specificity of a Protein-DNA Complex Mediated by Two Arginines Bound to the Minor Groove

    PubMed Central

    Mendieta, Jesús; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Salas, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    A bacteriophage Ø29 transcriptional regulator, protein p4, interacts with its DNA target by employing two mechanisms: by direct readout of the chemical signatures of only one DNA base and by inducing local modification on the topology of short A tracts (indirect readout). p4 binds as a dimer to targets consisting of imperfect inverted repeats. Here we used molecular dynamic simulation to define interactions of a cluster of 12 positively charged amino acids of p4 with DNA and biochemical assays with modified DNA targets and mutated proteins to quantify the contribution of residues in the nucleoprotein complex. Our results show the implication of Arg54, with non-base-specific interaction in the central A tract, in p4 binding affinity. Despite being chemically equivalent and in identical protein monomers, the two Arg54 residues differed in their interactions with DNA. We discuss an indirect-readout mechanism for p4-DNA recognition mediated by dissimilar interaction of arginines penetrating the minor groove and the inherent properties of the A tract. Our findings extend the current understanding of protein-DNA recognition and contribute to the relevance of the sequence-dependent conformational malleability of the DNA, shedding light on the role of arginines in binding affinity. Characterization of mutant p4R54A shows that the residue is required for the activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator. PMID:22753063

  20. A size-specific record of diatom-bound organic carbon isotopes over the Eocene/Oligocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heureux, Ana; Rickaby, Ros; Hermoso, Michael; Lee, Renee

    2013-04-01

    Marine diatoms, ubiquitous silicifying photosynthetic algae, are major contributors to marine primary production in the modern ocean. In all primary producers, the enzyme Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of carbon from CO2. Due to the low concentration and slow diffusion rates of CO2 as a substrate in naturally buffered seawater, most marine algae have evolved mechanisms for concentrating CO2 around the Rubisco enzyme. The efficiency of these carbon concentration mechanisms may be reflected in the carbon isotopes of organic matter preserved within sedimentary nannofossils, and is hypothesized to change in response to ambient CO2 concentration. As a first order investigation into the relationship between carbon concentration related to cell size and isotopic fractionation of carbon into organic matter, or ɛp, in response to changes in CO2, we have created a novel record from IODP site 1090 in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the marked temperature and gradual pCO2 decline across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Using size microseparation of diatom silica and established cleaning techniques to isolate organic material trapped inside the diatom frustules, this record provides a size fraction-specific account of ɛp from marine diatoms. Comparing these individual records with the bulk diatom record from this site elucidates the potential effects of size related carbon concentration on trends in ɛp across the E/O boundary and may reveal further insight into the magnitude of CO2 decline.

  1. Sliding of proteins non-specifically bound to DNA: Brownian dynamics studies with coarse-grained protein and DNA models.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tadashi; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    DNA binding proteins efficiently search for their cognitive sites on long genomic DNA by combining 3D diffusion and 1D diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. Recent experimental results and theoretical analyses revealed that the proteins show a rotation-coupled sliding along DNA helical pitch. Here, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations using newly developed coarse-grained protein and DNA models for evaluating how hydrodynamic interactions between the protein and DNA molecules, binding affinity of the protein to DNA, and DNA fluctuations affect the one dimensional diffusion of the protein on the DNA. Our results indicate that intermolecular hydrodynamic interactions reduce 1D diffusivity by 30%. On the other hand, structural fluctuations of DNA give rise to steric collisions between the CG-proteins and DNA, resulting in faster 1D sliding of the protein. Proteins with low binding affinities consistent with experimental estimates of non-specific DNA binding show hopping along the CG-DNA. This hopping significantly increases sliding speed. These simulation studies provide additional insights into the mechanism of how DNA binding proteins find their target sites on the genome.

  2. Osteopontin induces soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor production and release.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, R; Navalesi, P; Clemente, N; Boggio, E; Valsecchi, S; Olivieri, C; Soluri, M F; Kroumova, V; Fonio, P; Dinatale, C; Borrè, S; Fortina, G; Umberto, D; Della Corte, F; Chiocchetti, A

    2015-02-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) have been proposed as markers of disease severity and risk-stratification in infection and inflammation. In breast cancer, OPN and the membrane bound form of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are functionally related, as OPN-induced cell migration depends on uPAR triggering by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the kinetic of OPN and suPAR blood levels in patients developing septic shock (SS) compared to those not developing SS, and to investigate the relationships between these two biomarkers in immune cells in vitro. We measured the levels of OPN and suPAR for 15 days in forty-three patients, defined a priory as at risk to develop septic shock. Moreover, we investigated in vitro the effect of recombinant OPN on uPAR and suPAR expression in monocytes. We found that OPN and suPAR levels were directly correlated to each other both at intensive care unit admission and on the day patients met SIRS/sepsis or septic shock criteria. In patients developing septic shock, OPN increased prior to suPAR and was already detectable up to 4 days before the shock development. In vitro, OPN induced suPAR production in monocytes by increasing both uPAR gene expression, and suPAR release from the cell surface. These data suggest that OPN is partly responsible for the increased plasma levels of suPAR and might be a valuable tool to predict the occurrence of septic shock.

  3. Osteopontin Reduces Biofilm Formation in a Multi-Species Model of Dental Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Raarup, Merete K.; Wejse, Peter L.; Nyvad, Bente; Städler, Brigitte M.; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Birkedal, Henrik; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Combating dental biofilm formation is the most effective means for the prevention of caries, one of the most widespread human diseases. Among the chemical supplements to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures, non-bactericidal adjuncts that target the mechanisms of bacterial biofilm formation have gained increasing interest in recent years. Milk proteins, such as lactoferrin, have been shown to interfere with bacterial colonization of saliva-coated surfaces. We here study the effect of bovine milk osteopontin (OPN), a highly phosphorylated whey glycoprotein, on a multispecies in vitro model of dental biofilm. While considerable research effort focuses on the interaction of OPN with mammalian cells, there are no data investigating the influence of OPN on bacterial biofilms. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilms consisting of Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus downei and Streptococcus sanguinis were grown in a flow cell system that permitted in situ microscopic analysis. Crystal violet staining showed significantly less biofilm formation in the presence of OPN, as compared to biofilms grown without OPN or biofilms grown in the presence of caseinoglycomacropeptide, another phosphorylated milk protein. Confocal microscopy revealed that OPN bound to the surface of bacterial cells and reduced mechanical stability of the biofilms without affecting cell viability. The bacterial composition of the biofilms, determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, changed considerably in the presence of OPN. In particular, colonization of S. mitis, the best biofilm former in the model, was reduced dramatically. Conclusions/Significance OPN strongly reduces the amount of biofilm formed in a well-defined laboratory model of acidogenic dental biofilm. If a similar effect can be observed in vivo, OPN might serve as a valuable adjunct to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures. PMID:22879891

  4. Increased osteopontin and liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Honsawek, Sittisak; Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze plasma osteopontin levels and liver stiffness using transient elastography in postoperative biliary atresia (BA) children compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty children with postoperative BA and 10 normal controls were enrolled. The patients were categorized into two groups according to their jaundice status. Plasma levels of osteopontin were determined using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver stiffness was measured by using transient elastography (Fibroscan). Ten validated Fibroscan measurements were performed in each patient and control with the result expressed in kilopascals (kPa). RESULTS: Plasma osteopontin was significantly elevated in BA children compared with that of healthy controls (47.0 ± 56.4 ng/mL vs 15.1 ± 15.0 ng/mL, P = 0.01). The liver stiffness measurement was markedly elevated in the patients with BA compared with that of controls (26.9 ± 24.6 kPa vs 3.9 ± 0.7 kPa, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the BA patients with jaundice had more pronounced plasma osteopontin levels than those without jaundice (87.1 ± 61.6 ng/mL vs 11.9 ± 6.1 ng/mL, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the mean liver stiffness was significantly greater in the jaundiced BA patients compared with non-jaundiced patients (47.7 ± 21.8 kPa vs 8.7 ± 3.0 kPa, P = 0.001). Additionally, plasma osteopontin was positively related to serum total bilirubin (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). There was also a correlation between plasma osteopontin and liver stiffness values (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High plasma osteopontin positively correlated with degree of hepatic fibrosis and could be used as a biochemical parameter reflecting disease severity in postoperative BA children. PMID:21086566

  5. Hydrogen storage in a potassium-ion-bound metal-organic framework incorporating crown ether struts as specific cation binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae-Woon; Chyun, Seung An; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2014-07-21

    To develop a metal-organic framework (MOF) for hydrogen storage, SNU-200 incorporating a 18-crown-6 ether moiety as a specific binding site for selected cations has been synthesized. SNU-200 binds K(+), NH4(+), and methyl viologen (MV(2+)) through single-crystal to single-crystal transformations. It exhibits characteristic gas-sorption properties depending on the bound cation. SNU-200 activated with supercritical CO2 shows a higher isosteric heat (Qst) of H2 adsorption (7.70 kJ mol(-1)) than other zinc-based MOFs. Among the cation inclusions, K(+) is the best for enhancing the isosteric heat of the H2 adsorption (9.92 kJ mol(-1)) as a result of the accessible open metal sites on the K(+) ion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Osteopontin facilitates tumor metastasis by regulating epithelial–mesenchymal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rongjie; Liang, Yingchao; Chen, Rui; Liu, Guoke; Wang, Hao; Tang, Min; Zhou, Xuyu; Wang, Huajing; Yang, Yang; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Bohua; Song, Yipeng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Tumor metastasis leads to high mortality; therefore, understanding the mechanisms that underlie tumor metastasis is crucial. Generally seen as a secretory protein, osteopontin (OPN) is involved in multifarious pathophysiological events. Here, we present a novel pro-metastatic role of OPN during metastatic colonization. Unlike secretory OPN (sOPN), which triggers the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) to initiate cancer metastasis, intracellular/nuclear OPN (iOPN) induces the mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET) to facilitate the formation of metastases. Nuclear OPN is found to interact with HIF2α and impact the subsequent AKT1/miR-429/ZEB cascade. In vivo assays confirm that the progression of metastatic colonization is accompanied by the nuclear accumulation of OPN and the MET process. Furthermore, evidence of nuclear OPN in the lung metastases is exhibited in clinical specimens. Finally, VEGF in the microenvironment was shown to induce the translocation of OPN into the nucleus through a KDR/PLCγ/PKC-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results describe the pleiotropic roles of OPN in the tumor metastasis cascade, which indicate its potential as an effective target for both early and advanced tumors. PMID:28032860

  7. Senescent stromal-derived osteopontin promotes preneoplastic cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pazolli, Ermira; Luo, Xianmin; Brehm, Sarah; Carbery, Kelly; Chung, Jun-Jae; Prior, Julie L; Doherty, Jason; Demehri, Shadmehr; Salavaggione, Lorena; Piwnica-Worms, David; Stewart, Sheila A

    2009-02-01

    Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies showing that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent cells accumulate with age, their presence is hypothesized to facilitate preneoplastic cell growth and tumor formation in older individuals. To identify senescent stromal factors directly responsible for stimulating preneoplastic cell growth, we carried out whole-genome transcriptional profiling and compared senescent fibroblasts with their younger counterparts. We identified osteopontin (OPN) as one of the most highly elevated transcripts in senescent fibroblasts. Importantly, reduction of OPN protein levels by RNA interference did not affect senescence induction in fibroblasts; however, it dramatically reduced the growth-promoting activities of senescent fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, showing that OPN is necessary for paracrine stimulation of preneoplastic cell growth. In addition, we found that recombinant OPN was sufficient to stimulate preneoplastic cell growth. Finally, we show that OPN is expressed in senescent stroma within preneoplastic lesions that arise following 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of mice, suggesting that stromal-derived OPN-mediated signaling events affect neoplastic progression.

  8. Senescent Stromal-Derived Osteopontin Promotes Preneoplastic Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pazolli, Ermira; Luo, Xianmin; Brehm, Sarah; Carbery, Kelly; Chung, Jun-Jae; Prior, Julie L.; Doherty, Jason; Demehri, Shadmehr; Salavaggione, Lorena; Piwnica-Worms, David; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies demonstrating that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent cells accumulate with age, their presence is hypothesized to facilitate preneoplastic cell growth and tumor formation in older individuals. To identify senescent stromal factors directly responsible for stimulating preneoplastic cell growth, we carried out whole genome transcriptional profiling and compared senescent fibroblasts to their younger counterparts. We identified osteopontin (OPN) as one of the most highly elevated transcripts in senescent fibroblasts. Importantly, reduction of OPN protein levels by RNAi did not impact senescence induction in fibroblasts; however, it dramatically reduced the growth-promoting activities of senescent fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that OPN is necessary for paracrine stimulation of preneoplastic cell growth. In addition, we found that recombinant OPN was sufficient to stimulate preneoplastic cell growth. Finally, we demonstrate that OPN is expressed in senescent stroma within preneoplastic lesions that arise following DMBA/TPA treatment of mice, suggesting that stromal-derived OPN-mediated signaling events impact neoplastic progression. PMID:19155301

  9. Osteopontin Deficiency Alters Biliary Homeostasis and Protects against Gallstone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Shao, Wei-qing; Chen, Zong-you; Zhu, Wen-wei; Lu, Lu; Cai, Duan; Qin, Lun-xiu; Jia, Hu-liang; Lu, Ming; Chen, Jin-hong

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of excess biliary cholesterol as solid crystals is a prerequisite for cholesterol gallstone formation, which occurs due to disturbed biliary homeostasis. Biliary homeostasis is regulated by an elaborate network of genes in hepatocytes. If unmanaged, the cholesterol crystals will aggregate, fuse and form gallstones. We have previously observed that the levels of osteopontin (OPN) in bile and gallbladder were reduced in gallstone patients. However, the role and mechanism for hepatic OPN in cholesterol gallstone formation is undetermined. In this study, we found that the expression of hepatic OPN was increased in gallstone patients compared with gallstone-free counterparts. Then, we observed that OPN-deficient mice were less vulnerable to cholesterol gallstone formation than wild type mice. Further mechanistic studies revealed that this protective effect was associated with alterations of bile composition and was caused by the increased hepatic CYP7A1 expression and the reduced expression of hepatic SHP, ATP8B1, SR-B1 and SREBP-2. Finally, the correlations between the expression of hepatic OPN and the expression of these hepatic genes were validated in gallstone patients. Taken together, our findings reveal that hepatic OPN contributes to cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating biliary metabolism and might be developed as a therapeutic target for gallstone treatments. PMID:27484115

  10. RANKL, osteopontin, and osteoclast homeostasis in a hyperocclusion mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Cameron G.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Dangaria, Smit; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.

    2009-10-21

    The biological mechanisms that maintain the position of teeth in their sockets establish a dynamic equilibrium between bone resorption and apposition. In order to reveal some of the dynamics involved in the tissue responses towards occlusal forces on periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone homeostasis, we developed the first mouse model of hyperocclusion. Swiss-Webster mice were kept in hyperocclusion for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ground sections with fluorescent detection of vital dye labels. Sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traumatic occlusion resulted in enamel surface abrasion, inhibition of alveolar bone apposition, significant formation of osteoclasts at 3, 6 and 9 d, and upregulation of OPN and RANKL. Data from this study suggest that both OPN and RANKL contribute to the stimulation of bone resorption in the hyperocclusive state. In addition, we propose that the inhibition of alveolar bone apposition by occlusal forces is an important mechanism for the control of occlusal height that might work in synergy with RANKL-induced bone resorption to maintain normal occlusion.

  11. Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, G J W; Hoogerwerf, J J; de Vos, A F; Florquin, S; van der Poll, T

    2010-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein involved in inflammatory processes, some of which is mediated by CD44. The aim of this study was to determine the role of OPN during K. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. Wild-type (WT) and OPN knockout (KO) mice were intranasally infected with 10⁴ colony forming units of K. pneumoniae, or administered Klebsiella lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, recombinant OPN (rOPN) was intranasally administered to WT and CD44 KO mice. During Klebsiella pneumonia, WT mice displayed elevated pulmonary and plasma OPN levels. OPN KO and WT mice showed similar pulmonary bacterial loads 6 h after infection; thereafter, Klebsiella loads were higher in lungs of OPN KO mice and the mortality rate in this group was higher than in WT mice. Early neutrophil recruitment into the bronchoalveolar space was impaired in the absence of OPN after intrapulmonary delivery of either Klebsiella bacteria or Klebsiella LPS. Moreover, rOPN induced neutrophil migration into the bronchoalveolar space, independent from CD44. In vitro, OPN did not affect K. pneumoniae growth or neutrophil function. In conclusion, OPN levels were rapidly increased in the bronchoalveolar space during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, where OPN serves a chemotactic function towards neutrophils, thereby facilitating an effective innate immune response.

  12. Association between osteopontin and human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Muller, Juanita; Shephard, Neil; Clancy, Paula; Smallwood, Linda; Moran, Corey; Dear, Anthony E; Palmer, Lyle J; Norman, Paul E

    2007-03-01

    In vitro and animal studies have implicated osteopontin (OPN) in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. The relationship between serum concentration of OPN and variants of the OPN gene with human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was investigated. OPN genotypes were examined in 4227 subjects in which aortic diameter and clinical risk factors were measured. Serum OPN was measured by ELISA in two cohorts of 665 subjects. The concentration of serum OPN was independently associated with the presence of AAA. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for upper compared with lower OPN tertiles in predicting presence of AAA were 2.23 (1.29 to 3.85, P=0.004) for the population cohort and 4.08 (1.67 to 10.00, P=0.002) for the referral cohort after adjusting for other risk factors. In 198 patients with complete follow-up of aortic diameter at 3 years, initial serum OPN predicted AAA growth after adjustment for other risk factors (standardized coefficient 0.24, P=0.001). The concentration of OPN in the aortic wall was greater in patients with small AAAs (30 to 50 mm) than those with aortic occlusive disease alone. There was no association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of the OPN gene and aortic diameter or AAA expansion. Serum and tissue concentrations of OPN are associated with human AAA. We found no relationship between variation of the OPN gene and AAA. OPN may be a useful biomarker for AAA presence and growth.

  13. Osteopontin attenuates aging-associated phenotypes of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Novella; Sacma, Mehmet; Ständker, Ludger; Soller, Karin; Marka, Gina; Eiwen, Karina; Weiss, Johannes M; Kirchhoff, Frank; Weil, Tanja; Cancelas, Jose A; Florian, Maria Carolina; Geiger, Hartmut

    2017-04-03

    Upon aging, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo changes in function and structure, including skewing to myeloid lineages, lower reconstitution potential and loss of protein polarity. While stem cell intrinsic mechanisms are known to contribute to HSC aging, little is known on whether age-related changes in the bone marrow niche regulate HSC aging. Upon aging, the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in the murine bone marrow stroma is reduced. Exposure of young HSCs to an OPN knockout niche results in a decrease in engraftment, an increase in long-term HSC frequency and loss of stem cell polarity. Exposure of aged HSCs to thrombin-cleaved OPN attenuates aging of old HSCs, resulting in increased engraftment, decreased HSC frequency, increased stem cell polarity and a restored balance of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood. Thus, our data suggest a critical role for reduced stroma-derived OPN for HSC aging and identify thrombin-cleaved OPN as a novel niche informed therapeutic approach for ameliorating HSC phenotypes associated with aging. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  14. Sympathetic control of bone mass regulated by osteopontin

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Masashi; Feinstein, Timothy N.; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Notomi, Takuya; Saita, Yoshitomo; Hanyu, Ryo; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Izu, Yayoi; Takeda, Shu; Wang, Kathryn; Rittling, Susan; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Kazuo; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Karsenty, Gerard; Denhardt, David T.; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Noda, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system suppresses bone mass by mechanisms that remain incompletely elucidated. Using cell-based and murine genetics approaches, we show that this activity of the sympathetic nervous system requires osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine and one of the major members of the noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins of bone. In this work, we found that the stimulation of the sympathetic tone by isoproterenol increased the level of OPN expression in the plasma and bone and that mice lacking OPN (OPN-KO) suppressed the isoproterenol-induced bone loss by preventing reduced osteoblastic and enhanced osteoclastic activities. In addition, we found that OPN is necessary for changes in the expression of genes related to bone resorption and bone formation that are induced by activation of the sympathetic tone. At the cellular level, we showed that intracellular OPN modulated the capacity of the β2-adrenergic receptor to generate cAMP with a corresponding modulation of cAMP-response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation and associated transcriptional events inside the cell. Our results indicate that OPN plays a critical role in sympathetic tone regulation of bone mass and that this OPN regulation is taking place through modulation of the β2-adrenergic receptor/cAMP signaling system. PMID:21990347

  15. Evidence for proximal control of ligand specificity in hemeproteins: Absorption and Raman studies of cryogenically trapped photoproducts of ligand bound myoglobins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A. M.; Campbell, B. F.; Caruso, D.; Chance, M. R.; Chavez, M. D.; Courtney, S. H.; Friedman, J. M.; Iben, I. E. T.; Ondrias, M. R.; Yang, M.

    1991-12-01

    The absorption and resonance Raman spectra of cryogenically trapped photoproducts of oxy and carboxy derivatives of myoglobin (Mb) are compared and analyzed in an attempt to understand the structural basis for ligand specificity in hemeproteins. Pulsed and cw excitations over a wide temperature range are used in order to differentiate between kinetic hole burning (KHB), optical pumping of structural relaxation, and spontaneous relaxation effects. Using these techniques, we are able to correlate changes in the absorption spectrum (band III at ≈ 760 nm) with low-frequency Raman bands. Based on these correlations we are able to determine which proximal heme pocket parameters are participating in KHB and optical pumping phenomena. Differences in the spectra of the ligand specific photoproducts have revealed differences in the populations of conformational substates (CS) that participate in the geminate recombination (process I) at cryogenic temperatures. A model is presented that relates the ligand specific spectral differences to structural and functional differences in the bound protein. What emerges is evidence that Mb and hemoglobin (Hb) can differentiate between O 2 and CO based on proximal control of the bond forming step between the ligand and the iron.

  16. Osteopontin knockdown suppresses tumorigenicity of human metastatic breast carcinoma, MDA-MB-435

    PubMed Central

    Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.; Paik, Jason C.; Metge, Brandon J.; Chambers, Ann F.; Casey, Graham; Frost, Andra R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted phosphoglycoprotein, is frequently associated with many transformed cell lines. Various studies suggest that OPN may contribute to tumor progression as well as metastasis in multiple tumor types. High levels of OPN have been reported in patients with metastatic cancers, including breast. We found that the expression of OPN corroborates with the aggressive phenotype of the breast cancer cells i.e. the expression of OPN is acquired as the breast cancer cells become more aggressive. To assess the role(s) of OPN in breast carcinoma, expression of endogenous OPN was knocked down in metastatic MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells using RNA interference. We targeted multiple regions of the OPN transcript for RNA interference, along with ‘scrambled’ and ‘non-targeting siRNA pool’ controls to distinguish between target-specific and potential off-target effects including interferon-response gene (PeIF2-α) induction. The OPN knockdown by shRNA suppressed tumor take in immunocompromised mice. The ‘silenced’ cells also showed significantly lower invasion and migration in modified Boyden chamber assays and reduced ability to grow in soft agar. Thus, in addition to the widely reported roles of OPN in late stages of tumor progression, these results provide functional evidence that OPN contributes to breast tumor growth as well. PMID:16830223

  17. Osteopontin expression is essential for interferon-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mari L.; Lu, Linrong; Bu, Jing; Werneck, Miriam B. F.; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Cantor, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    The observation that the T-bet transcription factor allows tissue-specific upregulation of intracellular osteopontin (Opn-i) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) suggests that Opn might contribute to the expression of interferon-α (IFN-α) in those cells. Here we show that Opn deficiency substantially reduced Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)–dependent IFN-α responses but spared expression of transcription factor NF-κB–dependent proinflammatory cytokines. Shortly after TLR9 engagement, colocalization of Opn-i and the adaptor molecule MyD88 was associated with induction of transcription factor IRF7–dependent IFN-α gene expression, whereas deficient expression of Opn-i was associated with defective nuclear translocation of IRF7 in pDCs. The importance of the Opn–IFN-α pathway was emphasized by its essential involvement in cross-presentation in vitro and in anti–herpes simplex virus 1 IFN-α response in vivo. The finding that Opn-i selectively coupled TLR9 signaling to expression of IFN-α but not to that of other proinflammatory cytokines provides new molecular insight into the biology of pDCs. PMID:16604075

  18. Osteopontin and their roles in hematological malignancies: Splice variants on the new avenues.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Ana Clara Santos Fonseca; Blunck, Caroline Barbieri; Emerenciano, Mariana; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein expressed in several tissues, including bone marrow, in which it performs distinct roles, such as modulating hematopoietic stem cell niche and bone remodeling. Most data in hematological malignancies (HMs) refers to total OPN (tOPN), comprehending the sum of distinct OPN splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), while reports describing the expression and roles of each OPN-SI are scarce. This review aims to summarize tOPN roles in HMs and provide evidence that OPN-SIs can also modulate specific functions in HMs biology. We summarize that upregulated tOPN can modulate HMs (leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma) progression, inducing cell adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and extramedullary and/or central nervous system infiltration. Based on this expression pattern, tOPN has been pointed out as a biomarker in those HMs, thus providing potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Our group found that OPN-SIs are expressed in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cell lines (unpublished data), providing early evidence that OPN-SIs are also expressed in BCP-ALL. Further studies should investigate whether these OPN-SIs can differently modulate HMs biology and their putative application as auxiliary biomarkers for HMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uterine micro-environment and estrogen-dependent regulation of osteopontin expression in mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Zhen; Qi, Qian-Rong; Chen, Ying-Xian; Xu, Wang-Ming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Jing

    2013-07-11

    Embryo implantation is a highly synchronized bioprocess between an activated blastocyst and a receptive uterus. In mice, successful implantation relies on the dynamic interplay of estrogen and progesterone; however, the key mediators downstream of these hormones that act on blastocyst competency and endometrium receptivity acquisition are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in mouse blastocysts is regulated by ovarian estrogen and uterine micro-environment. OPN mRNA is up-regulated in mouse blastocyst on day 4 of pregnancy, which is associated with ovarian estrogen secretion peak. Hormone treatment in vivo demonstrated that OPN expression in a blastocyst is regulated by estrogen through an estrogen receptor (ER). Our results of the delayed and activated implantation model showed that OPN expression is induced after estrogen injection. While estrogen treatment during embryo culture in vitro showed less effect on OPN expression, the tubal ligation model on day 3 of pregnancy confirmed that the regulation of estrogen on OPN expression in blastocyst might, through some specific cytokines, have existed in a uterine micro-environment. Collectively, our study presents that estrogen regulates OPN expression and it may play an important role during embryo implantation by activating blastocyst competence and facilitating the endometrium acceptable for active blastocyst.

  20. Aldosterone-induced osteopontin gene transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells involves glucocorticoid response element.

    PubMed

    Kiyosue, Arihiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Myojo, Masahiro; Sato, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2011-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is known to be one of the cytokines that is involved in the vascular inflammation caused by aldosterone (Aldo). Previous reports have shown that Aldo increases OPN transcripts, and the mechanisms for this remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated how Aldo increases OPN transcripts in the vascular smooth muscle cells of rats. Aldosterone increased OPN transcripts time-dependently as well as dose-dependently. This increase was diminished by eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist. Luciferase promoter assays showed that the OPN promoter deleted to the -1599 site retained the same promoting ability as the full-length OPN promoter when stimulated by 10(-7) M Aldo, but the promoter deleted to the -1300 site lost the promoting ability. A glucocorticoid response element (GRE) is located in that deleted region. Luciferase assays of a mutated promoter without the GRE lost the luciferase upregulation, although mutated promoters with the deletion of other consensus sites maintained the promoter activity. The binding of the Aldo-MR complex to the GRE fragment was confirmed by an electrophoretic-mobility shift assay. This is the first report showing that Aldo regulates the transcriptional levels of OPN and inflammatory responses in the vasculature through a specific GRE site in the OPN promoter region.

  1. Reactive oxygen species regulate osteopontin expression in a murine model of postischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Alicia N; Joseph, Giji; Fan, Aaron E; Weiss, Daiana; Landázuri, Natalia; Taylor, W Robert

    2012-06-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory demonstrated that neovascularization was impaired in osteopontin (OPN) knockout animals. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of OPN expression in the setting of ischemia remain undefined. Therefore, we sought to determine whether OPN is upregulated in response to ischemia and hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a critical component of the signaling mechanism by which OPN expression is upregulated in response to ischemia in vivo. To determine whether ischemic injury upregulates OPN, we used a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. Femoral artery ligation in C57BL/6 mice significantly increased OPN expression and H(2)O(2) production. Infusion of C57BL/6 mice with polyethylene glycol-catalase (10 000 U/kg per day) or the use of transgenic mice with smooth muscle cell-specific catalase overexpression blunted ischemia-induced OPN, suggesting ischemia-induced OPN expression is H(2)O(2)-dependent. Decreased H(2)O(2)-mediated OPN blunted reperfusion and collateral formation in vivo. In contrast, the overexpression of OPN using lentivirus restored neovascularization. Scavenging H(2)O(2) blocks ischemia-induced OPN expression, providing evidence that ischemia-induced OPN expression is H(2)O(2) dependent. Decreased OPN expression impaired neovascularization, whereas overexpression of OPN increased angiogenesis, supporting our hypothesis that OPN is a critical mediator of postischemic neovascularization and a potential novel therapeutic target for inducing new vessel growth.

  2. Osteopontin: a rapid and sensitive response to dioxin exposure in the osteoblastic cell line UMR-106.

    PubMed

    Wejheden, Carolina; Brunnberg, Sara; Hanberg, Annika; Lind, P Monica

    2006-03-03

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an endocrine disrupting environmental pollutant that, among other effects, affects bone tissue. TCDD modulates the transcription of various genes, e.g., CYP1A1, and the present study is a part of a project aiming at developing an in vitro model system for identifying biomarkers specific for dioxin-induced effects in osteoblasts. Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesion protein, suggested to be important in bone remodeling and our results indicate that TCDD down-regulates the transcription of OPN in the osteoblastic cell line, UMR-106. The present study shows that UMR-106 expresses the AhR and that the expression of CYP1A1 is induced after exposure to TCDD, while down-regulation of OPN is an even more rapid response and a sensitive biomarker to TCDD exposure in this osteoblastic cell line. In conclusion, this osteoblastic cell line may be used as an in vitro model-system for studying dioxin-induced effects on osteoblasts.

  3. AlphaV-integrins mediate the mechanoprotective action of osteopontin in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schordan, Sandra; Schordan, Eric; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Increased mechanical load in podocytes due to glomerular hypertension is one of the important factors leading to podocyte damage and chronic kidney disease. In previous studies, we have shown that mechanical stretch increases osteopontin (OPN) expression in podocytes and that exogenous OPN is mechanoprotective via facilitating cytoskeletal reorganization of podocytes. In the present study, we asked whether the mechanoprotective effect of OPN in podocytes is mediated through specific integrins and whether endogenous OPN of podocytes is required for mechanoprotection. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes and primary podocytes (PP) from OPN-/- and OPN+/+ mice were used. Cyclic biaxial mechanical stretch (0.5 Hz, 7% linear strain) was applied for up to 3 days. Stretch-induced cell loss was ∼30% higher in OPN-/- PP compared with OPN+/+ PP. Increased cell loss of OPN-/- PP was rescued by OPN coating. Analysis of integrin expression by RT-PCR, application of RGD and SLAYGLR peptides and anti-integrin antibodies, small-interfering RNA knockdown of integrins, and application of kinase inhibitors identified αV-integrins (αVβ1, αVβ3, and αVβ5) to mediate the mechano-protective effect of OPN in podocytes involving focal adhesion kinase, Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results demonstrate that endogenous OPN of podocytes plays a nonredundant role in podocyte adaptation to mechanical stretch, and that OPN signaling via α(V)-integrins may represent a relevant therapeutical target in podocytes.

  4. Energy metabolism during anchorage-independence. Induction by osteopontin-c.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhanquan; Wang, Bo; Chihanga, Tafadzwa; Kennedy, Michael A; Weber, Georg F

    2014-01-01

    The detachment of epithelial cells, but not cancer cells, causes anoikis due to reduced energy production. Invasive tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, the shortest of which (osteopontin-c) supports anchorage-independence. Osteopontin-c signaling upregulates three interdependent pathways of the energy metabolism. Glutathione, glutamine and glutamate support the hexose monophosphate shunt and glycolysis and can feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, leading to mitochondrial ATP production. Activation of the glycerol phosphate shuttle also supports the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Drawing substrates from glutamine and glycolysis, the elevated creatine may be synthesized from serine via glycine and supports the energy metabolism by increasing the formation of ATP. Metabolic probing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-glutamate, or glycerol identified differential regulation of the pathway components, with mitochondrial activity being redox dependent and the creatine pathway depending on glutamine. The multiple skewed components in the cellular metabolism synergize in a flow toward two mechanisms of ATP generation, via creatine and the respiratory chain. It is consistent with a stimulation of the energy metabolism that supports anti-anoikis. Our findings imply a coalescence in cancer cells between osteopontin-a, which increases the cellular glucose levels, and osteopontin-c, which utilizes this glucose to generate energy.

  5. Increased cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin levels and its involvement in macrophage infiltration in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Yoshinobu; Kariya, Yukiko; Saito, Toshie; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Honda, Takashi; Tanaka, Keiko; Yoshida, Mari; Fujihara, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Although NMO has long been considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS), the effects of interferon-β treatment are different between NMO and MS. Recent findings of NMO-IgG suggest that NMO could be a distinct disease rather than a subtype of MS. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of NMO pathology remains poorly understood. Methods OPN in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with NMO and with MS, as well as of patients with other neurologic disease/idiopathic other neurologic disease was examined using Western blotting, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and Boyden chamber. Results Here we show that osteopontin is significantly increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of NMO patients compared with MS patients. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteopontin was markedly elevated in the cerebral white matter of NMO patients and produced by astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendroglia as well as infiltrating macrophages. We also demonstrate that the interaction of the cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin in NMO patients with integrin αvβ3 promoted macrophage chemotaxis by activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase and MEK1/2 signaling pathways. Conclusion These results indicate that osteopontin is involved in NMO pathology. General significance Thus therapeutic strategies that target osteopontin signaling may be useful to treat NMO. PMID:26673877

  6. Generalized min-max bound-based MRI pulse sequence design framework for wide-range T1 relaxometry: A case study on the tissue specific imaging sequence

    PubMed Central

    Buck, John R.; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design strategy for optimizing MRI pulse sequences for T1 relaxometry. The design strategy optimizes the pulse sequence parameters to minimize the maximum variance of unbiased T1 estimates over a range of T1 values using the Cramér-Rao bound. In contrast to prior sequences optimized for a single nominal T1 value, the optimized sequence using our bound-based strategy achieves improved precision and accuracy for a broad range of T1 estimates within a clinically feasible scan time. The optimization combines the downhill simplex method with a simulated annealing process. To show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, we optimize the tissue specific imaging (TSI) sequence. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the optimized TSI sequence yields improved precision and accuracy over the popular driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 (DESPOT1) approach for normal brain tissues (estimated T1 700–2000 ms at 3.0T). The relative mean estimation error (MSE) for T1 estimation is less than 1.7% using the optimized TSI sequence, as opposed to less than 7.0% using DESPOT1 for normal brain tissues. The optimized TSI sequence achieves good stability by keeping the MSE under 7.0% over larger T1 values corresponding to different lesion tissues and the cerebrospinal fluid (up to 5000 ms). The T1 estimation accuracy using the new pulse sequence also shows improvement, which is more pronounced in low SNR scenarios. PMID:28222197

  7. Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, K; Yoshino, S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.

  8. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…

  9. Organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S. )

    1993-12-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs.

  10. Isolation and quantitation of a minor determinant of hen egg white lysozyme bound to I-Ak by using peptide-specific immunoaffinity.

    PubMed

    Gugasyan, R; Vidavsky, I; Nelson, C A; Gross, M L; Unanue, E R

    1998-12-01

    We report here the identification and quantitation of a minor epitope from hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) isolated from the class II MHC molecule I-Ak of APCs. We isolated and concentrated the peptides from the I-Ak extracts by a peptide-specific mAba, followed by their examination by electrospray mass spectrometry. This initial step improved the isolation, recovery, and quantitation and allowed us to identify 13 different minor peptides using the Ab specific for the HEL tryptic fragment 34-45. The HEL peptides varied on both the amino and carboxy termini. The shortest peptide was a 13-mer (residues 33-45), and the longest peptide was a 19-mer (residues 31-49). The two most abundant were 31-47 (1.3 pmol) and 31-46 (1 pmol), while the least abundant were 31-45 (40 fmol) and 32-45 (4 fmol). Only 0.3% of the total class II molecules were occupied by this family of HEL peptides. The amount of the 31-47 peptide, the predominant member of this series, was 22 times lower than that of 48-62, the major epitope of HEL. The 31-47 peptide bound about 20-fold weaker to I-Ak compared with the dominant 48-62 peptide. Thus, the lower abundance of the minor epitope correlated with its weaker binding strength.

  11. Osteopontin-c isoform levels are associated with SR and hnRNP differential expression in ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Marques, Durval Santos; Grativol, Jessica; Alves da Silva Peres, Rodrigo; da Rocha Matos, Aline; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Osteopontin-c splicing isoform activates ovarian cancer progression features. Imbalanced expression of splicing factors from serine/arginine -rich and heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins families has been correlated with the generation of oncogenic splicing isoforms. Our goal was to investigate whether there is any association between the transcriptional patterns of these splicing factors in ovarian cells and osteopontin-c expression levels. We also aimed to investigate the occurrence of these splicing factors binding sites inside osteopontin exon 4 and adjacent introns. To test associations between osteopontin-c and splicing factors expression patterns, we used an in vitro model in which OVCAR-3 cells overexpressing osteopontin-c (OVCAR-3/OPNc(++)) presented higher transcriptional levels of osteopontin-c than two other ovarian carcinoma cells (TOV-112D, SKOV-3) and ovarian non-tumoral cell lines (IOSE 364 and IOSE 385). The transcriptional levels of osteopontin-c, serine/arginine-rich, and hnRNP factors were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human Splice Finder software was used to search for putative splicing factor binding sites in osteopontin genomic regions. OVCAR-3/OPNc(++) cells presented higher transcriptional levels of hnRNP than serine/arginine-rich when compared to TOV-112D, SKOV-3, and IOSE cells. TOV-112D and SKOV-3 cells also overexpressed hnRNP in relation to serine/arginine-rich transcripts. Putative binding sites for these splicing factors have been predicted on osteopontin exon 4 and their upstream and downstream intronic regions. Our data showed that higher osteopontin-c expression levels are associated with a predominance of hnRNP in relation to serine/arginine-rich transcripts and that osteopontin exon 4 and adjacent intronic sequences contain predicted binding sites for some of these tested splicing factors. In conclusion, differential expression of these splicing factors in ovarian cancer cells could be one of the putative

  12. Importance of Phosphorylation for Osteopontin Regulation of Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, A.; Qin, C.; Spevak, L.; Fujimoto, Y.; Butler, W. T.; Sørensen, E. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) is an inhibitor of the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) and other biominerals. The present study tests the hypotheses that the interaction of OPN with HA is determined by the extent of protein phosphorylation and that this interaction regulates the mineralization process. Bone OPN as previously reported inhibited HA formation and HA-seeded growth in a gelatin-gel system. A transglutaminase-linked OPN polymer had similar effects. Recombinant, nonphosphorylated OPN and chemically dephosphorylated OPN, had no effect on HA formation or growth in this system. In contrast, highly phosphorylated milk OPN (mOPN) promoted HA formation. The mOPN stabilized the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (a noncrystalline constituent of milk) to HA, whereas bone OPN had a lesser effect on this conversion. Mixtures of OPN and osteocalcin known to form a complex in vitro, unexpectedly promoted HA formation. To test the hypothesis that small alterations in protein conformation caused by phosphorylation account for the differences in the observed ability of OPN to interact with HA, the conformation of bone OPN and mOPN in the presence and absence of crystalline HA was determined by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Both proteins exhibited a predominantly random coil structure, which was unaffected by the addition of Ca2+. Binding to HA did not alter the secondary structure of bone OPN, but induced a small increase of β-sheet (few percent) in mOPN. These data taken together suggest that the phosphorylation of OPN is an important factor in regulating the OPN-mediated mineralization process. PMID:16007483

  13. Osteopontin Facilitates Ultraviolet B-induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pi-Ling; Hsieh, Yu-Hua; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Juliana, M. Margaret; Tsuruta, Yuko; Timares, Laura; Elmets, Craig; Ho, Kang-Jey

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular glycoprotein that is markedly expressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and in actinic keratoses implicating its role in photocarcinogenesis. Objective To determine whether OPN facilitates the development of cSCC and its function. Methods cSCCs development was compared between wild-type (WT) and OPN-null mice subjected to UVB irradiation for 43 weeks. UVB-induced OPN expression was determined by Western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Epidermal layer and TUNEL analyses assessed if OPN mediates UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia or suppresses UVB-induced apoptosis of basal keratinocytes, respectively. In vitro experiments determined whether OPN enhances cell survival of UVB-induced apoptosis and its potential mechanisms. Immunohistochemical analyses of epidermis assessed the expression of CD44 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), molecules that mediate OPN survival function. Results Compared to female WT mice, OPN-null mice did not develop cSCCs. UVB irradiation stimulated OPN protein expression in the dorsal skin by 11 h and remains high at 24 to 48h.OPN did not mediate UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia; instead, it protected basal keratinocytes from undergoing apoptosis upon UVB exposure. Likewise, the addition of OPN suppressed UVB-induced OPN-null cSCC cell apoptosis, the activation of caspase-9 activity, and increased phosphorylation of FAK at Y397. Furthermore, the expression of CD44 and FAK in WT mice epidermis was greater than that of OPN-null mice prior to and during early acute UVB exposure. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that chronic UVB-induced OPN expression protects the survival of initiated basal keratinocytes and, consequently, facilitates cSCC develop. PMID:24888687

  14. Osteopontin-Enhanced Hepatic Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianjin; Pan, Chi; Hu, Hanguang; Zheng, Shu; Ding, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Liver metastasis is a major cause of mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). However, mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphorylated glycoprotein that is involved in tumor migration and metastasis. The role of OPN in cancer is currently unclear. In this study, OPN mRNA was examined in tissues from CRC, adjacent normal mucosa, and liver metastatic lesions using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The protein expression of OPN and its receptors (integrin αv and CD44 v6) was detected by using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The role of OPN in liver metastasis was studied in established colon cancer Colo-205 and SW-480 cell lines transfected with sense- or antisense-OPN eukaryotic expression plasmids by flow cytometry and cell adhesion assay. Florescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to study gap functional intercellular communication (GJIC) among OPN-transfected cells. It was found that OPN was highly expressed in metastatic hepatic lesions from CRC compared to primary CRC tissue and adjacent normal mucosa. The expression of OPN mRNA in tumor tissues was significantly related with the CRC stages. OPN expression was also detected in normal hepatocytes surrounding CRC metastatic lesions. Two known receptors of OPN, integrin αv and CD44v6 proteins, were strongly expressed in hepatocytes from normal liver. CRC cells with forced OPN expression exhibited increased heterotypic adhesion with endothelial cells and weakened intercellular communication. OPN plays a significant role in CRC metastasis to liver through interaction with its receptors in hepatocytes, decreased homotypic adhesion, and enhanced heterotypic adhesion. PMID:23112867

  15. Role of Osteopontin in Psoriasis: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Mawla, M Yousry; El-Kasheshy, Kamal Ahmed; Ghonemy, Soheir; Al Balat, Walid; Elsayed, Amira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) has been postulated to have a role in several T-helper (Th) 1 and Th 17-mediated diseases including psoriasis (PS), through multiple mechanisms sharing in the onset and worsening of PS, OPN shares in induction of keratinocyte proliferation through inhibiting keratinocyte apoptosis, OPN acts as a proinflammatory agent that participates in the upregulation of Th cell lineages, among which are the Th 1 and Th 17 cells. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the possible role of OPN in the pathogenesis of PS. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 18 patients of chronic plaque PS (mean age 37.61 ± 14.48) and a control group of 18 apparently healthy volunteers (mean age 41.11 ± 11.02 years). Severity of PS was assessed using the PS area and severity index score. Two skin biopsies were taken from psoriatic patients. The first was taken from the lesional skin and the other from a counter apparently healthy site. Results: Our results showed statistically significant differences in the expression of OPN, between lesional and nonlesional skin as well as between nonlesional skin and control group (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of OPN, between control and lesional group. Conclusions: OPN involvement in PS enlarges the list of cytokines able to stimulate the inflammatory response in this disease, anti-OPN antibodies, may eventually become a useful therapeutic approach in PS. PMID:27293251

  16. Universal bounds on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  17. Discovery and Verification of Osteopontin and Beta-2-microglobulin as Promising Markers for Staging Human African Trypanosomiasis*

    PubMed Central

    Tiberti, Natalia; Hainard, Alexandre; Lejon, Veerle; Robin, Xavier; Ngoyi, Dieudonné Mumba; Turck, Natacha; Matovu, Enock; Enyaru, John; Ndung'u, Joseph Mathu; Scherl, Alexander; Dayon, Loïc; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, transmitted to humans through the bite of a tsetse fly. The first or hemolymphatic stage of the disease is associated with presence of parasites in the bloodstream, lymphatic system, and body tissues. If patients are left untreated, parasites cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain parenchyma, giving rise to the second or meningoencephalitic stage. Stage determination is a crucial step in guiding the choice of treatment, as drugs used for S2 are potentially dangerous. Current staging methods, based on counting white blood cells and demonstrating trypanosomes in cerebrospinal fluid, lack specificity and/or sensitivity. In the present study, we used several proteomic strategies to discover new markers with potential for staging human African trypanosomiasis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The stage was determined following the guidelines of the national control program. The proteome of the samples was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (n = 9), and by sixplex tandem mass tag (TMT) isobaric labeling (n = 6) quantitative mass spectrometry. Overall, 73 proteins were overexpressed in patients presenting the second stage of the disease. Two of these, osteopontin and β-2-microglobulin, were confirmed to be potential markers for staging human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) by Western blot and ELISA. The two proteins significantly discriminated between S1 and S2 patients with high sensitivity (68% and 78%, respectively) for 100% specificity, and a combination of both improved the sensitivity to 91%. The levels of osteopontin and β-2-microglobulin in CSF of S2 patients (μg/ml range), as well as the fold increased concentration in S2 compared with S1 (3.8 and 5.5 respectively) make the two markers good

  18. (1)H, (15)N, (13)C resonance assignment of human osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Gerald; Żerko, Szymon; Saxena, Saurabh; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Konrat, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a 33.7 kDa intrinsically disordered protein and a member of the SIBLING family of proteins. OPN is bearing a signal peptide for secretion into the extracellular space, where it exerts its main physiological function, the control of calcium biomineralization. It is often involved in tumorigenic processes influencing proliferation, migration and survival, as well as the adhesive properties of cancer cells via CD44 and integrin signaling pathways. Here we report the nearly complete NMR chemical shift assignment of recombinant human osteopontin.

  19. Vertical distributions of bound saturated fatty acids and compound-specific stable carbon isotope compositions in sediments of two lakes in China: implication for the influence of eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Xiong, Yongqiang; Wu, Fengchang; Li, Qiuhua; Lin, Tian; Giesy, John P

    2014-11-01

    Lakes Dianchi (DC) and Bosten (BST) were determined to be at different stages of eutrophication, by use of total organic carbon content, bulk carbon isotopic composition, bulk nitrogen isotopic composition, and bound saturated fatty acid (BSFA) concentrations in sediment cores. A rapid increase in the supply of organic matter (OM) to DC began after the 1950s, while the environment and trophic status of BST remained constant as indicated by characteristics of OM input to sediments. The BSFA ratios of nC14 + nC16 + nC18/nC24 + nC26 + nC28 increase upward from 7 to 13 in the DC core, which are significantly greater than those from BST (2 to 3). This result is consistent with algae or bacteria being the dominant contribution of the OM increase induced by eutrophication in DC. The positive shift of nC16 compound-specific δ (13)C in the upper section might be an indicator of excess algal productivity, which was observed in the two lakes. The positive shifts of compound-specific δ (13)C of other BSFAs were also observed in the upper section of the core only from DC. The observed trends of compound-specific δ(13)C of BSFA originated from different sources became more consistent, which reflected the intensified eutrophication had profoundly affected production and preservation of OM in DC. The results observed for BST indicated that accumulation of algae did not affect the entire aquatic ecosystem until now.

  20. Identification of amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of mammalian membrane-bound front-end fatty acid desaturases[S

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenshi; Ohno, Makoto; Taguchi, Masahiro; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound desaturases are physiologically and industrially important enzymes that are involved in the production of diverse fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives. Here, we identified amino acid residues that determine the substrate specificity of rat Δ6 desaturase (D6d) acting on linoleoyl-CoA by comparing its amino acid sequence with that of Δ5 desaturase (D5d), which converts dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. The N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain was excluded as a determinant by domain swapping analysis. Substitution of eight amino acid residues (Ser209, Asn211, Arg216, Ser235, Leu236, Trp244, Gln245, and Val344) of D6d with the corresponding residues of D5d by site-directed mutagenesis switched the substrate specificity from linoleoyl-CoA to dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-CoA. In addition, replacement of Leu323 of D6d with Phe323 on the basis of the amino acid sequence of zebra fish Δ5/6 bifunctional desaturase was found to render D6d bifunctional. Homology modeling of D6d using recent crystal structure data of human stearoyl-CoA (Δ9) desaturase revealed that Arg216, Trp244, Gln245, and Leu323 are located near the substrate-binding pocket. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the structural basis of the substrate specificity of a mammalian front-end fatty acid desaturase, which will aid in efficient production of value-added fatty acids. PMID:26590171

  1. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; ...

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  2. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  3. The 3' untranslated region of the membrane-bound IL-1R accessory protein mRNA confers tissue-specific destabilization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Liselotte E; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2004-11-15

    IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are proinflammatory cytokines that promote activation of intracellular signaling cascades, leading to stabilization of certain mRNAs and activation of transcription factors. IL-1R type I (IL-1RI) binds IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and subsequent recruitment of the membrane-bound IL-1R accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) facilitates signal transduction. Two alternatively spliced isoforms, soluble IL-1RAcP (sIL-1RAcP) and sIL-1RAcP-beta, which lack transmembrane and intracellular domains, have been described. The sIL-1RAcP and possibly sIL-1RAcP-beta can inhibit IL-1 signaling. Proportional expression of the different IL-1RAcP splice variants may be an important determinant of responsiveness to IL-1. We show that although both mIL-1RAcP and sIL-1RAcP mRNAs are widely expressed in human tissue, their relative proportions differ significantly in a tissue-specific manner. Turnover studies revealed that the sIL-1RAcP mRNA has a half-life of approximately 48 h in both the kidney cell line 293 and the hepatoma cell line HepG2. The mIL-1RAcP mRNA has a similar half-life in 293 cells, but a considerably shorter half-life of approximately 5 h in HepG2 cells. Using luciferase reporter constructs, we demonstrated that this specific destabilization of the mIL-1RAcP mRNA in the latter cell type is mediated by its 2.8-kb 3'-untranslated region. Deletion analysis further established that the cell line-specific instability does not involve AU-rich elements, but is mediated by several novel elements that appear to act independently; such elements may be recognized by proteins expressed specifically in some, but not all, tissues. These data demonstrate that the cellular capacity to respond to IL-1 is tightly regulated in a tissue-specific manner.

  4. Osteopontin Fragments with Intact Thrombin-Sensitive Site Circulate in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pak-Leong; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Wong, Raymond R. Y.; Yim, So-Fan; Ng, Margaret H. L.; Tam, Frankie C. H.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Wong, Yick-Fu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether circulating osteopontin (OPN) could be used as a biomarker for cervical cancer. We employed a monoclonal antibody (mAb 659) specific for the unique and intact thrombin-sensitive site in OPN using an inhibition ELISA. We found significantly higher levels of OPN in 33 cervical cancer patients in both the plasma (mean +/- SD, 612 +/- 106 ng/mL) and serum (424 +/- 121 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects [409 +/- 56 ng/mL, from 31 plasma samples (P < 0.0001), and 314 +/- 98 ng/mL, from 32 serum samples (P = 0.0002), respectively]. Similar results were obtained when the plasma from a bigger group (147 individuals) of cervical cancer patients (560 +/- 211 ng/mL) were compared with the same plasma samples of the healthy individuals (P = 0.0014). More significantly, the OPN level was highest in stage III-IV disease (614 +/- 210 ng/mL, from 52 individuals; P = 0.0001) and least and non-discriminatory in stage I (473 +/- 110 ng/mL, from 40 individuals; P = 0.5318). No such discrimination was found when a mAb of a different specificity (mAb 446) was used in a similar inhibition ELISA to compare the two groups in the first study; a commercial capture ELISA also failed. The possibility that the target epitope recognized by the antibody probe in these assays was absent from the circulating OPN due to protein truncation was supported by gel fractionation of the OPN found in patients’ plasma: 60–64 kDa fragments were found instead of the presumably full-length OPN (68 kDa) seen in healthy people. How these fragments are generated and what possible role they play in cancer biology remain interesting questions. PMID:27494141

  5. Defining the extreme substrate specificity of Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase, an unusual membrane-bound O-acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P.

    2016-11-08

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) synthesizes the unusually structured 3-acetyl-1,2-diacylglycerols (acetyl-TAG) found in the seeds of a few plant species. A member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, EaDAcT transfers the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce acetyl-TAG. In vitro assays demonstrated that the enzyme is also able to utilize butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, though with much less efficiency compared with acetyl-CoA. Acyl-CoAs longer than eight carbons were not used by EaDAcT. This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. In vitro selectivity experiments revealed that EaDAcT preferentially acetylated DAG molecules containing more double bonds over those with less. However, the enzyme was also able to acetylate saturated DAG containing medium chain fatty acids, albeit with less efficiency. Interestingly, EaDAcT could only acetylate the free hydroxyl group of sn-1,2-DAG but not the available hydroxyl groups in sn-1,3-DAG or in monoacylglycerols (MAG). Consistent with its similarity to the jojoba wax synthase, EaDAcT could acetylate fatty alcohols in vitro to produce alkyl acetates. Likewise, when coexpressed in yeast with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase capable of producing fatty alcohols, EaDAcT synthesized alkyl acetates although the efficiency of production was low. As a result, this improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants.

  6. Potato lectin activates basophils and mast cells of atopic subjects by its interaction with core chitobiose of cell-bound non-specific immunoglobulin E

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, S N; Venkatesh, Y P; Mahesh, P A

    2007-01-01

    A major factor in non-allergic food hypersensitivity could be the interaction of dietary lectins with mast cells and basophils. Because immunoglobulin E (IgE) contains 10–12% carbohydrates, lectins can activate and degranulate these cells by cross-linking the glycans of cell-bound IgE. The present objective focuses on the effect of potato lectin (Solanum tuberosum agglutinin; STA) for its ability to release histamine from basophils in vitro and mast cells in vivo from non-atopic and atopic subjects. In this study, subjects were selected randomly based on case history and skin prick test responses with food, pollen and house dust mite extracts. Skin prick test (SPT) was performed with STA at 100 µg/ml concentration. Histamine release was performed using leucocytes from non-atopic and atopic subjects and rat peritoneal exudate cells. SPT on 110 atopic subjects using STA showed 39 subjects positive (35%); however, none showed STA-specific IgE; among 20 non-atopic subjects, none were positive by SPT. Maximal histamine release was found to be 65% in atopic subjects (n = 7) compared to 28% in non-atopic subjects (n = 5); the release was inhibited specifically by oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine and correlates well with serum total IgE levels (R2 = 0·923). Binding of STA to N-linked glycoproteins (horseradish peroxidase, avidin and IgG) was positive by dot blot and binding assay. As potato lectin activates and degranulates both mast cells and basophils by interacting with the chitobiose core of IgE glycans, higher intake of potato may increase the clinical symptoms as a result of non-allergic food hypersensitivity in atopic subjects. PMID:17362264

  7. Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Udayan M.; Banerjee, Atrayee; McRee, Rachel; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Ramaiah, Shashi K. . E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

    2005-08-22

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple

  8. Mineralization-inhibiting effects of transglutaminase-crosslinked polymeric osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Hoac, Betty; Nelea, Valentin; Jiang, Wenge; Kaartinen, Mari T; McKee, Marc D

    2017-08-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) belongs to the SIBLING family (Small, Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoproteins) of mineral-binding matrix proteins found in bones and teeth. OPN is a well-known inhibitor of matrix mineralization, and enzymatic modification of OPN can affect this inhibitory function. In bone, OPN exists both as a monomer and as a high-molecular-weight polymer - the latter is formed by transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of glutamine and lysine residues in OPN to create homotypic protein assemblies. OPN can be covalently crosslinked by transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIII-A. Polymeric OPN has increased binding to collagen and promotes osteoblast adhesion, but despite these initial observations, its role in mineralization is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of polymerized OPN on mineralization using a hydroxyapatite crystal growth assay and mineralizing MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures. In the cultures, endogenous polymeric OPN was detected after mineralization occurred. In cell-free conditions, TG2 was used to crosslink bovine OPN into its polymeric form, and atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering revealed variably-sized, large branched aggregates ranging across hundreds of nanometers. These OPN polymers inhibited the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in solution at concentrations similar to monomeric OPN, although the crosslinking slightly reduced its inhibitory potency. When added to MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures, this exogenous polymeric OPN essentially did not inhibit mineralization when given during the later mineralization stages of culture; however, cultures treated early and then continuously with polymeric OPN throughout both the matrix assembly and mineral deposition stages showed reduced mineralization. Immunoblotting of protein extracts from these continuously treated cultures revealed exogenous OPN polymers incorporated into mature matrix that had not yet mineralized. These results suggest that in bone, the

  9. Osteopontin That Is Elevated in the Airways during COPD Impairs the Antibacterial Activity of Common Innate Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gela, Anele; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mori, Michiko; Keenan, Paul; Mörgelin, Matthias; Erjefält, Jonas S; Herwald, Heiko; Egesten, Arne; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract contribute to exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is also an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in COPD. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood but include impaired mucociliary clearance and structural remodeling of the airways. In addition, antimicrobial proteins that are constitutively expressed or induced during inflammatory conditions are an important part of the airway innate host defense. In the present study, we show that osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein that is highly upregulated in the airways of COPD patients co-localizes with several antimicrobial proteins expressed in the airways. In vitro, OPN bound lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), midkine, human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) but showed low or no affinity for lysozyme and LL-37. Binding of OPN impaired the antibacterial activity against the important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OPN reduced lysozyme-induced killing of S. pneumoniae, a finding that could be explained by binding of OPN to the bacterial surface, thereby shielding the bacteria. A fragment of OPN generated by elastase of P. aeruginosa retained some inhibitory effect. Some antimicrobial proteins have additional functions. However, the muramidase-activity of lysozyme and the protease inhibitory function of SLPI were not affected by OPN. Taken together, OPN can contribute to the impairment of innate host defense by interfering with the function of antimicrobial proteins, thus increasing the vulnerability to acquire infections during COPD.

  10. Osteopontin That Is Elevated in the Airways during COPD Impairs the Antibacterial Activity of Common Innate Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Michiko; Keenan, Paul; Mörgelin, Matthias; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Herwald, Heiko; Egesten, Arne; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the respiratory tract contribute to exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is also an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in COPD. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood but include impaired mucociliary clearance and structural remodeling of the airways. In addition, antimicrobial proteins that are constitutively expressed or induced during inflammatory conditions are an important part of the airway innate host defense. In the present study, we show that osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein that is highly upregulated in the airways of COPD patients co-localizes with several antimicrobial proteins expressed in the airways. In vitro, OPN bound lactoferrin, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), midkine, human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) but showed low or no affinity for lysozyme and LL-37. Binding of OPN impaired the antibacterial activity against the important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, OPN reduced lysozyme-induced killing of S. pneumoniae, a finding that could be explained by binding of OPN to the bacterial surface, thereby shielding the bacteria. A fragment of OPN generated by elastase of P. aeruginosa retained some inhibitory effect. Some antimicrobial proteins have additional functions. However, the muramidase-activity of lysozyme and the protease inhibitory function of SLPI were not affected by OPN. Taken together, OPN can contribute to the impairment of innate host defense by interfering with the function of antimicrobial proteins, thus increasing the vulnerability to acquire infections during COPD. PMID:26731746

  11. Osteopontin is elevated during neointima formation in rat arteries and is a novel component of human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Giachelli, C M; Bae, N; Almeida, M; Denhardt, D T; Alpers, C E; Schwartz, S M

    1993-01-01

    In an earlier report, we used differential cloning to identify genes that might be critical in controlling arterial neointima formation (Giachelli, C., N. Bae, D. Lombardi, M. Majesky, and S. Schwartz. 1991. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 177:867-873). In this study, we sequenced the complete cDNA and conclusively identified one of these genes, 2B7, as rat osteopontin. Using immunochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found that medial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in uninjured arteries contained very low levels of osteopontin protein and mRNA. Injury to either the adult rat aorta or carotid artery using a balloon catheter initiated a qualitatively similar time-dependent increase in both osteopontin protein and mRNA in arterial SMC. Expression was transient and highly localized to neointimal SMC during the proliferative and migratory phases of arterial injury, suggesting a possible role for osteopontin in these processes. In vitro, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and angiotensin II (AII), all proteins implicated in the rat arterial injury response, elevated osteopontin expression in confluent vascular SMC. Finally, we found that osteopontin was a novel component of the human atherosclerotic plaque found most strikingly associated with calcified deposits. These data implicate osteopontin as a potentially important mediator of arterial neointima formation as well as dystrophic calcification that often accompanies this process. Images PMID:8408622

  12. Dynamic light scattering study of inhibition of nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals by osteopontin.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, John R; Goiko, Maria; Mozaffari, Maryam; Bator, Daniel; Dauphinee, Ron L; Liao, Yinyin; Flemming, Roberta L; Bramble, Michael S; Hunter, Graeme K; Goldberg, Harvey A

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isoforms of osteopontin (OPN) on the nucleation and growth of crystals from a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. Dynamic light scattering is used to monitor the size of the precipitating particles and to provide information about their concentration. At the ion concentrations studied, immediate precipitation was observed in control experiments with no osteopontin in the solution, and the size of the precipitating particles increased steadily with time. The precipitate was identified as hydroxyapatite by X-ray diffraction. Addition of native osteopontin (nOPN) extracted from rat bone caused a delay in the onset of precipitation and reduced the number of particles that formed, but the few particles that did form grew to a larger size than in the absence of the protein. Recombinant osteopontin (rOPN), which lacks phosphorylation, caused no delay in initial calcium phosphate precipitation but severely slowed crystal growth, suggesting that rOPN inhibits growth but not nucleation. rOPN treated with protein kinase CK2 to phosphorylate the molecule (p-rOPN) produced an effect similar to that of nOPN, but at higher protein concentrations and to a lesser extent. These results suggest that phosphorylations are critical to OPN's ability to inhibit nucleation, whereas the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystals is effectively controlled by the highly acidic OPN polypeptide. This work also demonstrates that dynamic light scattering can be a powerful tool for delineating the mechanism of protein modulation of mineral formation.

  13. Dynamic Light Scattering Study of Inhibition of Nucleation and Growth of Hydroxyapatite Crystals by Osteopontin

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, John R.; Goiko, Maria; Mozaffari, Maryam; Bator, Daniel; Dauphinee, Ron L.; Liao, Yinyin; Flemming, Roberta L.; Bramble, Michael S.; Hunter, Graeme K.; Goldberg, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isoforms of osteopontin (OPN) on the nucleation and growth of crystals from a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. Dynamic light scattering is used to monitor the size of the precipitating particles and to provide information about their concentration. At the ion concentrations studied, immediate precipitation was observed in control experiments with no osteopontin in the solution, and the size of the precipitating particles increased steadily with time. The precipitate was identified as hydroxyapatite by X-ray diffraction. Addition of native osteopontin (nOPN) extracted from rat bone caused a delay in the onset of precipitation and reduced the number of particles that formed, but the few particles that did form grew to a larger size than in the absence of the protein. Recombinant osteopontin (rOPN), which lacks phosphorylation, caused no delay in initial calcium phosphate precipitation but severely slowed crystal growth, suggesting that rOPN inhibits growth but not nucleation. rOPN treated with protein kinase CK2 to phosphorylate the molecule (p-rOPN) produced an effect similar to that of nOPN, but at higher protein concentrations and to a lesser extent. These results suggest that phosphorylations are critical to OPN’s ability to inhibit nucleation, whereas the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystals is effectively controlled by the highly acidic OPN polypeptide. This work also demonstrates that dynamic light scattering can be a powerful tool for delineating the mechanism of protein modulation of mineral formation. PMID:23457612

  14. Actinide(IV) Deposits on Bone: Potential Role of the Osteopontin-Thorium Complex.

    PubMed

    Creff, Gaëlle; Safi, Samir; Roques, Jérôme; Michel, Hervé; Jeanson, Aurélie; Solari, Pier-Lorenzo; Basset, Christian; Simoni, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2016-01-04

    In case of a nuclear event, contamination (broad or limited) of the population or of specific workers might occur. In such a senario, the fate of actinide contaminants may be of first concern, in particular with regard to human target organs like the skeleton. To improve our understanding of the toxicological processes that might take place, a mechanistic approach is necessary. For instance, ∼50% of Pu(IV) is known from biokinetic data to accumulate in bone, but the underlining mechanisms are almost unknown. In this context, and to obtain a better description of the toxicological mechanisms associated with actinides(IV), we have undertaken the investigation, on a molecular scale, of the interaction of thorium(IV) with osteopontin (OPN) a hyperphosphorylated protein involved in bone turnover. Thorium is taken here as a simple model for actinide(IV) chemistry. In addition, we have selected a phosphorylated hexapeptide (His-pSer-Asp-Glu-pSer-Asp-Glu-Val) that is representative of the peptidic sequence involved in the bone interaction. For both the protein and the biomimetic peptide, we have determined the local environment of Th(IV) within the bioactinidic complex, combining isothermal titration calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, theoretical calculations with density functional theory, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Th LIII edge. The results demonstrate a predominance of interaction of metal with the phosphate groups and confirmed the previous physiological studies that have highlighted a high affinity of Th(IV) for the bone matrix. Data are further compared with those of the uranyl case, representing the actinyl(V) and actinyl(VI) species. Last, our approach shows the importance of developing simplified systems [Th(IV)-peptide] that can serve as models for more biologically relevant systems.

  15. Loss of RUNX3 increases osteopontin expression and promotes cell migration in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Peng; Shan, Yan-Shen; Huang, Chi-Ying; Lin, Forn-Chia; Lin, Li-Ching; Lee, Ling; Tsai, Chen-Hsun; Hsiao, Michael; Lu, Pei-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Loss of RUNX3 expression is frequently observed in gastric cancer and is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer remain unknown. In this study, we found that the protein levels of RUNX3 and osteopontin (OPN) are inversely correlated in gastric cancer clinical specimens and cell lines. Furthermore, similar inverse trends between RUNX3 and OPN messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were demonstrated in six out of seven normal-tumor-paired gastric cancer clinical specimens. In addition, low RUNX3 and high OPN expression were associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-RUNX3 reduced OPN protein and mRNA expression in the AGS and SCM-1 gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of RUNX3 in GES-1, a normal gastric epithelial cell line, increased OPN expression. Although three RUNX3-binding sequences have been identified in the OPN promoter region, direct binding of RUNX3 to the specific binding site, -142 to -137bp, was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The binding of RUNX3 to the OPN promoter significantly decreased OPN promoter activity. The knockdown of OPN or overexpression of RUNX3 inhibited cell migration in AGS and SCM-1 cells; however, the coexpression of RUNX3 and OPN reversed the RUNX3-reduced migration ability in AGS and SCM-1 cells. In contrast, the knockdown of both RUNX3 and OPN inhibited RUNX3-knockdown-induced migration of GES-1 cells. Together, our data demonstrated that RUNX3 is a transcriptional repressor of OPN and that loss of RUNX3 upregulates OPN, which promotes migration in gastric cancer cells.

  16. Cigarette Smoke Induction of Osteopontin (SPP1) Mediates TH17 Inflammation in Human and Experimental Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ming; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Song, Li-zhen; Roberts, Luz; Zarinkamar, Nazanin; Seryshev, Alexander; Zhang, Yiqun; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Chang, Seon-Hee; Dong, Chen; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2014-01-01

    Smoking-related lung diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, underscoring the need to understand their pathogenesis and develop new effective therapies. We have shown that CD1a+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from lungs of patients with emphysema can induce autoreactive T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells. Similarly, the canonical cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) are specifically linked to lung destruction in smokers, but how smoke activates APCs to mediate emphysema remains unknown. Here, we show that, in addition to increasing IFN-γ expression, cigarette smoke increased the expression of IL-17A in both CD4+ and γδ T cells from mouse lung. IL-17A deficiency resulted in attenuation of, whereas lack of γδ T cells exacerbated, smoke-induced emphysema in mice. Adoptive transfer of lung APCs isolated from mice with emphysema revealed that this cell population was capable of transferring disease even in the absence of active smoke exposure, a process that was dependent on IL-17A expression. Spp1 (the gene for osteopontin) was highly expressed in the pathogenic lung APCs of smoke-exposed mice and was required for the TH17 responses and emphysema in vivo, in part through its inhibition of the expression of the transcription factor Irf7. Thus, the Spp1-Irf7 axis is critical for induction of pathological TH17 responses, revealing a major mechanism by which smoke activates lung APCs to induce emphysema and identifying a pathway that could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22261033

  17. Correlation between calcification and bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Guo, Jing-Jing; Ma, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Zhong-Wen; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcification and papillary thyroid carcinoma has received increasing attention. We investigated the ability of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) protein levels to diagnose papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and explored the correlation between BSP and OPN protein levels and calcification in PTC. Archival PTC specimens from patients with PTC with calcification and lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) were included in this retrospective immunohistochemical study. The protein levels of BSP and OPN were analysed immunohistochemically using routinely prepared tissue sections. PTC specimens from 66 patients with PTC were reviewed retrospectively (25 patients with histological calcification seen in paraffin sections, 41 patients without calcification; 35 patients with lateral cervical LNM, 31 patients without LNM). The percentage of samples that had cells that demonstrated positive protein staining differed significantly between PTC specimens, benign thyroid nodules, and adjacent normal follicular epithelium (BSP: 87.88%, 55.00%, and 42.50%, respectively; OPN: 83.33%, 70.00% and 50.00%, respectively). There was a significant difference in the immunohistochemical score (IHS) for BSP and OPN protein staining between PTC specimens with and without calcification (P < 0.05). The level of BSP protein staining was found to be significantly correlated with the level of OPN protein staining in PTC specimens. We conclude that the strong correlation between BSP and OPN and PTC suggests a role for BSP and OPN in calcification and tumor progression of PTC. BSP and OPN might be useful tumour markers for the diagnosis of PTC with limited value, because both of them had low specificity. PMID:25973097

  18. Electrochemical aptasensor for human osteopontin detection using a DNA aptamer selected by SELEX.

    PubMed

    Meirinho, Sofia G; Dias, Luís G; Peres, António M; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2017-09-22

    A DNA aptamer with affinity and specificity for human osteopontin (OPN), a potential breast cancer biomarker, was selected using the SELEX process, considering its homology rate and the stability of its secondary structures. This aptamer exhibited a satisfactory affinity towards OPN, showing dissociation constants lower than 2.5 nM. It was further used to develop a simple, label-free electrochemical aptasensor against OPN. The aptasensor showed good sensitivity towards OPN in standard solutions, being the square wave voltammetry (SWV), compared to the cyclic voltammetry, the most sensitive technique with detection and quantification limits of 1.4 ± 0.4 nM and 4.2 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. It showed good reproducibility and acceptable selectivity, exhibiting low signal interferences from other proteins, as thrombin, with 2.6-10 times lower current signals-off than for OPN. The aptasensor also successfully detected OPN in spiked synthetic human plasma. Using SWV, detection and quantification limits (1.3 ± 0.1 and 3.9 ± 0.4 nM) within the OPN plasma levels reported for patients with breast cancer (0.4-4.5 nM) or with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (0.9-8.4 nM) were found. Moreover, preliminary assays, using a sample of human plasma, showed that the aptasensor and the standard ELISA method quantified similar OPN levels (2.2 ± 0.7 and 1.7 ± 0.1 nM, respectively). Thus, our aptasensor coupled with SWV represents a promising alternative for the detection of relevant breast cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of the osteopontin/matrix metalloproteinase-9 pathway correlates with prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Giancarlo; Malaponte, Grazia; Mazzarino, Maria C; Figini, Mariangela; Marchese, Francesco; Gangemi, Pietro; Travali, Salvatore; Stivala, Franca; Canevari, Silvana; Libra, Massimo

    2008-11-15

    Prostate cancer remains the second most frequent cause of tumor-related deaths in the Western world. Additional markers for the identification of prostate cancer development and progression are needed. Osteopontin (OPN), which activates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), is considered a prognostic biomarker in several cancers. "In silico" and experimental approaches were used to determine whether OPN-mediated MMP activation may be a signal of prostate cancer progression. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed for each OPN/MMP pair across seven publicly available prostate cancer gene expression data sets. Using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, 101 cancer-related gene sets were analyzed for association with OPN and MMP-9 expression. OPN, MMP-9, MMP-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 plasma levels, and MMP gelatinase activity were measured by ELISA and zymography in 96 and 92 patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, respectively, and 125 age-matched healthy men. Computational analyses identified a significant correlation only between MMP-9 and OPN, and showed significant enrichment scores in "cell proliferation", "genes constituting the phosphoinositide-3-kinase predictor", "proliferation signature", and "tumor metastasis" gene sets in association with both OPN and MMP-9. Plasma analyses revealed a significant increase in OPN and MMP-9 levels and activity in patients with prostate cancer in association with clinical variables (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and Gleason score > 7). Significant correlation between OPN and MMP-9 levels were also observed. Mean plasma levels of OPN and MMP-9 decreased in patients with prostate cancer within 6 months after prostatectomy. The concordant computational and experimental data indicate that the extent of OPN pathway activation correlates with prostate cancer progression.

  20. Alterations in Osteopontin Modify Muscle Size in Females in Both Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Eric P.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; McLane, Virginia D.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Thompson, Paul D.; Visich, Paul; Gordon, Paul M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Moyna, Niall M.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Pegoraro, Elena; Cox, Gregory A.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE An osteopontin (OPN; SPP1) gene promoter polymorphism modifies disease severity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and we hypothesized that it might also modify muscle phenotypes in healthy volunteers. METHODS Gene association studies were carried out for OPN (rs28357094) in the FAMuSS cohort (n=752; age 23.7±5.7 yrs). Phenotypes studied included muscle size (MRI), strength, and response to supervised resistance training. We also studied 147 young adults that had carried out a bout of eccentric elbow exercise (age 24.0 ± 5.2 yrs). Phenotypes analyzed included strength, soreness, and serum muscle enzymes. RESULTS In the FAMuSS cohort, the G allele was associated with 17% increase in baseline upper arm muscle volume only in women (F=26.32; p=5.32 × 10−7), explaining 5% of population variance. In the eccentric damage cohort, weak associations of the G allele were seen in women with both baseline myoglobin, and elevated CK. Sexually dimorphic effects of OPN on muscle were also seen in OPN null mice. Five of seven muscle groups examined showed smaller size in OPN null female mice, whereas two were smaller in males. Query of OPN gene transcription after experimental muscle damage in mice showed rapid induction within 12 hrs (100-fold increase from baseline), followed by sustained high level expression through 16 days of regeneration before falling to back to baseline. CONCLUSION OPN is a sexually dimorphic modifier of muscle size in normal humans and mice, and responds to muscle damage. The OPN gene is known to be estrogen responsive, and this may explain the female-specific genotype effects in adult volunteers. PMID:23274598

  1. Development and application of a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals in the human body.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) in the human body. The ExDoM2 is a revised version of a respiratory tract model (ExDoM) incorporating a new particle clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract model and a Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) model. The revised respiratory tract model was used to calculate the deposition, clearance and retention of particles in the human respiratory tract and the mass transferred to the oesophagus (gastrointestinal tract) and blood. The PBPK module was used to analyze the distribution of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) from the blood circulation system to other organs or tissues like liver, kidneys, heart, brain, muscle and bone. The model was applied to calculate the internal human dose for an adult Caucasian male exposed to particulate mass matter (PM), PMPb, PMCd, PMMn and PMCr in an urban area (Athens, Greece). The analysis showed that at the end of the exposure (one day exposure scenario) to PMPb, the major accumulation occurs in the bone, blood and muscle, whereas as regards PMCd the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues, like kidney and liver. In addition, for PMMn, the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues and lungs, whereas as regards PMCr the major accumulation occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs. Therefore, ExDoM2 is an important feature in studying deposition of particles in the human body.

  2. Properties, intracellular localization, and stage-specific expression of membrane-bound beta-glucosidase, BglM1, from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Masato; Maekawa, Akinori; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Minami, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum expresses a membrane-bound beta-glucosidase (BglM1) with a molecular mass of 130 kDa. The primary structure of BglM1 consists of a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 domain at an amino-terminal domain and a carboxyl-terminal region without homology to the sequence of known glycosidases. The latter region contains two calx-beta motifs known as Ca(2+)-binding sites; an RGD sequence, which is known to be a cell attachment sequence; and a transmembrane region. The molecular mass calculated from the amino acid sequence is 130 kDa, but that in the crude extract was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 230 kDa, and decreased to 130 kDa during purification. However, when BglM1 was purified in the presence of calcium ion, the molecular mass remained 230 kDa. The biochemical characteristics of the 130- and 230-kDa BglM1 forms were analyzed: differences were found in the kinetic data for some substrates specific for both these enzymes; however, no difference was found in their intrinsic characteristics such as optimum pH and temperature. In addition, the molecular mass of native BglM1 with a calcium ion was estimated to be 1,000 kDa or larger by gel filtration. These results suggest that the calcium ion influences the conformation of BglM1. The evidence that BglM1 localizes on the plasma membrane of plasmodia was confirmed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Although Physarum BglM1 was expressed in microplasmodia and plasmodia, little expression was detected in other stages. BglM1 may have some function only in multinuclear cells.

  3. Association of osteopontin polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Xiaoxing; Guo, Pengju; Yang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of osteopontin gene -443 C>T, -156 G>GG, and -1748 A>G polymorphisms with cancer risk. The Medline, PubMed, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. After searching and evaluating the included papers, total 10 documents involved in -443 C>T, 8 papers involved in four articles involved in -156 G>GG and -1748 A>G were included into this meta analysis. There were no significant differences in genotype osteopontin -443 C>T distribution between cancer cases and control (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.40, P=0.90; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.60-1.35, P=0.62; OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.59-1.64, P=0.94; OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60-1.25, P=0.44, respectively). Meanwhile, no association between osteopontin -1748 A>G polymorphism and tumors under all genetic models. (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.54-1.00, P=0.05; OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.82-1.10, P=0.48; OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.95-1.81, P=0.10; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.77-1.06, P=0.20, respectively). However, osteopontin -156 G>GG polymorphism is only partly related to the tumor risk. (GGGG+GGG vs GG model, OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01-1.46, P=0.04; GGG vs GG model: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.05-1.35, P=0.008, respectively) osteopontin gene polymorphisms, -443 C>T and -1748 A>G was not associated with cancer risk, but partly associated to tumor risk for -156 G>GG gene polymorphism.

  4. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  5. Osteopontin: A Novel Cytokine Involved in the Regulation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Periparturient Dairy Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteopontin (Opn), an important mediator of the cell-mediated immune response, enhances the host immune response against mycobacterial infections. Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), have a devastating impact on the dairy industry. ...

  6. Anti-osteopontin monoclonal antibody prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice by promotion of osteoclast apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Huaqing; Wei, Huafeng; Zhao, Jian; Guo, Yajun; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlight: • We first report that anti-osteopontin mAb could protect osteoporosis in mice. • Anti-osteopontin mAb could promote the osteoclast apoptosis. • Targeting osteopontin might have therapeutic potentials for osteoporosis. - Abstract: Osteopontin (OPN) is abundant in mineralized tissues and has long been implicated in bone remodeling. However, the therapeutic effect of targeting OPN in bone loss diseases and the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here, we reported that anti-OPN mAb (23C3) could protect against ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice, demonstrated by microcomputed tomography analysis and histopathology evaluation. In vitro assay showed that 23C3 mAb reduced osteoclasts (OCs)-mediated bone resorption through promotion of mature OC apoptosis. Thus, the study has important implications for understanding the role of OPN in OC bone resorption and survival, and OPN antagonists may have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis and other osteopenic diseases.

  7. Osteopontin Immunoreactivity in the Ileum and Ileoceccal Lymph Node of Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteopontin (Opn), a highly acidic glycoprotein, promotes cellular adhesion and recruitment and has been shown to be upregulated in the granulomas of mycobacterial infections. Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is associated with granulomatous enteritis. ...

  8. Solvent exposed side chains of peptides bound to HLA A*1101 have similar effects on the reactivity of alloantibodies and specific TCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q J; Lindquist, Y; Levitsky, V; Masucci, M G

    1996-06-01

    Peptides can affect the recognition of MHC class I molecules by allospecific antibodies. Two explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. The 'conformational change' hypothesis suggests that peptide binding affects the availability of serologic determinants in the class I alpha1 and alpha2 domains while the 'peptide-side-chain effect' predicts that solvent exposed residues in the peptide are part of the serologic epitope. We have tested these possibilities by examining the recognition of peptide loaded HLA A*1101 molecules expressed in transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP)-deficient cell lines by three A11-specific mAb, and by comparing the effect of peptide analogues on the recognition of A11 complexes containing peptide epitopes from the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA4 by antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CT). The AUF5.13 and HB164 antibodies showed selective recognition of A11 molecules bound to partially overlapping sets of peptides from viral or cellular origin. The peptide dependence of AUF5.13 was confirmed in reconstitution experiments where A11 molecules were refolded at the surface of TAP-deficient T2/A11 cells that had been cultured at 26 degrees C and treated at pH3. Molecular modelling and Ala scanning mutagenesis of the IVTDFSVIK (IVT) and AVFDRKSDAK (AVF) peptides demonstrated that solvent-exposed peptide side chains affect CTL recognition as well as antibody binding. Substitution of Phe-P5 or Ser-P6 of the IVT peptide with Arg or Lys inhibited AUF5.13 recognition while binding was induced by substitution of the Arg-P5 and Lys-P6 of the AVF peptide with Ala. The results suggest that some allospecific antibodies recognized the surface of MHC class I-peptide complexes in a fashion similar to the TCR. This may involve direct interaction with the peptide side chains as well as recognition of peptide-induced perturbations in the class I complex.

  9. Plasma thrombin-cleaved osteopontin as a potential biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Saya; Kurata, Mie; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Shirabe; Tagawa, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hideaki; Ohue, Shiro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal is useful as a blood biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke patients were prospectively evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac evaluations for etiological diagnosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. They were divided into the atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic groups. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal, osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, S100B, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were measured from blood samples collected at admission. After excluding patients who met the exclusion criteria or had stroke of other/undetermined etiology, 60 of the 100 patients initially enrolled were included in the final analysis. The ischemic stroke subtypes were atherothrombotic (n=28, 46.7%), cardioembolic (n=19, 31.7%) and lacunar (n=13, 21.7%). Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were significantly higher in the atherothrombotic than in the non-atherothrombotic group (median (interquartile range): 5.83  (0.0-8.6 ) vs. 0.0  (0.0-3.3) pmol l(-1), P=0.03 and 544   (322-749 ) vs. 343   (254-485) ng ml(-1), P=0.01, respectively). After adjustment for the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal levels of >5.47 pmol l(-1) (odds ratio, 16.81; 95% confidence interval, 3.53-80.10) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels of >605.5 ng ml(-1) (6.59; 1.77-24.60) were identified as independent predictors of atherothrombosis. Within 3 h from stroke onset, only thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal independently predicted atherothrombosis and thus may add valuable, time-sensitive diagnostic information in the early evaluation of ischemic stroke, especially the atherothrombotic subtype.

  10. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases.

  11. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α4β1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  12. The combined treatment of praziquantel with osteopontin immunoneutralization reduces liver damage in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ying; Wang, Shi-Ping; Li, Qian; Xu, Mei-Hua; Shen, Yue-Ming; Yan, Lu; Gu, Huan; Li, Jia; Huang, Y L; Mu, Yi-Bing

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the 'stool-eggs-positive' day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.

  13. A Problem Protein: Unexpected Analytical Irregularities in the Measurement of Urinary Osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgood, L. A.; Grover, P. K.; Ryall, R. L.

    2007-04-01

    Reported mean urinary values of osteopontin (OPN) have varied widely, from <1μg/mL to more than 20 times that value. Since OPN binds to calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, the presence of crystals in urine may cause underestimation of its urinary levels. We measured urinary OPN levels in the presence of endogenous or exogenous CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals. OPN concentrations decreased in the presence of endogenous and exogenous CaOx crystals, but never below 2μg/mL. Increasing the urinary calcium concentration decreased detectable osteopontin levels, which is likely due to changes in the 3D-confirmation shape of the protein. The value of measuring OPN as a diagnostic marker of urolithiasis must therefore be seriously questioned.

  14. Role of phytate and osteopontin in the mechanism of soft tissue calcification.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafael M; Sanchis, Pilar; Saus, Carles; De Francisco, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of calcium deposition in soft tissues is of great importance in a variety of pathological conditions such as chronic kidney disease. The present study examined the role of phytate and osteopontin during the development of soft tissue calcification in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (16 rats per treatment) were fed with a diet (AIN-76A) in which phytate is undetectable (non-phytate-treated group), or with a phytin-enriched AIN-76A diet (phytate-treated group). After 21 days on the respective diets, all rats were subjected to calcinosis induction by subcutaneous injection with KMnO4 at 2 sites on either side of the interscapular region. At 2, 5, 8 and 10 days after the calcinosis induction, 4 rats of each group were sacrificed, and the injured tissues were removed for histological analysis and for calcium determination. Calcification was notably and significantly reduced in phytate-treated rats compared with non-phytate-treated rats. Calcified deposits appeared as soon as 2 days after calcinosis induction, but inflammation with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils was not typically observed until 5 days postinduction. Osteopontin was only detected 8 days postinduction, and was clearly associated with calcified areas. The results suggest an important role for crystallization inhibitors such as phytate in reducing hydroxyapatite crystal formation in the first steps of soft tissue calcification. Histological analysis indicated that osteopontin was not involved during initiation of soft tissue calcification. Osteopontin appears be involved in the control of calcification rather than its genesis.

  15. Enhanced proliferation, attachment and osteopontin expression by porcine periodontal cells exposed to Emdogain.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J C; Xiao, Y; Young, W G; Bartold, P M

    2005-12-01

    Emdogain (EMD) is an enamel matrix derivative extracted from developing porcine teeth with demonstrated periodontal regenerative potential. EMD has been shown to influence a number of properties of periodontal ligament cells including proliferation, cell attachment and matrix synthesis. To date, the effect of EMD on the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) is unknown. In this study, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, ERM, alveolar bone cells and gingival fibroblasts were obtained from porcine periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. This study investigated, in vitro, the effect of EMD at three concentrations on proliferation, cell attachment and expression of mRNA for two mineralised tissue-related proteins (osteopontin and bone sialoprotein). As for other periodontal cells, the ERM proliferative response was enhanced by EMD. Attachment assays revealed a highly significant increase for ERM and gingival fibroblasts after EMD treatment at all concentrations. This study has also shown that EMD stimulated expression of osteopontin mRNA by ERM and alveolar bone cells. The results from this study provide evidence that EMD enhanced cellular events related with proliferation, attachment and osteopontin mRNA expression by porcine periodontal cells, in a manner consistent with its role in periodontal regenerative therapy.

  16. Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Prell, Christine; Timby, Niklas; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow´s milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants. PMID:28788066

  17. Localization of runx2, osterix, and osteopontin in tooth root formation in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Azumi; Sugahara, Toshio; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2009-04-01

    Cementogenesis starts with the differentiation of cementoblasts. Mature cementoblasts secrete cementum matrix. Cementum components are similar to bone; moreover, cementoblasts possess many characteristics similar to those of osteoblasts. Runx2 and osterix, the transcriptional factors for osteoblast differentiation, participate in tooth formation. However, the characteristics of Runx2 and osterix during the differentiation process of cementoblasts remain unclear. In this study, we examined the immunolocalization patterns of Runx2, osterix, and osteopontin during rat molar tooth formation. Periodontal ligament cells and osteoblasts located on the alveolar bone surface showed immunoreactivity for Runx2. Colocalization of Runx2 and osterix was detected in cementoblasts, which penetrated the ruptured Hertwig's epithelial root sheath and attached to root dentin. Moreover, osteopontin was observed in Runx2-positive cementoblasts facing the root surface. However, the cells adjacent to cementoblasts showed only Runx2 reactivity. Neither Runx2 nor osterix was seen in cementocytes. These results suggest that both Runx2 and osterix are important for differentiation into cementoblasts. Additionally, osterix may be indispensable for transcription of osteopontin expression.

  18. Benefits of Lactoferrin, Osteopontin and Milk Fat Globule Membranes for Infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, Hans; Prell, Christine; Timby, Niklas; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-07-28

    The provision of essential and non-essential amino acids for breast-fed infants is the major function of milk proteins. In addition, breast-fed infants might benefit from bioactivities of milk proteins, which are exhibited in the intestine during the digestive phase and by absorption of intact proteins or derived peptides. For lactoferrin, osteopontin and milk fat globule membrane proteins/lipids, which have not until recently been included in substantial amounts in infant formulas, in vitro experiments and animal models provide a convincing base of evidence for bioactivities, which contribute to the protection of the infant from pathogens, improve nutrient absorption, support the development of the immune system and provide components for optimal neurodevelopment. Technologies have become available to obtain these compounds from cow´s milk and the bovine compounds also exhibit bioactivities in humans. Randomized clinical trials with experimental infant formulas incorporating lactoferrin, osteopontin, or milk fat globule membranes have already provided some evidence for clinical benefits. This review aims to compare findings from laboratory and animal experiments with outcomes of clinical studies. There is good justification from basic science and there are promising results from clinical studies for beneficial effects of lactoferrin, osteopontin and the milk fat globule membrane complex of proteins and lipids. Further studies should ideally be adequately powered to investigate effects on clinically relevant endpoints in healthy term infants.

  19. Role of Osteopontin in Murine Lyme Arthritis and Host Defense against Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Melissa R.; Rittling, Susan R.; Denhardt, David T.; Roper, Randall J.; Weis, John H.; Teuscher, Cory; Weis, Janis J.

    2002-01-01

    Several genetic loci in the mouse have been identified that regulate the severity of Lyme arthritis. The region of chromosome 5 including the osteopontin (OPN) gene (Opn) has been identified in intercross populations of C3H/HeN × C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ × BALB/cAnN mice. OPN is of particular interest as it is involved in the maintenance and remodeling of tissue during inflammation, it regulates production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 (cytokines implicated in Lyme arthritis), it is necessary for host control of certain bacterial infections, and mice displaying different severities of Lyme arthritis possess different alleles of the OPN gene. Macrophages and splenocytes from OPN-deficient mice on mixed C57BL/6J-129S or inbred 129S backgrounds were stimulated with the Pam3Cys modified lipoprotein from Borrelia burgdorferi, OspA. OPN was not required for OspA-induced cytokine production; however, macrophages from 129S-Opn−/− mice displayed a reduced level of IL-10 production. OPN was also not required for resistance to severe arthritis, as B. burgdorferi-infected 129S-Opn−/− mice developed mild arthritis, as did their wild-type littermates. Arthritis was more severe in OPN-deficient mice on the mixed C57BL/6J-129S backgrounds than in inbred mice of either strain. This increase was most likely due to a gene(s) closely linked to Opn on chromosome 5 in conjunction with other randomly assorting genes. Deficiency in OPN did not influence the numbers of spirochetes in tissues from B. burgdorferi-infected mice, indicating OPN is not part of the host defense to this pathogen. Interestingly, there was no alteration in the B. burgdorferi-specific antibody isotypes in OPN-deficient mice, indicating that its effect on helper T-cell responses is not relevant to the host response to B. burgdorferi. PMID:11854223

  20. Osteopontin activates the diabetes-associated potassium channel TALK-1 in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Vierra, Nicholas C.; Milian, Sarah C.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Jacobson, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) relies on β-cell Ca2+ influx, which is modulated by the two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channel, TALK-1. A gain-of-function polymorphism in KCNK16, the gene encoding TALK-1, increases risk for developing type-2 diabetes. While TALK-1 serves an important role in modulating GSIS, the regulatory mechanism(s) that control β-cell TALK-1 channels are unknown. Therefore, we employed a membrane-specific yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) assay to identify TALK-1-interacting proteins in human islets, which will assist in determining signaling modalities that modulate TALK-1 function. Twenty-one proteins from a human islet cDNA library interacted with TALK-1. Some of these interactions increased TALK-1 activity, including intracellular osteopontin (iOPN). Intracellular OPN is highly expressed in β-cells and is upregulated under pre-diabetic conditions to help maintain normal β-cell function; however, the functional role of iOPN in β-cells is poorly understood. We found that iOPN colocalized with TALK-1 in pancreatic sections and coimmunoprecipitated with human islet TALK-1 channels. As human β-cells express two K+ channel-forming variants of TALK-1, regulation of these TALK-1 variants by iOPN was assessed. At physiological voltages iOPN activated TALK-1 transcript variant 3 channels but not TALK-1 transcript variant 2 channels. Activation of TALK-1 channels by iOPN also hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (Vm) in HEK293 cells and in primary mouse β-cells. Intracellular OPN was also knocked down in β-cells to test its effect on β-cell TALK-1 channel activity. Reducing β-cell iOPN significantly decreased TALK-1 K+ currents and increased glucose-stimulated Ca2+ influx. Importantly, iOPN did not affect the function of other K2P channels or alter Ca2+ influx into TALK-1 deficient β-cells. These results reveal the first protein interactions with the TALK-1 channel and found that an interaction with iOPN increased β-cell TALK-1 K

  1. Association of osteopontin polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Xiaoxing; Guo, Pengju; Yang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of osteopontin gene -443 C>T, -156 G>GG, and -1748 A>G polymorphisms with cancer risk. The Medline, PubMed, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. After searching and evaluating the included papers, total 10 documents involved in -443 C>T, 8 papers involved in four articles involved in -156 G>GG and -1748 A>G were included into this meta analysis. There were no significant differences in genotype osteopontin -443 C>T distribution between cancer cases and control (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.40, P=0.90; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.60-1.35, P=0.62; OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.59-1.64, P=0.94; OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60-1.25, P=0.44, respectively). Meanwhile, no association between osteopontin -1748 A>G polymorphism and tumors under all genetic models. (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.54-1.00, P=0.05; OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.82-1.10, P=0.48; OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.95-1.81, P=0.10; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.77-1.06, P=0.20, respectively). However, osteopontin -156 G>GG polymorphism is only partly related to the tumor risk. (GGGG+GGG vs GG model, OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01-1.46, P=0.04; GGG vs GG model: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.05-1.35, P=0.008, respectively) osteopontin gene polymorphisms, -443 C>T and -1748 A>G was not associated with cancer risk, but partly associated to tumor risk for -156 G>GG gene polymorphism. PMID:26885018

  2. Osteopontin promotes fibrosis in dystrophic mouse muscle by modulating immune cell subsets and intramuscular TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Vetrone, Sylvia A; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Kudryashova, Elena; Kramerova, Irina; Hoffman, Eric P; Liu, Scot D; Miceli, M Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J

    2009-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, degenerative muscle disease that is exacerbated by secondary inflammation. Here, we characterized the immunological milieu of dystrophic muscle in mdx mice, a model of DMD, to identify potential therapeutic targets. We identified a specific subpopulation of cells expressing the Vbeta8.1/8.2 TCR that is predominant among TCR-beta+ T cells. These cells expressed high levels of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine that promotes immune cell migration and survival. Elevated OPN levels correlated with the dystrophic process, since OPN was substantially elevated in the serum of mdx mice and muscle biopsies after disease onset. Muscle biopsies from individuals with DMD also had elevated OPN levels. To test the role of OPN in mdx muscle, mice lacking both OPN and dystrophin were generated and termed double-mutant mice (DMM mice). Reduced infiltration of NKT-like cells and neutrophils was observed in the muscle of DMM mice, supporting an immunomodulatory role for OPN in mdx muscle. Concomitantly, an increase in CD4+ and FoxP3+ Tregs was also observed in DMM muscle, which also showed reduced levels of TGF-beta, a known fibrosis mediator. These inflammatory changes correlated with increased strength and reduced diaphragm and cardiac fibrosis. These studies suggest that OPN may be a promising therapeutic target for reducing inflammation and fibrosis in individuals with DMD.

  3. Osteopontin knockdown in the kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to reduction in renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Nobutaka; Nozawa, Masahiro; Umekawa, Tohru; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; De Velasco, Marco A.; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Khan, Saeed R.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) expression is increased in kidneys of rats with ethylene glycol (EG) induced hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of OPN knockdown by in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA on deposition of CaOx crystals in the kidneys. Hyperoxaluria was induced in 6-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats by administering 1.5 % EG in drinking water for 2 weeks. Four groups of six rats each were studied: Group A, untreated animals (tap water); Group B, administering 1.5 % EG; Group C, 1.5 % EG with in vivo transfection of OPN siRNA; Group D, 1.5 % EG with in vivo transfection of negative control siRNA. OPN siRNA transfections were performed on day 1 and 8 by renal sub-capsular injection. Rats were killed at day 15 and kidneys were removed. Extent of crystal deposition was determined by measuring renal calcium concentrations and counting renal crystal deposits. OPN siRNA transfection resulted in significant reduction in expression of OPN mRNA as well as protein in group C compared to group B. Reduction in OPN expression was associated with significant decrease in crystal deposition in group C compared to group B. Specific suppression of OPN mRNA expression in kidneys of hyperoxaluric rats leads to a decrease in OPN production and simultaneously inhibits renal crystal deposition. PMID:24619192

  4. Tiam1-regulated osteopontin in senescent fibroblasts contributes to the migration and invasion of associated epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiewei; Xu, Kun; Chase, Maya; Ji, Yuxin; Logan, Jennifer K.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment undergoes changes concurrent with neoplastic progression. Cancer incidence increases with aging and is associated with tissue accumulation of senescent cells. Senescent fibroblasts are thought to contribute to tumor development in aging tissues. We have shown that fibroblasts deficient in the Rac exchange factor Tiam1 promote invasion and metastasis of associated epithelial tumor cells. Here, we use a three-dimensional culture model of cellular invasiveness to outline several steps underlying this effect. We find that stress-induced senescence induces decreased fibroblast Tiam1 protein levels and increased osteopontin levels, and that senescent fibroblast lysates induce Tiam1 protein degradation in a calcium- and calpain-dependent fashion. Changes in fibroblast Tiam1 protein levels induce converse changes in osteopontin mRNA and protein. Senescent fibroblasts induce increased invasion and migration in co-cultured mammary epithelial cells. These effects in epithelial cells are ameliorated by either increasing fibroblast Tiam1 or decreasing fibroblast osteopontin. Finally, in seeded cell migration assays we find that either senescent or Tiam1-deficient fibroblasts induce increased epithelial cell migration that is dependent on fibroblast secretion of osteopontin. These findings indicate that one mechanism by which senescent fibroblasts promote neoplastic progression in associated tumors is through degradation of fibroblast Tiam1 protein and the consequent increase in secretion of osteopontin by fibroblasts. PMID:22302986

  5. Tiam1-regulated osteopontin in senescent fibroblasts contributes to the migration and invasion of associated epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Xu, Kun; Chase, Maya; Ji, Yuxin; Logan, Jennifer K; Buchsbaum, Rachel J

    2012-01-15

    The tumor microenvironment undergoes changes concurrent with neoplastic progression. Cancer incidence increases with aging and is associated with tissue accumulation of senescent cells. Senescent fibroblasts are thought to contribute to tumor development in aging tissues. We have shown that fibroblasts deficient in the Rac exchange factor Tiam1 promote invasion and metastasis of associated epithelial tumor cells. Here, we use a three-dimensional culture model of cellular invasiveness to outline several steps underlying this effect. We find that stress-induced senescence induces decreased fibroblast Tiam1 protein levels and increased osteopontin levels, and that senescent fibroblast lysates induce Tiam1 protein degradation in a calcium- and calpain-dependent fashion. Changes in fibroblast Tiam1 protein levels induce converse changes in osteopontin mRNA and protein. Senescent fibroblasts induce increased invasion and migration in co-cultured mammary epithelial cells. These effects in epithelial cells are ameliorated by either increasing fibroblast Tiam1 or decreasing fibroblast osteopontin. Finally, in seeded cell migration assays we find that either senescent or Tiam1-deficient fibroblasts induce increased epithelial cell migration that is dependent on fibroblast secretion of osteopontin. These findings indicate that one mechanism by which senescent fibroblasts promote neoplastic progression in associated tumors is through degradation of fibroblast Tiam1 protein and the consequent increase in secretion of osteopontin by fibroblasts.

  6. Synthesis and properties of an oligodeoxynucleotide containing a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon site specifically bound to the N sup 2 amino group of a 2 prime -deoxyguanosine residue

    SciTech Connect

    Casale, R.; McLaughlin, L.W. )

    1990-06-20

    A 2{prime}-deoxyguanosine derivative has been prepared in which the amino group at the 2-position has been modified via the exocyclic methyl group of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 9-methylanthracene. The modified nucleoside was converted to its 5{prime}-O-(9-phenylxanthen-9-yl) (pixyl) derivative 4, which was used to prepare the 3{prime}-O-({beta}-cyanoethyl N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite) 5. This guanosine derivative carrying a covalently bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides in order to study the properties of double-stranded DNA containing this potentially carcinogenic lesion located in the minor groove. The presence of the aromatic moiety results in significant destabilization of duplex DNA as determined from thermal melting studies. The fluorescence of the anthracene moiety suggests that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is not intercalated or significantly stacked with the nucleobases but is more likely nestled within the minor groove of an essentially native although slightly distorted B-DNA helix.

  7. Genomic organization of the human osteopontin gene: Exclusion of the locus from a causative role in the pathogenesis of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, A.H.; Edwards, S.J.; Murray, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is the principal phosphorylated glycoprotein of bone that is also expressed in a limited number of other tissues including dentine. In the current investigation the authors report the genomic organization of the SPP1 gene, which comprises seven exons, six of which contain coding sequence. The splice sites for exon donor and acceptor positions are in close agreement with previously published consensus sequences. Comparison of the human gene with its murine and bovine counterparts revealed a highly homologous organization. A highly informative short tandem repeat polymorphism isolated at the SPP1 locus showed no recombination with the autosomal dominant disorder dentinogenesis imperfecta type II. Nevertheless, sequencing of each exon in individuals affected by this disorder failed to reveal any disease-specific mutations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian; Taleb, Hayat; Sorensen, Esben S.

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  9. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ Grown Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper J S; Birkedal, Henrik; Nyvad, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects of repeated ex vivo treatment with calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles were observed. Particle treatment resulted in a 32% lower amount of biofilm formed (p < 0.05), but large inter-individual differences could be observed. Biofilm pH was significantly higher upon particle treatment, both shortly after the addition of glucose and after 30 min of incubation with glucose (p < 0.05). Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may represent a new therapeutic approach to caries control and aim at directly targeting virulence factors involved in the caries process. Further studies are required to determine the effect of particle treatment on more acidogenic/aciduric biofilms as well as the remineralizing potential of the particles.

  10. Harnessing osteopontin and other natural inhibitors to mitigate ectopic calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohri, Rachit

    Dystrophic calcification has been the long-standing major cause of bioprosthetic heart valve failure, and has been well studied in terms of the underlying causative mechanisms. Such understanding has yielded several anti-calcification strategies involving biomaterial modification at the preparation stage: chemical alteration, extraction of calcifiable components, or material modification with small-molecule anti-calcific agents. However, newer therapeutic opportunities are offered by the growing illustration of the pathology as a dynamic, actively regulated process involving several gene products, such as osteopontin (OPN), matrix-gla protein (MGP) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Osteopontin, a multi-functional matricellular glycosylated phosphoprotein has emerged as a prime candidate for the role of an in vivo inhibitor of ectopic calcification with two putative mechanisms: crystal poisoning and mineral-dissolution. The full therapeutic realization of its potential necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms of anti-calcification by osteopontin, as well as appropriate in vivo models in which to evaluate its efficacy, potency and molecular mechanisms. In this work, we pursued the development and characterization of a reliable in vivo model with the OPN-null mouse to simulate the calcification of bioprosthetic valve material, namely glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) tissue. Subsequently, we used the calcification model to evaluate hypotheses based on the anti-calcific potential of osteopontin. Several modes of administering exogenous OPN to the implant site in OPN-null mice were explored, including soluble injected OPN, OPN covalently immobilized on the biomaterial, and OPN adsorbed onto the biomaterial. An investigation of the structure-function aspects of the anti-calcific ability of OPN was also pursued in the in vivo model. The OPN-null mouse was also used as an in vivo test-bed to evaluate the anti-calcific potential of other biomolecules

  11. Serum osteopontin is a biomarker of severe fibrosis and portal hypertension in human and murine schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thiago Almeida; Syn, Wing-Kin; Pereira, Fausto E L; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Secor, William Evan; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major cause of fibrosis and portal hypertension. The reason 4-10% of infected subjects develops hepatosplenic schistosomiasis remains unclear. Chronically infected male CBA/J mice reproduce the dichotomic forms of human schistosomiasis. Most mice (80%) develop moderate splenomegaly syndrome (similar to hepatointestinal disease in humans) and 20% present severe hypersplenomegaly syndrome (analogous to human hepatosplenic disease). We demonstrated that the profibrogenic molecule osteopontin discriminates between mice with severe and mild disease and could be a novel morbidity biomarker in murine and human schistosomiasis. Failure to downregulate osteopontin during the chronic phase may explain why hepatosplenic subjects develop severe fibrosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. New POU dimer configuration mediates antagonistic control of an osteopontin preimplantation enhancer by Oct-4 and Sox-2

    PubMed Central

    Botquin, Valérie; Hess, Heike; Fuhrmann, Guy; Anastassiadis, Constantinos; Gross, Michael K.; Vriend, Gerrit; Schöler, Hans R.

    1998-01-01

    The POU transcription factor Oct-4 is expressed specifically in the germ line, pluripotent cells of the pregastrulation embryo and stem cell lines derived from the early embryo. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein secreted by cells of the preimplantation embryo and contains a GRGDS motif that can bind to specific integrin subtypes and modulate cell adhesion/migration. We show that Oct-4 and OPN are coexpressed in the preimplantation mouse embryo and during differentiation of embryonal cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of the first intron of OPN (i-opn) from covalently fixed chromatin of embryonal stem cells by Oct-4-specific antibodies indicates that Oct-4 binds to this fragment in vivo. The i-opn fragment functions as an enhancer in cell lines that resemble cells of the preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, it contains a novel palindromic Oct factor recognition element (PORE) that is composed of an inverted pair of homeodomain-binding sites separated by exactly 5 bp (ATTTG +5 CAAAT). POU proteins can homo- and heterodimerize on the PORE in a configuration that has not been described previously. Strong transcriptional activation of the OPN element requires an intact PORE. In contrast, the canonical octamer overlapping with the downstream half of the PORE is not essential. Sox-2 is a transcription factor that contains an HMG box and is coexpressed with Oct-4 in the early mouse embryo. Sox-2 represses Oct-4 mediated activation of i-opn by way of a canonical Sox element that is located close to the PORE. Repression depends on a carboxy-terminal region of Sox-2 that is outside of the HMG box. Expression, DNA binding, and transactivation data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPN expression is regulated by Oct-4 and Sox-2 in preimplantation development. PMID:9649510

  13. Identifying eIF4E-binding protein translationally-controlled transcripts reveals links to mRNAs bound by specific PUF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cridge, Andrew G.; Castelli, Lydia M.; Smirnova, Julia B.; Selley, Julian N.; Rowe, William; Hubbard, Simon J.; McCarthy, John E.G.; Ashe, Mark P.; Grant, Christopher M.; Pavitt, Graham D.

    2010-01-01

    eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) regulate translation of mRNAs in eukaryotes. However the extent to which specific mRNA targets are regulated by 4E-BPs remains unknown. We performed translational profiling by microarray analysis of polysome and monosome associated mRNAs in wild-type and mutant cells to identify mRNAs in yeast regulated by the 4E-BPs Caf20p and Eap1p; the first-global comparison of 4E-BP target mRNAs. We find that yeast 4E-BPs modulate the translation of >1000 genes. Most target mRNAs differ between the 4E-BPs revealing mRNA specificity for translational control by each 4E-BP. This is supported by observations that eap1Δ and caf20Δ cells have different nitrogen source utilization defects, implying different mRNA targets. To account for the mRNA specificity shown by each 4E-BP, we found correlations between our data sets and previously determined targets of yeast mRNA-binding proteins. We used affinity chromatography experiments to uncover specific RNA-stabilized complexes formed between Caf20p and Puf4p/Puf5p and between Eap1p and Puf1p/Puf2p. Thus the combined action of each 4E-BP with specific 3′-UTR-binding proteins mediates mRNA-specific translational control in yeast, showing that this form of translational control is more widely employed than previously thought. PMID:20705650

  14. Entropy Bounds and Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Zachary

    The generalized covariant entropy bound, or Bousso bound, is a holographic bound on the entropy of a region of space in a gravitational theory. It bounds the entropy passing through certain null surfaces. The bound remains non-trivial in the weak-gravity limit, and provides non-trivial constraints on the entropy of ordinary quantum states even in a regime where gravity is negligible. In the first half of this thesis, we present a proof of the Bousso bound in the weak-gravity regime within the framework of quantum field theory. The bound uses techniques from quantum information theory which relate the energy and entropy of quantum states. We present two proofs of the bound in free and interacting field theory. In the second half, we present a generalization of the Bousso bound called the quantum focussing conjecture. Our conjecture is a bound on the rate of entropy generation in a quantum field theory coupled semiclassically to gravity. The conjecture unifies and generalizes several ideas in holography. In particular, the quantum focussing conjecture implies a bound on entropies which is similar to, but subtly different from, the Bousso bound proven in the first half. The quantum focussing conjecture implies a novel non-gravitational energy condition, the quantum null energy condition, which gives a point-wise lower bound on the null-null component of the stress tensor of quantum matter. We give a proof of this bound in the context of free and superrenormalizable bosonic quantum field theory.

  15. Orientation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExsA monomers bound to promoter DNA and base-specific contacts with the P(exoT) promoter.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica M; Brutinel, Evan D; Marsden, Anne E; Schubot, Florian D; Yahr, Timothy L

    2012-05-01

    ExsA is a transcriptional activator of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) and a member of the AraC/XylS protein family. Each of the 10 ExsA-dependent promoter regions that define the T3SS regulon has two adjacent binding sites for monomeric ExsA. Whereas the promoter-proximal sites (binding site 1) contain highly conserved GnC and TGnnA sequences that are separated by ∼10 bp, the promoter-distal sites (binding site 2) share no obvious sequence similarity to each other or to the binding site 1 consensus. In the present study, we used footprinting with Fe-BABE (a protein-labeling reagent that can be conjugated to cysteine residues) to demonstrate that the two ExsA monomers bind to the P(exsC), P(exsD), P(exoT), and P(pcrG) promoters in a head-to-tail orientation. The footprinting data further indicate that the conserved GnC and TGnnA sequences constitute binding site 1. When bound to site 1, the first helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of ExsA interacts with the conserved GnC sequence, and the second HTH interacts at or near the TGnnA sequences. Genetic data using the P(exoT) promoter indicate that residues L198 and T199 in the first HTH motif of ExsA contact the guanine in the GnC sequence and that residue K202, also in the first HTH motif, contacts the cytosine. Likewise, evidence is presented that residues Q248, Y250, T252, and R257 located in the second HTH motif contribute to the recognition of the TGnnA sequence. These combined data define interactions of ExsA with site 1 on the P(exoT) promoter and provide insight into the nature of the interactions involved in recognition of binding site 2.

  16. Analysis of Osteopontin Levels for the Identification of Asymptomatic Patients with Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Juan B.; Poggio, Paolo; Sainger, Rachana; Vernick, William J.; Seefried, William F.; Branchetti, Emanuela; Field, Benjamin C.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Acker, Michael A.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is the most common etiology of acquired valve disease. Initial phases of CAVD include thickening of the cusps, whereas advanced stages are associated with biomineralization and reduction of the aortic valve area. These conditions are known as Aortic Valve Sclerosis (AVSc) and Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS), respectively. Due to its asymptomatic presentation, little is know about the molecular determinants of AVSc. The aim of this study is to correlate plasma and tissue Osteopontin (OPN) levels with echocardiographic evaluation for the identification of asymptomatic patients at risk of CAVD. In addition, we aim to analyze the differential expression and biological function of OPN splicing variants as biomarkers of early and late stages of CAVD. Methods From Jan 2010 to Feb 2011, 254 patients were enrolled in the study. Subjects were divided in three groups based on transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) evaluation: Controls (56 subjects), AVSc (90), and AVS (164). Plasma and tissue OPN levels were measured by IHC, ELISA and qPCR. Results Patients with AVSc have and AVS higher OPN levels compared to controls. OPN levels are elevated in asymptomatic AVSc patients with no appearance of calcification during TEE evaluation. Osteopontin splicing variants -a, -b, and -c are differentially expressed during CAVD progression and are able to inhibit biomineralization in a cell-based biomineralization assay. Conclusions The analysis of the differential expression of OPN splicing variants during CAVD may help in developing diagnostic and risk stratification tools to follow the progression of asymptomatic AV degeneration. PMID:22093695

  17. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-10-01

    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  18. Heterosubtypic Antibodies to Influenza A Virus Have Limited Activity against Cell-Bound Virus but Are Not Impaired by Strain-Specific Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz; Bianchi, Matteo; Kohler, Ines; Steck, Marco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of influenza virus-specific antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection are effective only against the eliciting or closely related viruses. Rare stem-specific heterosubtypic monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) can neutralize multiple strains and subtypes by preventing hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane. The epitopes recognized by these hMAbs are therefore considered promising targets for the development of pan-influenza virus vaccines. Here, we report the isolation of a novel human HA stem-reactive monoclonal antibody, hMAb 1.12, with exceptionally broad neutralizing activity encompassing viruses from 15 distinct HA subtypes. Using MAb 1.12 and two other monoclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that neutralization by hMAbs is virtually irreversible but becomes severely impaired following virus attachment to cells. In contrast, no interference by human anti-influenza virus serum antibodies was found, indicating that apically binding antibodies do not impair access to the membrane-proximal heterosubtypic epitopes. Our findings therefore encourage development of new vaccine concepts aiming at the induction of stem-specific heterosubtypic antibodies, as we provide support for their effectiveness in individuals previously exposed to influenza virus. IMPORTANCE The influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) can easily accommodate changes in its antigenic structures to escape preexisting immunity. This variability restricts the breadth and long-term efficacy of influenza vaccines. Only a few heterosubtypic antibodies (hMAbs), i.e., antibodies that can neutralize more than one subtype of influenza A virus, have been identified. The molecular interactions between these heterosubtypic antibodies and hemagglutinin are well characterized, yet little is known about the functional properties of these antibodies. Using a new, extraordinarily broad hMAb, we show that virus neutralization by hMAbs is virtually

  19. Osteopontin Expression During the Periparturient Period in Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investigation of the role of osteopontin (Opn) in Johne’s disease is of interest based upon its ability to influence cytokine expression and to improve host defense against mycobacterial infections. The objective of this study was to characterize Opn expression and secretion by peripheral blood mono...

  20. High fat diet increases melanoma cell growth in the bone marrow by inducing osteopontin and interleukin 6

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Liang; Luo, Yubin; Eriksson, Daniel; Meng, Xianyi; Qian, Cheng; Bäuerle, Tobias; Chen, Xiao-Xiang; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of metabolic stress induced by obesity on the bone marrow melanoma niche is largely unknown. Here we employed diet induced obese mice model, where mice received high-fat (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks before challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. Tumor size, bone loss and osteoclasts numbers were assessed histologically in the tibial bones. For defining the molecular pathway, osteopontin knock-out mice, interleukin 6 neutralizing antibody or Janus kinase 2 inhibition were carried out in the same model. Mechanistic studies such as adipocyte-melanoma co-cultures for defining adipocyte induced changes of tumor cell proliferation and expression profiles were also performed. As results, HFD enhanced melanoma burden in bone by increasing tumor area and osteoclast numbers. This process was associated with higher numbers of bone marrow adipocytes expressing IL-6 in direct vicinity to tumor cells. Inhibition of IL-6 or of downstream JAK2 blocked HFD-induced tumor progression. Furthermore, the phenotypic changes of melanoma cells triggered macrophage and osteoclast accumulation accompanied by increased osteopontin expression. Osteopontin triggered osteoclastogenesis and also exerted a positive feedback loop to tumor cells, which was abrogated in its absence. Metabolic stress by HFD promotes melanoma growth in the bone marrow by an increase in bone marrow adipocytes and IL-6-JAK2-osteopontin mediated activation of tumor cells and osteoclast differentiation. PMID:27049717

  1. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  2. U2504 Determines the Species Specificity of the A-site Cleft Antibiotics: The sStructures of Tiamulin, Homoharringtonine and Bruceantin Bound to the Ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Gurel, G.; Blaha, G; Moore, P; Steitz,

    2009-01-01

    Structures have been obtained for the complexes that tiamulin, homoharringtonine, and bruceantin form with the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui at resolutions ranging from 2.65 to 3.2 {angstrom}. They show that all these inhibitors block protein synthesis by competing with the amino acid side chains of incoming aminoacyl-tRNAs for binding in the A-site cleft in the peptidyl-transferase center, which is universally conserved. In addition, these structures support the hypothesis that the species specificity exhibited by the A-site cleft inhibitors is determined by the interactions they make, or fail to make, with a single nucleotide, U2504 (Escherichia coli). In the ribosome, the position of U2504 is controlled by its interactions with neighboring nucleotides, whose identities vary among kingdoms.

  3. U2504 Determines the Species Specificity of the A-Site Cleft Antibiotics: The Structures of Tiamulin, Homoharringtonine, and Bruceantin Bound to the Ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Gürel, Güliz; Blaha, Gregor; Moore, Peter B.; Steitz, Thomas A.; Yale

    2009-06-30

    Structures have been obtained for the complexes that tiamulin, homoharringtonine, and bruceantin form with the large ribosomal subunit of Haloarcula marismortui at resolutions ranging from 2.65 to 3.2 {angstrom}. They show that all these inhibitors block protein synthesis by competing with the amino acid side chains of incoming aminoacyl-tRNAs for binding in the Asite cleft in the peptidyl-transferase center, which is universally conserved. In addition, these structures support the hypothesis that the species specificity exhibited by the A-site cleft inhibitors is determined by the interactions they make, or fail to make, with a single nucleotide, U2504 (Escherichia coli). In the ribosome, the position of U2504 is controlled by its interactions with neighboring nucleotides, whose identities vary among kingdoms.

  4. Osteopontin Modulates Inflammation, Mucin Production, and Gene Expression Signatures After Inhalation of Asbestos in a Murine Model of Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ramos-Nino, Maria E.; Eugenia-Ariza, Maria; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Butnor, Kelly J.; Vacek, Pamela C.; McGee, Sean P.; Clark, Jessica C.; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and lung remodeling are hallmarks of asbestos-induced fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms that control these events are unclear. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) of distal bronchioles in a murine asbestos inhalation model, we show that osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated by bronchiolar epithelial cells after chrysotile asbestos exposures. In contrast to OPN wild-type mice (OPN+/+) inhaling asbestos, OPN null mice (OPN−/−) exposed to asbestos showed less eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, diminished lung inflammation, and decreased mucin production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 subunit p40, MIP1α, MIP1β, and eotaxin) also were significantly less in asbestos-exposed OPN−/− mice. Microarrays performed on lung tissues from asbestos-exposed OPN+/+ and OPN−/− mice showed that OPN modulated the expression of a number of genes (Col1a2, Timp1, Tnc, Eln, and Col3a1) linked to fibrosis via initiation and cross talk between IL-1β and epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling pathways. Novel targets of OPN identified include genes involved in cell signaling, immune system/defense, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell cycle regulation. Although it is unclear whether the present findings are specific to chrysotile asbestos or would be observed after inhalation of other fibers in general, these results highlight new potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets for asbestosis and other diseases (asthma, smoking-related interstitial lung diseases) linked to OPN overexpression. PMID:21514415

  5. Increased Expression of Osteopontin in Retinal Degeneration Induced by Blue Light-Emitting Diode Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seung Wook; Kim, Hyung Il; Kim, Gyu Hyun; Park, Su Jin; Kim, In-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional adhesive glycoprotein that is implicated in a variety of pro-inflammatory as well as neuroprotective and repair-promoting effects in the brain. As a first step towards understanding the role of OPN in retinal degeneration (RD), we examined changes in OPN expression in a mouse model of RD induced by exposure to a blue light-emitting diode (LED). RD was induced in BALB/c mice by exposure to a blue LED (460 nm) for 2 h. Apoptotic cell death was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In order to investigate changes in OPN in RD, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed. Anti-OPN labeling was compared to that of anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is a commonly used marker for retinal injury or stress including inflammation. OPN expression in RD retinas markedly increased at 24 h after exposure, was sustained through 72 h, and subsided at 120 h. Increased OPN expression was observed co-localized with microglial cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and subretinal space. Expression was restricted to the central retina in which photoreceptor cell death occurred. Interestingly, OPN expression in the ONL/OPL was closely associated with microglia, whereas most of the OPN plaques observed in the subretinal space were not. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that OPN was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of microglia and in nearby fragments of degenerating photoreceptors. In addition, we found that OPN was induced more acutely and with greater region specificity than GFAP. These results indicate that OPN may be a more useful marker for retinal injury or stress, and furthermore act as a microglial pro-inflammatory mediator and a phagocytosis-inducing opsonin in the subretinal space. Taken together, our data suggest that OPN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of RD. PMID:27504084

  6. Correlation Between Tumor Growth Delay and Expression of Cancer and Host VEGF, VEGFR2, and Osteopontin in Response to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, Timothy D.; Nearman, Jessica; Mullins, John; Li Sicong; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the late effects of radiotherapy (RT) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and osteopontin (OPN) expression in cancer and stromal cells. Methods and Materials: LS174T xenografted athymic mice were used as a tumor model. Radiation was delivered in two equivalent fractionation schemes: 5 x 7 Gy and 1 x 20 Gy, the latter at two dose rates. Results: Tumor growth arrest was similar in all treatment groups, with the exception of a better response of small-size tumors in the 5 x 7-Gy group. The host VEGF and OPN levels were directly proportional to the tumor doubling time and were independent of the fractionation scheme. The host and cancer cell VEGFR2 levels in tumor were also directly related to the tumor response to RT. Conclusion: Upregulated VEGFR2 in cancer cells suggest paracrine signaling in the VEGFR2 pathway of cancer cells as the factor contributing to RT failure. The transient activation of the host VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway in tumor supports the model of angiogenic regeneration and suggests that radiation-induced upregulation of VEGF, VEGFR2, and downstream proteins might contribute to RT failure by escalating the rate of vascular repair. Coexpression of host OPN and VEGF, two factors closely associated with angiogenesis, indicate that OPN can serve as a surrogate marker of tumor recovery after RT. Taken together, these results strongly support the notion that to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes, the scheduling of RT and antiangiogenic therapies will require patient-specific post-treatment monitoring of the VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway and that tumor-associated OPN can serve as an indicator of tumor regrowth.

  7. CCR2+CCR5+ T Cells Produce Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Osteopontin in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wakiro; Tomita, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Daijyu; Lin, Youwei; Kishida, Hitaru; Miyake, Sachiko; Ogawa, Masafumi; Okamoto, Tomoko; Murata, Miho; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS that is presumably mediated by CD4+ autoimmune T cells. Although both Th1 and Th17 cells have the potential to cause inflammatory CNS pathology in rodents, the identity of pathogenic T cells remains unclear in human MS. Given that each Th cell subset preferentially expresses specific chemokine receptors, we were interested to know whether T cells defined by a particular chemokine receptor profile play an active role in the pathogenesis of MS. In this article, we report that CCR2+CCR5+ T cells constitute a unique population selectively enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients during relapse but not in patients with other neurologic diseases. After polyclonal stimulation, the CCR2+CCR5+ T cells exhibited a distinct ability to produce matrix metalloproteinase-9 and osteopontin, which are involved in the CNS pathology of MS. Furthermore, after TCR stimulation, the CCR2+CCR5+ T cells showed a higher invasive potential across an in vitro blood–brain barrier model compared with other T cells. Of note, the CCR2+CCR5+ T cells from MS patients in relapse are reactive to myelin basic protein, as assessed by production of IFN-γ. We also demonstrated that the CCR6−, but not the CCR6+, population within CCR2+CCR5+ T cells was highly enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid during MS relapse (p < 0.0005) and expressed higher levels of IFN-γ and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Taken together, we propose that autoimmune CCR2+CCR5+CCR6− Th1 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:23071279

  8. Prevention of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery via small interference RNA mediated downregulation of osteopontin gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Sun, Yingxian; Wang, Tairan; Liu, Guinan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to take osteopontin (OPN) as molecular target to study its effects on injured intima model of carotid artery in rat using perivascular transfer of OPN-small interference RNA (siRNA). OPN mRNA in cultured VSMCs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and OPN-siRNA-002 was determined as the most sensitive sequence and used as transfected siRNA in the subsequent animal experiments. We established rat carotid arterial intima-injured model with balloon-injured method, and then perivascularly transfected OPN-siRNA-002 to study the role of OPN-siRNA in regulating several related genes including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), as well as its role in neointimal formation. OPN mRNA and protein decreased about 50 % with corresponding decrease in intima thickness after transfecting with specific OPN-siRNA-002 compared with Pluronic control group and OPN-SCR-siRNA group on each time point (n = 6, p < 0.001), and this inhibiting effects persisted up to 14 days after balloon injury. PCNA, TGF-β1, MMP-2, and MMP-14 mRNA and protein correlated directly with the respective levels of OPN, suggesting its functions via regulating these downstream factors (n = 6, p < 0.001). OPN may be a potential target gene in reducing the risk for arterial restenosis after vascular intervention.

  9. Tumor-derived microparticles induce bone marrow-derived cell mobilization and tumor homing: a process regulated by osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Fremder, Ella; Munster, Michal; Aharon, Anat; Miller, Valeria; Gingis-Velitski, Svetlana; Voloshin, Tali; Alishekevitz, Dror; Bril, Rotem; Scherer, Stefan J; Loven, David; Brenner, Benjamin; Shaked, Yuval

    2014-07-15

    Acute chemotherapy can induce rapid bone-marrow derived pro-angiogenic cell (BMDC) mobilization and tumor homing, contributing to tumor regrowth. To study the contribution of tumor cells to tumor regrowth following therapy, we focused on tumor-derived microparticles (TMPs). EMT/6 murine-mammary carcinoma cells exposed to paclitaxel chemotherapy exhibited an increased number of TMPs and significantly altered their angiogenic properties. Similarly, breast cancer patients had increased levels of plasma MUC-1(+) TMPs following chemotherapy. In addition, TMPs from cells exposed to paclitaxel induced higher BMDC mobilization and colonization, but had no increased effect on angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs and tumors than TMPs from untreated cells. Since TMPs abundantly express osteopontin, a protein known to participate in BMDC trafficking, the impact of osteopontin-depleted TMPs on BMDC mobilization, colonization, and tumor angiogenesis was examined. Although EMT/6 tumors grown in mice inoculated with osteopontin-depleted TMPs had lower numbers of BMDC infiltration and microvessel density when compared with EMT/6 tumors grown in mice inoculated with wild-type TMPs, no significant difference in tumor growth was seen between the two groups. However, when BMDCs from paclitaxel-treated mice were injected into wild-type EMT/6-bearing mice, a substantial increase in tumor growth and BMDC infiltration was detected compared to osteopontin-depleted EMT/6-bearing mice injected with BMDCs from paclitaxel-treated mice. Collectively, our results suggest that osteopontin expressed by TMPs play an important role in BMDC mobilization and colonization of tumors, but is not sufficient to enhance the angiogenic activity in tumors. © 2013 UICC.

  10. Culture-bound syndromes.

    PubMed

    Levine, R E; Gaw, A C

    1995-09-01

    Since its inception, scholars have struggled with the concept of CBSs. This struggle is reflected in the continuing use of a term that is confusing and inaccurate. Most authors would agree that the term "culture-bound syndrome" was intended to describe forms of otherwise common mental illness that are rendered unusual because of the pathoplastic influence of culture. It was intended not only to describe specific syndromes, but also meanings of illness and non-Western notions of disease causation. The term has become an anachronism, for the word, "syndrome," implies specific disease entities, not illnesses of attribution of idioms of distress. Furthermore, the word "bound" implies that the entities described are restricted to a single culture. Close examination reveals that many of the so-called "culture-bound" syndromes are found in multiple cultures that have in common only that they are "non-Western." It may be unreasonable to expect one term to describe these different concepts. The most accurate of the designations offered might be "folk diagnostic categories." Perhaps the most difficult question remaining is "How can we understand (and classify) these phenomena in such a way that highlights their uniqueness but does not dismiss them as too rare and exotic to warrant attention?" The first step is to recognize that the CBSs are a heterogeneous group of conditions. We must next acknowledge that the concepts represented may be difficult for the average Western clinician to recognize but, in their respective cultures, are neither rare nor unusual. With 80% of our increasingly shrinking world coming from "non-Western" cultures, a familiarity with non-Western notions of disease causation is particularly important for modern clinicians. Many authors have recommended that those CBSs that are "true" syndromes be classified together with their Western counterparts. In order to do this, the folk labels need to be put aside and the fundamental components of each disorder

  11. Roles of osteopontin gene polymorphism (rs1126616), osteopontin levels in urine and serum, and the risk of urolithiasis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Kang; Pan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jing; Lv, Qiang; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie; Yin, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have investigated the relationships between osteopontin gene polymorphism rs1126616 and OPN levels and urolithiasis, but the results were controversial. Our study aimed to clarify such relationships. Methods. A meta-analysis was performed by searching the databases Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs) or standardised mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of association. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's regression test. Results. Overall, a significantly increased risk of urolithiasis was associated with OPN gene polymorphism rs1126616 for all the genetic models except recessive model. When stratified by ethnicity, the results were significant only in Turkish populations. For OPN level association, a low OPN level was detected in the urine of urolithiasis patients in large sample size subgroup. Results also indicated that urolithiasis patients have lower OPN level in serum than normal controls. Conclusion. This meta-analysis revealed that the T allele of OPN gene polymorphism increased susceptibility to urolithiasis. Moreover, significantly lower OPN levels were detected in urine and serum of urolithiasis patients than normal controls, thereby indicating that OPN has important functions in the progression of urolithiasis.

  12. The Role of Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) Haplotypes in the Susceptibility to Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bayrle, Corinna; Wetzke, Martin; Fries, Christoph; Tillack, Cornelia; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Steib, Christian; Friedrich, Matthias; Diegelmann, Julia; Czamara, Darina; Brand, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteopontin represents a multifunctional molecule playing a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Its expression is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to analyze the association of osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) gene variants in a large cohort of IBD patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic DNA from 2819 Caucasian individuals (n = 841 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), n = 473 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and n = 1505 healthy unrelated controls) was analyzed for nine OPN SNPs (rs2728127, rs2853744, rs11730582, rs11739060, rs28357094, rs4754 = p.Asp80Asp, rs1126616 = p.Ala236Ala, rs1126772 and rs9138). Considering the important role of osteopontin in Th17-mediated diseases, we performed analysis for epistasis with IBD-associated IL23R variants and analyzed serum levels of the Th17 cytokine IL-22. For four OPN SNPs (rs4754, rs1126616, rs1126772 and rs9138), we observed significantly different distributions between male and female CD patients. rs4754 was protective in male CD patients (p = 0.0004, OR = 0.69). None of the other investigated OPN SNPs was associated with CD or UC susceptibility. However, several OPN haplotypes showed significant associations with CD susceptibility. The strongest association was found for a haplotype consisting of the 8 OPN SNPs rs2728127-rs2853744-rs11730582-rs11439060-rs28357094-rs112661-rs1126772-rs9138 (omnibus p-value = 2.07×10−8). Overall, the mean IL-22 secretion in the combined group of OPN minor allele carriers with CD was significantly lower than that of CD patients with OPN wildtype alleles (p = 3.66×10−5). There was evidence for weak epistasis between the OPN SNP rs28357094 with the IL23R SNP rs10489629 (p = 4.18×10−2) and between OPN SNP rs1126616 and IL23R SNP rs2201841 (p = 4.18×10−2) but none of these associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions

  13. Identification and characterisation of the proteins bound by specific phage-displayed recombinant antibodies (scFv) obtained against Brazil nut and almond extracts.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Madrid, Raquel; García-García, Aina; Alcocer, Marcos; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2017-08-28

    Almonds and Brazil nuts are widely consumed allergenic nuts whose presence must be declared according to food labelling regulations. Their detection in food products has been recently achieved by ELISA methods with recombinant antibodies (scFv) isolated against complete Brazil nut and almond protein extracts. The screening of phage-scFv libraries against complete protein extracts confers a series of advantages over the use of purified proteins, as recombinant proteins might alter their native folding. However, using this strategy, the nature of the target detected by phage-displayed antibodies remains unknown, and requires further research to identify whether they are nut allergens or other molecules present in the extract, but not related to their allergenic potential. Electrophoretic, chromatographic, immunological and spectrometric techniques revealed that the Brazil nut (BE95) and almond (PD1F6 and PD2C9) specific phage-scFvs detected conformational epitopes of the Brazil nut and almond 11S globulins, recognised by WHO/IUIS as Ber e 2 and Pru du 6 major allergens. Circular dichroism data indicated that severe heat treatment would entail loss of epitope structure, disabling scFv for target detection. The presence of important Brazil nut and almond allergens (Ber e 2 and Pru du 6) in foodstuffs can be determined by using phage-display antibodies BE95, PD1F6 and PD2C9 as affinity probes in ELISA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Holographic bounds and finite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Daniel; Scacco, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    We compare two holographic arguments that impose especially strong bounds on the amount of inflation. One comes from the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology and the other from the work of Banks and Fischler. We find that simple versions of these two approaches yield the same bound on the number of e-foldings. A careful examination reveals that while these pictures are similar in spirit, they are not necessarily identical prescriptions. We apply the two pictures to specific cosmologies which expose potentially important differences and which also demonstrate ways these seemingly simple proposals can be tricky to implement in practice.

  15. Ophiophagus hannah venom: proteome, components bound by Naja kaouthia antivenin and neutralization by N. kaouthia neurotoxin-specific human ScFv.

    PubMed

    Danpaiboon, Witchuda; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Dong-din-on, Fonthip; Srimanote, Potjanee; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-05-13

    Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5'-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins.

  16. Towards in vivo mutation analysis: knock-out of specific chlorophylls bound to the light-harvesting complexes of Arabidopsis thaliana - the case of CP24 (Lhcb6).

    PubMed

    Passarini, Francesca; Xu, Pengqi; Caffarri, Stefano; Hille, Jacques; Croce, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    In the last ten years, a large series of studies have targeted antenna complexes of plants (Lhc) with the aim of understanding the mechanisms of light harvesting and photoprotection. Combining spectroscopy, modeling and mutation analyses, the role of individual pigments in these processes has been highlighted in vitro. In plants, however, these proteins are associated with multiple complexes of the photosystems and function within this framework. In this work, we have envisaged a way to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies by knocking out in vivo pigments that have been proposed to play an important role in excitation energy transfer between the complexes or in photoprotection. We have complemented a CP24 knock-out mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with the CP24 (Lhcb6) gene carrying a His-tag and with a mutated version lacking the ligand for chlorophyll 612, a specific pigment that in vitro experiments have indicated as the lowest energy site of the complex. Both complexes efficiently integrated into the thylakoid membrane and assembled into the PSII supercomplexes, indicating that the His-tag does not impair the organization in vivo. The presence of the His-tag allowed the purification of CP24-WT and of CP24-612 mutant in their native states. It is shown that CP24-WT coordinates 10 chlorophylls and 2 carotenoid molecules and has properties identical to those of the reconstituted complex, demonstrating that the complex self-assembled in vitro assumes the same folding as in the plant. The absence of the ligand for chlorophyll 612 leads to the loss of one Chl a and of lutein, again as in vitro, indicating the feasibility of the method. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  17. Ophiophagus hannah Venom: Proteome, Components Bound by Naja kaouthia Antivenin and Neutralization by N. kaouthia Neurotoxin-Specific Human ScFv

    PubMed Central

    Danpaiboon, Witchuda; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Dong-din-on, Fonthip; Srimanote, Potjanee; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins. PMID:24828754

  18. Potential Prepore Trimer Formation by the Bacillus thuringiensis Mosquito-specific Toxin: MOLECULAR INSIGHTS INTO A CRITICAL PREREQUISITE OF MEMBRANE-BOUND MONOMERS.

    PubMed

    Sriwimol, Wilaiwan; Aroonkesorn, Aratee; Sakdee, Somsri; Kanchanawarin, Chalermpol; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Ando, Toshio; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2015-08-21

    The insecticidal feature of the three-domain Cry δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis is generally attributed to their capability to form oligomeric pores, causing lysis of target larval midgut cells. However, the molecular description of their oligomerization process has not been clearly defined. Here a stable prepore of the 65-kDa trypsin-activated Cry4Ba mosquito-specific toxin was established through membrane-mimetic environments by forming an ∼200-kDa octyl-β-D-glucoside micelle-induced trimer. The SDS-resistant trimer caused cytolysis to Sf9 insect cells expressing Aedes-mALP (a Cry4Ba receptor) and was more effective than a toxin monomer in membrane perturbation of calcein-loaded liposomes. A three-dimensional model of toxin trimer obtained by negative-stain EM in combination with single-particle reconstruction at ∼5 nm resolution showed a propeller-shaped structure with 3-fold symmetry. Fitting the three-dimensional reconstructed EM map with a 100-ns molecular dynamics-simulated Cry4Ba structure interacting with an octyl-β-D-glucoside micelle showed relative positioning of individual domains in the context of the trimeric complex with a major protrusion from the pore-forming domain. Moreover, high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging at nanometer resolution and a subsecond frame rate demonstrated conformational transitions from a propeller-like to a globularly shaped trimer upon lipid membrane interactions, implying prepore-to-pore conversion. Real-time trimeric arrangement of monomers associated with L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid bicelle membranes was also envisaged by successive high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging, depicting interactions among three individual subunits toward trimer formation. Together, our data provide the first pivotal insights into the structural requirement of membrane-induced conformational changes of Cry4Ba toxin monomers for the

  19. Osteopontin Promotes Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 through NF-κB Signaling in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hua; Deng, Zhenhan; Zeng, Chao; Tu, Min; Li, Liangjun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Gao, Shuguang; Luo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is associated with the severity and progression of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanism of OPN in the pathogenesis of OA is unknown. In this study, we found that OA patients had higher abundance of OPN and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13). In chondrocytes, we showed that OPN promoted the production of MMP13 and activation of NF-κB pathway by increasing the abundance of p65 and phosphorylated p65 and translocation of p65 protein from cytoplasm to nucleus. Notably, inhibition of NF-κB pathway by inhibitor suppressed the production of MMP13 induced by OPN treatment. In conclusion, OPN induces production of MMP13 through activation of NF-κB pathway. PMID:27656654

  20. Differential effects of osteopontin on the cytotoxic activity of macrophages from young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Rollo, E E; Denhardt, D T

    1996-08-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein found in body fluids (e.g. plasma, urine, milk) and in mineralized tissues. Its expression is increased in many transformed cells and in normal cells exposed to various cytokines. When stimulated with the inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, mouse macrophages secrete nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic agent effective against microbial invaders and tumour cells. This report documents (1) that thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, activated with the inflammatory mediators, produced less NO and exhibited reduced cytotoxicity towards target cells when they were obtained from old animals than when they were obtained from young animals; and (2) that OPN was able to inhibit both the induced NO synthesis and cytotoxicity, but more effectively in macrophages from the young animals than those from the old animals. This may be due to the observed higher level of OPN expression in macrophages from old animals.

  1. Transglutaminase-mediated oligomerization promotes osteoblast adhesive properties of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Forsprecher, Jennifer; Wang, Zhemeng; Goldberg, Harvey A

    2011-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a widely distributed, protein-crosslinking enzyme having a prominent role in cell adhesion as a β1 integrin co-receptor for fibronectin. In bone and teeth, its substrates include the matricellular proteins osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). The aim of this study was to examine effects of TG2-mediated crosslinking and oligomerization of OPN and BSP on osteoblast cell adhesion. We show that surfaces coated with oligomerized OPN and BSP promote MC3T3-E1/C4 osteoblastic cell adhesion significantly better than surfaces coated with the monomeric form of the proteins. Both OPN and BSP oligomer-adherent cells showed more cytoplasmic extensions than those cells grown on the monomer-coated surfaces indicative of increased cell connectivity. Our study suggests a role for TG2 in promoting the cell adhesion function of two matricellular substrate proteins prominent in bone, tooth cementum and certain tumors. PMID:20864802

  2. Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation: expression of beta-catenin [corrected] and osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Cavaliere, Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is an extremely rare variant. To date, only 12 cases have been described in the literature. This tumor is a typical basal cell carcinoma with basaloid nests containing shadow cells identical to those of pilomatricoma and pilomatrical carcinoma. We present two additional cases and have investigated the immunoprofile of .-catenin and osteopontin with the aim of determining both their biological significance and possible diagnostic utility. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of these cases that we have found suggest that basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation belong to a spectrum of lesions deriving from hair follicles in which .-catenin plays an important role in the tumor development, differentiation, and behavior.

  3. Osteopontin Stimulates Preneoplastic Cellular Proliferation Through Activation of the MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruhland, Megan K.; Pazolli, Ermira; Lind, Anne C.; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous mutations during the transformation process. Indeed, cancer- associated fibroblasts (CAF) and senescent fibroblasts stimulate tumorigenesis in xenograft models. Because senescent fibroblasts accumulate with age, these findings suggest that they contribute to age-related increases in tumorigenesis. Previously we demonstrated that senescent-associated stromal derived osteopontin (OPN) contributes to preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in xenografts, suggesting that it impacts neoplastic progression. Analysis of fibroblasts within premalignant and malignant skin lesions ranging from solar/actinic keratosis (AK) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) revealed they express OPN. Given the stromal expression of OPN, we investigated how OPN impacts preneoplastic cell growth. We demonstrate that OPN promotes preneoplastic keratinocyte cellular proliferation and cell survival through the CD44 cell receptor and activation of the MAPK pathway. These data suggest that stromal-derived OPN impacts tumorigenesis by stimulating preneoplastic cell proliferation thus allowing expansion of initiated cells in early lesions. PMID:21673011

  4. Perinatal exposure to low-dose DE-71 increases serum thyroid hormones and gonadal osteopontin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Charles A; McCoy, George L; Hui, Yvonne Y; LaVoie, Holly A

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that have been widely used in manufacturing. They are major household and environmental contaminants that bioaccumulate. Humans are exposed primarily through dust inhalation and dietary ingestion of animal products. In animal studies, high doses of penta-brominated diphenyl ethers (penta-BDEs) in the mg/kg body weight (BW) range negatively impact brain development, behavior, memory, circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, the reproductive system and bone development. We investigated the effects of ingestion of a relatively low dose of the penta-BDE mixture DE-71 by pregnant and lactating rats on reproductive and thyroid parameters of the F1 offspring. F0 mothers received 60 μg/kg BW of DE-71 or vehicle daily by gavage from Day 1.5 of pregnancy through lactation (except the day of parturition). F1 pups were sacrificed at 21 d of age or outbred at approximately 80 d of age. Bred F1 females were sacrificed at Day 14.5 of pregnancy or at five months of age. Bred F1 males were sacrificed at five months of age. DE-71 treatment of the mothers affected the F1 females as evidenced by lower body weights at 80 d and five months of age, elevated serum T3 and T4 concentrations at Day 14.5 of pregnancy and increased thyroid gland weight and ovarian osteopontin mRNA at five months of age. Perinatal DE-71 exposure also increased testicular osteopontin mRNA in 21-day-old F1 males. Utilizing a granulosa cell in vitro model, we demonstrated that DE-71 activated the rat osteopontin gene promoter. Our results are the first to demonstrate that PBDEs increase rodent circulating T3 and T4 concentrations and gonadal osteopontin mRNA, and activate the osteopontin gene promoter. These changes may have clinical implications as others have shown associations between human exposure to PBDEs and subclinical hyperthyroidism, and overexpression of ovarian osteopontin has been associated with ovarian cancer. PMID:21367881

  5. Correlation of plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels with the severity and clinical outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Tee, Yi-Torng; Wang, Po-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Lee, Shu-Kuei; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Shiuan-Chih

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the correlation of two important inflammatory biomarkers, plasma osteopontin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), with the severity and outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Sixty-one patients with PID, including 25 patients with tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA), were consecutively recruited. Their blood samples were tested for the concentrations of plasma osteopontin and NGAL using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The associations of these biomarkers with TOA, length of hospitalization, and incidence of surgery were also analyzed. Plasma osteopontin level was significantly increased in PID patients with TOA compared to PID patients without TOA (median 107.77 ng/mL vs. 72.39 ng/mL, p = 0.004). However, there was no significant difference for plasma NGAL. If the cutoff level of plasma osteopontin was set at 81.1 ng/mL, there was a 76.0% sensitivity and a 24.0% false negative rate in predicting TOA in PID patients. Plasma osteopontin significantly correlated with length of hospital stay (r = 0.467, p < 0.001), and this correlation was better than that of NGAL. However, neither biomarker was associated with incidence of surgery. Plasma osteopontin has a better correlation with TOA and length of hospitalization compared to NGAL. If plasma osteopontin level falls below 81.1 ng/mL, PID patients will have about a 20% chance of developing TOA. Incorporating plasma osteopontin, but not NGAL, will allow for an adjuvant diagnostic biomarker for TOA and predictor of length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effect of gingival application of melatonin on alkaline and acid phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Valverde, Antonio; Gómez-de-Diego, Rafel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; de Vicente-Jiménez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary fluid concentrations of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. Study Design: Cross-sectional study of 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease and 30 healthy subjects. Diabetic patients were treated with topical application of melatonin (1% orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days and controls with a placebo formulation. Results: Before treatment with melatonin, diabetic patients showed significantly higher mean salivary levels of alkaline and acid phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin than healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After treatment with melatonin, there was a statistically significant decrease of the gingival index (15.84± 10.3 vs 5.6 ± 5.1) and pocket depth (28.3 ± 19.5 vs 11.9 ± 9.0) (P < 0.001). Also, use of melatonin was associated with a significant reduction of the four biomarkers. Changes of salivary acid phosphatase and osteopontin correlated significantly with changes in the gingival index, whereas changes of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin correlated significantly with changes in the pocket depth. Conclusions: Treatment with topical melatonin was associated with an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth, a reduction in salivary concentrations of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin. Key words:Melatonin, diabetes mellitus, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin. PMID:23524437

  7. Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

    1975-01-01

    Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

  8. Maximum common subgraph: some upper bound and lower bound results

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Lai, Jing; Jennings, Steven F

    2006-01-01

    Background Structure matching plays an important part in understanding the functional role of biological structures. Bioinformatics assists in this effort by reformulating this process into a problem of finding a maximum common subgraph between graphical representations of these structures. Among the many different variants of the maximum common subgraph problem, the maximum common induced subgraph of two graphs is of special interest. Results Based on current research in the area of parameterized computation, we derive a new lower bound for the exact algorithms of the maximum common induced subgraph of two graphs which is the best currently known. Then we investigate the upper bound and design techniques for approaching this problem, specifically, reducing it to one of finding a maximum clique in the product graph of the two given graphs. Considering the upper bound result, the derived lower bound result is asymptotically tight. Conclusion Parameterized computation is a viable approach with great potential for investigating many applications within bioinformatics, such as the maximum common subgraph problem studied in this paper. With an improved hardness result and the proposed approaches in this paper, future research can be focused on further exploration of efficient approaches for different variants of this problem within the constraints imposed by real applications. PMID:17217524

  9. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  10. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  11. Causality and Tsirelson's bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buhrman, H.; Massar, S.

    2005-11-15

    We study the properties of no-signaling correlations that cannot be reproduced by local measurements on entangled quantum states. We say that such correlations violate Tsirelson bounds. We show that if these correlations are obtained by some reversible unitary quantum evolution U, then U cannot be written in the product form U{sub A}xU{sub B}. This implies that U can be used for signaling and for entanglement generation. This result is completely general and in fact can be viewed as a characterization of Tsirelson bounds. We then show how this result can be used as a tool to study Tsirelson bounds and we illustrate this by rederiving the Tsirelson bound of 2{radical}(2) for the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality, and by deriving a new Tsirelson bound for qutrits.

  12. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  13. Preferential up-regulation of osteopontin in primary central nervous system lymphoma does not correlate with putative receptor CD44v6 or CD44H expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ji; Gu, Keni; He, Jianqing; Sharma, Suash

    2013-04-01

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is reportedly the most up-regulated gene in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Our objective was to confirm immunoexpression of osteopontin and determine if CD44v6 and CD44H played a significant role as receptors for osteopontin in PCNSL. Twenty PCNSL, 12 nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (N-DLBCL), and 17 extra-nodal DLBCL (EN-DLBCL) archival pathology cases were examined. Osteopontin nuclear positivity was observed in 20 (100%) of 20 PCNSL cases, 16 (95 %) of 17 EN-DLBCL, and 3 of 12 (25%) N-DLBCL. The immunohistochemical score of osteopontin in PCNSL (7.0 ± 3.5) and EN-DLBCL (4.4 ± 4.1) was significantly higher than N-DLBCL (0.3 ± 0.6). Sixteen cases were positive for CD44v6 (33%), including 6 PCNSL, and 5 each EN-DLBCL and N-DLBCL; no statistical difference was observed. CD44H was positive in all cases except one PCNSL but without any significant differences across the 3 groups. CD44H expression was significantly higher in non-germinal center B-cell (GCB) (score 12 ± 1.5) as compared to the GCB group (9.5 ± 3.1), and in non-GCB PCNSL (7.9 ± 4.2) as compared to non-GCB non-CNS lymphoma (2.8 ± 4.0) (P = .009); the differences were insignificant for osteopontin and CD44v6. Neither CD44H nor CD44v6 scores correlated with the osteopontin expression score or Ki-67 index. Osteopontin immunoexpression was highest in PCNSL, suggesting its probable role in its pathogenesis. However, its lack of correlation with CD44v6 excludes the latter as the likely osteopontin receptor in PCNSL. The significantly higher CD44H expression in the non-GCB than GCB group may contribute to the aggressiveness of the non-GCB DLBCL. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathway and the prognostic/predictive role of osteopontin in PCNSL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Osteopontin inhibits osteoblast responsiveness through the downregulation of focal adhesion kinase mediated by the induction of low molecular weight-protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Hisadome, Mitsuhiro; Shima, Kaori; Semba, Ichiro; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2017-03-22

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an osteogenic marker protein. Osteoblast functions are affected by inflammatory cytokines and pathological conditions. OPN is highly expressed in bone legions such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, local regulatory effects of OPN on osteoblasts remain ambiguous. Here, we examined how OPN influences osteoblast responses to mechanical stress and growth factors. Expression of NO synthase 1 (Nos1) and Nos2 was increased by low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. The increase of Nos1/2 expression was abrogated by both exogenous OPN overexpression and recombinant OPN treatment, whereas it was promoted by OPN-specific siRNA and OPN antibody. Moreover, LIPUS-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a crucial regulator of mechano-responses, was downregulated by OPN treatments. OPN also attenuated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced vitamin D receptor (Vdr) expression and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced cell mobility through the repression of FAK activity. Notably, the expression of low molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), a FAK phosphatase, was increased in both OPN-treated and differentiated osteoblasts. CD44 was a specific OPN receptor for LWW-PTP induction. Consistently, the suppressive influence of OPN on osteoblast responsiveness was abrogated by LMW-PTP knockdown. Taken together, these results have revealed novel functions of OPN on osteoblast physiology.

  15. Increased blood-circulating interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and osteopontin levels in bovine paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dudemaine, P L; Fecteau, G; Lessard, M; Labrecque, O; Roy, J P; Bissonnette, N

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis-infected cattle initially develop an effective cell-mediated immune response that declines as the disease progresses. Blood is one of best sources for characterizing the inflammatory status of infected cows and for studying mediators related to chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cow-level association between blood cytokine concentration, the influence of serum on immune cell proliferation, and dairy cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Positive animals (n=41) from 19 herds were selected on the basis of 2 positive fecal culture results and divided into 2 groups: single-positive, or serum ELISA-negative cows (n=32), and double-positive, or cows that gave positive results for both mycobacterial culture and serum ELISA (n=9). Negative animals (n=39) were selected from paratuberculosis-negative herds in which at least 80% of the animals had been diagnosed as negative by fecal culture and ELISA and that did not produce positive results during the 2-yr study. Analysis of plasma levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, and osteopontin was performed, revealing distinct patterns. The ELISA-positive cows with MAP shedding had similar plasma concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 but elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, and osteopontin, which is indicative of inflammatory disease in these subclinical positive cows. In vitro MAP infection of bovine macrophages showed increased gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and transforming growth factor-β as early as 6h postinfection for all of the cytokines involved in the establishment of a T-helper type-17 immune response. To determine the systemic influence of serum on immune cell functions, lymphoproliferation assays were also performed in presence of JD serum. The serum from shedding cows showed 15% less proliferation. These results indicate that infected cows have a lower systemic capacity to maintain a protective

  16. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

    PubMed

    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteopontin protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Fa; Foda, Hussein D

    2010-04-05

    Exposure of adult mice to more than 95% O(2) produces a lethal injury by 72 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of murine hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein produced principally by macrophages. OPN inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates large amounts of nitric oxide production. However, the relationship between nitric oxide and endogenous OPN in lung tissue during hyperoxia-induced ALI has not yet been elucidated, thus we examined the role that OPN plays in the hyperoxia-induced lung injury and its relationships with NOS. One hundred and forty-four osteopontin knock-out (KO) mice and their matched wild type background control (WT) were exposed in sealed cages > 95% oxygen or room air for 24- 72 hours, and the severity of lung injury was assessed; expression of OPN, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and iNOS mRNA in lung tissues at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the detection of iNOS, eNOS, and OPN protein in lung tissues. OPN KO mice developed more severe acute lung injury at 72 hours of hyperoxia. The wet/dry weight ratio increased to 6.85 +/- 0.66 in the KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia as compared to 5.31 +/- 0.92 in the WT group (P < 0.05). iNOS mRNA (48 hours: 1.04 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01; 72 hours: 0.89 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) and eNOS mRNA (48 hours: 0.62 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05; 72 hours: 0.67 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) expression was more significantly increased in OPN KO mice than their matched WT mice when exposed to hyperoxia. IHC study showed higher expression of iNOS (20.54 +/- 3.18 vs. 12.52 +/- 2.46, P < 0.05) and eNOS (19.83 +/- 5.64 vs. 9.45 +/- 3.82, P < 0.05) in lung tissues of OPN KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia. OPN can protect against

  18. In vivo overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase increases skeletal mineralization and affects the phosphorylation status of osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C; Millán, José Luis

    2013-07-01

    Functional ablation of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (Alpl⁻/⁻ mice) leads to hypophosphatasia, characterized by rickets/osteomalacia attributable to elevated levels of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate, a potent mineralization inhibitor. Osteopontin (OPN) is also elevated in the plasma and skeleton of Alpl⁻/⁻ mice. Phosphorylated OPN is known to inhibit mineralization, however, the phosphorylation status of the increased OPN found in Alpl⁻/⁻ mice is unknown. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing human TNAP under control of an osteoblast-specific Col1a1 promoter (Col1a1-Tnap). The transgene is expressed in osteoblasts, periosteum, and cortical bones, and plasma levels of TNAP in mice expressing Col1a1-Tnap are 10 to 20 times higher than those of wild-type mice. The Col1a1-Tnap animals are healthy and exhibit increased bone mineralization by micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis. Crossbreeding of Col1a1-Tnap transgenic mice to Alpl⁻/⁻ mice rescues the lethal hypophosphatasia phenotype characteristic of this disease model. Osteoblasts from [Col1a1-Tnap] mice mineralize better than nontransgenic controls and osteoblasts from [Col1a1-Tnap⁺/⁻; Alpl⁻/⁻] mice are able to mineralize to the level of Alpl⁺/⁻ heterozygous osteoblasts, whereas Alpl⁻/⁻ osteoblasts show no mineralization. We found that the increased levels of OPN in bone tissue of Alpl⁻/⁻ mice are comprised of phosphorylated forms of OPN whereas wild-type (WT) and [Col1a1-Tnap⁺/⁻; Alpl⁻/⁻] mice had both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of OPN. OPN from [Col1a1-Tnap] osteoblasts were more dephosphorylated than nontransgenic control cells. Titanium dioxide-liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that OPN peptides derived from Alpl⁻/⁻ bone and osteoblasts yielded a higher proportion of phosphorylated peptides than samples from WT mice, and at least two phosphopeptides, p(S¹⁷⁴FQVS¹⁷

  19. Osteopontin and fibronectin levels are decreased in vitreous of autoimmune uveitis and retinal expression of both proteins indicates ECM re-modeling.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Eberhardt, Christina; Hofmaier, Florian; Amann, Barbara; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is an intraocular inflammation that arises through autoreactive T-cells attacking the inner eye, eventually leading to blindness. However, the contributing molecular pathomechanisms within the affected tissues remain as yet elusive. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that varies tremendously and influences the encompassing tissue. In order to assess ECM re-modeling in autoimmune uveitis, we investigated the expression of ECM molecules fibronectin and osteopontin in vitreous and retina samples. This was carried out in the only spontaneous animal model for human autoimmue uveitis, namely equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) that resembles the human disease in clinical as well as in immunopathological aspects. ERU is a naturally occurring autoimmune disease in horses that develops frequently and has already proved its value to study disease-related pathomechanisms. Western blot analysis of fibronectin and osteopontin in healthy and uveitic vitreous revealed significant reduction of both proteins in uveitis. Immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in healthy retinas was restricted to the inner limiting membrane abutting vimentin positive Müller cell endfeet, while in uveitic sections, a disintegration of the ILM was observed changing the fibronectin expression to a dispersed pattern extending toward the vitreous. Retinal expression of osteopontin in control tissue was found in a characteristic Müller cell pattern illustrated by co-localization with vimentin. In uveitic retinas, the immunoreactivity of osteopontin in gliotic Müller cells was almost absent. The ability of Müller cells to express fibronectin and osteopontin was additionally shown by immunocytochemistry of primary cultured equine Müller cells and the equine Müller cell line eqMC-7. In conclusion, severe ECM re-modeling in autoimmune uveitis reported here, might affect the adhesive function of fibronectin and thus the anchoring of Müller cell endfeet to

  20. Osteopontin and Fibronectin Levels Are Decreased in Vitreous of Autoimmune Uveitis and Retinal Expression of Both Proteins Indicates ECM Re-Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Cornelia A.; Eberhardt, Christina; Hofmaier, Florian; Amann, Barbara; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is an intraocular inflammation that arises through autoreactive T-cells attacking the inner eye, eventually leading to blindness. However, the contributing molecular pathomechanisms within the affected tissues remain as yet elusive. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that varies tremendously and influences the encompassing tissue. In order to assess ECM re-modeling in autoimmune uveitis, we investigated the expression of ECM molecules fibronectin and osteopontin in vitreous and retina samples. This was carried out in the only spontaneous animal model for human autoimmue uveitis, namely equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) that resembles the human disease in clinical as well as in immunopathological aspects. ERU is a naturally occurring autoimmune disease in horses that develops frequently and has already proved its value to study disease-related pathomechanisms. Western blot analysis of fibronectin and osteopontin in healthy and uveitic vitreous revealed significant reduction of both proteins in uveitis. Immunohistochemical expression of fibronectin in healthy retinas was restricted to the inner limiting membrane abutting vimentin positive Müller cell endfeet, while in uveitic sections, a disintegration of the ILM was observed changing the fibronectin expression to a dispersed pattern extending toward the vitreous. Retinal expression of osteopontin in control tissue was found in a characteristic Müller cell pattern illustrated by co-localization with vimentin. In uveitic retinas, the immunoreactivity of osteopontin in gliotic Müller cells was almost absent. The ability of Müller cells to express fibronectin and osteopontin was additionally shown by immunocytochemistry of primary cultured equine Müller cells and the equine Müller cell line eqMC-7. In conclusion, severe ECM re-modeling in autoimmune uveitis reported here, might affect the adhesive function of fibronectin and thus the anchoring of Müller cell endfeet to

  1. Schwann cells and myasthenia gravis. Preferential uptake of soluble and membrane-bound AChR by normal and immortalized Schwann cells, and immunogenic presentation to AChR-specific T line lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. P.; Porter, S.; Wekerle, H.

    1990-01-01

    The normal neuromuscular synapse is formed by the intimate association of nerve endings, postsynaptic end-plate foldings in the muscle fiber, and nonmyelinating Schwann cells (SC) sealing the synaptic ramifications. Because SC have been recognized recently to have an immunogenic potential inducible to present protein autoantigens to autoimmune T lymphocytes, and considering their close proximity to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-bearing postsynaptic membranes, presentation of soluble and membrane vesicle-bound AChR to appropriate T cells was investigated. Short-term monolayer cultures of SC isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerves, as well as cells of an immortalized SC line of similar origin, were fully able to present the relevant molecular epitopes to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatible AChR-specific T line lymphocytes immunogenically. Presentation of AChR was restricted by RT1.B (I-A) MHC class II products. Both types of cultured rat SC were inducible to expression of MHC class I and II products, and they were able to phagocytose AChR-enriched membrane vesicles preferentially. In contrast, phagocytosis of latex particles by SC was negligible. These data qualify perisynaptic SC as potential presenter cells of autoimmunogenic AChR in myasthenia gravis. Thus, SC may play a critical and as-yet unpredicted regulatory role in the cellular pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Images Figure 5 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:1688688

  2. Virial Expansion Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  3. Transgenic Mammary Epithelial Osteopontin (Spp1) Expression Induces Proliferation and Alveologenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Neil E.; Chen, Qian J.; Sickafoose, Laura K.; Wood, Meghan B.; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Abrahamsson, Ninnie M.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Walls, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) Spp1 is involved in differentiation of the mammary gland. We engineered mice to overexpress OPN in mammary epithelium and describe an altered mammary phenotype. Three transgenic (Tg) founder lines FVB/N Tg(MMTV-Opn)(1-3BOR) were propagated after FVB/NJ pronuclear injections. Mammary glands from Tg-OPN mice compared to littermate controls showed, at 4 weeks of age, exaggerated terminal end buds; at 8 and 12 weeks, more numerous and complex ducts with increased luminal protein; and at 16 weeks, increased lobulogenesis. Lactational Tg-OPN mammary glands showed more rapid lobulogenesis and lactational changes with slower gland involution and regression following weaning. Ex vivo lobulogenesis was noticeably increased from organoids of Tg-OPN mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic OPN accumulation and increased Ki-67 positive mammary epithelial cells in Tg-OPN mammary glands. OPN appears to convey a proliferative stimulus for mammary epithelial cells and alters development and differentiation. These OPN mammary overexpressing mice provide a means to study the role of OPN in cancer progression. PMID:24069507

  4. Osteopontin expression in normal skin and non-melanoma skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pi-Ling; Harkins, Louie; Hsieh, Yu-Hua; Hicks, Patricia; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn; Yodsanga, Somchai; Swasdison, Somporn; Chambers, Ann F; Elmets, Craig A; Ho, Kang-Jey

    2008-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesive, matricellular glycoprotein, whose expression is elevated in many types of cancer and has been shown to facilitate tumorigenesis in vivo. To understand the role of OPN in human skin cancer, this study is designed to determine whether OPN is expressed in premalignant [solar/actinic keratosis (AK)] and in malignant skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and basal cell carcinomas (BCC), as well as in normal skin exposed or not exposed to sunlight. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that OPN is expressed in SCC (20/20 cases) and in AK (16/16 cases), which are precursors to SCC, but is absent or minimally expressed in solid BCC (17 cases). However, positive staining for OPN was observed in those BCC that manifest differentiation toward epidermal appendages such as keratotic BCC. In sunlight-exposed normal skin, OPN is minimally expressed in the basal cell layer, but in contrast to those not exposed to sunlight, OPN is more prominent in the spinous cell layer with increasing intensity toward the granular cell layer. Additionally, OPN is expressed in the hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands of normal skin. In conclusion, these data suggest that OPN is associated with keratinocyte differentiation and that it is expressed in AK and SCC, which have metastatic potential, but minimally expressed in solid BCC.

  5. RANKL, Osteopontin, and Osteoclast Homeostasis in a Hyper-Occlusion Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Cameron G.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Dangaria, Smit; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.

    2010-11-15

    The biological mechanisms that maintain the position of teeth in their sockets establish a dynamic equilibrium between bone resorption and apposition. In order to reveal some of the dynamics involved in the tissue responses towards occlusal forces on periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone homeostasis, we developed the first mouse model of hyperocclusion. Swiss-Webster mice were kept in hyperocclusion for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ground sections with fluorescent detection of vital dye labels. Sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traumatic occlusion resulted in enamel surface abrasion, inhibition of alveolar bone apposition, significant formation of osteoclasts at 3, 6 and 9 d, and upregulation of OPN and RANKL. Data from this study suggest that both OPN and RANKL contribute to the stimulation of bone resorption in the hyperocclusive state. In addition, we propose that the inhibition of alveolar bone apposition by occlusal forces is an important mechanism for the control of occlusal height that might work in synergy with RANKL-induced bone resorption to maintain normal occlusion.

  6. Osteopontin deficiency does not prevent but promotes alcoholic neutrophilic hepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Raul; Wu, Raymond; Lee, Sunyoung; Zhu, Nian-Ling; Chen, Chia-Lin; French, Samuel W.; Xu, Jun; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a distinct spectrum of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) with intense neutrophilic (PMN) inflammation and high mortality. Although a recent study implicates osteopontin (SPP1) in AH, SPP1 is also shown to have protective effects on experimental ALD. To address this unsettled question, we examined the effects of SPP1 deficiency in male mice given 40% calories derived from ad libitum consumption of the Western diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat (HCFD) and the rest from intragastric feeding (iG) of alcohol diet without or with weekly alcohol binge. Weekly binge in this new hybrid feeding model shifts chronic ASH with macrophage inflammation and perisinusoidal and pericelluar fibrosis to AH in 57% (15/26) of the mice, accompanied by inductions of chemokines (Spp1, Cxcl1, Il-17a), progenitor genes (Cd133, Cd24, Nanog, Epcam), PMN infiltration, and clinical features of AH such as hypoalbuminemia, bilirubinemia, and splenomegaly. SPP1 deficiency does not reduce the AH incidence and inductions of progenitor and fibrogenic genes but rather enhances the Il-17a induction and PMN infiltration in some mice. Further, in the absence of SPP1, chronic ASH mice without weekly binge begin to develop AH. In conclusion, these results suggest SPP1 has a protective rather than causal role for experimental AH reproduced in our model. PMID:25132354

  7. Osteopontin facilitates West Nile virus neuroinvasion via neutrophil "Trojan horse" transport.

    PubMed

    Paul, Amber M; Acharya, Dhiraj; Duty, Laurel; Thompson, E Ashley; Le, Linda; Stokic, Dobrivoje S; Leis, A Arturo; Bai, Fengwei

    2017-07-05

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause severe human neurological diseases including encephalitis and meningitis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system (CNS) and host-factors that are involved in WNV neuroinvasion are not completely understood. The proinflammatory chemokine osteopontin (OPN) is induced in multiple neuroinflammatory diseases and is responsible for leukocyte recruitment to sites of its expression. In this study, we found that WNV infection induced OPN expression in both human and mouse cells. Interestingly, WNV-infected OPN deficient (Opn (-/-)) mice exhibited a higher survival rate (70%) than wild type (WT) control mice (30%), suggesting OPN plays a deleterious role in WNV infection. Despite comparable levels of viral load in circulating blood cells and peripheral organs in the two groups, WNV-infected polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and viral burden in brain of Opn (-/-) mice were significantly lower than in WT mice. Importantly, intracerebral administration of recombinant OPN into the brains of Opn (-/-) mice resulted in increased WNV-infected PMN infiltration and viral burden in the brain, which was coupled to increased mortality. The overall results suggest that OPN facilitates WNV neuroinvasion by recruiting WNV-infected PMNs into the brain.

  8. Significance of osteopontin in the sensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma to pemetrexed.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Seike, Masahiro; Noro, Rintaro; Soeno, Chie; Sugano, Teppei; Zou, Fenfei; Uesaka, Haruka; Nishijima, Nobuhiko; Matsumoto, Masaru; Minegishi, Yuji; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2014-06-01

    Pemetrexed (PEM) is currently recommended as one of the standard anticancer drugs for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, the mechanism of the sensitivity of MPM to PEM remains unclear. We analyzed the antitumor effects of PEM in six MPM cell lines by MTS assay. To identify genes associated with drug sensitivity, we conducted gene expression profiling on the same set of cell lines using GeneChips and pathway analysis. Three cell lines were sensitive to PEM. A total fo 18 transcripts and 14 genes identified by GeneChips were significantly correlated with sensitivity to PEM. Pathway analysis revealed that osteopontin (SPP1/OPN) was an important target in PEM sensitivity. Overexpression of SPP1/OPN was observed in the sensitive cells by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Introduction of SPP1/OPN by lentiviral vector significantly enhanced the invasion activities of MPM cells. PEM treatment with SPP1/OPN knockdown inhibited the PEM-induced cell growth-inhibitory effect in PEM-sensitive cells. Expression of SPP1/OPN and AKT phosphorylation significantly decreased after PEM treatment of the PEM-sensitive cells. High immunohistochemical expression of SPP1/OPN was observed in two of three MPM patients who had a partial response to PEM-based chemotherapy. PEM has antitumor effects in MPM cells dependent on SPP1/OPN overexpression resulting in AKT activation. Our results suggest that SPP1 may be used as a single predictive biomarker of the effectiveness of PEM treatment in MPM.

  9. Osteopontin expression and localization of Ca++ deposits in early stages of osteoarthritis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Velasquillo, Cristina; Vega-López, Marco; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Tsutsumi-Fujiyoshi, Victor K; Mondragón-Flores, Ricardo; Kouri-Flores, Juan B

    2014-07-01

    Calcium deposits have been related to articular cartilage (AC) degeneration and have been observed in late stages of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the role of those deposits, whether they induce the OA pathogenesis or they appear as a consequence of such process, is still unknown. In this work, we present the kinetics of expression and tissue localisation of osteopontin (OPN), a mineralisation biomarker, and calcium deposits in samples from (normal, sham) and osteoarthritic cartilage (in a rat model). Immunohistochemical and Western blot assays for OPN, as well as Alizarin red staining for calcium deposits were performed; superficial, middle, and deep zones of AC were analysed. An increased expression of OPN and calcium deposits was found in the osteoarthritic cartilage compared with that of control groups, particularly in the superficial zone of AC in early stages of OA. In addition, the expression and localisation of OPN and calcium deposits during the OA pathogenesis suggest that the pathological AC mineralisation starts in the superficial zone during OA pathogenesis.

  10. Osteopontin deficiency reduces kidney damage from hypercholesterolemia in Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zouwei; Okura, Takafumi; Nagao, Tomoaki; Enomoto, Daijiro; Kukida, Masayoshi; Tanino, Akiko; Miyoshi, Ken-ichi; Kurata, Mie; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-established risk factor for kidney injury, which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in the pathology of several renal conditions. This study was to evaluate the effects of OPN on hypercholesterolemia induced renal dysfunction. Eight-week-old male mice were divided into 4 groups: apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) and ApoE/OPN knockout (ApoE−/−/OPN−/−) mice fed a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol diet (HD). After 4 weeks, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and oil red O staining revealed excessive lipid deposition in the glomeruli of ApoE−/−HD mice, however, significantly suppressed in ApoE−/−/OPN−/−HD mice. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression was lower in the glomeruli of ApoE−/−/OPN−/−HD mice than ApoE−/−HD mice. In vitro study, primary mesangial cells were incubated with recombinant mouse OPN (rmOPN). RmOPN induced LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression in primary mesangial cells. Pre-treatment with an ERK inhibitor suppressed the LOX-1 gene expression induced by rmOPN. These results indicate that OPN contributes to kidney damage in hypercholesterolemia and suggest that inhibition of OPN may provide a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27353458

  11. The impact of osteopontin gene variations on multiple sclerosis development and progression.

    PubMed

    Comi, Cristoforo; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Buttini, Sara; Ghezzi, Laura; Galimberti, Daniela; Guerini, Franca; Barizzone, Nadia; Perla, Franco; Leone, Maurizio; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Caputo, Domenico; Scarpini, Elio; Cantello, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory molecule, modulating TH1 and TH17 responses. Several reports suggest its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We previously reported that OPN gene variations at the 3' end are a predisposing factor for MS development and evolution. In this paper, we extended our analysis to a gene variation at the 5' end on the -156G > GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and replicated our previous findings at the 3' end on the +1239A > C SNP. We found that only +1239A > C SNP displayed a statistically significant association with MS development, but both +1239A > C and -156G > GG had an influence on MS progression, since patients homozygous for both +1239A and -156GG alleles displayed slower progression of disability and slower switch to secondary progression than those carrying +1239C and/or -156G and those homozygous for +1239A only. Moreover, patients homozygous for +1239A also displayed a significantly lower relapse rate than those carrying +1239C, which is in line with the established role of OPN in MS relapses.

  12. Evaluation of osteopontin and CD44v6 expression in odontogenic cystic lesions by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Saghafi, Shadi; Sharifi, Nourieh; Zare-Mahmoodabadi, Reza; Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-07-15

    Odontogenic cysts are common lesions with different biological behavior. Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs) with ameloblastoma-like epithelium are more aggressive than dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs). Therefore, they were included in the list of odontogenic tumors by WHO. Osteopontin (OPN) is a calcium-binding glycoprotein present in many normal tissues. It plays a role in the migration and invasion of transformed epithelial cells. Binding of OPN to its receptor CD44v6 can enhance cell motility and migration. The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of these markers between odontogenic cysts of varying biological behavior. We examined OPN and CD44v6 expression in tissue sections of 14OKCs, 14COCs, 14RCs and 14DCs by immunohistochemistry. OPN and CD44v6 immunostaining was observed in all lining epithelial cells of the studied lesions with different degrees. The highest level of OPN and CD44v6 expression was found in OKCs, followed by COCs, RCs and DCs. Comparison of both markers among four groups revealed significant differences (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that higher level of OPN and CD44v6 expression in epithelial cells of some lesions such as OKC and COC can explain the local aggressive behavior of them.

  13. Microarray analysis of human milk cells: persistent high expression of osteopontin during the lactation period

    PubMed Central

    NAGATOMO, T; OHGA, S; TAKADA, H; NOMURA, A; HIKINO, S; IMURA, M; OHSHIMA, K; HARA, T

    2004-01-01

    To continue the search for immunological roles of breast milk, cDNA microarray analysis on cytokines and growth factors was performed for human milk cells. Among the 240 cytokine-related genes, osteopontin (OPN) gene ranked top of the expression. Real-time PCR revealed that the OPN mRNA levels in colostrum cells were approximately 100 times higher than those in PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), and 10 000 times higher than those in PB CD14+ cells. The median levels of OPN mRNA in early milk or mature milk cells were more than three times higher than those in colostrum cells. Western blot analysis of human milk showed appreciable expression of full-length and short form proteins of OPN. The concentrations of full-length OPN in early milk or mature milk whey continued to be higher than those in colostrum whey and plasma as assessed by ELISA. The early milk (3–7 days postpartum) contained the highest concentrations of OPN protein, while the late mature milk cells (1 years postpartum) had the highest expression of OPN mRNA of all the lactating periods. The results of immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical staining indicated that OPN-producing epithelial cells and macrophages are found in actively lactating mammary glands. These results suggest that the persistently and extraordinarily high expression of OPN in human milk cells plays a potential role in the immunological development of breast-fed infants. PMID:15373904

  14. Osteopontin: correlation with phagocytosis by brain macrophages in a rat model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hong Lim; Choi, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Jae-Youn; Cha, Jung-Ho; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2011-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an adhesive glycoprotein linked to a variety of pathophysiological processes. We investigated whether OPN might act as an opsonin in the diseased brain by studying the postischemic expression and localization of OPN mRNA and protein in a rat model of ischemic stroke. In addition, we characterized the subcellular localization of OPN protein in the ischemic brain core. Induction of OPN mRNA occurred in activated microglia/macrophages in the ischemic core on days 3-7 after reperfusion and this was sustained up to day 28, at least. OPN protein was synthesized and secreted by brain macrophages, which first surrounded damaged striatal white matter tracts and then infiltrated into them. Punctate OPN-immunoreactive profiles were scattered throughout the infarction core except in white matter bundles. Electron microscopy showed the localization of OPN protein along the membranes lining what appeared to be the debris of dead neurons. These were located in the extracellular space and within the cytoplasm of brain macrophages, indicating that the OPN protein accumulated selectively on the surface of dead cells, most of which were phagocytosed subsequently by brain macrophages. However, no significant induction of OPN occurred in degenerating striatal white matter tracts or in brain macrophage-engulfed axonic or myelin debris. These data suggest that OPN secreted by brain macrophages in this rat model of stroke might be involved in the phagocytosis of fragmented cell debris and possibly not in the phagocytosis of axonic or myelin debris. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Osteopontin Promotes Oncostatin M Production in Human Osteoblasts: Implication of Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Ming; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Chun-Yin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Fong, Yi-Chin; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that subchondral bone might play an essential role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteopontin (OPN) induces the production of an important proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of RA. This study evaluated the activation of oncostatin M (OSM) by OPN in human primary osteoblasts to understand RA pathogenesis and characterized the intracellular signaling pathways involved in this activation. Quantitative PCR, ELISA, and Western blot results indicated that stimulation of human primary osteoblasts with OPN induces OSM expression through αvβ3 integrin/c-Src/platelet-derived growth factor receptor transactivation/MEK/ERK. Treatment of osteoblasts with OPN also increased c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1 luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element on the OSM promoter, as demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, inhibition of OPN expression using lentiviral-OPN short hairpin RNA resulted in the amelioration of articular swelling, cartilage erosion, and OSM expression in the ankle joint of mice with collagen-induced arthritis as shown using microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemistry staining. Our results imply that OSM expression in osteoblasts increases in response to OPN-induced inflammation in vitro. Finally, lentiviral-OPN short hairpin RNA ameliorates the inflammatory response and bone destruction in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Therefore, OPN may be a potential therapeutic target for RA.

  16. Osteopontin ablation ameliorates muscular dystrophy by shifting macrophages to a pro-regenerative phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Capote, Joana; Martinez, Leonel; Vetrone, Sylvia; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Miceli, M. Carrie

    2016-01-01

    In the degenerative disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy, inflammatory cells enter muscles in response to repetitive muscle damage. Immune factors are required for muscle regeneration, but chronic inflammation creates a profibrotic milieu that exacerbates disease progression. Osteopontin (OPN) is an immunomodulator highly expressed in dystrophic muscles. Ablation of OPN correlates with reduced fibrosis and improved muscle strength as well as reduced natural killer T (NKT) cell counts. Here, we demonstrate that the improved dystrophic phenotype observed with OPN ablation does not result from reductions in NKT cells. OPN ablation skews macrophage polarization toward a pro-regenerative phenotype by reducing M1 and M2a and increasing M2c subsets. These changes are associated with increased expression of pro-regenerative factors insulin-like growth factor 1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Furthermore, altered macrophage polarization correlated with increases in muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, resulting in long-term improvements in muscle strength and function in mdx mice. These findings suggest that OPN ablation promotes muscle repair via macrophage secretion of pro-myogenic growth factors. PMID:27091452

  17. Osteopontin Affects Insulin Vesicle Localization and Ca2+ Homeostasis in Pancreatic Beta Cells from Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Inês G.; Knutsson, Anki; Bolmgren, Victor S.; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Gomez, Maria F.; Eliasson, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion. Osteopontin (OPN), a versatile protein expressed in several tissues throughout the body including the islets of Langerhans, has previously been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Here we have investigated the role of OPN in insulin secretion using an OPN knock out mouse model (OPN-/-). Ultra-structural analyzes of islets from OPN-/- and WT mice indicated weaker cell-cell connections between the islet cells in the OPN-/- mouse compared to WT. Analysis of the insulin granule distribution in the beta cells showed that although OPN-/- and WT beta cells have the same number of insulin granules OPN-/- beta cells have significantly fewer docked granules. Both OPN-/- and WT islets displayed synchronized Ca2+ oscillations indicative of an intact beta cell communication. OPN-/- islets displayed higher intracellular Ca2+ concentrations when stimulated with 16.7 mM glucose than WT islets and the initial dip upon elevated glucose concentrations (which is associated with Ca2+ uptake into ER) was significantly lower in these islets. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was similar in OPN-/- and WT islets. Likewise, non-fasted blood glucose levels were the same in both groups. In summary, deletion of OPN results in several minor beta-cell defects that can be compensated for in a healthy system. PMID:28107503

  18. Role of osteopontin in regulating hepatic inflammatory responses and toxic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, Shashi K; Rittling, Susan

    2007-08-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) produced by cells of the immune system, epithelial tissue, smooth muscle cells, osteoblasts and tumor cells has been implicated in various pathophysiological functions such as cell binding, spreading and migration, and tumor metastasis. OPN is known to bind to integrins expressed on macrophages through the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and promote migration of cells resulting in granuloma. In the liver, it has been reported that hepatic Kupffer cells secrete OPN facilitating macrophage infiltration in necrotic areas following carbon tetrachloride liver toxicity. Recent work has underlined the importance of OPN as a pivotal cytokine/chemokine in the generated hepatic neutrophil response during early phase alcoholic liver injury. Increased hepatobiliary OPN expression correlated well with higher neutrophil infiltration in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the same model of alcoholic steatohepatitis, higher hepatic expression of OPN in females was attributed to the higher neutrophil infiltration and consequent higher female sensitivity to liver damage. OPN as a potential biomarker for inflammatory liver disease has also been recently assessed. This review will focus on studies demonstrating the role of OPN in mediating hepatic inflammation (neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes) and the ensuing liver toxicity.

  19. Cleaved Form of Osteopontin in Urine as a Clinical Marker of Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kitagori, Koji; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Oku, Takuma; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Miyata, Hitomi; Mori, Keita P.; Nakajima, Toshiki; Ohmura, Koichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Imura, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Kosaku; Nakashima, Ran; Usui, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Sakai, Kaoru; Yanagita, Motoko; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the utility of two forms of osteopontin (OPN), OPN full and its cleaved form (OPN N-half), in plasma and urine as markers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN). Samples were collected from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (LN: N = 29, non-LN: N = 27), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (N = 14), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) (N = 5), diabetic nephropathy (DN) (N = 14) and healthy volunteers (HC) (N = 17). While there was no significant difference in urine OPN full concentration between groups, urine OPN N-half concentration was significantly higher in patients with LN than HC (p < 0.05). Moreover, urine OPN N-half was higher in LN patients with overt proteinuria (urine protein/creatinine ratio: P/C > 0.5) than LN patients with minimal proteinuria (P/C < 0.5, p < 0.0001), and also higher than in DN patients with overt proteinuria (P/C > 0.5, p < 0.01). Urine thrombin activity correlated with urine OPN N-half concentration (p < 0.0001), but not with urine OPN full concentration. These results suggest that urine OPN N-half concentration reflects renal inflammation. Thus, urine OPN N-half may be a novel disease activity marker for LN. PMID:27992535

  20. The role of osteopontin in D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in genetically obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Won, Young-Suk; Yoon, Won-Kee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Chin

    2010-02-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that obesity increases the risk of liver disease, but the precise mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix and proinflammatory cytokine, has an important role in making obese mice more susceptible to inflammatory liver injury. After exposure of genetically obese ob/ob and db/db mice to a single dose of D-galactosamine (GalN), the plasma liver enzyme levels, histology and expression levels of cytokines and OPN were evaluated. The ob/ob and db/db mice, which were more sensitive to GalN-induced inflammatory liver injury compared with wild-type mice, had significantly higher plasma and hepatic OPN expression levels. Increased OPN expression was mainly found in hepatocytes and inflammatory cells and was correlated with markedly up-regulated interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 levels. Furthermore, pretreatment with a neutralizing OPN (nOPN) antibody attenuated the GalN-induced inflammatory liver injury in ob/ob and db/db mice, which was accompanied by significantly reduced macrophages recruitment and IL-12 and IL-18 productions. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulated OPN expression is a contributing factor to increased susceptibility of genetically obese mice to GalN-induced liver injury by promoting inflammation and modulating immune response.

  1. Osteopontin regulates macrophage activation and osteoclast formation in hypertensive patients with vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qian; Ruan, Cheng-Chao; Ma, Yu; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Hong; Wang, Ji-Guang; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a highly regulated ectopic mineral deposition process involving immune cell infiltration in the vasculatures, which has been recognized to be promoted by hypertension. The matricellular glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is strongly induced in myeloid cells as a potential inflammatory mediator of vascular injury. This study aims to examine whether OPN is involved in the regulation of macrophage activation and osteoclast formation in hypertensive subjects with VC. We firstly found an increased proportion of CD11c+CD163- pro-inflammatory peripheral monocytes in hypertensive subjects with VC compared to those without VC by flow cytometric analysis. Primary cultured macrophages from hypertensive subjects with VC also showed altered expression profile of inflammatory factors and higher serum OPN level. Exogenous OPN promoted the differentiation of peripheral monocytes into an alternative, anti-inflammatory phenotype, and inhibited macrophage-to-osteoclast differentiation from these VC patients. In addition, calcified vessels showed increased osteoclasts accumulation accompanied with decreased macrophages infiltration in the of hypertensive subjects. Taken together, these demonstrated that OPN exerts an important role in the monocytes/macrophage phenotypic differentiation from hypertensive patients with VC, which includes reducing inflammatory factor expression and attenuating osteoclast formation. PMID:28091516

  2. Osteopontin improves adhesion and migration of human primary renal cortical epithelial cells during wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinfeng; Wang, Zuolin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of osteopontin (OPN) on adhesion and migration in human primary renal cortical epithelial cells during wound healing and Transwell assays. MTT assay was used to examine the cell viability and western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and cell adhesion molecules. The results showed that overexpression of OPN had positive effects on the viability, proliferation, adhesion and migration of the human primary renal cortical epithelial cells. In addition, the integrity of the cell membrane and cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells was negatively affected by knockdown of OPN expression. The Transwell migration and a wound healing assays performed using OPN-knockdown cells suggested that OPN had a significant impact on cell migration (P=0.0421) and wound healing (P=0.0333). Therefore, OPN may be a potential target for the therapeutic modulation of skin repair to improve the healing rate and quality of wound healing. PMID:28101213

  3. Novel roles for osteopontin and clusterin in peripheral motor and sensory axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wright, Megan C; Mi, Ruifa; Connor, Emmalynn; Reed, Nicole; Vyas, Alka; Alspalter, Manula; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Brushart, Thomas M; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-29

    Previous studies demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) express distinct motor and sensory phenotypes, which impact the ability of these pathways to selectively support regenerating neurons. In the present study, unbiased microarray analysis was used to examine differential gene expression in denervated motor and sensory pathways in rats. Several genes that were significantly upregulated in either denervated sensory or motor pathways were identified and two secreted factors were selected for further analysis: osteopontin (OPN) and clusterin (CLU) which were upregulated in denervated motor and sensory pathways, respectively. Sciatic nerve transection induced upregulation of OPN and CLU and expression of both returned to baseline levels with ensuing regeneration. In vitro analysis using exogenously applied OPN induced outgrowth of motor but not sensory neurons. CLU, however, induced outgrowth of sensory neurons, but not motor neurons. To assess the functional importance of OPN and CLU, peripheral nerve regeneration was examined in OPN and CLU(-/-) mice. When compared with OPN(+/+) mice, motor neuron regeneration was reduced in OPN(-/-) mice. Impaired regeneration through OPN(-/-) peripheral nerves grafted into OPN(+/+) mice indicated that loss of OPN in SCs was responsible for reduced motor regeneration. Sensory neuron regeneration was impaired in CLU(-/-) mice following sciatic nerve crush and impaired regeneration nerve fibers through CLU(-/-) nerve grafts transplanted into CLU(+/+) mice indicated that reduced sensory regeneration is likely due to SC-derived CLU. Together, these studies suggest unique roles for SC-derived OPN and CLU in regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons.

  4. Progressive Secondary Neurodegeneration and Microcalcification Co-Occur in Osteopontin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Funke, Claudia; Sandmann, Freya; Stünitz, Holger; Maetzler, Corina; Nitsch, Cordula

    2010-01-01

    In the brain, osteopontin (OPN) may function in a variety of pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration, microcalcification, and inflammation. In this study, we addressed the role of OPN in primary and secondary neurodegeneration, microcalcification, and inflammation after an excitotoxic lesion by examining OPN knock-out (KO) mice. Two, four, and ten weeks after injection of the glutamate analogue ibotenate into the corticostriatal boundary, the brains of 12 mice per survival time and strain were evaluated. OPN was detectable in neuron-shaped cells, in microglia, and at the surface of dense calcium deposits. At this primary lesion site, although the glial reaction was attenuated in OPN-KO mice, lesion size and presence of microcalcification were comparable between OPN-KO and wild-type mice. In contrast, secondary neurodegeneration at the thalamus was more prominent in OPN-KO mice, and this difference increased over time. This was paralleled by a dramatic rise in the regional extent of dense microcalcification. Despite these differences, the numbers of glial cells did not significantly differ between the two strains. This study demonstrates for the first time a genetic model with co-occurrence of neurodegeneration and microcalcification, mediated by the lack of OPN, and suggests a basic involvement of OPN action in these conditions. In the case of secondary retrograde or transneuronal degeneration, OPN may have a protective role as intracellular actor. PMID:20522649

  5. Prognostic significance of osteopontin expression in non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, XUE-LIN; WANG, CHUN; LIU, KE; NIE, WEN; DING, ZHEN-YU

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the role of OPN as a prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPN expression and prognosis in patients with NSCLC using a meta-analysis. Based on PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, ISI, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink databases, related articles published prior to January, 2013 were collected. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association of OPN expression with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with NSCLC. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of this association. A total of 6 studies, including 776 patients, were found to be eligible for the meta-analysis. No heterogeneity was observed in OS or PFS, whereas low OPN expression was found to be correlated with better OS (HR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.46–0.70) and PFS (HR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.49–0.77). This meta-analysis demonstrated an association of OPN with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. However, prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26137280

  6. Prognostic significance of osteopontin expression in non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue-Lin; Wang, Chun; Liu, K E; Nie, Wen; Ding, Zhen-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the role of OPN as a prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPN expression and prognosis in patients with NSCLC using a meta-analysis. Based on PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, ISI, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink databases, related articles published prior to January, 2013 were collected. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association of OPN expression with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with NSCLC. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of this association. A total of 6 studies, including 776 patients, were found to be eligible for the meta-analysis. No heterogeneity was observed in OS or PFS, whereas low OPN expression was found to be correlated with better OS (HR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.70) and PFS (HR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77). This meta-analysis demonstrated an association of OPN with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. However, prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  7. Osteopontin ablation ameliorates muscular dystrophy by shifting macrophages to a pro-regenerative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Capote, Joana; Kramerova, Irina; Martinez, Leonel; Vetrone, Sylvia; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H Lee; Miceli, M Carrie; Spencer, Melissa J

    2016-04-25

    In the degenerative disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy, inflammatory cells enter muscles in response to repetitive muscle damage. Immune factors are required for muscle regeneration, but chronic inflammation creates a profibrotic milieu that exacerbates disease progression. Osteopontin (OPN) is an immunomodulator highly expressed in dystrophic muscles. Ablation of OPN correlates with reduced fibrosis and improved muscle strength as well as reduced natural killer T (NKT) cell counts. Here, we demonstrate that the improved dystrophic phenotype observed with OPN ablation does not result from reductions in NKT cells. OPN ablation skews macrophage polarization toward a pro-regenerative phenotype by reducing M1 and M2a and increasing M2c subsets. These changes are associated with increased expression of pro-regenerative factors insulin-like growth factor 1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Furthermore, altered macrophage polarization correlated with increases in muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, resulting in long-term improvements in muscle strength and function in mdx mice. These findings suggest that OPN ablation promotes muscle repair via macrophage secretion of pro-myogenic growth factors.

  8. Osteopontin expression in vitreous and proliferative retinal membranes of patients with proliferative vitreous retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yi; Li, Lei; Yao, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xi; Liu, Qing-Huai

    2011-01-01

    AIM To analyze osteopontin (OPN) expression in vitreous and proliferative retinal membranes of patients with proliferative vitreous retinopathy (PVR). METHODS A total of 54 vitreous fluid samples were obtained between 2009 and 2010, which contained 45 with PVR (group A) and 9 without PVR (group B). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to quantify the OPN concentrations in vitreous fluid. Four samples of proliferative retinal membrane were also obtained at the time of vitrectomy, and their contents of OPN were measured by Real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS The OPN levels in the vitreous fluid were 778.48±62.06ng/mL in group A and 452.99±32.52ng/mL in group B. The vitreous OPN levels in group A were significantly higher than those in group B and to rise by time in the early stages of PVR. The average OPN levels in the proliferative retinal membranes (F=0.14) were also higher than those in the retinal pigment cells (F=0) using Real-time RT-PCR. CONCLUSION The high vitreous and proliferative retinal membrane OPN levels in PVR suggest that OPN might promote the development of PVR. The vitreous OPN concentrations are rising by the time in the early phases of PVR. PMID:22553691

  9. The Impact of Osteopontin Gene Variations on Multiple Sclerosis Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Comi, Cristoforo; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Buttini, Sara; Ghezzi, Laura; Galimberti, Daniela; Guerini, Franca; Barizzone, Nadia; Perla, Franco; Leone, Maurizio; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Caputo, Domenico; Scarpini, Elio; Cantello, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory molecule, modulating TH1 and TH17 responses. Several reports suggest its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We previously reported that OPN gene variations at the 3′ end are a predisposing factor for MS development and evolution. In this paper, we extended our analysis to a gene variation at the 5′ end on the −156G > GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and replicated our previous findings at the 3′ end on the +1239A > C SNP. We found that only +1239A > C SNP displayed a statistically significant association with MS development, but both +1239A > C and −156G > GG had an influence on MS progression, since patients homozygous for both +1239A and −156GG alleles displayed slower progression of disability and slower switch to secondary progression than those carrying +1239C and/or −156G and those homozygous for +1239A only. Moreover, patients homozygous for +1239A also displayed a significantly lower relapse rate than those carrying +1239C, which is in line with the established role of OPN in MS relapses. PMID:23008732

  10. The Role of Osteopontin and Its Gene on Glucocorticoid Response in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanchen; Li, Hai-Feng; Sun, Liang; Kusner, Linda L.; Wang, Shuhui; Meng, Yunxiao; Zhang, Xu; Hong, Yu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Yao; Kaminski, Henry J.

    2017-01-01

    Biomarkers that assess treatment response for patients with the autoimmune disorder, myasthenia gravis (MG), have not been evaluated to a significant extent. We hypothesized the pro-inflammatory cytokine, osteopontin (OPN), may be associated with variability of response to glucocorticoids (GCs) in patients with MG. A cohort of 250 MG patients treated with standardized protocol of GCs was recruited, and plasma OPN and polymorphisms of its gene, secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), were evaluated. Mean OPN levels were higher in patients compared to healthy controls. Carriers of rs11728697*T allele (allele definition: one of two or more alternative forms of a gene) were more frequent in the poorly GC responsive group compared to the GC responsive group indicating an association of rs11728697*T allele with GC non-responsiveness. One risk haplotype (AGTACT) was identified associated with GC non-responsiveness compared with GC responsive MG group. Genetic variations of SPP1 were found associated with the response to GC among MG patients. PMID:28620344

  11. Cutting edge: critical role of intracellular osteopontin in antifungal innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Arikawa, Tomohiro; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Oh, Young Joo; Oliver, Timothy; Shinohara, Mari L

    2011-01-01

    We found that absence of osteopontin (OPN) in immunocompromised Rag2(-/-) mice, which lack T and B cells, made the mice extremely susceptible to an opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis, although immunocompetent OPN-deficient mice could clear Pneumocystis as well as wild-type mice. OPN has been studied as an extracellular protein, and the role of an intracellular isoform of OPN (iOPN) is still largely unknown. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which iOPN was involved in antifungal innate immunity. First, iOPN was essential for cluster formation of fungal receptors that detect Pneumocystis, including dectin-1, TLR2, and mannose receptor. Second, iOPN played a role as an adaptor molecule in TLR2 and dectin-1 signaling pathways and mediated ERK activation and cytokine production by zymosan, which simultaneously activates TLR2 and dectin-1 pathways. Third, iOPN enhanced phagocytosis and clearance of Pneumocystis. Our study suggests the critical involvement of iOPN in antifungal innate immunity.

  12. Essential Role of Osteopontin in Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prasse, Antje; Stahl, Mirjam; Schulz, Guido; Kayser, Gian; Wang, Lingqiao; Ask, Kjetil; Yalcintepe, Jasmin; Kirschbaum, Andreas; Bargagli, Elena; Zissel, Gernot; Kolb, Martin; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Weiss, Johannes M.; Renkl, Andreas C.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases are characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and Langerhans cells, and fibrotic remodeling, which are linked to osteopontin (OPN) expression. Therefore, OPN levels were investigated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells in 11 patients with pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH), 15 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonitis (DIP), 10 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 5 patients with sarcoidosis, 13 otherwise healthy smokers, and 19 non-smoking controls. Furthermore, OPN overexpression was examined in rat lungs using adenoviral gene transfer. We found that BAL cells from patients with either PLCH or DIP spontaneously produced abundant amounts of OPN. BAL cells from healthy smokers produced 15-fold less OPN, and those cells from non-smoking healthy volunteers produced no OPN. BAL cells from patients with either idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis produced significantly less OPN, as compared with patients with PLCH. These data were confirmed by immunochemistry. Nicotine stimulation increased production of both OPN and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by alveolar macrophages from smokers. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression resembled the pattern of spontaneous OPN production and was dramatically increased in both PLCH and DIP. OPN overexpression in rat lungs induced lesions similar to PLCH with marked alveolar and interstitial accumulation of Langerhans cells. Our findings suggest a pathogenetic role of increased OPN production in both PLCH and DIP by promoting the accumulation of macrophages and Langerhans cells. PMID:19359522

  13. The potential role of Osteopontin in the maintenance of commensal bacteria homeostasis in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koyu; Nakajima, Akira; Fukushima, Yuji; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Sakamoto, Keiko; Hamazaki, Yoko; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Minato, Nagahiro; Hattori, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (Opn), a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders. Under physiologic conditions, its expression is restricted to certain tissues including bone and kidney tubule. However, cellular activation during disease development induces Opn expression in various immune cells. In this study, using Opn-EGFP knock-in (KI) mice we found that CD8α+ T cells in the intestinal tissues, including Peyer's patch, lamina propria and epithelium, express Opn under steady state conditions. Therefore, we examined the role of Opn-expressing CD8α+ T cells in intestinal homeostasis. Interestingly, Opn knockout (KO) mice had altered fecal microflora concordant with a reduction of TCRγδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Consistent with this result, both treatment with anti-Opn blocking antibody and deficiency of Opn resulted in decreased survival of TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ IELs. This data suggests that a possibility that Opn may function as a survival factor for IELs in the intestinal tissue. Collectively, these data suggest the possibility that Opn might regulate the homeostasis of intestinal microflora through maintenance of TCRγδ+ IELs, possibly by support of IEL survival.

  14. Autocrine secretion of osteopontin by vascular smooth muscle cells regulates their adhesion to collagen gels.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, A. S.; Giachelli, C. M.; Krauss, R. S.; Almeida, M.; Taubman, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted protein postulated to facilitate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) adhesion and migration. Rat aortic VSMC lines were isolated after infection with recombinant retroviruses harboring OPN sense and antisense constructs. All lines grew normally in monolayer culture. On three-dimensional collagen gels, normal VSMCs and lines containing sense constructs (n=15) or empty vector (n=10) attached to gel and invaded the matrix. Four of five antisense clones did not adhere or invade. Antisense clones had lower OPN levels after stimulation with angiotensin II than sense clones or clones containing the empty vector (antisense, 257+/-102 ng/ml; sense, 473+/-104; vector, 434+/-66). Non-adhering antisense clones had lower mean OPN levels after angiotensin II stimulation (161+/-47 ng/ml) than sense or antisense lines with normal adhesion (486+/-63 ng/ml). The ability to adhere correlated with OPN levels >250 ng/ml. Adhesion and invasion were fully restored with addition of 100 to 200 ng/ml of exogenous OPN and were inhibited in normal VSMCs by incubation with 1 microgram/ml anti-OPN antibody. The autocrine secretion of OPN appears to play an important role in VSMC adhesion, spreading, and invasion. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8686750

  15. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  16. Identification of osteopontin-dependent signaling pathways in a mouse model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Zhiyong; Guo, Hongtao; Kuo, Paul C

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein which functions as a cell attachment protein and cytokine that signals through two cell adhesion molecules, αvβ3-integrin and CD44, to regulate cancer growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways associated with OPN have not been extensively characterized. In an in vivo xenograft model of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer, we have previously demonstrated that ablation of circulating OPN with an RNA aptamer blocks interaction with its cell surface receptors to significantly inhibit adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro and local progression and distant metastases. Findings In this study, we performed microarray analysis to compare the transcriptomes of primary tumor in the presence and absence of aptamer ablation of OPN. The results were corroborated with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Our results demonstrate that ablation of OPN cell surface receptor binding is associated with significant alteration in gene and protein expression critical in apoptosis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and proliferation signaling pathways. Many of these proteins have not been previously associated with OPN. Conclusion We conclude that secreted OPN regulates multiple signaling pathways critical for local tumor progression. PMID:19570203

  17. Multifunctional role of osteopontin in directing intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen and activation of osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Douglas E.; Thula-Mata, Taili; Toro, Edgardo J.; Yeh, Ya-Wen; Holt, Carl; Holliday, L. Shannon; Gower, Laurie B.

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized collagen composites are of interest because they have the potential to provide a bone-like scaffold that stimulates the natural processes of resorption and remodeling. Working toward this goal, our group has previously shown that the nanostructure of bone can be reproduced using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process, which enables intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen with hydroxyapatite (HA) to be achieved. This prior work used polyaspartic acid (pASP), a simple mimic for acidic non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), to generate nanodroplets/nanoparticles of an amorphous mineral precursor which can infiltrate the interstices of type-I collagen fibrils. In this study we show that osteopontin (OPN) can similarly serve as a process-directing agent for the intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen, even though OPN is generally considered a mineralization inhibitor. We also found that inclusion of OPN in the mineralization process promotes the interaction of mouse marrow-derived osteoclasts with PILP-remineralized bone that was previously demineralized, as measured by actin ring formation. While osteoclast activation occurred when pASP was used as the process-directing agent, using OPN resulted in a dramatic effect on osteoclast activation, presumably because of the inherent arginine-glycine-aspartate acid (RGD) ligands of OPN. By capitalizing on the multifunctionality of OPN, these studies may lead the way to producing biomimetic bone substitutes with the capability of tailorable bioresorption rates. PMID:24140612

  18. Morphological conversion of calcium oxalate crystals into stones is regulated by osteopontin in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Okada, Atsushi; Nomura, Shintaro; Saeki, Yukihiko; Higashibata, Yuji; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Hirose, Masahito; Itoh, Yasunori; Yasui, Takahiro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2008-10-01

    An important process in kidney stone formation is the conversion of retentive crystals in renal tubules to concrete stones. Osteopontin (OPN) is the major component of the kidney calcium-containing stone matrix. In this study, we estimated OPN function in early morphological changes of calcium oxalate crystals using OPN knockout mice: 100 mg/kg glyoxylate was intra-abdominally injected into wildtype mice (WT) and OPN knockout mice (KO) for a week, and 24-h urine oxalate excretion showed no significant difference between WT and KO. Kidney crystal depositions were clearly detected by Pizzolato staining but not by von Kossa staining in both genotypes, and the number of crystals in KO was significantly fewer than in WT. Morphological observation by polarized light optical microphotography and scanning electron microphotography (SEM) showed large flower-shaped crystals growing in renal tubules in WT and small and uniform crystals in KO. X-ray diffraction detected the crystal components as calcium oxalate monohydrate in both genotypes. Immunohistochemical staining of OPN showed that the WT crystals contained OPN protein but not KO crystals. We concluded that OPN plays a crucial role in the morphological conversion of calcium oxalate crystals to stones in mouse kidneys.

  19. Osteopontin-a splice variant is overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and modulates invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Pestana, Ana; Pereira, Catarina Leite; Eloy, Catarina; Pinto, Marta Teixeira; Castro, Patricia; Batista, Rui; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Pereira Gimba, Etel Rodrigues; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein overexpressed in cancer cells and modulates tumorigenesis and metastasis, including in thyroid cancer (TC). The contribution of each OPN splice variant (OPN-SV), named OPNa, OPNb and OPNc, in TC is currently unknown. This study evaluates the expression of total OPN (tOPN) and OPN-SV in TC tissues and cell lines, their correlation with clinicopathological, molecular features and their functional roles. We showed that tOPN and OPNa are overexpressed in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) in relation to adjacent thyroid, adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC) tissues. In cPTC, OPNa overexpression is associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, extrathyroid extension and BRAFV600E mutation. We found that TC cell lines overexpressing OPNa exhibited increased proliferation, migration, motility and in vivo invasion. Conditioned medium secreted from cells overexpressing OPNa induce MMP2 and MMP9 metalloproteinases activity. In summary, we described the expression pattern of OPN-SV in cPTC samples and the key role of OPNa expression on activating TC tumor progression features. Our findings highlight OPNa variant as TC biomarker, besides being a putative target for cPTC therapeutic approaches. PMID:27409830

  20. FGF upregulates osteopontin in epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes: implications for endochondral ossification.

    PubMed

    Weizmann, S; Tong, A; Reich, A; Genina, O; Yayon, A; Monsonego-Ornan, E

    2005-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling pathways are essential for normal longitudinal bone growth. Mutations in this receptor lead to various human growth disorders, including Achondroplasia, disproportionately short-limbed dwarfism, characterized by narrowing of the hypertrophic region of the epiphyseal growth plates. Here we find that FGF9, a preferred ligand for FGFR3 rapidly induces the upregulation and secretion of the matrix resident phosphoprotein, osteopontin (OPN) in cultured chicken chondrocytes. This effect was observed as early as two hours post stimulation and at FGF9 concentrations as low as 1.25 ng/ml at both mRNA and protein levels. OPN expression is known to be associated with chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast activation. Unexpectedly, FGF9 induced OPN was accompanied by inhibition of differentiation and increased proliferation of the treated chondrocytes. Moreover, FGF9 stimulated OPN expression irrespective of the differentiation stage of the cells or culture conditions. In situ hybridization analysis of epiphyseal growth plates from chicken or mice homozygous for the Achondroplasia, G369C/mFGFR3 mutation demonstrated co-localization of OPN expression and osteoclast activity, as evidenced by tartarate resistant acid phosphatase positive cells in the osteochondral junction. We propose that FGF signaling directly activates OPN expression independent of chondrocytes differentiation. This may enhance the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts, and increase in cartilage resorption and remodeling in the chondro-osseus border.

  1. New role of osteopontin in DNA repair and impact on human glioblastoma radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Aurélie; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Leroi, Natacha; Lallemand, François; Lambert, Jérémy; Goffart, Nicolas; Roncarati, Patrick; Bianchi, Elettra; Peixoto, Paul; Blomme, Arnaud; Turtoi, Andrei; Peulen, Olivier; Habraken, Yvette; Scholtes, Félix; Martinive, Philippe; Delvenne, Philippe; Rogister, Bernard; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most aggressive and common solid human brain tumor. We have recently demonstrated the importance of osteopontin (OPN) in the acquisition/maintenance of stemness characters and tumorigenicity of glioma initiating cells. Consultation of publicly available TCGA database indicated that high OPN expression correlated with poor survival in GBM patients. In this study, we explored the role of OPN in GBM radioresistance using an OPN-depletion strategy in U87-MG, U87-MG vIII and U251-MG human GBM cell lines. Clonogenic experiments showed that OPN-depleted GBM cells were sensitized to irradiation. In comet assays, these cells displayed higher amounts of unrepaired DNA fragments post-irradiation when compared to control. We next evaluated the phosphorylation of key markers of DNA double-strand break repair pathway. Activating phosphorylation of H2AX, ATM and 53BP1 was significantly decreased in OPN-deficient cells. The addition of recombinant OPN prior to irradiation rescued phospho-H2AX foci formation thus establishing a new link between DNA repair and OPN expression in GBM cells. Finally, OPN knockdown improved mice survival and induced a significant reduction of heterotopic human GBM xenograft when combined with radiotherapy. This study reveals a new function of OPN in DNA damage repair process post-irradiation thus further confirming its major role in GBM aggressive disease. PMID:27563812

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of Osteopontin in HCV-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Libra, Massimo; Indelicato, Manuela; De Re, Vallì; Zignego, Anna Linda; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Malaponte, Grazia; Dianzani, Umberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Stivala, Franca; McCubrey, James A; Mazzarino, Maria C

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent evidences have also suggested that HCV infection contributes to development of autoimmune disorders and B-cell nonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Mechanisms by which HCV infection promotes B-cell NHL development remain unclear. Increased serum osteopontin (OPN) levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases as well as a variety of cancers. However, the association between OPN and B-cell NHL or HCV-associated B-cell proliferation has not previously been reported. In the present study, we determined whether serum OPN differences were associated with HCV infection, type II mixed cryglobulinemia (MC) syndrome and B-cell NHL. Serum OPN levels were measured by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that high serum OPN levels are associated with B-cell NHL and HCV infection. Interestingly, highest serum OPN concentrations were found among HCV-infected patients with concomitant type II MC syndrome with and without B-cell NHL. These data indicate that OPN is involved in the lymphomagenesis, especially, in the context of HCV infection and autoimmune diseases.

  3. The potential role of Osteopontin in the maintenance of commensal bacteria homeostasis in the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koyu; Nakajima, Akira; Fukushima, Yuji; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Sakamoto, Keiko; Hamazaki, Yoko; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Minato, Nagahiro; Hattori, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (Opn), a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders. Under physiologic conditions, its expression is restricted to certain tissues including bone and kidney tubule. However, cellular activation during disease development induces Opn expression in various immune cells. In this study, using Opn-EGFP knock-in (KI) mice we found that CD8α+ T cells in the intestinal tissues, including Peyer’s patch, lamina propria and epithelium, express Opn under steady state conditions. Therefore, we examined the role of Opn-expressing CD8α+ T cells in intestinal homeostasis. Interestingly, Opn knockout (KO) mice had altered fecal microflora concordant with a reduction of TCRγδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Consistent with this result, both treatment with anti-Opn blocking antibody and deficiency of Opn resulted in decreased survival of TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ IELs. This data suggests that a possibility that Opn may function as a survival factor for IELs in the intestinal tissue. Collectively, these data suggest the possibility that Opn might regulate the homeostasis of intestinal microflora through maintenance of TCRγδ+ IELs, possibly by support of IEL survival. PMID:28296922

  4. Suppression of osteopontin inhibits chemically induced hepatic carcinogenesis by induction of apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Hyung; Park, Jun-Won; Woo, Sang-Ho; Go, Du-Min; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Jang, Ja-June; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Previous clinical reports have found elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels in tumor tissues to be indicative of greater malignancy in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of OPN on carcinogenesis and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the oncogenic role of OPN in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. The overall incidence of hepatic tumors at 36 weeks was significantly lower in OPN knockout (KO) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. Apoptosis was significantly enhanced in OPN KO mice, and was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the in vitro study, OPN suppression also led to lower mRNA and protein levels of EGFR associated with the downregulation of c-Jun in Hep3B and Huh7 human HCC cells lines, which resulted in increased apoptotic cell death in both cell lines. Moreover, a positive correlation was clearly identified between the expression of OPN and EGFR in human HCC tissues. These data demonstrate that the OPN deficiency reduced the incidence of chemically induced HCC by suppressing EGFR-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling. An important implication of our findings is that OPN positively contributes to hepatic carcinogenesis. PMID:27888617

  5. The metastasis-associated extracellular matrix protein osteopontin forms transient structure in ligand interaction sites.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Gerald; Schedlbauer, Andreas; Chemelli, Angela; Ozdowy, Przemyslaw; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Auer, Renate; Kontaxis, Georg; Hartl, Markus; Miles, Andrew J; Wallace, B A; Glatter, Otto; Bister, Klaus; Konrat, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic hydrophilic glycophosphoprotein that was first identified as a major sialoprotein in bones. It functions as a cell attachment protein displaying a RGD cell adhesion sequence and as a cytokine that signals through integrin and CD44 cell adhesion molecules. OPN is also implicated in human tumor progression and cell invasion. OPN has intrinsic transforming activity, and elevated OPN levels promote metastasis. OPN gene expression is also strongly activated in avian fibroblasts simultaneously transformed by the v-myc and v-mil(raf) oncogenes. Here we have investigated the solution structure of a 220-amino acid recombinant OPN protein by an integrated structural biology approach employing bioinformatic sequence analysis, multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. These studies suggest that OPN is an intrinsically unstructured protein in solution. Although OPN does not fold into a single defined structure, its conformational flexibility significantly deviates from random coil-like behavior. OPN comprises distinct local secondary structure elements with reduced conformational flexibility and substantially populates a compact subspace displaying distinct tertiary contacts. These compacted regions of OPN encompass the binding sites for α(V)β(III) integrin and heparin. The conformational flexibility combined with the modular architecture of OPN may represent an important structural prerequisite for its functional diversity.

  6. Control of the human osteopontin promoter by ERRα in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boudjadi, Salah; Bernatchez, Gérald; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Carrier, Julie C

    2013-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer. Osteopontin (OPN) is a component of tumor extracellular matrix identified as a key marker of cancer progression. The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) has been implicated in endocrine-related cancer development and progression, possibly through modulation of cellular energy metabolism. Previous reports that ERRα regulates OPN expression in bone prompted us to investigate whether ERRα controls OPN expression in human colorectal cancer. Using a tissue microarray containing 83 tumor-normal tissue pairs of colorectal cancer samples, we found that tumor epithelial cells displayed higher staining for ERRα than normal mucosa, in correlation with elevated OPN expression. In addition, knocking down endogenous ERRα led to reduced OPN expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Promoter analysis, inhibition of ERRα activity, and expression and mutation of potential ERRα response elements in the proximal promoter of human OPN showed that ERRα and its obligate co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1 α, positively control human OPN promoter activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed in vivo occupancy of the OPN promoter by ERRα in HT29 cells, suggesting that OPN is a direct target of ERRα in colorectal cancer. These findings suggest an additional mechanism by which ERRα participates in the development and progression of colorectal cancer, further supporting the relevance of targeting ERRα with antagonists as anticancer agents.

  7. Osteopontin and the dento-osseous pathobiology of X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Hoac, Betty; Coyac, Benjamin R; Leger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Wicart, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P; Glorieux, Francis H; Linglart, Agnès; Chaussain, Catherine; McKee, Marc D

    2017-02-01

    Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization. Associated with the increased amount of OPN (along with inhibitory OPN peptide fragments) in XLH bone matrix, we found an enlarged, hypomineralized, lacuno-canalicular network - a defective pattern of skeletal mineralization that decreases stiffness locally at: i) the cell-matrix interface in the pericellular environment of the mechanosensing osteocyte, and ii) the osteocyte's dendritic network of cell processes extending throughout the bone. Our findings of an excess of inhibitory OPN near osteocytes and their cell processes, and in dentin, spatially correlates with the defective mineralization observed at these sites in the skeleton and teeth of XLH patients. These changes likely contribute to the dento-osseous pathobiology of XLH, and participate in the aberrant bone adaptation and remodeling seen in XLH.

  8. Characterization of deposits in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus. Role of phytate and osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Muntaner-Gimbernat, Lorenzo; Vilchez-Mira, Mar; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Prieto, Rafel Maria; Torrens-Mas, Margalida; Vega, Fabiana Gisela

    2015-04-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the tendons of the rotator cuff is common in adults. These calcifications tend to be reabsorbed after a period of acute pain. This study evaluated the morphologic characteristics of calcific deposits and the participation of phytate and osteopontin (OPN) in their development. Calcific deposits were removed from 21 patients with calcific tendinopathy by ultrasound-guided needle puncture under local anesthesia. The removed deposits were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the deposits were semi-quantitatively determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Phytate was determined in 2 h urine samples, and OPN was extracted from a pool of deposits. The calcific deposits consisted of amorphous and poorly crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite containing molecular water and organic matter. OPN was associated with the hydroxyapatite deposits. Phytate concentrations were significantly lower in the urine of patients with calcific tendinopathy than in healthy controls. The deficit in crystallization inhibitors such as phytate, and the presence of regulators such as OPN, may play important roles in the development of calcific tendinopathy. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A lower bound for the QRQW PRAM

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    The queue-read, queue-write (QRQW) parallel random access machine (PRAM) model is a shared memory model which allows concurrent reading and writing with a time cost proportional to the contention. This is designed to model currently available parallel machines more accurately than either the CRCW PRAM or EREW PRAM models. Many algorithmic results have been developed for the QRQW PRAM. However, the only lower bound results have been fairly simple reductions from lower bounds for other models, such as the EREW PRAM or the ``few-write`` CREW PRAM. Here we present a lower bound specific to the QRQW PRAM. This lower bound is on the problem of Linear Approximate Compaction (LAC), whose input consists of at most m marked items in an array of size n, and whose output consists of the rn marked items in an array of size 0(m). There is an O({radical}log n), expected time randomized algorithm for LAC on the QRQW PRAM. We prove a lower bound of {Omega}(log log log n) expected time for any randomized algorithm for LAC. This bound applies regardless of the number of processors and memory cells of the QRQW PRAM. The previous best lower bound was {Omega}(log* n) time, taken from the known lower bound for LAC on the CRCW PRAM.

  10. Suppression of tumor growth in lung cancer xenograft model mice by poly(sorbitol-co-PEI)-mediated delivery of osteopontin siRNA.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Singh, Bijay; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Lee, Somin; Lee, Ah Young; Gankhuyag, Nomundelger; Kim, Ji-Eun; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Young-Chan; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-08-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing represents a promising strategy for treating diseases such as cancer; however, specific gene silencing requires an effective delivery system to overcome the instability and low transfection efficiency of siRNAs. To address this issue, a polysorbitol-based transporter (PSOT) was prepared by low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) crosslinked with sorbitol diacrylate (SDA). Osteopontin (OPN) gene, which is highly associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was targeted by siRNA therapy using siRNA targeting OPN (siOPN). Characterization study confirmed that PSOT formed compact complexes with siOPN and protected siOPN against degradation by RNase. PSOT/siOPN complexes demonstrated low cytotoxicity and enhanced transfection efficiency in vitro, suggesting that this carrier may be suitable for gene silencing. In the A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines, PSOT/siOPN complexes demonstrated significant silencing efficiency at both RNA and protein levels. To study in vivo tumor growth suppression, two lung cancer cell-xenograft mouse models were prepared and PSOT/siOPN complexes were delivered into the mice through intravenous injection. The siOPN-treated groups demonstrated significantly reduced OPN expression at both the RNA and protein levels as well as suppression of tumor volume and weight. Taken together, siOPN delivery using PSOT may present an effective and novel therapeutic system for lung cancer treatment.

  11. Antisense targeting of TGF-{beta}1 augments BMP-induced upregulation of osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1 in human Saos-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhong-Jian . E-mail: zshen2@wisc.edu; Kook Kim, Sang; Youn Jun, Do; Park, Wan; Ho Kim, Young; Malter, James S.; Jo Moon, Byung . E-mail: bjmoon@mail.knu.ac.kr

    2007-04-15

    Despite commonalities in signal transduction in osteoblasts from different species, the role of TGF-{beta}1 on bone formation remains elusive. In particular, the role of autocrine TGF-{beta}1 on human osteoblasts is largely unknown. Here we show the effect of TGF-{beta}1 knock-down on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts induced by BMP2. Treatment with antisense TGF-{beta}1 moderately increased the rate of cell proliferation, which was completely reversed by the exogenous addition of TGF-{beta}1. Notably, TGF-{beta}1 blockade significantly enhanced BMP2-induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding osteopontin, type I collagen and Cbfa1, which was suppressed by exogenous TGF-{beta}1. Moreover, TGF-{beta}1 knock-down increased BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 as well as their nuclear import, which paralleled a reduction of inhibitory Smad6. These data suggest autocrine TGF-{beta}1 antagonizes BMP signaling through modulation of inducible Smad6 and the activity of BMP specific Smad1/5.

  12. Targeted deletion of growth hormone (GH) receptor in macrophage reveals novel osteopontin-mediated effects of GH on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Kumar, P Anil; Sun, Jinhong; Aggarwal, Anjali; Fan, Yong; Sperling, Mark A; Lumeng, Carey N; Menon, Ram K

    2013-05-31

    We investigated GH action on macrophage (MΦ) by creating a MΦ-specific GH receptor-null mouse model (MacGHR KO). On a normal diet (10% fat), MacGHR KO and littermate controls exhibited similar growth profiles and glucose excursions on intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin tolerance (ITT) tests. However, when challenged with high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 18 weeks, MacGHR KO mice exhibited impaired ipGTT and ITT compared with controls. In MacGHR KO, adipose-tissue (AT) MΦ abundance was increased with skewing toward M1 polarization. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, TNF-α, IL6, and osteopontin (OPN)) were increased in MacGHR KO AT stromal vascular fraction (SVF). In MacGHR KO AT, crown-like-structures were increased with decreased insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. The abundance of phosphorylated NF-κB and of OPN was increased in SVF and bone-marrow-derived MΦ in MacGHR KO. GH, acting via an NF-κB site in the distal OPN promoter, inhibited the OPN promoter. Thus in diet-induced obesity (DIO), lack of GH action on the MΦ exerts an unexpected deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis by accentuating AT inflammation and NF-κB-dependent activation of OPN expression. These novel results in mice support the possibility that administration of GH could have salutary effects on DIO-associated chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in humans.

  13. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  14. Structure of the Escherichia coli Antitoxin MqsA (YgiT/b3021) Bound to Its Gene Promoter Reveals Extensive Domain Rearrangements and the Specificity of Transcriptional Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    B Brown; T Wood; W Peti; R Page

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial cultures, especially biofilms, produce a small number of persister cells, a genetically identical subpopulation of wild type cells that are metabolically dormant, exhibit multidrug tolerance, and are highly enriched in bacterial toxins. The gene most highly up-regulated in Escherichia coli persisters is mqsR, a ribonuclease toxin that, along with mqsA, forms a novel toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Like all known TA systems, both the MqsR-MqsA complex and MqsA alone regulate their own transcription. Despite the importance of TA systems in persistence and biofilms, very little is known about how TA modules, and antitoxins in particular, bind and recognize DNA at a molecular level. Here, we report the crystal structure of MqsA bound to a 26-bp fragment from the mqsRA promoter. We show that MqsA binds DNA predominantly via its C-terminal helix-turn-helix domain, with direct binding of recognition helix residues Asn{sup 97} and Arg{sup 010} to the DNA major groove. Unexpectedly, the structure also revealed that the MqsA N-terminal domain interacts with the DNA phosphate backbone. This results in a more than 105{sup o} rotation of the N-terminal domains between the free and complexed states, an unprecedented rearrangement for an antitoxin. The structure also shows that MqsA bends the DNA by more than 55{sup o} in order to achieve symmetrical binding. Finally, using a combination of biochemical and NMR studies, we show that the DNA sequence specificity of MqsA is mediated by direct readout.

  15. Cell Wall Proteome in the Maize Primary Root Elongation Zone. II. Region-Specific Changes in Water Soluble and Lightly Ionically Bound Proteins under Water Deficit1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinming; Alvarez, Sophie; Marsh, Ellen L.; LeNoble, Mary E.; Cho, In-Jeong; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Sixue; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wu, Yajun; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Sharp, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on the adaptation of maize (Zea mays) primary roots to water deficit showed that cell elongation is maintained preferentially toward the apex, and that this response involves modification of cell wall extension properties. To gain a comprehensive understanding of how cell wall protein (CWP) composition changes in association with the differential growth responses to water deficit in different regions of the elongation zone, a proteomics approach was used to examine water soluble and loosely ionically bound CWPs. The results revealed major and predominantly region-specific changes in protein profiles between well-watered and water-stressed roots. In total, 152 water deficit-responsive proteins were identified and categorized into five groups based on their potential function in the cell wall: reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, defense and detoxification, hydrolases, carbohydrate metabolism, and other/unknown. The results indicate that stress-induced changes in CWPs involve multiple processes that are likely to regulate the response of cell elongation. In particular, the changes in protein abundance related to ROS metabolism predicted an increase in apoplastic ROS production in the apical region of the elongation zone of water-stressed roots. This was verified by quantification of hydrogen peroxide content in extracted apoplastic fluid and by in situ imaging of apoplastic ROS levels. This response could contribute directly to the enhancement of wall loosening in this region. This large-scale proteomic analysis provides novel insights into the complexity of mechanisms that regulate root growth under water deficit conditions and highlights the spatial differences in CWP composition in the root elongation zone. PMID:17951457

  16. Integrative Analyses Identify Osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 as Critical Pro-Metastatic Genes for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming-Xia; Liu, Lei; Jia, De-Shui; Geng, Qin; Lin, He-Chun; He, Xiang-Huo; Li, Jin-Jun; Yao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the key regulatory genes associated with lung cancer in order to reduce its occurrence and progress through silencing these key genes. Methods To identify the key regulatory genes involved in lung cancer, we performed a combination of gene array and bioinformatics analyses to compare gene transcription profiles in 3 monoclonal cell strains with high, medium or low metastatic abilities, which were separated from the SPC-A-1sci and SPC-A-1 cell lines by limiting dilution monoclone assay. We then analyzed those genes’ biological activities by knocking down their expression in SPC-A-1sci cells using siRNA and lenti-viral shRNA vectors, followed by determinations of the invasion and migration capabilities of the resulting cell lines in vitro as well as their potential for inducing occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo. To examine the clinical relevance of these findings, we analyzed the expression levels of the identified genes in human lung cancer tissues (n = 135) and matched adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Results Three monoclonal cell strains characterized with high, medium or low metastatic abilities were successfully selected. Gene array and bioinformatics analyses implied that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 were key genes involved in lung cancer. Knockdown of these genes suppressed human lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Clinical sample analyses indicated that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 protein expression levels were higher in lung cancer patients, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, and correlated with lymphatic metastasis. Conclusions We confirmed that osteopontin, LAMB3 and ITGB1 played important roles in the occurrence and metastasis of lung cancer, thus provided important clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of metastasis and contributing to the therapeutic treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23441154

  17. Polymorphism in Osteopontin Gene (SPP1) Is Associated with Asthma and Related Phenotypes in a Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Josh M.; Choudhry, Shweta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Beckman, Kenneth; Chapela, Rocío; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Ford, Jean; Avila, Pedro C.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that osteopontin, a cytokine with suggested immunoregulatory functions, may contribute to pathogenesis of asthma. To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SPP1, the gene encoding osteopontin, are associated with risk of asthma, we genotyped 6 known SNPs in SPP1 in the well-characterized Genetics of Asthma in Latino Americans population of 294 Mexican and 365 Puerto Rican parent–child asthma trios. The associations between SNPs and asthma or asthma-related phenotypes were examined by transmission disequilibrium tests as implemented in the family-based association test program. Three polymorphisms, 1 in exon 7 (rs1126616C) and 2 in the 3′-untranslated region (rs1126772A and rs9138A) of SPP1, were associated with diagnosis of asthma, severity of asthma, asthma in subjects with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) (IgE >100 IU/mL), and postbronchodilator FEV1 in Puerto Ricans (P values=0.00007–0.04). The CC genotype of rs1126616 conferred an odds ratio of 1.7 (95% CI=[1.3, 2.3], P value adjusted for multiple comparisons=0.001) for asthma compared with the CT and TT genotypes. Furthermore, haplotype analysis identified rs1126616C-rs1126772A-rs9138A to be associated with an increased risk for asthma, severity of asthma, and asthma in subjects with elevated IgE (P=0.03). There was no association between the SPP1 SNPs and asthma outcomes in Mexicans. Our findings suggest that the SPP1 gene is a risk factor for asthma and asthma-related phenotypes in Puerto Ricans, and are consistent with previous animal and human studies on the role of osteopontin in pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:22276228

  18. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/-) and Klotho(-/-) (Kl(-/-)) mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/-) mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/-) mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/-) (Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) or DKO) mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn) in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/-) mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-), but not of Fgf23(-/-) mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions

  19. Plasma Osteopontin Levels and Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in the PEACE Trial.

    PubMed

    Abdalrhim, Ahmed D; Marroush, Tariq S; Austin, Erin E; Gersh, Bernard J; Solak, Nusret; Rizvi, Syed A; Bailey, Kent R; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that has a role in inflammation, immune response and calcification. We hypothesized that plasma OPN levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) enrolled in the PEACE trial. We measured plasma OPN levels at baseline in 3567 CAD patients (mean age 64.5 ± 8.1 years, 81% men) by a sandwich chemiluminescent assay (coefficient of variation = 4.1%). OPN levels were natural log (Ln) transformed prior to analyses. We assessed whether Ln OPN levels were associated with the composite primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and hospitalization for heart failure using multiple event multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Adjustment was performed for: (a) age and sex; (b) additional potential confounders; and (c) a parsimonious set of statistically significant 10 variates. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 416 adverse cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 366 patients. Ln OPN was significantly associated with the primary endpoint; HR (95% CI) = 1.56 (1.27, 1.92); P <0.001, and remained significant after adjustment for age and sex [1.31 (1.06, 1.61); P = 0.01] and after adjustment for relevant covariates [1.24 (1.01, 1.52); P = 0.04]. In a secondary analysis of the individual event types, Ln OPN was significantly associated with incident hospitalization for heart failure: HR (95% CI) = 2.04 (1.44, 2.89); P <0.001, even after adjustment for age, sex and additional relevant covariates. In conclusion, in patients with stable CAD and preserved EF on optimal medical therapy, plasma OPN levels were independently associated with the composite incident endpoint of adverse cardiovascular outcomes as well as incident hospitalization for heart failure.

  20. Spatial localization of the JAG1/Notch1/osteopontin cascade modulates extrahepatic metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Zou, Jing-Huai; Chen, Rong-Xin; Cui, Jie-Feng; Tang, Zhao-You; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2014-11-01

    The model of Notch-driven carcinogenesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial and is based on observations of developmental stage- and dose-dependent Notch activation. In this study, the relevance of the spatial distribution of Notch cascade members to the promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis was evaluated. The spatial expression patterns of the members of the Jagged1 (JAG1)/Notch1 cascade in HCC were evaluated in a tissue microarray of 112 tumors and 46 peri-tumors. Regulation of JAG1/Notch1 on osteopontin (OPN) was evaluated by RNA interference. Tumor cells with JAG1 expressed on the membrane (JAG1(Mem)) were more likely to undergo extrahepatic metastasis [p<0.001; hazard ratio (HR), 0.166; 95% CI, 0.068-0.402], and JAG1(Mem) was a strong independent prognostic factor for metastasis (HR, 0.467; 95% CI, 0.271-0.806; p=0.006). JAG1(Mem) also showed a strong positive correlation with Notch1(Mem). In addition, tumors with JAG1(Mem) expression had more poorly encapsulated membranes (p=0.014). Furthermore, Notch1(Mem) expression correlated with HCC metastasis and was the strongest predictive factor for metastasis. However, in peri-tumoral tissues, most JAG1 (45/46) and Notch1 (41/46) was localized to the cytoplasm. The expression of OPN, one of the main targets of JAG1/Notch1 signaling and a crucial metastasis-related gene in HCC, correlated significantly with JAG1(Mem) expression. Knockdown of JAG1 expression or Notch1 expression induced the downregulation of OPN in HCC cells. Taken together, protein localization is a critical factor affecting the activity of the Notch cascade in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, our results suggest that the JAG1/Notch1/OPN cascade represents a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

  1. Plasma osteopontin levels in prediction of prognosis in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Kaan; Tavil, Yusuf; Sahinarslan, Asife; Tacoy, Gulten; Turfan, Murat; Sen, Nihat; Gurbahar, Ozlem; Boyaci, Bulent; Yalcin, Ridvan; Demirkan, Deniz; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-04-01

    We sought to explain the clinical importance of the osteopontin (OPN) in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty consecutive patients (55 = 11 years, 12 women and 68 men) and sixty healthy control subjects were included in the study. In all patients, plasma OPN levels were assessed on admission and on the third day (peak value). Creatinine kinase (CK)/CK-myocardial band (MB), troponin I and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor levels and echocardiographic findings were also recorded. Patients were classified into high and low OPN groups according to the median OPN value, and monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients with STEMI had higher OPN levels (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml) on admission than the control subjects (18.0 [11.3-31.5] ng/ml, P = 0.004).The third day value of OPN was significantly higher (39.2 [27.2-56.0] ng/ml) than the OPN level on admission (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml, P < 0.001). Admission and peak OPN levels were not correlated with CK/CK-MB, white blood cell counts, troponin I and the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor. The plasma OPN levels were not correlated with left ventricular wall motion score index either. In the subgroups of infarct localization and reperfusion strategy, plasma OPN levels were similar. When the patients were compared according to the median OPN values, there were no differences in the occurrence of MACE between the high and low OPN groups. This study suggests, for the first time, that the plasma OPN level increases in the first hours of the acute STEMI; however, it could not be used as a prognostic biomarker of STEMI.

  2. Elevated level of serum osteopontin in school-age children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Akelma, A Z; Cizmeci, M N; Kanburoglu, M K; Bozkaya, D; Catal, F; Mete, E; Kutukoglu, I; Namuslu, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of osteopontin (OPN) has not been elucidated in childhood asthma. Our purpose was to investigate whether OPN levels change due to allergic inflammation in pre-school and school-age children. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 42 healthy children and a total of 51 children with asthma were recruited. OPN levels and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated in the study population. The asthma group were divided into two groups with respect to age, ≤ 5-years (n = 23) and >5-years (n = 28), and labelled Asthma Group 1 and Asthma Group 2, respectively. OPN levels were compared between subgroups. Serum OPN levels were significantly higher in the asthma group when compared to the control group (p = 0.004). OPN levels were similar in Asthma Group 1 and control groups, whereas it was found to be higher in Asthma Group 2 (p>0.025, p = 0.001, respectively). In the >5-years age asthmatic group, OPN levels of the patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 15) were higher than those of the patients (n=13) without allergic rhinitis (p = 0.021). The study underscores the relationship between childhood asthma and OPN as the first study in the literature. In this study we found that OPN, which plays a role in Th2 mediated inflammation, may also play a role in childhood asthma. The fact that OPN levels do not increase in preschool-age children with asthma might be due to the transient wheezing in this group. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Upregulates miR-221 to Inhibit Osteopontin-Dependent Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Arffa, M. L.; Zapf, M. A.; Kothari, A. N.; Chang, V.; Gupta, G. N.; Ding, X.; Al-Gayyar, M. M.; Syn, W.; Elsherbiny, N. M.; Mi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) promotes hepatic fibrosis, and developing therapies targeting OPN expression in settings of hepatic injury holds promise. The polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in high concentrations in green tea, downregulates OPN expression through OPN mRNA degradation, but the mechanism is unknown. Previous work has shown that microRNAs can decrease OPN mRNA levels, and other studies have shown that EGCG modulates the expression of multiple microRNAs. In our study, we first demonstrated that OPN induces hepatic stellate cells to transform into an activated state. We then identified three microRNAs which target OPN mRNA: miR-181a, miR-10b, and miR-221. In vitro results show that EGCG upregulates all three microRNAs, and all three microRNAs are capable of down regulating OPN mRNA when administered alone. Interestingly, only miR-221 is necessary for EGCG-mediated OPN mRNA degradation and miR-221 inhibition reduces the effects of EGCG on cell function. In vivo experiments show that thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cell cytotoxicity upregulates OPN expression; treatment with EGCG blocks the effects of TAA. Furthermore, chronic treatment of EGCG in vivo upregulates all three microRNAs equally, suggesting that in more chronic treatment all three microRNAs are involved in modulating OPN expression. We conclude that in in vitro and in vivo models of TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis, EGCG inhibits OPN-dependent injury and fibrosis. EGCG works primarily by upregulating miR-221 to accelerate OPN degradation. EGCG may therefore have utility as a protective agent in settings of liver injury. PMID:27935974

  4. Osteopontin is a proximal effector of leptin-mediated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Jason D.; Choi, Steve S.; Swiderska-Syn, Marzena; Manka, Paul P.; Reid, Danielle; Palma, Elena; Briones-Orta, Marco A.; Xie, Guanhua; Younis, Rasha; Kitamura, Naoto; Peruta, Marco della; Bitencourt, Shanna; Dollé, Laurent; Oo, Ye Htun; Mi, Zhiyong; Kuo, Paul C.; Williams, Roger; Chokshi, Shilpa; Canbay, Ali; Claridge, Lee C.; Eksteen, Bertus; Diehl, Anna Mae; Syn, Wing-Kin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver fibrosis develops when hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated into collagen-producing myofibroblasts. In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the adipokine leptin is upregulated, and promotes liver fibrosis by directly activating HSC via the hedgehog pathway. We reported that hedgehog-regulated osteopontin (OPN) plays a key role in promoting liver fibrosis. Herein, we evaluated if OPN mediates leptin-profibrogenic effects in NASH. Methods Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed control or methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Liver tissues were assessed by Sirius-red, OPN and αSMA IHC, and qRT-PCR for fibrogenic genes. In vitro, HSC with stable OPN (or control) knockdown were treated with recombinant (r)leptin and OPN-neutralizing or sham-aptamers. HSC response to OPN loss was assessed by wound healing assay. OPN-aptamers were also added to precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), and administered to MCD-fed WT (leptin-intact) mice to determine if OPN neutralization abrogated fibrogenesis. Results MCD-fed WT mice developed NASH-fibrosis, upregulated OPN, and accumulated αSMA+ cells. Conversely, MCD-fed ob/ob mice developed less fibrosis and accumulated fewer αSMA+ and OPN+ cells. In vitro, leptin-treated HSC upregulated OPN, αSMA, collagen 1α1 and TGFβ mRNA by nearly 3-fold, but this effect was blunted by OPN loss. Inhibition of PI3K and transduction of dominant negative-Akt abrogated leptin-mediated OPN induction, while constitutive active-Akt upregulated OPN. Finally, OPN neutralization reduced leptin-mediated fibrogenesis in both PCLS and MCD-fed mice. Conclusion OPN overexpression in NASH enhances leptin-mediated fibrogenesis via PI3K/Akt. OPN neutralization significantly reduces NASH fibrosis, reinforcing the potential utility of targeting OPN in the treatment of patients with advanced NASH. PMID:26529285

  5. Increased osteopontin levels in children undergoing venom immunotherapy may serve as a marker of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Soyer, Ozge U; Sekerel, Bulent E; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sackesen, Cansin; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has its effect by modulating various mediators resulting in immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to measure changes in plasma osteopontin (OPN) and serum basal tryptase (sBT) levels over the course of 1 year of VIT in children with venom allergy. Children who suffered from a large local reaction (LLR) or a systemic reaction (SR) after insect stings were included along with control subjects. Measurements were performed before the initiation of VIT and 6 and 12 months after it had been started. A total of 58 children (24 with SR, 18 with LLR and 16 control subjects) with a median age of 9.5 years (range 6.7-12.8) were enrolled. The plasma OPN levels of patients with LLR [median 1,477 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 1,123-1,772] were significantly higher than patients with SR (882 ng/ml, 579-1,086; p < 0.001) and healthy control subjects (1,015 ng/ml, 815-1,203; p = 0.002). A significant increase in plasma OPN levels in children was determined after the 1-year VIT. The sBT levels of children with SR (4.1 ng/ml, 3.6-5.8) were significantly higher than children with LLR (3.1 ng/ml, 2.5-4.0) and control subjects (3.0 ng/ml, 2.9-3.8; p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the sBT levels of the patients after the 1-year VIT. The results of our study showed higher baseline levels of OPN in children with LLR compared to control subjects and children with SR. In children with SR, OPN levels were increased after the 1-year VIT. Our results may suggest a possible association between OPN and successful VIT in children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Osteopontin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Honda, Hirokazu; Inada, Yoshifumi; Kato, Noriyuki; Kato, Kenichi; Kitazawa, Kozo; Sugisaki, Tetsuzo

    2006-06-01

    beta-glycerophosphate, a phosphate donor, and uremic sera induce osteopontin (OPN) expression in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the correlations of serum phosphorus level with OPN expression, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level with OPN expression in humans have not previously been reported. The purpose of the current study is to compare the expression of OPN in VSMCs with clinical data in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The radial arteries of 33 patients (21 male and 12 female patients) were examined to determine the expression of OPN and collagen type I (Col I) by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of the expression of bone matrix proteins with clinical data was analyzed. Between the low-serum phosphorus (<6 mg/dL) group and high-serum phosphorus (> or =6 mg/dL) group, significant differences were detected in the expression of OPN (P = 0.0049) and the levels of BUN (P = 0.0005), serum phosphorus (P < 0.0001) and calcium x phosphorus products (P < 0.0001). Moreover, between the low-BUN (<70 mg/dL, N = 19) group and high-BUN (> or =70 mg/dL) group, significant differences were detected in the expression of OPN (P = 0.0039) and the levels of BUN (P = 0.0002), serum phosphorus (P = 0.0002) and calcium x phosphorus products (P = 0.0003). We have shown that hyperphosphatemia or azotemia is associated with the expression of OPN in VSMCs in patients with ESRD.

  7. Osteopontin Deficiency Suppresses Intestinal Tumor Development in Apc-Deficient Min Mice.

    PubMed

    Ishigamori, Rikako; Komiya, Masami; Takasu, Shinji; Mutoh, Michihiro; Imai, Toshio; Takahashi, Mami

    2017-05-14

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein, and is a transcriptional target of aberrant Wnt signaling. OPN is upregulated in human colon cancers, and is suggested to enhance cancer progression. In this study, the effect of deficiency of OPN on intestinal tumor development in Apc-deficient Min mice was investigated. At 16 weeks of age, the number of small intestinal polyps in Min/OPN(+/-) and Min/OPN(-/-) mice was lower than that of Min/OPN(+/+) mice. Colorectal tumor incidences and multiplicities in Min/OPN(+/-) and Min/OPN(-/-) mice were significantly lower than those in Min/OPN(+/+) mice, being 48% and 0.6 ± 0.8, 50% and 0.8 ± 0.9 vs. 80% and 1.6 ± 1.7, respectively. OPN expression in colorectal tumors was strongly upregulated in Min/OPN(+/+) compared to adjacent non-tumor parts, but was decreased in Min/OPN(+/-) and not detected in Min/OPN(-/-). Targets of OPN, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-3, -9, and -13 were lowered by OPN deficiency. Macrophage marker F4/80 in colorectal tumors was also lowered by OPN deficiency. MMP-9 expression was observed in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. These results indicate that induction of OPN by aberrant Wnt signaling could enhance colorectal tumor development in part by upregulation of MMP-3, -9, and -13 and infiltration of macrophage and neutrophils. Suppression of OPN expression could contribute to tumor prevention, but complete deficiency of OPN may cause some adverse effects.

  8. Osteopontin Deficiency Accelerates Spontaneous Colitis in Mice with Disrupted Gut Microbiota and Macrophage Phagocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Toyonaga, Takahiko; Nakase, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoru; Matsuura, Minoru; Yoshino, Takuya; Honzawa, Yusuke; Itou, Ayako; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Uede, Toshimitsu; Chiba, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein expressed in a variety of tissues and cells. Recent studies revealed increased OPN expression in the inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of OPN in the pathophysiology of IBD, however, remains unclear. Aims To investigate the role of OPN in the development of intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD, interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10 KO) mice. Methods We compared the development of colitis between IL-10 KO and OPN/IL-10 double KO (DKO) mice. OPN expression in the colonic tissues of IL-10 KO mice was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Enteric microbiota were compared between IL-10 KO and OPN/IL-10 DKO mice by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effect of OPN on macrophage phagocytic function was evaluated by phagocytosis assay. Results OPN/IL-10 DKO mice had an accelerated onset of colitis compared to IL-10 KO mice. FISH analysis revealed enhanced OPN synthesis in the colonic epithelial cells of IL-10 KO mice. OPN/IL-10 DKO mice had a distinctly different enteric bacterial profile with a significantly lower abundance of Clostridium subcluster XIVa and a greater abundance of Clostridium cluster XVIII compared to IL-10 KO mice. Intracellular OPN deletion in macrophages impaired phagocytosis of fluorescence particle-conjugated Escherichia coli in vitro. Exogenous OPN enhanced phagocytosis by OPN-deleted macrophages when administered at doses of 1 to 100 ng/ml, but not 1000 ng/ml. Conclusions OPN deficiency accelerated the spontaneous development of colitis in mice with disrupted gut microbiota and macrophage phagocytic activity. PMID:26274807

  9. Transcriptional regulation of osteopontin production in rat osteoblast- like cells by parathyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Osteopontin (OP) or bone sialoprotein is a recently characterized extracellular matrix protein which is abundant in bone and is produced by osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent calcitropic hormone which regulates osteoblastic function including the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. This study examines the effect of human PTH (hPTH-[1-34]) on the expression of this novel protein in rat osteoblast-like cells. hPTH(1-34) significantly decreased the amount of OP in culture media of the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, ROS 17/2.8, detected by Western immunoblot analysis. hPTH(1-34) also suppressed the steady-state level of OP mRNA two- to threefold with an ED50 of approximately 3 X 10(-10) M. This inhibition was detectable at 24 h, reached its nadir at 48 h, and lasted at least up to 96 h. The hPTH(1-34) effects were mimicked by isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, 8-bromo-cAMP, forskolin, and isoproterenol. hPTH(1-34) suppressed by two- to threefold the rate of OP gene transcription, estimated by nuclear run-on assays. The suppression of OP mRNA levels by hPTH(1-34) was also seen when basal levels were increased by transforming growth factor type beta, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or were decreased by dexamethasone. A similar decrease in the steady-state level of OP mRNA by hPTH(1-34) was also observed in primary cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells from fetal rat calvaria. These findings indicate that hPTH(1-34) suppresses the production of the novel extracellular matrix protein, OP, in osteoblasts at least in part through transcriptional control. PMID:2465299

  10. Comparative effects of gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on plasma osteopontin concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Lancha, Andoni; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Gil, María J; Rotellar, Fernando; Fernández, Secundino; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier

    2014-08-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) has proven to be an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development of obesity. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of weight loss following BS on circulating levels of OPN in humans. Body composition and circulating concentrations of OPN and markers of bone metabolism were determined in obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 40) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n = 11). Patients who underwent RYGB or SG showed decreased body weight (P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (P < 0.001) as well as lower insulin resistance. However, plasma OPN levels were significantly increased after RYGB (P < 0.001) but remained unchanged following SG (P = 0.152). Patients who underwent RYGB also showed significantly increased C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (ICTP) (P < 0.01) and osteocalcin (P < 0.001) while bone mineral density tended to decrease (P = 0.086). Moreover, OPN concentrations were positively correlated with the bone resorption marker ICTP after surgery. On the other hand, patients who underwent SG showed significantly increased ICTP levels (P < 0.05), and the change in OPN was positively correlated with the change in ICTP and negatively with the change in vitamin D after surgery (P < 0.05). RYGB increased circulating OPN levels, while they remained unaltered after SG. The increase in OPN levels after RYGB could be related to the increased bone resorption in relation to its well-known effects on bone of this malabsorptive procedure in comparison to the merely restrictive SG.

  11. Elevated serum osteopontin levels in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: association with autoimmune rheumatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bassyouni, Iman H; Bassyouni, Rasha H; Ibrahim, Nermin H; Soliman, Ahmed F

    2012-12-01

    Owing to the suggested role of osteopontin (OPN) in inflammation, autoimmunity and fibrosis, we investigated their serum concentrations in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with and without autoimmune manifestations and correlated those levels to clinical manifestations and the histological severity of hepatic fibrosis. A total of 70 chronic HCV-infected patients (35 with and 35 without autoimmune rheumatic manifestations‏) were compared with 35 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. Epidemiological, clinical, immunochemical and virological data were prospectively collected. OPN serum levels were assessed by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay. The mean serum OPN levels were higher in HCV patients with autoimmune rheumatologic manifestations and in patients without; than that for the normal controls (p = 0.000). The mean OPN values progressively increased by increasing severity of liver fibrosis (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of rheumatologic manifestations had the highest predictive value (b = 7.141, Beta = 0.414, p = 0.000) followed by liver fibrosis (b = 4.522, Beta = 0.444, p = 0.000) on the variation of OPN levels in our HCV patients. Among the group of patients with HCV and rheumatologic involvement, OPN serum levels were higher in patients with positive cryoglobulin and rheumatoid factor than in those without, and with systemic vasculitis than in those without. Correlation analysis didn't reveal any statistical significance of OPN with age, serum albumin, aminotransferases and viral load. Our data suggests OPN as a promising marker for HCV associated autoimmune rheumatologic involvement, particularly with regard to development of vasculitis and cryoglobinemia. In addition, it could serve as a biomarker to evaluate the severity of liver damages in HCV infected subjects.

  12. Mineralization induction effects of osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and dentin phosphoprotein on a biomimetic collagen substrate.

    PubMed

    Zurick, Kevin M; Qin, Chunlin; Bernards, Matthew T

    2013-06-01

    Native bone tissue is composed of a matrix of collagen, noncollagenous proteins, and calcium phosphate minerals, which are primarily hydroxyapatite. The SIBLING (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein) family of proteins is the primary noncollagenous protein group found in mineralized tissues. In this work, the mineralization induction capabilities of three of the SIBLING members, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and the calcium-binding subdomain of dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), are directly compared on a biomimetic collagen substrate. A self-assembled, loosely aligned collagen fibril substrate was prepared, and then (125) I-radiolabeled adsorption isotherms were developed for BSP, OPN, and DPP. The results showed that BSP exhibited the highest binding capacity for collagen at lower concentrations, followed by DPP and OPN. However, at the highest concentrations, all three proteins had similar adsorption levels. The adsorption isotherms were then used to identify conditions that resulted in identical amounts of adsorbed protein. These substrates were prepared and placed in simulated body fluid for 5, 10, and 24 h at 37°C. The resulting mineral morphology was assessed by atomic force microscopy, and the composition was determined using photochemical assays. Mineralization was seen in the presence of all the proteins. However, DPP was seen to be the only protein that formed individual mineral nodules similar to those seen in developing bone. This suggests that DPP plays a significant role in the biomineralization process and that the incorporation of DPP into tissue engineering constructs may facilitate the induction of biomimetic mineral formation.

  13. Osteopontin Expression in Acute Immune Response Mediates Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Adaptive Outcome Following Cortical Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julie L.; Reeves, Thomas M.; Phillips, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces axotomy, deafferentation and reactive synaptogenesis. Inflammation influences synaptic repair, and the novel brain cytokine osteopontin (OPN) has potential to support axon regeneration through exposure of its integrin receptor binding sites. This study explored whether OPN secretion and proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the initial degenerative phase of synaptogenesis, targeting reactive neuroglia to affect successful repair. Adult rats received unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion (UEC) modeling adaptive synaptic plasticity. Over the first week postinjury, hippocampal OPN protein and mRNA were assayed and histology performed. At 1–2d, OPN protein increased up to 51 fold, and was localized within activated, mobilized glia. OPN transcript also increased over 50 fold, predominantly within reactive microglia. OPN fragments known to be derived from MMP proteolysis were elevated at 1d, consistent with prior reports of UEC glial activation and enzyme production. Postinjury minocycline immunosuppression attenuated MMP-9 gelatinase activity, which was correlated with reduction of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (LCN2) expression, and reduced OPN fragment generation. The antibiotic also attenuated removal of synapsin-1 positive axons from the deafferented zone. OPN KO mice subjected to UEC had similar reduction of hippocampal MMP-9 activity, as well as lower synapsin-1 breakdown over the deafferented zone. MAP1B and N-cadherin, surrogates of cytoarchitecture and synaptic adhesion, were not affected. OPN KO mice with UEC exhibited time dependent cognitive deficits during the synaptogenic phase of recovery. This study demonstrates that OPN can mediate immune response during TBI synaptic repair, positively influencing synapse reorganization and functional recovery. PMID:25151457

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Upregulates miR-221 to Inhibit Osteopontin-Dependent Hepatic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Arffa, M L; Zapf, M A; Kothari, A N; Chang, V; Gupta, G N; Ding, X; Al-Gayyar, M M; Syn, W; Elsherbiny, N M; Kuo, P C; Mi, Z

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) promotes hepatic fibrosis, and developing therapies targeting OPN expression in settings of hepatic injury holds promise. The polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in high concentrations in green tea, downregulates OPN expression through OPN mRNA degradation, but the mechanism is unknown. Previous work has shown that microRNAs can decrease OPN mRNA levels, and other studies have shown that EGCG modulates the expression of multiple microRNAs. In our study, we first demonstrated that OPN induces hepatic stellate cells to transform into an activated state. We then identified three microRNAs which target OPN mRNA: miR-181a, miR-10b, and miR-221. In vitro results show that EGCG upregulates all three microRNAs, and all three microRNAs are capable of down regulating OPN mRNA when administered alone. Interestingly, only miR-221 is necessary for EGCG-mediated OPN mRNA degradation and miR-221 inhibition reduces the effects of EGCG on cell function. In vivo experiments show that thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cell cytotoxicity upregulates OPN expression; treatment with EGCG blocks the effects of TAA. Furthermore, chronic treatment of EGCG in vivo upregulates all three microRNAs equally, suggesting that in more chronic treatment all three microRNAs are involved in modulating OPN expression. We conclude that in in vitro and in vivo models of TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis, EGCG inhibits OPN-dependent injury and fibrosis. EGCG works primarily by upregulating miR-221 to accelerate OPN degradation. EGCG may therefore have utility as a protective agent in settings of liver injury.

  15. Circulating levels of osteopontin are related with calcification parameters in patients with renal transplantations.

    PubMed

    Karakan, S; Sezer, S; Özdemir Acar, F N; Haberal, M

    2011-03-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is a local inhibitor of calcification, it may also be an indirect marker of ongoing systemic calcification. There are few data about clinical and laboratory parameters associated with serum OPN levels in renal transplant (RT) patients. We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and calcification parameters as estimated with OPN after RT. Between 1996 and 2006, the study enrolled 81 patients undergoing RT including 26 females and 55 males of overall mean age of 38±10 years. We evaluated demographic features, medications, smoking history, blood pressure values daily proteinuria as well as laboratory values of calcium-phosphate product (Ca×P), body mass index (BMI) and serum OPN. According to OPN values, we stratified patients as: group 1: OPN<8; group 2: OPN 8 to 45 and group 3: OPN≥45. Serum OPN correlated with first month phosphorus (r=0.33, P=.00), Ca×product (r=0.41, P=.02), and proteinuria (r=0.34, P=.00) with negative relations to serum insulin (r=0.28, P=.04). Serum calcium, Ca×product, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, Creactive protein and vitamin D values were significantly higher among group 3. Regression analysis showed only Ca×product to be an independent variable affecting serum OPN levels (β=0.68, P<.01). OPN has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological events including calcification, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Serum OPN may be a marker for increased cardiovascular risk in RT patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tumor microenvironment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Matrixmetalloproteinases activation is mediated by osteopontin overexpression.

    PubMed

    Malaponte, Grazia; Hafsi, Sameh; Polesel, Jerry; Castellano, Giancarlo; Spessotto, Paola; Guarneri, Claudio; Canevari, Silvana; Signorelli, Santo S; McCubrey, James A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with variable patterns of behavior and responses to therapy. NHL development and invasion depend on multiple interactions between tumor cells and non-neoplastic cells. Such interactions are usually modulated by several cytokines. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were activated in human lymphoid cell lines by interleukin-6 (IL-6). The activation of these enzymes is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in human cancers. MMPs are also activated in several cancers by osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and survival. However, it is still unclear if MMPs play a role in NHL development and if their activation is determined by OPN and/or IL-6. In the present study, two groups of 78 NHL patients and 95 healthy donors were recruited for the analysis of OPN, MMP-2, MMP-9 and IL-6.Significant higher circulating levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, OPN and IL-6 were observed in NHL patients when compared to healthy donors. Similar data were obtained by analyzing the activity of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. The multivariate regression model indicates that, in both NHL cases and healthy donors, OPN is associated with the increase of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels independently of IL-6. These data were first confirmed by “in silico” analyses and then by “in vitro” experiments conducted on peripheral blood mononuclear cells randomly selected from both NHL patients and healthy donors.Overall, our data suggest that the activation of MMPs in NHL development is mostly associated with OPN. However, IL-6 may play an important role in the lymphomagenesis through the activation of other molecular pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza.

  17. Osteopontin O-glycosylation contributes to its phosphorylation and cell-adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yoshinobu; Kanno, Mayumi; Matsumoto-Morita, Kana; Konno, Midori; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    OPN (osteopontin) is a multiphosphorylated extracellular glycoprotein, which has important roles in bone remodelling, inflammation and cancer metastasis. OPN regulates cell spreading and adhesion primarily through its association with several integrins such as αvβ3, and its phosphorylation affects these processes. However, the mechanism by which OPN O-glycosylation affects these processes is not completely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that OPN O-glycosylation self-regulates its biological activities and also affects its phosphorylation status. We prepared two recombinant OPNs, WT (wild-type)-OPN and mutant OPN (ΔO-OPN), which lacks five O-glycosylation sites at a threonine/proline-rich region. O-glycan defects in OPN increased its phosphorylation level, as observed by dephosphorylation assays. Moreover, compared with WT-OPN, ΔO-OPN exhibited enhanced cell spreading and adhesion activities and decreased associations with β1 integrins. This suggested that defects in O-glycans in OPN altered these activities, and that β1 integrins have a less important role in adhesion to ΔO-OPN. The cell-adhesion activity of dephosphorylated ΔO-OPN was higher than the cell-adhesion activities of ΔO-OPN and dephosphorylated WT-OPN. This suggested that some of the phosphorylation in ΔO-OPN caused by O-glycan defects and O-glycans of OPN suppressed the OPN cell-adhesion activity. Thus functional activities of OPN can be determined by the combined glycosylation and phosphorylation statuses and not by either status alone.

  18. Circulating Osteopontin and Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in a Large European Population.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Misra, Sandeep; Stepien, Magdalena; Plymoth, Amelie; Muller, David; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Werner, Mårten; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Gunter, Marc J; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Beretta, Laura

    2016-09-01

    We previously identified osteopontin (OPN) as a promising marker for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating OPN levels and HCC incidence in a large population-based cohort. A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 100 HCC cases were identified. Each case was matched to two controls and OPN levels were measured in baseline plasma samples. Viral hepatitis, liver function, and α-fetoprotein (AFP) tests were also conducted. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate multivariable odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for OPN levels in relation to HCC. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine the discriminatory accuracy of OPN alone or in combination with other liver biomarkers in the prediction of HCC. OPN levels were positively associated with HCC risk (per 10% increment, ORmultivariable = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed within 2 years of follow-up. Adding liver function tests to OPN improved the discriminatory performance for subjects who developed HCC (AUC = 0.86). For cases diagnosed within 2 years, the combination of OPN and AFP was best able to predict HCC risk (AUC = 0.88). The best predictive model for HCC in this low-risk population is OPN in combination with liver function tests. Within 2 years of diagnosis, the combination of OPN and AFP best predicted HCC development, suggesting that measuring OPN and AFP could identify high-risk groups independently of a liver disease diagnosis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 758-65. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1-induced osteopontin expression facilitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Iman A; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1.

  20. Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1-Induced Osteopontin Expression Facilitates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Iman A.; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1. PMID:25884410

  1. Aurora-A signaling is activated in advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck cancer and requires osteopontin to stimulate invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Shiu, Li-Yen; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Yu, Chun-Chieh; Su, Huei-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significances, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms by which Aurora-A mediate its invasive effects in HNSCC are still unclear. Here, we found that Aurora-A expression is significantly higher in tumor tissues on 14-microarray of HNSCC in Oncomine-databases. The activity of Aurora-A was not only found in HNSCC specimens, but also significantly correlated with advanced-T-classification, positive-N-classification, TNM-stage and the poor 5-year survival rate. HNSCC-microarray profile showed that osteopontin and Aurora-A exhibited positive correlation. Stimulation of HNC cells with osteopontin results in an increase in Aurora-A expression where localized at the centrosome. Functionally, Aurora-A had the abilities to stimulate cell motility in HNC cells through increase ERK1/2 activity under osteopontin stimulation. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A expression by siRNAs suppressed ERK1/2 activity as well as inhibition of cell invasiveness. Treatment with anti-CD44 antibodies in HNC cells not only caused a decrease of mRNA/protein of Aurora-A and ERK1/2 activity upon osteopontin stimulation, but also affected the abilities of Aurora-A-elicited cell motility. Finally, immunohistochemical/Western-blotting analysis of human aggressive HNSCC specimens showed a significant positively correlation between osteopontin-Aurora-A and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that Aurora-A is not only an important prognostic factor but also a new therapeutic target in the osteopontin/CD44/ERK pathway for HNSCC treatment. PMID:24810160

  2. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  3. Born Level Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Bound state poles in the S-matrix of perturbative QED are generated by the divergence of the expansion in α . The perturbative corrections are necessarily singular when expanding around free, {O}( α ^0 ) in and out states that have no overlap with finite-sized atomic wave functions. Nevertheless, measurables such as binding energies do have well-behaved expansions in powers of α (and log α ). It is desirable to formulate the concept of "lowest order" for gauge theory bound states such that higher order corrections vanish in the α → 0 limit. This may allow to determine a lowest order term for QCD hadrons which incorporates essential features such as confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, and thus can serve as the starting point of a useful perturbative expansion. I discuss a "Born" (no loop, lowest order in \\hbar ) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. Gauss' law determines a distinct field A^0({\\varvec{x}}) for each instantaneous position of the charges. A Poincaré covariant boundary condition for the gluon field leads to a confining potential for q\\bar{q} and qqq states. In frames where the bound state is in motion the classical gauge field is obtained by a Lorentz boost of the rest frame field.

  4. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  5. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  6. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases, their tissue inhibitors, and osteopontin in the wall of thoracic and abdominal aortas with dilatative pathology.

    PubMed

    Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Epistolato, Maria Carmela; Castagnini, Marta; Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Tanganelli, Piero

    2006-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix and may play a central role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. We studied 2 groups of patients: 15 with dilatative pathology of the ascending thoracic aorta and 17 with aneurysm of the abdominal aortic wall (AAA). We compared the expression of MMPs, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and osteopontin in the wall of thoracic and abdominal aneurysms. In AAA, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in inflammatory cells was higher than in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (median score: 3.5 versus 1, P < .0001; 2 versus 1, P < .04, respectively), whereas MMP-2 demonstrated higher expression in SMCs than in inflammatory cells (median score: 0 versus 4, P < .0001). In ATA, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and osteopontin expression in SMCs was higher than in inflammatory cells (median score: 3 versus 0, P < .0001; 4 versus 1, P < .0005; 2 versus 0, P < .001; 5 versus 2, P < .0001; 2 versus 0, P < .005; and 5 versus 1.5, P < .0001, respectively), when both inflammatory cells of the media and the adventitia were considered together. The cellular expression of MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 differs in the dilatative pathology of abdominal and thoracic aortas, so the hypothetical model of morphogenesis of AAA cannot completely explain the formation of dilatative pathology of the ascending thoracic aorta.

  7. Osteopontin-CD44 signaling in the glioma perivascular niche enhances cancer stem cell phenotypes and promotes aggressive tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Pietras, Alexander; Katz, Amanda M.; Ekström, Elin J.; Wee, Boyoung; Halliday, John J.; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Amankulor, Nduka M.; Huse, Jason T.; Holland, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stem-like glioma cells reside within a perivascular niche and display hallmark radiation resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying these properties will be vital for the development of effective therapies. Here we show that the stem cell marker CD44 promotes cancer stem cell phenotypes and radiation resistance. In a mouse model of glioma, Cd44−/− and Cd44+/− animals showed improved survival compared to controls. The CD44 ligand Osteopontin shared a perivascular expression pattern with CD44 and promoted glioma stem cell-like phenotypes. These effects were mediated via the γ-secretase regulated intracellular domain of CD44, which promoted aggressive glioma growth in vivo and stem cell-like phenotypes via CBP/p300-dependent enhancement of HIF-2α activity. In human glioblastoma multiforme, expression of CD44 correlated with hypoxia-induced gene signatures and poor survival. Together, these data suggest that in the glioma perivascular niche, Osteopontin promotes stem cell-like properties and radiation resistance in adjacent tumor cells via activation of CD44 signaling. PMID:24607407

  8. Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.

  9. Interleukin 4, interleukin 6 and osteopontin-serological markers of head and neck malignancy in primary diagnostics: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aderhold, Christoph; Grobschmidt, Guido Manuel; Sauter, Alexander; Faber, Anne; Hörmann, Karl; Schultz, Johannes David

    2014-09-01

    The progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is stimulated by various angiogenic peptides and growth factors. A correlation between tumor progression and the secretion of various serological mediators in patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck is of major interest for tumor diagnostics, evaluation of the therapy response and it may predict prognosis by specifying the individual tumor biology. Established chemotherapeutic regimes for head and neck tumors usually consist of platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The present pilot study sought to assess the eligibility of seven serological factors as biomarkers for malignant tumors of the head and neck: Platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, osteopontin, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6. The serum levels of each factor in 20 patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin and 5-FU with curative intent were determined prior and subsequent to chemotherapy and were compared with 40 healthy controls. Another aim of the pilot study was to investigate whether the serum of patients showed significant differences in the concentrations of the analyzed factors at the start of concomitant radiochemotherapy compared with the controls, whether those markers indicated a neoplastic process and whether concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin and 5-FU induced significant alterations of concentration compared with pre-therapeutic levels. The included patients were histopathologically diagnosed with HNSCC and the average age was 62.3 years. The serum samples of the patients were obtained during the course of regular pre- and post-chemotherapeutic blood draws one week prior to the start of radiochemotherapy and one week following the completion of chemotherapy. The healthy controls were collected from patients of the Sleep Laboratory

  10. Osteopontin improves sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization efficiency in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Boccia, Lucia; Di Francesco, Serena; Neglia, Gianluca; De Blasi, Marina; Longobardi, Valentina; Campanile, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Bianca

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteopontin (OPN), an ubiquitous acid glycoprotein, on in vitro sperm capacitation and on in vitro embryo production (IVEP) efficiency in buffalo. In experiment 1, after swim-up separation the sperm were incubated in Tyrode albumin lactate pyruvate medium in the absence of capacitating agents (control), with the standard concentration of heparin (0.01 mM) and three different concentrations of OPN (0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL), both in the presence and absence of heparin, for 2 and 4 hours. Capacitation was assessed indirectly by estimating the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm after incubation with lysophosphatidylcholine. In order to determine the effect of OPN, in the presence of heparin, on fertilization (Experiment 2) and in vitro embryo development (experiment 3), in vitro-matured buffalo oocytes were fertilized in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mcg/mL of OPN. After IVF, the presumptive zygotes were dezonated, fixed, stained, and then evaluated microscopically. At Days 5 and 7 of culture, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated, respectively. Two hours of treatment with OPN at the two higher concentrations (1 and 10 mcg/mL) promoted in vitro capacitation of buffalo sperm (experiment 1). A synergic action of OPN with heparin was also done for all OPN concentrations tested. At 4 hours incubation, all treatments, including heparin (20.4%), improved (P < 0.01) capacitation compared with the control (16.2%). Interestingly, the best results were reported in all groups treated with OPN + heparin (40.8%, 38.6%, and 33.8%, respectively; P < 0.01). The addition of OPN to the IVF medium had a positive influence on total penetration, synchronous pronuclei formation (experiment 2), and IVEP efficiency (experiment 3). In particular, the two lower concentrations of OPN (0.1 and 1 mcg/mL), compared with the control, gave higher synchronous pronuclei formation (73.5%, 75.0%, and 46.5%, respectively; P < 0.01) and

  11. Role of Anti-Osteopontin Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Nausicaa; Comi, Cristoforo; Raineri, Davide; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domizia; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Gigliotti, Casimiro L.; Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Caldano, Marzia; Bertolotto, Antonio; Ambrogio, Luca; Sblattero, Daniele; Cena, Tiziana; Leone, Maurizio; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed in demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). OPN is cleaved by thrombin into N- (OPN-N) and C-terminal (OPN-C) fragments with different ligands and functions. In EAE, administering recombinant OPN induces relapses, whereas treatment with anti-OPN antibodies ameliorates the disease. Anti-OPN autoantibodies (autoAbs) are spontaneously produced during EAE but have never been detected in MS. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-OPN autoAbs in the serum of MS patients, correlate them with disease course, and recapitulate the human findings in EAE. We performed ELISA in the serum of 122 patients collected cross-sectionally, and 50 patients with relapsing–remitting (RR) disease collected at diagnosis and followed longitudinally for 10 years. In the cross-sectional patients, the autoAb levels were higher in the RR patients than in the primary- and secondary-progressive MS and healthy control groups, and they were highest in the initial stages of the disease. In the longitudinal group, the levels at diagnosis directly correlated with the number of relapses during the following 10 years. Moreover, in patients with active disease, who underwent disease-modifying treatments, autoAbs were higher than in untreated patients and were associated with low MS severity score. The autoAb displayed neutralizing activity and mainly recognized OPN-C rather than OPN-N. To confirm the clinical effect of these autoAbs in vivo, EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG35–55 in C57BL/6 mice pre-vaccinated with ovalbumin (OVA)-linked OPN or OVA alone. We then evaluated the titer of antibodies to OPN, the clinical scores and in vitro cytokine secretion by spleen lymphocytes. Vaccination significantly induced antibodies against OPN during EAE, decreased disease severity, and the protective effect was correlated with decreased T cell secretion of interleukin 17 and

  12. Role of Anti-Osteopontin Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Nausicaa; Comi, Cristoforo; Raineri, Davide; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domizia; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Gigliotti, Casimiro L; Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Sorosina, Melissa; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Caldano, Marzia; Bertolotto, Antonio; Ambrogio, Luca; Sblattero, Daniele; Cena, Tiziana; Leone, Maurizio; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed in demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). OPN is cleaved by thrombin into N- (OPN-N) and C-terminal (OPN-C) fragments with different ligands and functions. In EAE, administering recombinant OPN induces relapses, whereas treatment with anti-OPN antibodies ameliorates the disease. Anti-OPN autoantibodies (autoAbs) are spontaneously produced during EAE but have never been detected in MS. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-OPN autoAbs in the serum of MS patients, correlate them with disease course, and recapitulate the human findings in EAE. We performed ELISA in the serum of 122 patients collected cross-sectionally, and 50 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) disease collected at diagnosis and followed longitudinally for 10 years. In the cross-sectional patients, the autoAb levels were higher in the RR patients than in the primary- and secondary-progressive MS and healthy control groups, and they were highest in the initial stages of the disease. In the longitudinal group, the levels at diagnosis directly correlated with the number of relapses during the following 10 years. Moreover, in patients with active disease, who underwent disease-modifying treatments, autoAbs were higher than in untreated patients and were associated with low MS severity score. The autoAb displayed neutralizing activity and mainly recognized OPN-C rather than OPN-N. To confirm the clinical effect of these autoAbs in vivo, EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG35-55 in C57BL/6 mice pre-vaccinated with ovalbumin (OVA)-linked OPN or OVA alone. We then evaluated the titer of antibodies to OPN, the clinical scores and in vitro cytokine secretion by spleen lymphocytes. Vaccination significantly induced antibodies against OPN during EAE, decreased disease severity, and the protective effect was correlated with decreased T cell secretion of interleukin 17 and

  13. Reactivity of U-associated osteopontin with lactoferrin: a one-to-many complex.

    PubMed

    Ameziane-Le Hir, Sarah; Bourgeois, Damien; Basset, Christian; Hagège, Agnès; Vidaud, Claude

    2017-07-19

    Uranium is the heaviest natural element, mainly found in aqueous medium as the hexavalent uranyl ion (UO2(2+)). Bones are the main organs in which uranium accumulates, depending on as yet unknown molecular and cellular mechanisms. Recently, it has been revealed that osteopontin (OPN), a protein involved in bio-mineralization processes, and its main naturally occurring cleaved form (fOPN), have nanomolar affinities for UO2(2+). The binding of UO2(2+) is due to both the phosphorylation sites and acidic residues of these proteins and is accompanied by a slight gain in secondary structure. OPN is an Intrinsically Disordered Protein (IDP), a family of proteins which play a crucial role in several interaction networks, where phosphorylations are thought to be key elements. OPN has been shown to bind lactoferrin (LF) and the two proteins have antagonist functions in the modulation of the bio-mineralization process. However, to date, there has been no evidence that UO2(2+) and LF compete in their binding to OPN or not. Based on a series of convergent experimental data, this study first addressed in detail the LF/fOPN interaction and proposed a LF:fOPN 4/1 maximal stoichiometry. Moreover the phosphorylations were demonstrated to be necessary for the stability of such complexes. The interaction of preformed UO2(2+)/fOPN complexes with LF was also investigated and the occurrence of several entities involving the three partners was demonstrated. These complexes did not reveal any significant conformational changes compared to those obtained in the absence of UO2(2+). The results have shown not only that LF and UO2(2+) do not compete, but also that these complexes are likely to be more stable than LF/fOPN complexes, as indicated by their melting temperature (Tm) values. The potential impact of those uranyl-stabilized ternary complexes on some biological pathways now remains to be assessed. Nonetheless, this work has contributed to shedding light on the formation of stable

  14. Osteopontin increases hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in a CD44 dependant manner

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Renee J; Helbig, Karla J; Van der Hoek, Kylie H; Seth, Devanshi; Beard, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of osteopontin (OPN) and its splice variants in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The expression of OPN variants in HCC cell lines as well as HCC tissue samples and non-tumour tissue was studied using polymerase chain reaction. OPN variant cDNAs were cloned into a mammalian expression vector allowing both transient expression and the production of stable OPN expressing cell lines. OPN expression was studied in these cells using Western blotting, immunofluoresnce and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. A CD44 blocking antibody and siRNA targeting of CD44 were used to examine the role of this receptor in the OPN stimulated cell growth observed in culture. Huh-7 cells stably expressing either OPN-A, -B or -C were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of nude mice to observe in vivo tumour growth. Expression of OPN mRNA and protein in these tumours was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: OPN is expressed in HCC in 3 forms, the full length OPN-A and 2 splice variants OPN-B and -C. OPN variant expression was noted in HCC tissue as well as cognate surrounding cirrhotic liver tissue. Expression of these OPN variants in the HCC derived cell line Huh-7 resulted in secretion of OPN into the culture medium. Transfer of OPN conditioned media to naïve Huh-7 and HepG2 cells resulted in significant cell growth suggesting that all OPN variants can modulate cell proliferation in a paracrine manner. Furthermore the OPN mediated increase in cellular proliferation was dependent on CD44 as only CD44 positive cell lines responded to OPN conditioned media while siRNA knockdown of CD44 blocked the proliferative effect. OPN expression also increased the proliferation of Huh-7 cells in a subcutaneous nude mouse tumour model, with Huh-7 cells expressing OPN-A showing the greatest proliferative effect. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that OPN plays a significant role in

  15. Osteopontin inhibits osmotic swelling of retinal glial (Müller) cells by inducing release of VEGF.

    PubMed

    Wahl, V; Vogler, S; Grosche, A; Pannicke, T; Ueffing, M; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Hauck, S M; Bringmann, A

    2013-08-29

    Osmotic swelling of retinal neurons and glial cells is an important pathogenic factor of retinal edema formation. Here, we show that the neuroprotective factor osteopontin (OPN), which is released from retinal glial (Müller) cells after stimulation of the cells with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Del Río et al., 2011, Glia 59:821-832), inhibits the swelling of rat Müller cells induced by hypoosmotic exposure of retinal slices in the presence of barium ions and H₂O₂, respectively, and in slices of postischemic retinas. OPN did not inhibit the hypoosmotic swelling of bipolar cells in slices of control and postischemic retinas. The inhibitory effect of OPN on Müller cell swelling was dose-dependent, with a half-maximal effect at ∼0.6 ng/ml. The effect of OPN was abrogated in the presence of pharmacological blockers of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2, metabotropic glutamate receptors, and purinergic receptors (P2Y₁, adenosine A1 receptors), as well as of a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody. The data suggest that OPN induces the release of VEGF, glutamate, ATP, and adenosine from Müller cells. The effect of OPN was also prevented by blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels (tetrodotoxin), T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (kurtoxin), potassium channels (clofilium), and chloride channels 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). The swelling-inhibitory effect of OPN was dependent on intracellular calcium signaling, activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C, and vesicular exocytosis of glutamate. In retinal slices, Müller glial cells display immunoreactivity of OPN. The data suggest that Müller cell-derived OPN has (in addition to the effects on photoreceptors and retinal neurons) autocrine effects. The neuroprotective effects of OPN may be in part mediated by the prevention of cytotoxic Müller cell swelling and the release of VEGF and adenosine from Müller cells.

  16. Osteopontin deficiency aggravates hepatic injury induced by ischemia–reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Patouraux, S; Rousseau, D; Rubio, A; Bonnafous, S; Lavallard, V J; Lauron, J; Saint-Paul, M-C; Bailly-Maitre, B; Tran, A; Crenesse, D; Gual, P

    2014-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein involved in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and cancer progression. However, its role in hepatic injury induced by ischemia–reperfusion (I–R) has not yet been investigated. We show here that hepatic warm ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 4 h induced the upregulation of the hepatic and systemic level of OPN in mice. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were strongly increased in Opn−/− mice compared with wild-type (Wt) mice after I–R, and histological analysis of the liver revealed a significantly higher incidence of necrosis of hepatocytes. In addition, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interferon-γ were strongly upregulated in Opn−/− mice versus Wt mice after I–R. One explanation for these responses could be the vulnerability of the OPN-deficient hepatocyte. Indeed, the downregulation of OPN in primary and AML12 hepatocytes decreased cell viability in the basal state and sensitized AML12 hepatocytes to cell death induced by oxygen–glucose deprivation and TNFα. Further, the downregulation of OPN in AML12 hepatocytes caused a strong decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and in the ATP level. The hepatic expression of Bcl2 also decreased in Opn−/− mice versus Wt mice livers after I–R. Another explanation could be the regulation of the macrophage activity by OPN. In RAW macrophages, the downregulation of OPN enhanced iNOS expression in the basal state and sensitized macrophages to inflammatory signals, as evaluated by the upregulation of iNOS, TNFα and IL6 in response to lipopolysaccharide. In conclusion, OPN partially protects from hepatic injury and inflammation induced in this experimental model of liver I–R. This could be due to its ability to partially prevent death of hepatocytes and to limit the production of toxic i

  17. Single cell analysis of intracellular osteopontin in osteogenic cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells.

    PubMed

    Zohar, R; Lee, W; Arora, P; Cheifetz, S; McCulloch, C; Sodek, J

    1997-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a major component of the bone matrix, is expressed at different stages of bone formation. To determine possible relationships between OPN expression and stages of osteogenic cell differentiation, we have performed single cell analyses of intracellular OPN in early (proliferating), subconfluent (differentiating), and mature (mineralizing) cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells (FRCC) using a combination of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. At each culture stage, a high proportion (60-98%) of cells were immunoreactive for OPN (OPN+ve). Each of these populations also included a small proportion of OPN-ve cells which were characterized by their small size, low granularity, high proliferative capacity, and enhanced osteogenic potential. The OPN+ve cells displayed two distinct patterns of intracellular immunostaining: a perinuclear distribution typical of secreted proteins and a perimembrane distribution in which patches of OPN were concentrated at the cell surface. Perimembranous staining predominated in migrant cells, which contained greater than tenfold higher levels of OPN than nonmigrant cells as separated in a Boyden chamber. When cell proliferation was high (day 2), most cells were OPN + ve. At all culture stages the intensity of OPN staining was increased as cells progressed through the cell cycle. As cells differentiated and started to form matrix (days 4 and 6), the mean cell expression of OPN was also increased (fourfold), independent of changes in total cell protein. However, despite the association of OPN with osteogenic cells, we were surprised to find that a high proportion (60%) of fetal skin fibroblasts were also immunoreactive for OPN. The expression of OPN by these cell populations was confirmed by RT-PCR, and a strong correlation was observed between the quantitative flow cytometry data and Western blot analysis of cell extracts in which the high and low phosphorylated isoforms of OPN were observed. These studies, therefore

  18. Potent pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules, osteopontin and galectin-3, are not major disease modulators of laminin α2 chain-deficient muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gawlik, Kinga I.; Holmberg, Johan; Svensson, Martina; Einerborg, Mikaela; Oliveira, Bernardo M. S.; Deierborg, Tomas; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    A large number of human diseases are caused by chronic tissue injury with fibrosis potentially leading to organ failure. There is a need for more effective anti-fibrotic therapies. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a devastating form of muscular dystrophy caused by laminin α2 chain-deficiency. It is characterized with early inflammation and build-up of fibrotic lesions, both in patients and MDC1A mouse models (e.g. dy3K/dy3K). Despite the enormous impact of inflammation on tissue remodelling in disease, the inflammatory response in MDC1A has been poorly described. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of secondary mechanisms (impaired regeneration, enhanced fibrosis) leading to deterioration of muscle phenotype in MDC1A is missing. We have monitored inflammatory processes in dy3K/dy3K muscle and created mice deficient in laminin α2 chain and osteopontin or galectin-3, two pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules drastically increased in dystrophic muscle. Surprisingly, deletion of osteopontin worsened the phenotype of dy3K/dy3K mice and loss of galectin-3 did not reduce muscle pathology. Our results indicate that osteopontin could even be a beneficial immunomodulator in MDC1A. This knowledge is essential for the design of future therapeutic interventions for muscular dystrophies that aim at targeting inflammation, especially that osteopontin inhibition has been suggested for Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:28281577

  19. Osteopontin Immunoreactivity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Ileum, and Ileocecal Lymph Node of Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteopontin (Opn), a highly acidic glycoprotein, plays an early role in initiating the innate immune response to mycobacterial infections by promoting cellular adhesion and recruitment of inflammatory cells from the peripheral blood. The formation of granulomas at the site of Mycobacterium avium s...

  20. Potent pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules, osteopontin and galectin-3, are not major disease modulators of laminin α2 chain-deficient muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Kinga I; Holmberg, Johan; Svensson, Martina; Einerborg, Mikaela; Oliveira, Bernardo M S; Deierborg, Tomas; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2017-03-10

    A large number of human diseases are caused by chronic tissue injury with fibrosis potentially leading to organ failure. There is a need for more effective anti-fibrotic therapies. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a devastating form of muscular dystrophy caused by laminin α2 chain-deficiency. It is characterized with early inflammation and build-up of fibrotic lesions, both in patients and MDC1A mouse models (e.g. dy(3K)/dy(3K)). Despite the enormous impact of inflammation on tissue remodelling in disease, the inflammatory response in MDC1A has been poorly described. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of secondary mechanisms (impaired regeneration, enhanced fibrosis) leading to deterioration of muscle phenotype in MDC1A is missing. We have monitored inflammatory processes in dy(3K)/dy(3K) muscle and created mice deficient in laminin α2 chain and osteopontin or galectin-3, two pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic molecules drastically increased in dystrophic muscle. Surprisingly, deletion of osteopontin worsened the phenotype of dy(3K)/dy(3K) mice and loss of galectin-3 did not reduce muscle pathology. Our results indicate that osteopontin could even be a beneficial immunomodulator in MDC1A. This knowledge is essential for the design of future therapeutic interventions for muscular dystrophies that aim at targeting inflammation, especially that osteopontin inhibition has been suggested for Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy.

  1. Osteopontin is cleaved at multiple sites close to its integrin-binding motifs in milk and is a novel substrate for plasmin and cathepsin D.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Brian; Schack, Lotte; Kläning, Eva; Sørensen, Esben S

    2010-03-12

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly modified integrin-binding protein present in most tissues and body fluids where it has been implicated in numerous biological processes. A significant regulation of OPN function is mediated through phosphorylation and proteolytic processing. Proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and matrix metalloproteinases close to the integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp sequence modulates the function of OPN and its integrin binding properties. In this study, seven N-terminal OPN fragments originating from proteolytic cleavage have been characterized from human milk. Identification of the cleavage sites revealed that all fragments contained the Arg-Gly-Asp(145) sequence and were generated by cleavage of the Leu(151)-Arg(152), Arg(152)-Ser(153), Ser(153)-Lys(154), Lys(154)-Ser(155), Ser(155)-Lys(156), Lys(156)-Lys(157), or Phe(158)-Arg(159) peptide bonds. Six cleavages cannot be ascribed to thrombin or matrix metalloproteinase activity, whereas the cleavage at Arg(152)-Ser(153) matches thrombin specificity for OPN. The principal protease in milk, plasmin, hydrolyzed the same peptide bond as thrombin, but its main cleavage site was identified to be Lys(154)-Ser(155). Another endogenous milk protease, cathepsin D, cleaved the Leu(151)-Arg(152) bond. OPN fragments corresponding to plasmin activity were also identified in urine showing that plasmin cleavage of OPN is not restricted to milk. Plasmin, but not cathepsin D, cleavage of OPN increased cell adhesion mediated by the alpha(V)beta(3)- or alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins. Similar cellular adhesion was mediated by plasmin and thrombin-cleaved OPN showing that plasmin can be a potent regulator of OPN activity. These data show that OPN is highly susceptible to cleavage near its integrin-binding motifs, and the protein is a novel substrate for plasmin and cathepsin D.

  2. Study of the functional mechanisms of osteopontin and chemokine-like factor 1 in the development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Bao, Xia; Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yuewei; Zhao, Zonggang; Jin, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of osteopontin (Opn) and chemokine-like factor 1 (Cklf1) during the development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in rats. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were randomly divided into the AAA, control and sham groups (10 rats/group) and experimental rat models of AAA were generated by enzyme perfusion in abdominal aorta for 30 min. The AAA formation was assessed by measuring the aortal diameter and hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as specific staining to detect the structural changes of the aorta and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and statistical analysis were also performed to examine the expression levels of Opn, Cklf1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in the arterial tissue. Rat models of AAA were successfully established by protease perfusion. After perfusion, the diameter expansion rate of abdominal aorta was significantly higher (P<0.01) compared to controls, elastin present at the middle layer was significantly reduced and inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in AAA rats. The expression of Opn, Cklf1 and MMP-2 in the AAA group was significantly increased compared to the control group (P<0.05) as revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The western blot analysis revealed that, the expression levels of Opn, Cklf1 and MMP-2 in the AAA group were significantly higher than the sham and control groups (P<0.01). We also found that the expression of Opn and MMP-2 was positively correlated. In conclusion, in rat models of AAA, Opn and Cklf1 function synergistically to upregulate the expression of MMP-2, causing accelerated degradation of extracellular matrix and eventually leading to the development and progression of AAA. PMID:28101179

  3. Multifunctions of bounded variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinter, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.

  4. Membrane-bound selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Selenoproteins employ selenium to supplement the chemistry available through the common 20 amino acids. These powerful enzymes are affiliated with redox biology, often in connection with the detection, management, and signaling of oxidative stress. Among them, membrane-bound selenoproteins play prominent roles in signaling pathways, Ca(2+) regulation, membrane complexes integrity, and biosynthesis of lipophilic molecules. The number of selenoproteins whose physiological roles, protein partners, expression, evolution, and biosynthesis are characterized is steadily increasing, thus offering a more nuanced view of this specialized family. This review focuses on human membrane selenoproteins, particularly the five least characterized ones: selenoproteins I, K, N, S, and T. Membrane-bound selenoproteins are the least understood, as it is challenging to provide the membrane-like environment required for their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Hence, their studies rely mostly on biological rather than structural and biochemical assays. Another aspect that has not received much attention is the particular role that their membrane association plays in their physiological function. Findings cited in this review show that it is possible to infer the structure and the membrane-binding mode of these lesser-studied selenoproteins and design experiments to examine the role of the rare amino acid selenocysteine.

  5. [Study on the function of osteopontin in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Foda, Hussein D

    2006-06-01

    To examine the role of osteopontin (OPN) in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and its relationships with matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Seventy-two OPN gene wild type (OPN(+/+)) mice were divided into normal control group (WN group), hyperoxia for 24 hours group (WO(1) group), hyperoxia for 48 hours group (WO(2) group) and hyperoxia for 72 hours group (WO(3) group) randomly, 18 mice in each group; another seventy-two OPN gene knock-out (OPN(-/-)) mice were also divided into normal control group (DN group), hyperoxia for 24 hours group (DO(1) group), hyperoxia for 48 hours group (DO(2) group) and hyperoxia for 72 hours group (DO(3) group) randomly. The hyperoxia group mice were exposed in sealed cages > 95% oxygen, and their matched background control were put outside of sealed cages and breath room air. Severity of lung injury was assessed and the survival curve was calculated. Cell count and differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in every group were performed, while another 40 OPN(-/-) mice and their matched OPN(+/+) mice were used for survival study. Samples obtained from BALF at the end of the experiment (24, 48 and 72 h) and control animals were used for the measurement of MMP-2, MMP-9 by gelatin zymography, and reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the semiquantitative assay of mRNA coding for OPN, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1, 2 (TIMP-1, TIMP-2). DO(3) group mice developed more severe ALI than WO(3) group mice and the survival times of OPN(-/-) mice were shorter than their matched OPN(+/+) mice (P < 0.01). The total cell count in BALF from DO(3) group mice was higher than WO(3) group mice [(72.2 +/- 22.3) x 10(4)/L, (39.7 +/- 10.4) x 10(4)/L, P < 0.05], the count of polymorphonuclear cells in BALF from DO(3) group mice was almost 8 folds higher than WO(3) group mice [(207.54 +/- 36.45) x 10(3)/L, (25.33 +/- 6.43) x 10(3)/L, P < 0.01]. Gelatin zymography showed that the level of

  6. Dephosphorylation of circulating human Osteopontin correlates with severe valvular calcification in patients with Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sainger, Rachana; Grau, Juan B.; Poggio, Paolo; Branchetti, Emanuela; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Context Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is an active pathological process leading to biomineralization of the aortic cusps. We characterized circulating and tissue Osteopontin (OPN) as a biomarker for CAVD. Objectives Here we investigate the post-translational modifications of circulating OPN and correlate the phosphorylation status with the ability to prevent calcification. Methods Circulating OPN levels were estimated in CAVD patients (n=51) and controls (n=56). In a subgroup of 27 subjects, OPN was purified and the phosphorylation status analyzed. Results Plasma OPN levels were significantly elevated in CAVD patients as compared to the controls and correlates with the aortic valve calcium score. Our study demonstrates that phospho-threonine levels of OPN purified from controls were higher when compared to CAVD subjects, while phosphoserine and phospho-tyrosine levels were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion The dephosphorylation of circulating OPN correlates with severe valvular calcification in patients with CAVD. PMID:22191734

  7. Formation of "bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  8. Osteopontin is associated with nuclear factor {kappa}B gene expression during tail-suspension-induced bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Ishijima, Muneaki; Ezura, Yoichi . E-mail: ezura.mph@mril.tmd.ac.jp; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2006-10-01

    Osteoporosis due to unloading-induced bone loss is a critical issue in the modern aging society. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown, osteopontin (OPN) is one of the critical mediators required for unloading-induced bone loss [M. Ishijima, S.R. Rittling, T. Yamashita, K. Tsuji, H. Kurosawa, A. Nifuji, D.T. Denhardt, and M. Noda, Enhancement of osteoclastic bone resorption and suppression of osteoblastic bone formation in response to reduced mechanical stress do not occur in the absence of osteopontin, J Exp Med, 193 (2001) 399-404]. To clarify the molecular bases for OPN actions, we carried out microarray analyses on the genes expressed in the femoral bone marrow cells in wild type and OPN-/- mice. The removal of the mechanical load induced bone loss in wild type, but not in OPN-/- mice, as previously reported. Expression analysis of 9586 cDNAs on a microarray system revealed that OPN deficiency blocked tail-suspension-induced expression of ten genes (group A). This observation was confirmed based on semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses. On the other hand, expression of four genes (group B) was not altered by tail suspension in wild type but was enhanced in OPN-deficient mice. NF-{kappa}B p105 subunit gene (Nfkb1) was found in group A and Bax in group B. p53 gene expression was upregulated by tail suspension in wild type mice, but it was no longer observed in OPN-/- mice. These data indicate that OPN acts to mediate mechanical stress signaling upstream to the genes encoding apoptosis-related molecules, and its action is associated with alteration of the genes.

  9. Inorganic phosphate induces cancer cell mediated angiogenesis dependent on forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) regulated osteopontin expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiming; McKinnon, Kelly E; Ha, Shin Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies in both rodents and humans suggest that elevated serum phosphorus, in the context of normal renal function, potentiates, or exacerbates pathologies associates with cardiovascular disease, bone metabolism, and cancer. Our recent microarray studies identified the potent stimulation of pro-angiogenic genes such as forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2), osteopontin, and Vegfα, among others in response to elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi). Increased angiogenesis and neovascularization are important events in tumor growth and the progression to malignancy and FOXC2 has recently been identified as a potential transcriptional regulator of these processes. In this study we addressed the possibility that a high Pi environment would increase the angiogenic potential of cancer cells through a mechanism requiring FOXC2. Our studies utilized lung and breast cancer cell lines in combination with the human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) vessel formation model to better understand the mechanism(s) by which a high Pi environment might alter cancer progression. Exposure of cancer cells to elevated Pi stimulated expression of FOXC2 and conditioned medium from the Pi-stimulated cancer cells stimulated migration and tube formation in the HUVEC model. Mechanistically, we define the requirement of FOXC2 for Pi-induced osteopontin (OPN) expression and secretion from cancer cells as necessary for the angiogenic response. These studies reveal for the first time that cancer cells grown in a high Pi environment promote migration of endothelial cells and tube formation and in so doing identify a novel potential therapeutic target to reduce tumor progression.

  10. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  11. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved?

    PubMed

    Mugnier, Sylvie; Kervella, Morgane; Douet, Cécile; Canepa, Sylvie; Pascal, Géraldine; Deleuze, Stefan; Duchamp, Guy; Monget, Philippe; Goudet, Ghylène

    2009-11-19

    Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertilization in the horse. In the first experiment, we co-incubated fresh equine spermatozoa treated with calcium ionophore and in vitro matured equine oocytes with or without porcine OEC. We showed that the presence of OEC increases the IVF rates. In the subsequent experiments, we co-incubated equine gametes with OEC and we showed that the IVF rates were not significantly different between 1) gametes co-incubated with equine vs porcine OEC, 2) intact cumulus-oocyte complexes vs denuded oocytes, 3) OEC previously stimulated with human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Luteinizing Hormone and/or oestradiol vs non stimulated OEC, 4) in vivo vs in vitro matured oocytes. In order to identify the proteins responsible for the positive effect of OEC, we first searched for the presence of the genes encoding oviductin, osteopontin and atrial natriuretic peptide A (ANP A) in the equine genome. We showed that the genes coding for osteopontin and ANP A are present. But the one for oviductin either has become a pseudogene during evolution of horse genome or has been not well annotated in horse genome sequence. We then showed that osteopontin and ANP A proteins are present in the equine oviduct using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and we analyzed their expression during oestrus cycle by Western blot. Finally, we co-incubated equine gametes with or without purified osteopontin or synthesized ANP A. No significant effect of osteopontin or ANP A was observed, though osteopontin slightly increased the IVF rates. Our study

  12. The secretions of oviduct epithelial cells increase the equine in vitro fertilization rate: are osteopontin, atrial natriuretic peptide A and oviductin involved?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) co-culture promotes in vitro fertilization (IVF) in human, bovine and porcine species, but no data are available from equine species. Yet, despite numerous attempts, equine IVF rates remain low. Our first aim was to verify a beneficial effect of the OEC on equine IVF. In mammals, oviductal proteins have been shown to interact with gametes and play a role in fertilization. Thus, our second aim was to identify the proteins involved in fertilization in the horse. Methods & results In the first experiment, we co-incubated fresh equine spermatozoa treated with calcium ionophore and in vitro matured equine oocytes with or without porcine OEC. We showed that the presence of OEC increases the IVF rates. In the subsequent experiments, we co-incubated equine gametes with OEC and we showed that the IVF rates were not significantly different between 1) gametes co-incubated with equine vs porcine OEC, 2) intact cumulus-oocyte complexes vs denuded oocytes, 3) OEC previously stimulated with human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Luteinizing Hormone and/or oestradiol vs non stimulated OEC, 4) in vivo vs in vitro matured oocytes. In order to identify the proteins responsible for the positive effect of OEC, we first searched for the presence of the genes encoding oviductin, osteopontin and atrial natriuretic peptide A (ANP A) in the equine genome. We showed that the genes coding for osteopontin and ANP A are present. But the one for oviductin either has become a pseudogene during evolution of horse genome or has been not well annotated in horse genome sequence. We then showed that osteopontin and ANP A proteins are present in the equine oviduct using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, and we analyzed their expression during oestrus cycle by Western blot. Finally, we co-incubated equine gametes with or without purified osteopontin or synthesized ANP A. No significant effect of osteopontin or ANP A was observed, though osteopontin slightly

  13. Primary-backup protocols: Lower bounds and optimal implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budhiraja, Navin; Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Toueg, Sam

    1992-01-01

    A formal specification of primary-backup is presented. We then prove lower bounds on the degree of replication, failover time, and worst-case response time to client requests assuming different failure models. Finally, we outline primary-backup protocols and indicate which of our lower bounds are tight.

  14. Bound Rationality and Organizational Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-23

    8217 . 90 0 8 0.. O 4 BOUNDED RATIONALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Technical Report AlP - 107 Herbert A. Simon Department of Psychology Carnegie Mellon...ACCESSION No N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 1 TITLE (include Security Classificarnon) Bounded rationality and organizational learning 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) HretA io 13a...organizations organizational psychology organizational learning bounded rationality cognitive psychology 𔄃 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary

  15. Cutting edge: Role of osteopontin and integrin αv in T cell-mediated anti-inflammatory responses in endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto; Shinohara, Mari L

    2015-06-15

    The immune system is equipped with mechanisms that downregulate hyperinflammation to avoid collateral damage. We demonstrated recently that unprimed T cells downregulate macrophage TNF production through direct interaction with macrophages in the spleen during LPS endotoxemia. How T cell migration toward macrophages occurs upon LPS injection is still not clear. In this study, we demonstrate that secreted osteopontin (sOPN) plays a role in the T cell migration to initiate the suppression of hyperinflammation during endotoxemia. Osteopontin levels in splenic macrophages were upregulated 2 h after LPS treatment, whereas T cell migration toward macrophages was observed 3 h after treatment. Neutralization of sOPN and blockade of its receptor, integrin αv, significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell migration and increased susceptibility to endotoxemia. Our study demonstrates that the sOPN/integrin αv axis, which induces T cell chemotaxis toward macrophages, is critical for suppressing hyperinflammation during the first 3 h of endotoxemia.

  16. Expression of Toll-like receptors, interleukin 8, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and osteopontin in tissues from pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or serovar Choleraesuis.

    PubMed

    Burkey, T E; Skjolaas, K A; Dritz, S S; Minton, J E

    2007-02-15

    Two serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for the vast majority of clinical cases of swine salmonellosis worldwide. These serovars are thought to be transmitted among pigs in production settings mainly through fecal-oral routes. Yet, few studies have evaluated effects of these serovars on expression of innate immune targets when presented to pigs via repeated oral dosing in an attempt to model transmission in production settings. Thus, a primary objective of the current experiments was to evaluate expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and selected chemoattractive mediators (interleukin 8, IL8; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF; osteopontin, OPN) in tissues from pigs exposed to ST or SC that had been transformed with kanamycin resistance and green (STG) or red (SCR) fluorescent protein to facilitate isolation from pen fecal samples. In vitro studies confirmed that STG and SCR largely (though not completely) retained their ability to upregulate IL8 and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in cultured swine jejunal epithelial cells. Transformed bacteria were then fed to pigs in an in vivo study to determine tissue specific effects on mRNA relative expression. Pigs were fed cookie dough inoculated with bacteria on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 with 10(8)CFU STG (n=8) or SCR (n=8), while control (CTL) pigs (n=8) received dough without bacteria. Animals were sacrificed 14 days from the initial bacterial challenge and samples of tonsil, jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver were removed for subsequent RNA isolation. Expression of mRNA in tissues was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and expressed relative to 18S rRNA. Within CTL pigs, when expressed relative to the content in liver, mRNA for all targets demonstrated substantial tissue effects (P<0.001 for all TLR; MIF, and OPN; P<0.05 for IL8). Feeding STG and SCR resulted in significant (Pspecific

  17. Anaphoric Pronouns and Bound Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasow, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    Deals with certain problems inherent in deriving anaphoric pronouns from bound variables. Syntactic rules applied to determine anaphora relations cannot be applied if anaphoric pronouns and their antecedents have identical underlying forms. An approach to anaphora which preserves some advantages of the bound-variable theory without the problems is…

  18. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  19. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  20. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  1. Wind effects on bounding flight.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2013-01-07

    The effects of the wind on the energy expenditure of bounding flight and on the travelling speed are dealt with. For this purpose, a mathematical model of bounding flight in moving air is developed. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that bounding flight yields a flight mechanical advantage in headwinds when compared with continuous flapping flight. This is because the minimum energy expenditure is lower and the associated travelling speed is higher. The body lift in the bound phase has an advantageous influence. The effects of tailwinds yield less differences between bounding flight and continuous flapping flight. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Cell cycle progression stimulated by tamoxifen-bound estrogen receptor-alpha and promoter-specific effects in breast cancer cells deficient in N-CoR and SMRT.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Erika Krasnickas; Brown, Myles

    2005-06-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mediates the effects of estrogens in breast cancer development and growth via transcriptional regulation of target genes. Tamoxifen can antagonize ERalpha activity and has been used in breast cancer therapy. Tamoxifen-bound ERalpha associates with nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) at certain target genes. Here we show the effects of reducing N-CoR and SMRT levels on the actions of estrogen and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Silencing both corepressors led to tamoxifen-stimulated cell cycle progression without activation of the ERalpha target genes c-myc, cyclin D1, or stromal cell-derived factor 1, which play a role in estrogen-induced proliferation. By contrast, expression of X-box binding protein 1 was markedly elevated in tamoxifen-treated cells in which N-CoR and SMRT had been silenced. The gain in cell cycle entry seen with tamoxifen when N-CoR and SMRT were silenced was dependent on ERalpha and not observed upon treatment with estradiol or epidermal growth factor. These results suggest that N-CoR and SMRT play an active role in preventing tamoxifen from stimulating proliferation in breast cancer cells through repression of a subset of target genes involved in ERalpha function and cell proliferation.

  4. Morphohistological change and expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs in rat dental pulp cells with orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Satoshi; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Morphological change and expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and HSP70 mRNAs in rat dental pulp cells with experimental orthodontic tooth movement were investigated. Elastic rubber blocks, 0.65 mm in thickness, were inserted between the maxillary first and second molars in rats. In addition to morphological observations of HE staining and TUNEL staining at days 3, 7, 14 and 28 after insertion of elastic rubber blocks, expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs was also analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR with a LightCycler. Morphologically, proliferation and vasodilation of capillaries was evident in the pulp at days 3 and 7, and a sparse odontoblast layer and apoptosis in the pulp were observed at days 7 and 14 after rubber block insertion. Expression of HSP70, osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNAs in the experimental groups was higher than that in the control group at all time points. This suggests that orthodontic tooth movement causes degenerative changes and apoptosis in pulp cells, while pulp homeostasis is maintained at the genetic level.

  5. Vitamin D receptor agonists increase klotho and osteopontin while decreasing aortic calcification in mice with chronic kidney disease fed a high phosphate diet.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M; Hu, Ming Chang; Takeno, Marc M; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2012-12-01

    Vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease, where cardiovascular mortality remains the leading cause of death. Patients with kidney disease are often prescribed vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRAs) that confer a survival benefit, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we tested two VDRAs in a mouse chronic kidney disease model where dietary phosphate loading induced aortic medial calcification. Mice were given intraperitoneal calcitriol or paricalcitol three times per week for 3 weeks. These treatments were associated with half of the aortic calcification compared to no therapy, and there was no difference between the two agents. In the setting of a high-phosphate diet, serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels were not significantly altered by treatment. VDRA therapy was associated with increased serum and urine klotho levels, increased phosphaturia, correction of hyperphosphatemia, and lowering of serum fibroblast growth factor-23. There was no effect on elastin remodeling or inflammation; however, the expression of the anticalcification factor, osteopontin, in aortic medial cells was increased. Paricalcitol upregulated osteopontin secretion from mouse vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Thus, klotho and osteopontin were upregulated by VDRA therapy in chronic kidney disease, independent of changes in serum parathyroid hormone and calcium.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin, but not osteopontin, is a valuable biomarker for the treatment response in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masahiro; Tsujii, Tomoaki; Iwaki, Hirotaka; Nishikawa, Noriko; Nomoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of neopterin and osteopontin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in order to evaluate their utility as biomarkers for the treatment response. Seven HAM/TSP patients were treated intravenously with high-dose methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 3 days. CSF samples were collected before and after the treatment. The neopterin and osteopontin concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively. The clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Osame Motor Disability Score and the Urinary Disturbance Score. Four out of the seven patients showed an improvement in motor function with the treatment, and were therefore classed as responders. The pre-treatment CSF neopterin concentration exceeded the upper limit of normal in all seven of the patients, and tended to be higher in treatment responders as compared to non-responders. The CSF neopterin concentration was reduced following treatment in all patients. The mean CSF neopterin concentration significantly (p<0.01) decreased following treatment by almost 60% (from 124.1±79.9 nmol/L to 49.2±29.8 nmol/L). The mean CSF osteopontin concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the HAM/TSP patients in comparison to the 18 HTLV-1-seronegative patients who were designated as controls (9.54±4.53 mg/L vs. 3.72±3.04 mg/L). No significant (p=0.47) reduction of the CSF osteopontin concentration was observed following the intravenous administration of high-dose methylprednisolone. These results indicate that the CSF neopterin concentration, but not the osteopontin concentration, is a potentially valuable biomarker for monitoring the treatment response in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, high pre-treatment CSF neopterin concentrations may be a predictive biomarker for a response to intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone therapy.

  7. Alcohol Inhibits Osteopontin-dependent Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Driver, Joseph; Weber, Cynthia E.; Callaci, John J.; Kothari, Anai N.; Zapf, Matthew A.; Roper, Philip M.; Borys, Dariusz; Franzen, Carrie A.; Gupta, Gopal N.; Wai, Philip Y.; Zhang, Jiwang; Denning, Mitchell F.; Kuo, Paul C.; Mi, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol (EtOH) intoxication is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality with traumatic injuries, in part through inhibition of bone fracture healing. Animal models have shown that EtOH decreases fracture callus volume, diameter, and biomechanical strength. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and osteopontin (OPN) play important roles in bone remodeling and fracture healing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) reside in bone and are recruited to fracture sites for the healing process. Resident MSC are critical for fracture healing and function as a source of TGF-β1 induced by local OPN, which acts through the transcription factor myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1). The molecular mechanisms responsible for the effect of EtOH on fracture healing are still incompletely understood, and this study investigated the role of EtOH in affecting OPN-dependent TGF-β1 expression in MSC. We have demonstrated that EtOH inhibits OPN-induced TGF-β1 protein expression, decreases MZF1-dependent TGF-β1 transcription and MZF1 transcription, and blocks OPN-induced MZF1 phosphorylation. We also found that PKA signaling enhances OPN-induced TGF-β1 expression. Last, we showed that EtOH exposure reduces the TGF-β1 protein levels in mouse fracture callus. We conclude that EtOH acts in a novel mechanism by interfering directly with the OPN-MZF1-TGF-β1 signaling pathway in MSC. PMID:25713073

  8. Genetic deletion of osteopontin in TRAMP mice skews prostate carcinogenesis from adenocarcinoma to aggressive human-like neuroendocrine cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Giorgio; Jachetti, Elena; Comuzzi, Barbara; Dugo, Matteo; Arioli, Ivano; Miotti, Silvia; Sangaletti, Sabina; Di Carlo, Emma; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein, that belongs to the non-structural extracellular matrix (ECM), and its over expression in human prostate cancer has been associated with disease progression, androgen independence and metastatic ability. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of OPN in prostate tumorigenesis has never been studied. We crossed TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice with OPN deficient (OPN−/−) mice and followed tumor onset and progression in these double mutants. Ultrasound examination detected the early onset of a rapidly growing, homogeneous and spherical tumor in about 60% of OPN−/− TRAMP mice. Such neoplasms seldom occurred in parental TRAMP mice otherwise prone to adenocarcinomas and were characterized for being androgen receptor negative, highly proliferative and endowed with neuroendocrine (NE) features. Gene expression profiling showed up-regulation of genes involved in tumor progression, cell cycle and neuronal differentiation in OPN-deficient versus wild type TRAMP tumors. Down-regulated genes included key genes of TGFa pathway, including SMAD3 and Filamin, which were confirmed at the protein level. Furthermore, NE genes and particularly those characterizing early prostatic lesions of OPN-deficient mice were found to correlate with those of human prostate NE tumours. These data underscore a novel role of OPN in the early stages of prostate cancer growth, protecting against the development of aggressive NE tumors. PMID:26700622

  9. Genetic variations in the osteopontin promoters T-443C and G-156GG increase carotid intima–media thickness

    PubMed Central

    Yueniwati, Yuyun; Yurina, Valentina; Sobah, Nurus; Rahayu, Endang

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) is a clear predictor of atherosclerosis. The increase of CIMT is affected by mutations in the osteopontin (OPN) promoters. The purpose of this study was to examine genetic variations in OPN promoters T-443C and G-156GG, identified in Javanese children with ischemic stroke parents, and to investigate their relationship with the increase of CIMT. A case–control analytic study was performed on 20 case and 12 control samples. Case samples were Javanese children aged between 10 to 21 years with ischemic stroke parents. Control samples were children with healthy parents. Mutations of T-443C and G-156GG were determined by employing polymerase chain reaction. Results of sequencing were analyzed using CLC Main Workbench 6.0. CIMT was defined using ultrasound. Genetic variations of T-443C were identified in six samples. Likewise, genetic variations of G-156GG were identified in six samples. Genetic variations in the OPN promoters T-443C and G-156GG were not potential risk factors in an increase of CIMT (P=0.654 and P=0.654). This study proves that genetic variations could be identified at the points of T-443C and G-156GG in children with ischemic stroke parents. Although statistically insignificant, the tendency to increase CIMT occurs in children with genetic variations. Children with ischemic stroke parents have thicker CIMT than children of healthy parents. PMID:27274305

  10. Overlapping distribution of osteopontin and calcium in the ischemic core of rat brain after transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hong Lim; Park, Jang-Mi; Cho, Jeong Min; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Cha, Jung-Ho; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2012-05-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), an adhesive glycoprotein, has recently been proposed to act as an opsonin that facilitates phagocytosis of neuronal debris by macrophages in the ischemic brain. The present study was designed to elucidate the process whereby OPN binds to neuronal cell debris in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Significant co-localization of the OPN protein and calcium deposits in the ischemic core were observed by combining alizarin red staining and OPN immunohistochemistry. In addition, electron microscopy (EM) using the osmium/potassium dichromate method revealed that electron-dense precipitates, typical of calcium deposits, were localized mainly along the periphery of putative degenerating neurites. This topical pattern of calcium precipitates resembled the distribution of OPN as detected by immunogold-silver EM. Combining immunogold-silver EM and electron probe microanalysis further demonstrated that the OPN protein was localized at the periphery of cell debris or degenerating neurites, corresponding with locally higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, and that the relative magnitude of OPN accumulation was comparable to that of calcium and phosphorus. These data suggest that calcium precipitation provides a matrix for the binding of the OPN protein within the debris or degenerating neurites induced by ischemic injury. Therefore, OPN binding to calcium deposits may be involved in phagocytosis of such debris, and may participate in the regulation of ectopic calcification in the ischemic brain.

  11. Sustained Expression of Osteopontin Is Closely Associated with Calcium Deposits in the Rat Hippocampus After Transient Forebrain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jang-Mi; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hong Lim; Cho, Jeong Min

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the extent and topography of osteopontin (OPN) protein expression in the rat hippocampus 4 to 12 weeks following transient forebrain ischemia, and to compare OPN expression patterns with those of calcium deposits and astroglial and microglial reactions. Two patterns of OPN staining were recognized by light microscopy: 1) a diffuse pattern of tiny granular deposits throughout the CA1 region at 4 weeks after ischemia and 2) non-diffuse ovoid to round deposits, which formed conglomerates in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer over the chronic interval of 8 to 12 weeks. Immunogold-silver electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis demonstrated that OPN deposits were indeed diverse types of calcium deposits, which were clearly delineated by profuse silver grains indicative of OPN expression. Intracellular OPN deposits were frequently observed within reactive astrocytes and neurons 4 weeks after ischemia but rarely at later times. By contrast, extracellular OPN deposits progressively increased in size and appeared to be gradually phagocytized by microglia or brain macrophages and some astrocytes over 8 to 12 weeks. These data indicate an interaction between OPN and calcium in the hippocampus in the chronic period after ischemia, suggesting that OPN binding to calcium deposits may be involved in scavenging mechanisms. PMID:22496158

  12. Interleukin-6 enhances cancer stemness and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via up-regulating osteopontin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Sun, Hao-Ting; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Ren, Ning; Sheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Yan; Wei, Jin-Wang; Zhang, Kai-Li; Yu, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Yin; Luo, Qin; Yang, Lu-Yu; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the most important inflammatory cytokines, plays a pivotal role in metastasis and stemness of solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms of IL-6 in HCC metastasis remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that stemness and metastatic potential of HCC cells were significantly enhanced after IL-6 stimulation. IL-6 could induce expression of osteopontin (OPN), along with other stemness-related genes, including HIF1α, BMI1, and HEY1. Block of OPN induction could significantly abrogate the effect of IL-6 on stemness and metastasis of HCC cells. Furthermore, IL-6 level was positively correlated with OPN in HCC. Patients with high plasma IL-6 or OPN level had poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, IL-6 and OPN were demonstrated to be independent prognostic indicators for HCC patients, and their combination had a better prognostic performance than IL-6 or OPN alone. Collectively, our findings indicate that IL-6 could enhance stemness and promote metastasis of HCC via up-regulating OPN expression, which can be a potential therapeutic target for combating HCC metastasis, and the combination of IL-6 and OPN serves as a promising prognostic predictor for HCC. PMID:27725896

  13. Osteopontin and Latent-TGF β Binding-Protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, André Nogueira; Plymoth, Amelie; Santos-Silva, Daniela; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Camey, Suzi; Guilloreau, Paule; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Mendy, Maimuna; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A.; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kirk, Gregory D.; Merle, Philippe; Beretta, Laura; Hainaut, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B (HB) is the main risk factor for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries, where diagnosis is constrained by lack of clinical, histopathological and biomarker resources. We have used proteomics to detect plasma biomarkers that outperform α-Fetoprotein (AFP), the most widely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis in low-resource contexts. Deep plasma proteome analysis was performed in HCC patients, patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and in HB-carrier controls from Thailand (South-East Asia) and The Gambia (West-Africa). Mass spectrometry profiling identified Latent-Transforming Growth Factor β Binding-Protein 2 (LTBP2) and Osteopontin (OPN) as being significantly elevated in HCC versus CLD and controls. These two proteins were further analysed by ELISA in a total of 684 plasma samples, including 183 HCC, 274 CLD and 227 asymptomatic controls. When combined, LTBP2 and OPN showed an area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.85 in distinguishing HCC from CLD in subjects with α-Fetoprotein (AFP) < 20 ng/mL. In a prospective cohort of 115 CLD patients from Korea, increased plasma levels of LTBP2 and/or OPN were detected in plasma collected over 2 years prior to diagnosis in 21 subjects who developed HCC. Thus, the combination of LTBP2 and OPN outperformed AFP for diagnosis and prediction of HCC and may therefore improve biomarker-based detection of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24803312

  14. Osteopontin-deficiency disturbs direct osteogenesis in the process of achieving osseointegration following immediate placement of endosseous implants.

    PubMed

    Makishi, Sanako; Saito, Kotaro; Ohshima, Hayato

    2017-06-01

    The role of osteopontin (OPN) in the process of achieving osseointegration following implantation remains to be clarified. This study aimed to analyze the healing patterns of the bone-implant interface after immediate placement of implants in the maxillae of 4-week-old Opn-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. After maxillary first molars were extracted, cavities were prepared with a drill and titanium implants blasted with ceramic abrasives containing hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate were placed. Following fixation at 3, 5, 7, and 28 days after implantation, the samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and an electron probe micro analyzer. Two types of bone healing were observed in the process of achieving osseointegration: "direct osteogenesis," where bone formation occurs at the implant surface, and "indirect osteogenesis," where it does at the pre-existing damaged bone surface in the WT mice. Direct osteogenesis occurred after the recruitment of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive cells and the deposition of OPN on the implant surface. In contrast, the rate of osseointegration or direct osteogenesis was significantly low, and cell proliferation was disturbed in the Opn-KO mice. These results suggest that Opn-deficiency disturbs direct osteogenesis to lead the delayed osseointegration after immediate placement of endosseous implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Inhibition of osteopontin reduce the cardiac myofibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy via focal adhesion kinase mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Tuo; Fan, Guang-Pu; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Pei-De; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has been shown to a close relationship with cardiac fibrosis. Overexpression of OPN in cardiomyocytes induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This research is to study whether inhibition of OPN could reduce myocardial remodelling in DCM, and if this process is focal adhesion kinase (FAK) dependent, which is recently found an important signal molecule in fibrosis. Method: Eight-week-old cTnTR141W transgenic mouse of DCM were injected with OPN-shRNA in left ventricular free wall, which could inhibit the OPN expression. Six weeks later, echocardiographic examinations were performed to test left ventricle function and heart tissues were harvested to test the quality of FAK by western blot and severity of fibrosis by masson staining. Human cardiac fibroblast was administrated with OPN, and FAK inhibition by PP2 was treated 2 h before OPN was given. Expression of α-SMA and collagen-I were tested by western blot and real-time PCR assay. Results: OPN-shRNA group has a relatively high ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), LV free wall thickness and a less sever cardiac fibrosis. In vitro, OPN could increase collagen-I and α-SMA expression, and this process can be inhibited by FAK inhibitor. Conclusion: Inhibition of OPN could reduce the LV remodeling and dysfunction in DCM mice, which may attribute to the suppression of collagen-I secretion in fibroblast through a FAK/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:27725847

  16. Spatiotemporal expression of osteopontin in the striatum of rats subjected to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid correlates with microcalcification

    PubMed Central

    Riew, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Hong Lim; Jin, Xuyan; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to elucidate whether osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the onset of mineralisation and progression of extracellular calcification in striatal lesions due to mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid exposure. OPN expression had two different patterns when observed using light microscopy. It was either localised to the Golgi complex in brain macrophages or had a small granular pattern scattered in the affected striatum. OPN labelling tended to increase in number and size over a 2-week period following the lesion. Ultrastructural investigations revealed that OPN is initially localised to degenerating mitochondria within distal dendrites, which were then progressively surrounded by profuse OPN on days 7–14. Electron probe microanalysis of OPN-positive and calcium-fixated neurites indicated that OPN accumulates selectively on the surfaces of degenerating calcifying dendrites, possibly via interactions between OPN and calcium. In addition, 3-dimensional reconstruction of OPN-positive neurites revealed that they are in direct contact with larger OPN-negative degenerating dendrites rather than with fragmented cell debris. Our overall results indicate that OPN expression is likely to correlate with the spatiotemporal progression of calcification in the affected striatum, and raise the possibility that OPN may play an important role in the initiation and progression of microcalcification in response to brain insults. PMID:28345671

  17. An Osteopontin-Integrin Interaction Plays a Critical Role in Directing Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Shou, Peishun; Zhang, Liying; Xu, Chunliang; Zheng, Chunxing; Han, Yanyan; Li, Wenzhao; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Xiaoren; Shao, Changshun; Roberts, Arthur I.; Rabson, Arnold B.; Ren, Guangwen; Zhang, Yanyun; Wang, Ying; Denhardt, David T.; Shi, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    An imbalance between normal adipogenesis and osteogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to be related to various human metabolic diseases, such as obesity and osteoporosis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We found that the interaction between osteopontin (OPN), an arginine-glycine-aspartate-containing glycoprotein, and integrin αv/β1 plays a critical role in the lineage determination of MSCs. Although OPN is a well established marker during osteogenesis, its role in MSC differentiation is still unknown. Our study reveals that blockade of OPN function promoted robust adipogenic differentiation, while inhibiting osteogenic differentiation. Re-expression of OPN restored a normal balance between adipogenesis and osteogenesis in OPN-/- MSCs. Retarded bone formation by OPN-/- MSCs was also verified by in vivo implantation with hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP), a bone-forming matrix. The role of extracellular OPN in MSC differentiation was further demonstrated by supplementation and neutralization of OPN. Blocking well-known OPN receptors integrin αv/β1 but not CD44, also affected MSC differentiation. Further studies revealed that OPN inhibits the C/EBPs signaling pathway through integrin αv/β1. Consistent with these in vitro results, OPN-/- mice had a higher fat to total body weight ratio than did wild-type mice. Therefore, our study demonstrates a novel role for OPN-integrin αv/β1 in regulating MSC differentiation. PMID:24123709

  18. Osteopontin Expression in the Brain Triggers Localized Inflammation and Cell Death When Immune Cells Are Activated by Pertussis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Ojakian, Ryan; Bortell, Nikki; Flynn, Claudia; Conti, Bruno; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) is a characteristic of central nervous system pathologies. However, the role of OPN in inflammation is still controversial, since it can both prevent cell death and induce the migration of potentially damaging inflammatory cells. To understand the role of OPN in inflammation and cell survival, we expressed OPN, utilizing an adenoviral vector, in the caudoputamen of mice deficient in OPN, using beta-galactosidase- (β-gal-) expressing vector as control. The tissue pathology and the expression of proinflammatory genes were compared in both treatments. Interestingly, inflammatory infiltrate was only found when the OPN-vector was combined with a peripheral treatment with pertussis toxin (Ptx), which activated peripheral cells to express the OPN receptor CD44v6. Relative to β-gal, OPN increased the levels of inflammatory markers, including IL13Rα1, CXCR3, and CD40L. In Ptx-treated OPN KOs, apoptotic TUNEL+ cells surrounding the OPN expression site increased, compared to β-gal. Together, these results show that local OPN expression combined with a peripheral inflammatory stimulus, such as Ptx, may be implicated in the development of brain inflammation and induction of cell death, by driving a molecular pattern characteristic of cytotoxicity. These are characteristics of inflammatory pathologies of the CNS in which OPN upregulation is a hallmark. PMID:25525298

  19. NADPH oxidase activity is associated with cardiac osteopontin and pro-collagen type I expression in uremia.

    PubMed

    Goux, Aurélie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Jover, Bernard; Fouret, Gilles; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Cassan, Cécile; Richard, Sylvain; Badiou, Stéphanie; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2011-04-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication inducing mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, which can be determined by both traditional risk factors and non-traditional risk factors such as malnutrition and oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in uremia-induced cardiopathy in an experimental CKD model. CKD was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 4-week diet supplemented in adenine, calcium and phosphorous and depleted in proteins. CKD was associated with a 3-fold increase in superoxide anion production from the NADPH oxidase in the left ventricle, but the maximal activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was not different. Although manganese mitochondrial SOD activity decreased, total SOD activity was not affected and catalase or GPx activities were increased, strengthening the major role of NADPH oxidase in superoxide anion output. Superoxide anion output was associated with enhanced expression of osteopontin (×7.7) and accumulation of pro-collagen type I (×3.7). To conclude, the increased activity of NADPH oxidase during CKD is associated with protein modifications which could activate a pathway leading to cardiac remodelling.

  20. Bound states in string nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  1. Tsirelson's bound from a generalized data processing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lercher, Daniel; Renner, Renato

    2012-06-01

    The strength of quantum correlations is bounded from above by Tsirelson's bound. We establish a connection between this bound and the fact that correlations between two systems cannot increase under local operations, a property known as the data processing inequality (DPI). More specifically, we consider arbitrary convex probabilistic theories. These can be equipped with an entropy measure that naturally generalizes the von Neumann entropy, as shown recently in Short and Wehner (2010 New J. Phys. 12 033023) and Barnum et al (2010 New J. Phys. 12 033024). We prove that if the DPI holds with respect to this generalized entropy measure then the underlying theory necessarily respects Tsirelson's bound. We, moreover, generalize this statement to any entropy measure satisfying certain minimal requirements. A consequence of our result is that not all the entropic relations used for deriving Tsirelson's bound via information causality in Pawlowski et al (2009 Nature 461 1101-4) are necessary.

  2. The Mouse-Specific Splice Variant mRAGE_v4 Encodes a Membrane-Bound RAGE That Is Resistant to Shedding and Does Not Contribute to the Production of Soluble RAGE

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jaron; Bertolotti, Matteo; Fritz, Günter; Bianchi, Marco E.; Raucci, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in the onset and progression of several inflammatory diseases. The RAGE primary transcript undergoes numerous alternative splicing (AS) events, some of which are species-specific. Here, we characterize the mouse-specific mRAGE_v4 splice variant, which is conserved in rodents and absent in primates. mRAGE_v4 derives from exon 9 skipping and encodes a receptor (M-RAGE) that lacks 9 amino acids between the transmembrane and the immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. RNA-Seq data confirm that in mouse lung mRAGE_v4 is the most abundant RAGE mRNA isoform after mRAGE, which codes for full-length RAGE (FL-RAGE), while in heart all RAGE variants are almost undetectable. The proteins M-RAGE and FL-RAGE are roughly equally abundant in mouse lung. Contrary to FL-RAGE, M-RAGE is extremely resistant to shedding because it lacks the peptide motif recognized by both ADAM10 and MMP9, and does not contribute significantly to soluble cRAGE formation. Thus, a cassette exon in RAGE corresponds to a specific function of the RAGE protein–the ability to be shed. Given the differences in RAGE AS variants between rodents and humans, caution is due in the interpretation of results obtained in mouse models of RAGE-dependent human pathologies. PMID:27655137

  3. The Mouse-Specific Splice Variant mRAGE_v4 Encodes a Membrane-Bound RAGE That Is Resistant to Shedding and Does Not Contribute to the Production of Soluble RAGE.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Stefania; Gatti, Elena; Liu, Jaron; Bertolotti, Matteo; Fritz, Günter; Bianchi, Marco E; Raucci, Angela

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in the onset and progression of several inflammatory diseases. The RAGE primary transcript undergoes numerous alternative splicing (AS) events, some of which are species-specific. Here, we characterize the mouse-specific mRAGE_v4 splice variant, which is conserved in rodents and absent in primates. mRAGE_v4 derives from exon 9 skipping and encodes a receptor (M-RAGE) that lacks 9 amino acids between the transmembrane and the immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. RNA-Seq data confirm that in mouse lung mRAGE_v4 is the most abundant RAGE mRNA isoform after mRAGE, which codes for full-length RAGE (FL-RAGE), while in heart all RAGE variants are almost undetectable. The proteins M-RAGE and FL-RAGE are roughly equally abundant in mouse lung. Contrary to FL-RAGE, M-RAGE is extremely resistant to shedding because it lacks the peptide motif recognized by both ADAM10 and MMP9, and does not contribute significantly to soluble cRAGE formation. Thus, a cassette exon in RAGE corresponds to a specific function of the RAGE protein-the ability to be shed. Given the differences in RAGE AS variants between rodents and humans, caution is due in the interpretation of results obtained in mouse models of RAGE-dependent human pathologies.

  4. Crystal Structures of Beryllium Fluoride-Free and Beryllium Fluoride-Bound CheY in Complex with the Conserved C-Terminal Peptide of CheZ Reveal Dual Binding Modes Specific to CheY Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Guhaniyogi, Jayita; Robinson, Victoria L.; Stock, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chemotaxis, the environment-specific swimming behavior of a bacterial cell is controlled by flagellar rotation. The steady-state level of the phosphorylated or activated form of the response regulator CheY dictates the direction of flagellar rotation. CheY phosphorylation is regulated by a fine equilibrium of three phosphotransfer activities: phosphorylation by the kinase CheA, its auto-dephosphorylation and dephosphorylation by its phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two spatially distinct protein-protein contacts: tethering of the two proteins to each other and formation of an active site for dephosphorylation. The latter involves interaction of phosphorylated CheY with the small highly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZC), an indispensable structural component of the functional CheZ protein. To understand how the CheZC helix, representing less than 1% of the full-length protein, ascertains molecular specificity of binding to CheY, we have determined crystal structures of CheY in complex with a synthetic peptide corresponding to 15 C-terminal residues of CheZ (CheZ200-214) at resolutions ranging from 2.0 Å to 2.3 Å. These structures provide a detailed view of the CheZC peptide interaction both in the presence and absence of the phosphoryl analog, BeF3−. Our studies reveal that two different modes of binding the CheZ200-214 peptide are dictated by the conformational state of CheY in the complex. Our structures suggest that the CheZC helix binds to a “meta-active” conformation of inactive CheY and it does so in an orientation that is distinct from the one in which it binds activated CheY. Our dual binding mode hypothesis provides implications for reverse information flow in CheY and extends previous observations on inherent resilience in CheY-like signaling domains. PMID:16674976

  5. Crystal Structures of Beryllium Fluoride-Free and Beryllium Fluoride-Bound CheY in Complex with the Conserved C-Terminal Peptide of CheZ Reveal Dual Binding Modes Specific to CheY Conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Guhaniyogi,J.; Robinson, V.; Stock, A.

    2006-01-01

    Chemotaxis, the environment-specific swimming behavior of a bacterial cell is controlled by flagellar rotation. The steady-state level of the phosphorylated or activated form of the response regulator CheY dictates the direction of flagellar rotation. CheY phosphorylation is regulated by a fine equilibrium of three phosphotransfer activities: phosphorylation by the kinase CheA, its auto-dephosphorylation and dephosphorylation by its phosphatase CheZ. Efficient dephosphorylation of CheY by CheZ requires two spatially distinct protein-protein contacts: tethering of the two proteins to each other and formation of an active site for dephosphorylation. The former involves interaction of phosphorylated CheY with the small highly conserved C-terminal helix of CheZ (CheZ{sub C}), an indispensable structural component of the functional CheZ protein. To understand how the CheZ{sub C} helix, representing less than 10% of the full-length protein, ascertains molecular specificity of binding to CheY, we have determined crystal structures of CheY in complex with a synthetic peptide corresponding to 15 C-terminal residues of CheZ (CheZ{sub 200-214}) at resolutions ranging from 2.0 Angstroms to 2.3 Angstroms. These structures provide a detailed view of the CheZC peptide interaction both in the presence and absence of the phosphoryl analog, BeF{sub 3}{sup -}. Our studies reveal that two different modes of binding the CheZ{sub 200-214} peptide are dictated by the conformational state of CheY in the complex. Our structures suggest that the CheZ{sub C} helix binds to a 'meta-active' conformation of inactive CheY and it does so in an orientation that is distinct from the one in which it binds activated CheY. Our dual binding mode hypothesis provides implications for reverse information flow in CheY and extends previous observations on inherent resilience in CheY-like signaling domains.

  6. Modeling agreement on bounded scales.

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Sophie; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Agreement is an important concept in medical and behavioral sciences, in particular in clinical decision making where disagreements possibly imply a different patient management. The concordance correlation coefficient is an appropriate measure to quantify agreement between two scorers on a quantitative scale. However, this measure is based on the first two moments, which could poorly summarize the shape of the score distribution on bounded scales. Bounded outcome scores are common in medical and behavioral sciences. Typical examples are scores obtained on visual analog scales and scores derived as the number of positive items on a questionnaire. These kinds of scores often show a non-standard distribution, like a J- or U-shape, questioning the usefulness of the concordance correlation coefficient as agreement measure. The logit-normal distribution has shown to be successful in modeling bounded outcome scores of two types: (1) when the bounded score is a coarsened version of a latent score with a logit-normal distribution on the [0,1] interval and (2) when the bounded score is a proportion with the true probability having a logit-normal distribution. In the present work, a model-based approach, based on a bivariate generalization of the logit-normal distribution, is developed in a Bayesian framework to assess the agreement on bounded scales. This method permits to directly study the impact of predictors on the concordance correlation coefficient and can be simply implemented in standard Bayesian softwares, like JAGS and WinBUGS. The performances of the new method are compared to the classical approach using simulations. Finally, the methodology is used in two different medical domains: cardiology and rheumatology.

  7. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  8. High glucose induces the expression of osteopontin in blood vessels in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjia; Ni, Leng; Liu, Xinnong; Wang, Zhanqi; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses. As assessed by flow cytometry and western blots, SMC and VEC apoptosis levels increased with high glucose. Potassium and calcium uptake by cells were also increased with high glucose. These findings demonstrated the relationship between mineral metabolism and high glucose. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that OPN increased in vitro with high glucose stimulation. The inflammatory factor ICAM1 and the inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Thr495) were also upregulated by high glucose. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and the activating phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser1177) were downregulated. Similar to the change of OPN, phosphorylated P38 was increased with high glucose. SB203580, an inhibitor of P38 phosphorylation, downregulated the expression of OPN and related inflammatory factors. Additionally, OPN was increased in the aortas and plasma of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high glucose can induce the expression of OPN, which may be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of the vascular wall in diabetes.

  9. OSTEOPONTIN BINDING TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE LOWERS TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α AND PREVENTS EARLY ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaodong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena; Lu, Yongke; Urtasun, Raquel; Christensen, Brian; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Mochida, Satoshi; Sørensen, Esben S.; Nieto, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Although osteopontin (OPN) is induced in alcoholic patients, its role in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. Increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut is key for the onset of ALD since it promotes macrophage infiltration and activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production and liver injury. Since OPN is protective for the intestinal mucosa, we postulated that enhancing OPN expression in the liver and consequently in the blood and/or in the gut could protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Results: Wild-type (WT), OPN knockout (Opn−/−) and transgenic mice overexpressing OPN in hepatocytes (OpnHEP Tg) were chronically fed either the control or the ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet. Ethanol increased hepatic, plasma, biliary and fecal OPN more in OpnHEP Tg than in WT mice. Steatosis was lesser in ethanol-treated OpnHEP Tg mice as shown by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower ALT activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation score and the number of macrophages and TNFα+ cells. To establish if OPN could limit LPS availability and its noxious effects in the liver, binding studies were performed. OPN showed affinity for LPS and the binding prevented macrophage activation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation and TNFα production. Treatment with milk OPN (m-OPN) blocked LPS translocation in vivo and protected from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Conclusion: Natural induction plus forced overexpression of OPN in the liver and treatment with m-OPN protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury by blocking the gut-derived LPS and TNFα effects in the liver. PMID:24214181

  10. Biodegradable gelatin microspheres enhance the neuroprotective potency of osteopontin via quick and sustained release in the post-ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinchuan; Kim, In-Yong; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Jin-Young; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Choi, Hyungsoo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2014-07-01

    Gelatin microspheres (GMSs) are widely used as drug carriers owing to their excellent biocompatibilities and toxicologically safe degradation products. The drug release profile is easily tailored by controlling the cross-linking density and surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. size, of the GMS. In this study, we employed GMSs which are 25 μm in diameter and cross-linked with 0.03125% glutaraldehyde, to enable rapid initial and a subsequent sustained release. Therapeutic potency of human recombinant osteopontin (rhOPN) with or without encapsulation into GMSs was investigated after administrating them to rat stroke model (Sprague-Dawley; middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO). The administration of rhOPN/GMS (100 ng/100 μg) at 1h post-MCAO reduced the mean infarct volume by 81.8% of that of the untreated MCAO control and extended the therapeutic window at least to 12h post-MCAO, demonstrating a markedly enhanced therapeutic potency for the use of OPN in the post-ischemic brain. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed that GMSs maintained the three-dimensional shape for more than 5 days in normal brain but were degraded rapidly in the post-ischemic brain, presumably due to high levels of gelatinase induction. After encapsulation with GMS, the duration of OPN release was markedly extended; from the period of 2 days to 5 days in normal brain, and from 2 days to 4 days in the post-ischemic brain; these encompass the critical period for recovery processes, such as vascularization, and controlling inflammation. Together, these results indicate that GMS-mediated drug delivery has huge potential when it was used in the hyperacute period in the post-ischemic brain. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Otoconial Proteins Fetuin A, Osteopontin, and Otoconin 90 on the Nucleation and Growth of Calcite

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the roles of three proteins associated with the formation of otoconia including fetuin A, osteopontin (OPN), and otoconin 90 (OC90). In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the effects of these proteins on the growth of atomic steps on calcite surfaces were performed to obtain insight into their effects on the growth kinetics. We also used scanning electron microscopy to examine the effects of these proteins on crystal morphology. All three proteins were found to be potent inhibitors of calcite growth, although fetuin A promoted growth at concentrations below about 40 nM and only became an inhibitor at higher concentrations. We then used in situ optical microscopy to observe calcite nucleation on films of these proteins adsorbed onto mica surfaces. By measuring the calcite nucleation rate as a function of supersaturation, the value of the interfacial energy that controls the free energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation was determined for each protein. OPN and OC90 films led to significantly reduced interfacial energies as compared to the value for homogeneous calcite nucleation in bulk solution. The value for fetuin A was equal to that for bulk solution within experimental error. Zeta potential measurements showed all of the proteins possessed negative surface charge and varied in magnitude according to sequence fetuin A > OC90 > OPN. In addition, the interfacial energies exhibited an inverse scaling with the zeta potential. In analogy to previous measurements on polysaccharide films, this scaling indicates the differences between the proteins arise from the effect of protein surface charge on the solution–substrate interfacial energy. PMID:25709560

  12. Osteopontin is involved in the development of acquired chemo-resistance of cisplatin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tao; Ohashi, Rina; Cui, Ri; Tajima, Ken; Yoshioka, Masakata; Iwakami, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Shinichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Jun; Inaba, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multi-functional cytokine involved in cell survival, migration and adhesion which is associated with tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. However, the role of OPN in chemo-sensitivity of human lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of OPN in chemo-sensitivity of lung cancer cells. We developed a stable OPN transfectant (SBC-3/OPN) and a control transfectant (SBC-3/NEO) from human small cell lung cancer cell line, SBC-3. SBC-3/OPN cells were more resistant to cisplatin than SBC-3/NEO cells. Multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP) does not appear to be involved in the development of acquired chemo-resistance, since MRP inhibitor did not alter chemo-sensitivity. After exposure to cisplatin, the apoptotic SBC-3/OPN cells were reduced in number compared to SBC-3/NEO cells. Treatment with cisplatin revealed that the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2, was down-regulated in SBC-3/NEO cells, while that of SBC-3/OPN cells was not altered. In contrast, pro-apoptotic protein, bax, was not altered in both SBC-3/OPN and SBC-3/NEO cells, thus bcl-2/bax ratio was decreased in SBC-3/NEO but not altered in SBC-3/OPN cells. Activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was increased in SBC-3/NEO cells, but not in SBC-3/OPN cells. Our results suggest that OPN enhances chemo-resistance of cisplatin in SBC-3 cells by suppressing bcl-2 protein down-regulation, thereby blocking the caspase-9- and caspase-3-dependent cell apoptosis.

  13. Loss of MMP-2 in murine osteoblasts upregulates osteopontin and bone sialoprotein expression in a circuit regulating bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mosig, Rebecca A; Martignetti, John A

    2013-03-01

    Multicentric osteolysis with arthropathy (MOA; MIM 605156) is an inherited osteolyses and arthritis syndrome resulting from loss of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). We recently demonstrated that Mmp2(-/-) mice represent a unique model for the study of the human disease, sharing many features of the human syndrome including skeletal dysplasia and defects in osteoblast behavior. We therefore sought to explore the secondary molecular effects of MMP-2 loss, which coexist with the underlying skeletal and osteoblast phenotypes. We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure osteoblast-related gene expression through ex vivo osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from Mmp2(-/-) and Mmp2(+/+) mice. We used western blot to measure osteopontin (OPN) serum levels and immunohistochemical staining to examine bone expression. MMP-2 expression was inhibited in SaOS2 cells using siRNA, and decreased MMP-2 expression at both RNA and protein levels was confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Mmp2(-/-) BMSC induced to differentiate into osteoblasts were shown to significantly upregulate OPN and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression levels compared with controls. Transcriptional upregulation was maintained in vivo, as demonstrated by increased levels of OPN in serum and bone in Mmp2(-/-) mice. These effects are generalizable because siRNA-mediated inhibition in cultured cells also upregulated OPN and BSP. OPN and BSP are known to affect MMP-2 expression and activity but have not previously been shown to be regulated by MMP-2. Identification of this newly defined circuitry provides insight into the potential molecular landscape underlying the MOA phenotype and highlights a pathway that might play a role in normal bone homeostasis.

  14. Osteopontin Is a Blood Biomarker for Microglial Activation and Brain Injury in Experimental Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Seyfried, Nicholas T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Clinical management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suffers from the lack of reliable surrogate marker tests. Proteomic analysis may identify such biomarkers in blood, but there has been no proof-of-principle evidence to support this approach. Here we performed in-gel trypsin digestion of plasma proteins from four groups of 10-d-old mice [untouched and 24 h after low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, hypoxia-ischemia (HI), or LPS/HI injury; n = 3 in each group) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis to search for HI- and LPS/HI-associated brain injury biomarkers. This analysis suggested the induction of plasma osteopontin (OPN) by HI and LPS/HI, but not by sham and injury-free LPS exposure. Immunoblot confirmed post-HI induction of OPN protein in brain and blood, whereas Opn mRNA was induced in brain but not in blood. This disparity suggests brain-derived plasma OPN after HI injury. Similarly, immunostaining showed the expression of OPN by Iba1+ microglia/macrophages in HI-injured brains. Further, intracerebroventricular injection of LPS activated microglia and up-regulated plasma OPN protein. Importantly, the induction of plasma OPN after HI was greater than that of matrix metalloproteinase 9 or glial fibrillary acid protein. Plasma OPN levels at 48 h post-HI also parallel the severity of brain damage at 7-d recovery. Together, these results suggest that OPN may be a prognostic blood biomarker in HIE through monitoring brain microglial activation. PMID:28101531

  15. Osteopontin (OPN) is an important protein to mediate improvements in the biocompatibility of C ion-implanted silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-liang; Shi, Xiao-hua; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yi-ming; Shen, Li-ru; Lei, Ze-yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Cao, Cong; Fan, Dong-li

    2014-01-01

    Medical device implants are drawing increasing amounts of interest from modern medical practitioners. However, this attention is not evenly spread across all such devices; most of these implantable devices can cause adverse reactions such as inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis, and infection. In this work, the biocompatibility of silicone rubber (SR) was improved through carbon (C) ion implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that these newly generated carbon-implanted silicone rubbers (C-SRs) had large, irregular peaks and deep valleys on their surfaces. The water contact angle of the SR surface decreased significantly after C ion implantation. C ion implantation also changed the surface charge distribution, silicone oxygen rate, and chemical-element distribution of SR to favor cell attachment. The dermal fibroblasts cultured on the surface C-SR grew faster and showed more typical fibroblastic shapes. The expression levels of major adhesion proteins, including talin-1, zyxin, and vinculin, were significantly higher in dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR coated plates than in dermal fibroblasts cultured on SR. Those same dermal fibroblasts on C-SRs showed more pronounced adhesion and migration abilities. Osteopontin (OPN), a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, was up-regulated and secreted from dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also increased. These cells were highly mobile and were able to adhere to surfaces, but these abilities were inhibited by the monoclonal antibody against OPN, or by shRNA-mediated MMP-9 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that C ion implantation significantly improves SR biocompatibility, and that OPN is important to promote cell adhesion to the C-SR surface.

  16. Schistosome-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and osteopontin secretion correlate with fibrosis and portal hypertension in human and murine schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thiago A; Syn, Wing-Kin; Machado, Mariana V; Vidigal, Paula V; Resende, Vivian; Voieta, Izabela; Xie, Guanhua; Otoni, Alba; Souza, Márcia M; Santos, Elisângela T; Chan, Isaac S; Trindade, Guilherme V M; Choi, Steve S; Witek, Rafal P; Pereira, Fausto E; Secor, William E; Andrade, Zilton A; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major cause of portal hypertension worldwide. It associates with portal fibrosis that develops during chronic infection. The mechanisms by which the pathogen evokes these host responses remain unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis that schistosome eggs release factors that directly stimulate liver cells to produce osteopontin (OPN), a pro-fibrogenic protein that stimulates hepatic stellate cells to become myofibroblasts. We also investigated the utility of OPN as a biomarker of fibrosis and/or severity of portal hypertension. Cultured cholangiocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells were treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA); OPN production was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) and ELISA; cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine). Mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 6 or 16 weeks to cause early or advanced fibrosis. Liver OPN was evaluated by qRTPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with liver fibrosis and serum OPN. Livers from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni (early fibrosis n=15; advanced fibrosis n=72) or healthy adults (n=22) were immunostained for OPN and fibrosis markers. Results were correlated with plasma OPN levels and splenic vein pressures. SEA-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion (P<0.001 compared with controls). Cholangiocytes were OPN (+) in Schistosoma-infected mice and humans. Liver and serum OPN levels correlated with fibrosis stage (mice: r=0.861; human r=0.672, P=0.0001) and myofibroblast accumulation (mice: r=0.800; human: r=0.761, P=0.0001). Numbers of OPN (+) bile ductules strongly correlated with splenic vein pressure (r=0.778; P=0.001). S. mansoni egg antigens stimulate cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion. OPN levels in liver and blood correlate with fibrosis stage and portal hypertension severity.

  17. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging reveals osteopontin-mediated polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation by tumor cell emboli.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Yuji; Takakura, Kanako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2017-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cause paraneoplastic leukemoid reactions and facilitate tumor cell metastasis. However, the interaction of MDSCs with tumor cells in live tissue has not been adequately visualized. To accomplish this task, we developed an intravital imaging protocol to observe metastasized tumor cells in mouse lungs. For visualization of the activation of MDSCs, bone marrow cells derived from transgenic mice expressing a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor for ERK were implanted into host mice. Under a two-photon excitation microscope, numerous polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were found to infiltrate the lungs of tumor-bearing mice in which 4T1 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the footpads. By Förster resonance energy transfer imaging, we found ERK activation in PMNs around the 4T1 tumor emboli in the lungs. Because antibody array analysis implied the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in the metastasis of 4T1 cells, we further analyzed the effect of OPN knockdown. The OPN knockdown in 4T1 cells did not affect the cell growth, but markedly suppressed lung metastasis of 4T1 cells and ERK activation in PMNs in the lung. Intravenous injection of recombinant OPN restored the lung metastasis of OPN-deficient 4T1 cells, suggesting that OPN functioned in a paracrine manner. It has been reported that ERK activation of neutrophils causes NETosis and that PMNs promote metastasis of tumor cells by NETosis. In agreement with previous reports, the NETosis inhibitor DNase I inhibited lung metastasis of 4T1 cells. These observations suggest that OPN promotes metastasis of 4T1 cells by activating PMNs and inducing NETosis. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. α-Iso-Cubebene Inhibits PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Osteopontin Expression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min A; Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Seung Eun; Park, So Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms. Thus, we examined the effect of ICB on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular diseases. When VSMCs primary cultured from rat thoracic aorta were stimulated with PDGF (1-10 ng/ml), cell proliferation and osteopontin (OPN) expression were concomitantly up-regulated, but these effects were attenuated when cells were treated with MPIIIB10, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody for OPN. In aortic tissues exposed to PDGF, sprouting VSMC numbers increased, which was attenuated in tissues from OPN-deficient mice. Furthermore, VSMC proliferation and OPN expression induced by PDGF were attenuated dose-dependently by ICB (10 or 30 μg/ml). Reporter assays conducted using OPN promoter-luciferase constructs showed that the promoter region 538-234 bp of the transcription start site was responsible for transcriptional activity enhancement by PDGF, which was significantly inhibited by ICB. Putative binding sites for AP-1 and C/EBPβ in the indicated promoter region were suggested by TF Search, and increased binding of AP-1 and C/EBPβ in PDGF-treated VSMCs was demonstrated using a ChIP assay. The increased bindings of AP-1 and C/EBPβ into OPN promoter were attenuated by ICB. Moreover, the PDGF-induced expression of OPN was markedly attenuated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA for AP-1 and C/EBPβ. These results indicate that ICB inhibit VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the AP-1 and C/EBPβ signaling pathways and thus downregulating OPN expression.

  19. Growth, Nutrition, and Cytokine Response of Breast-fed Infants and Infants Fed Formula With Added Bovine Osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Peerson, Janet M; Donovan, Sharon M; Peng, Yong-mei

    2016-04-01

    Breast milk contains a high concentration of osteopontin (OPN), a protein having multiple functions. In contrast, infant formula is low in OPN. A randomized clinical trial was performed to evaluate effects of adding a highly enriched bovine OPN fraction to formula, and infants whose mothers had already decided not to breast-feed were recruited. They were fed regular formula (F0) or the same formula with bovine OPN at 65 (F65) or 130 (F130) mg/L (50% and 100% of human milk level, respectively) from 1 to 6 months of age and were compared with a reference group of breast-fed (BF) infants. Morbidity was recorded daily and 3-day dietary records collected monthly. Anthropometry was assessed monthly, and blood samples were taken at 1, 4, and 6 months of age. Hematology and iron status, serum cytokines, plasma amino acids, and blood urea nitrogen were analyzed. Formulas were well tolerated and there were no significant differences in formula intake or growth among the formula-fed groups. The F130 group had significantly lower plasma threonine than the F0 and F65 groups, and significantly lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) than the F0 group and, thus, was closer to BF infants. Plasma TNF-α was higher in formula-fed infants than in BF infants. Among the formula-fed groups, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α was significantly lower in the F65 and F130 groups than in the F0 group, suggesting that OPN downregulates inflammatory cytokines and thus affects immune function. Addition of OPN to infant formula changes amino acid metabolism and cytokine responses of FF infants and makes them more similar to BF infants. The lower prevalence of pyrexia in the F130 infants than in F0 infants suggests that adding OPN may confer health benefits.

  20. Schistosome-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and osteopontin secretion correlate with fibrosis and portal hypertension in human and murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago A.; Syn, Wing-Kin; Machado, Mariana V.; Vidigal, Paula V.; Resende, Vivian; Voieta, Izabela; Xie, Guanhua; Otoni, Alba; Souza, Márcia M.; Santos, Elisângela T.; Chan, Isaac S.; Trindade, Guilherme V.M.; Choi, Steve S.; Witek, Rafal P.; Pereira, Fausto E.; Secor, William E.; Andrade, Zilton A.; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major cause of portal hypertension worldwide. It associates with portal fibrosis that develops during chronic infection. The mechanisms by which the pathogen evokes these host responses remain unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis that schistosome eggs release factors that directly stimulate liver cells to produce osteopontin (OPN), a pro-fibrogenic protein that stimulates hepatic stellate cells to become myofibroblasts. We also investigated the utility of OPN as a biomarker of fibrosis and/or severity of portal hypertension. Cultured cholangiocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells were treated with soluble egg antigen (SEA); OPN production was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) and ELISA; cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine). Mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 6 or 16 weeks to cause early or advanced fibrosis. Liver OPN was evaluated by qRTPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with liver fibrosis and serum OPN. Livers from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni (early fibrosis n=15; advanced fibrosis n=72) or healthy adults (n=22) were immunostained for OPN and fibrosis markers. Results were correlated with plasma OPN levels and splenic vein pressures. SEA-induced cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion (P<0.001 compared with controls). Cholangiocytes were OPN (+) in Schistosoma-infected mice and humans. Liver and serum OPN levels correlated with fibrosis stage (mice: r=0.861; human r=0.672, P=0.0001) and myofibroblast accumulation (mice: r=0.800; human: r=0.761, P=0.0001). Numbers of OPN (+) bile ductules strongly correlated with splenic vein pressure (r=0.778; P=0.001). S. mansoni egg antigens stimulate cholangiocyte proliferation and OPN secretion. OPN levels in liver and blood correlate with fibrosis stage and portal hypertension severity. PMID:26201095

  1. Effect of sleeve gastrectomy on osteopontin circulating levels and expression in adipose tissue and liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Lancha, Andoni; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) constitutes an effective procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of the present study was to establish in rats the effects of surgically induced weight loss on circulating concentrations and mRNA expression in adipose tissue and liver of osteopontin (OPN), a proinflammatory protein involved in the development of obesity. Eighty male diet-induced obese Wistar rats were subjected to surgical interventions [sham operation (SH), SG, or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by SG animals] and dietary interventions [fed ad libitum with a normal chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD)]. Body, epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT), and liver weights were determined. Circulating OPN concentrations and the transcript levels of Spp1 (OPN) in EWAT and liver were analyzed. Rats undergoing SG showed decreased body weight (P < 0.001) and fat mass (P < 0.001) and greater excess weight loss (P < 0.001). The HFD significantly decreased serum OPN levels (P < 0.001). However, SG did not change serum OPN concentrations. OPN expression was dramatically increased in animals fed HFD (P < 0.001) in EWAT, but was unaffected by SG. The expression of OPN in the liver was not affected by HFD or SG. Circulating OPN levels decreased with HFD feeding remaining unaltered after SG. The expression of Spp1 in EWAT and liver was not modified by SG. The global improvement of metabolism after SG appears not to involve changes in serum OPN concentrations as well as in EWAT and liver expression in rats.

  2. Osteopontin Is Induced by TGF-β2 and Regulates Metabolic Cell Activity in Cultured Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Friedrich; Hammer, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous humor (AH) component transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 is strongly correlated to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and was shown to up-regulate glaucoma-associated extracellular matrix (ECM) components, members of the ECM degradation system and heat shock proteins (HSP) in primary ocular cells. Here we present osteopontin (OPN) as a new TGF-β2 responsive factor in cultured human optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes. Activation was initially demonstrated by Oligo GEArray microarray and confirmed by semiquantitative (sq) RT-PCR, realtime RT-PCR and western blot. Expressions of most prevalent OPN receptors CD44 and integrin receptor subunits αV, α4, α 5, α6, α9, β1, β3 and β5 by ONH astrocytes were shown by sqRT-PCR and immunofluorescence labeling. TGF-β2 treatment did not affect their expression levels. OPN did not regulate gene expression of described TGF-β2 targets shown by sqRT-PCR. In MTS-assays, OPN had a time- and dose-dependent stimulating effect on the metabolic activity of ONH astrocytes, whereas TGF-β2 significantly reduced metabolism. OPN signaling via CD44 mediated a repressive outcome on metabolic activity, whereas signaling via integrin receptors resulted in a pro-metabolic effect. In summary, our findings characterize OPN as a TGF-β2 responsive factor that is not involved in TGF-β2 mediated ECM and HSP modulation, but affects the metabolic activity of astrocytes. A potential involvement in a protective response to TGF-β2 triggered damage is indicated, but requires further investigation. PMID:24718314

  3. Elevated expression of osteopontin may be related to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and liver steatosis in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Adeline; Deveaux, Vanessa; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Rousseau, Déborah; Anty, Rodolphe; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Dahman, Moncef; Tordjman, Joan; Clément, Karine; McQuaid, Siobhán E; Frayn, Keith N; Huet, Pierre-Michel; Gugenheim, Jean; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and liver complications in dietary murine models. We aimed to determine the expression pattern of OPN and its receptor CD44 in obese patients and mice according to insulin resistance and liver steatosis. OPN and CD44 expressions were studied in 52 morbidly obese patients and in mice. Cellular studies were performed in HepG2 cells. Hepatic OPN and CD44 expressions were strongly correlated with liver steatosis and insulin resistance in obese patients and mice. This increased OPN expression could be due to the accumulation of triglycerides, since fat loading in HepG2 promotes OPN expression. In contrast, OPN expression in adipose tissue (AT) was enhanced independently of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in obese patients. The elevated OPN expression in AT was paralleled with the AT macrophage infiltration, and both phenomena were reversed after weight loss. The circulating OPN level was slightly elevated in obese patients and was not related to liver steatosis. Further, AT did not appear to secrete OPN. In contrast, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss induced a strong increase in circulating OPN. The modestly elevated circulating OPN levels in morbidly obese patients were not related to liver steatosis and did not appear to result from adipose tissue secretion. In subcutaneous AT, expression of OPN was directly related to macrophage accumulation independently from liver complications. In contrast, hepatic OPN and CD44 expressions were related to insulin resistance and steatosis, suggesting their local implication in the progression of liver injury.

  4. The osteopontin level in liver, adipose tissue and serum is correlated with fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Patouraux, Stéphanie; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Voican, Cosmin S; Anty, Rodolphe; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Rosenthal-Allieri, Maria-Alessandra; Agostini, Hélène; Njike, Micheline; Barri-Ova, Nadége; Naveau, Sylvie; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Veillon, Pascal; Calès, Paul; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the progression of chronic liver diseases. We aimed to quantify the liver, adipose tissue and serum levels of OPN in heavy alcohol drinkers and to compare them with the histological severity of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. OPN was evaluated in the serum of a retrospective and prospective group of 109 and 95 heavy alcohol drinkers, respectively, in the liver of 34 patients from the retrospective group, and in the liver and adipose tissue from an additional group of 38 heavy alcohol drinkers. Serum levels of OPN increased slightly with hepatic inflammation and progressively with the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic OPN expression correlated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, TGFβ expression, neutrophils accumulation and with the serum OPN level. Interestingly, adipose tissue OPN expression also correlated with hepatic fibrosis even after 7 days of alcohol abstinence. The elevated serum OPN level was an independent risk factor in estimating significant (F ≥ 2) fibrosis in a model combining alkaline phosphatase, albumin, hemoglobin, OPN and FibroMeter® levels. OPN had an area under the receiving operator curve that estimated significant fibrosis of 0.89 and 0.88 in the retrospective and prospective groups, respectively. OPN, Hyaluronate (AUROC: 0.88), total Cytokeratin 18 (AUROC: 0.83) and FibroMeter® (AUROC: 0.90) estimated significance to the same extent in the retrospective group. Finally, the serum OPN levels also correlated with hepatic fibrosis and estimated significant (F ≥ 2) fibrosis in 86 patients with chronic hepatitis C, which suggested that its elevated level could be a general response to chronic liver injury. OPN increased in the liver, adipose tissue and serum with liver fibrosis in alcoholic patients. Further, OPN is a new relevant biomarker for significant liver fibrosis. OPN could thus be an important actor in the pathogenesis of this chronic liver disease.

  5. The Osteopontin Level in Liver, Adipose Tissue and Serum Is Correlated with Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voican, Cosmin S.; Anty, Rodolphe; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Rosenthal-Allieri, Maria-Alessandra; Agostini, Hélène; Njike, Micheline; Barri-Ova, Nadége; Naveau, Sylvie; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Veillon, Pascal; Calès, Paul; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in the progression of chronic liver diseases. We aimed to quantify the liver, adipose tissue and serum levels of OPN in heavy alcohol drinkers and to compare them with the histological severity of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Methodology/Principal Findings OPN was evaluated in the serum of a retrospective and prospective group of 109 and 95 heavy alcohol drinkers, respectively, in the liver of 34 patients from the retrospective group, and in the liver and adipose tissue from an additional group of 38 heavy alcohol drinkers. Serum levels of OPN increased slightly with hepatic inflammation and progressively with the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic OPN expression correlated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, TGFβ expression, neutrophils accumulation and with the serum OPN level. Interestingly, adipose tissue OPN expression also correlated with hepatic fibrosis even after 7 days of alcohol abstinence. The elevated serum OPN level was an independent risk factor in estimating significant (F≥2) fibrosis in a model combining alkaline phosphatase, albumin, hemoglobin, OPN and FibroMeter® levels. OPN had an area under the receiving operator curve that estimated significant fibrosis of 0.89 and 0.88 in the retrospective and prospective groups, respectively. OPN, Hyaluronate (AUROC: 0.88), total Cytokeratin 18 (AUROC: 0.83) and FibroMeter® (AUROC: 0.90) estimated significance to the same extent in the retrospective group. Finally, the serum OPN levels also correlated with hepatic fibrosis and estimated significant (F≥2) fibrosis in 86 patients with chronic hepatitis C, which suggested that its elevated level could be a general response to chronic liver injury. Conclusion/Significance OPN increased in the liver, adipose tissue and serum with liver fibrosis in alcoholic patients. Further, OPN is a new relevant biomarker for significant liver fibrosis. OPN could thus be an important actor in the

  6. Effect of otoconial proteins fetuin A, osteopontin, and otoconin 90 on the nucleation and growth of calcite

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Mina; Moreland, K. Trent; Chen, Jiajun; ...

    2014-10-30

    Here, we investigated the roles of three proteins associated with the formation of otoconia including fetuin A, osteopontin (OPN), and otoconin 90 (OC90). In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the effects of these proteins on the growth of atomic steps on calcite surfaces were performed to obtain insight into their effects on the growth kinetics. We also used scanning electron microscopy to examine the effects of these proteins on crystal morphology. All three proteins were found to be potent inhibitors of calcite growth, although fetuin A promoted growth at concentrations below about 40 nM and only became anmore » inhibitor at higher concentrations. We then used in situ optical microscopy to observe calcite nucleation on films of these proteins adsorbed onto mica surfaces. By measuring the calcite nucleation rate as a function of supersaturation, the value of the interfacial energy that controls the free energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation was determined for each protein. OPN and OC90 films led to significantly reduced interfacial energies as compared to the value for homogeneous calcite nucleation in bulk solution. The value for fetuin A was equal to that for bulk solution within experimental error. Zeta potential measurements showed all of the proteins possessed negative surface charge and varied in magnitude according to sequence fetuin A > OC90 > OPN. In addition, the interfacial energies exhibited an inverse scaling with the zeta potential. In analogy to previous measurements on polysaccharide films, this scaling indicates the differences between the proteins arise from the effect of protein surface charge on the solution–substrate interfacial energy.« less

  7. Osteopontin Undergoes Polymerization in Vivo and Gains Chemotactic Activity for Neutrophils Mediated by Integrin α9β1*

    PubMed Central

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Hayashita-Kinoh, Hiromi; Chen, Chun; Matsuda, Haruo; Sheppard, Dean; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding inflammatory cytokine that undergoes polymerization catalyzed by transglutaminase 2. We have previously reported that polymeric OPN (polyOPN), but not unpolymerized OPN (OPN*), attracts neutrophils in vitro by presenting an acquired binding site for integrin α9β1. Among many in vitro substrates for transglutaminase 2, only a few have evidence for in vivo polymerization and concomitant function. Although polyOPN has been identified in bone and aorta, the in vivo functional significance of polyOPN is unknown. To determine whether OPN polymerization contributes to neutrophil recruitment in vivo, we injected OPN* into the peritoneal space of mice. Polymeric OPN was detected by immunoblotting in the peritoneal wash of mice injected with OPN*, and both intraperitoneal and plasma OPN* levels were higher in mice injected with a polymerization-incompetent mutant, confirming that OPN* polymerizes in vivo. OPN* injection induced neutrophil accumulation, which was significantly less following injection of a mutant OPN that was incapable of polymerization. The importance of in vivo polymerization was further confirmed with cystamine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, which blocked the polymerization and attenuated OPN*-mediated neutrophil recruitment. The thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment of OPN, another ligand for α9β1, was not responsible for neutrophil accumulation because a thrombin cleavage-incompetent mutant recruited similar numbers of neutrophils as wild type OPN*. Neutrophil accumulation in response to both wild type and thrombin cleavage-incompetent OPN* was reduced in mice lacking the integrin α9 subunit in leukocytes, indicating that α9β1 is required for polymerization-induced recruitment. We have illustrated a physiological role of molecular polymerization by demonstrating acquired chemotactic properties for OPN. PMID:21321126

  8. Rat Urinary Osteopontin and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Improve Certainty of Detecting Drug-Induced Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan A; Holder, Daniel J; Ennulat, Daniela; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Sauer, John-Michael; Yang, Yi; McDuffie, Eric; Sonee, Manisha; Gu, Yi-Zhong; Troth, Sean P; Lynch, Karen; Hamlin, Diane; Peters, David G; Brees, Dominique; Walker, Elizabeth G

    2016-06-01

    Traditional kidney biomarkers are insensitive indicators of acute kidney injury, with meaningful changes occurring late in the course of injury. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the diagnostic potential of urinary osteopontin (OPN) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) in rats using data from a recent regulatory qualification submission of translational DIKI biomarkers and to compare performance of NGAL and OPN to five previously qualified DIKI urinary biomarkers. Data were compiled from 15 studies of 11 different pharmaceuticals contributed by Critical Path Institute's Predictive Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC) Nephrotoxicity Working Group (NWG). Rats were given doses known to cause DIKI or other target organ toxicity, and urinary levels of the candidate biomarkers were assessed relative to kidney histopathology and serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).OPN and NGAL outperformed sCr and BUN in identifying DIKI manifested as renal tubular epithelial degeneration or necrosis. In addition, urinary OPN and NGAL, when used with sCr and BUN, increased the ability to detect renal tubular epithelial degeneration or necrosis. NGAL and OPN had comparable or improved performance relative to Kim-1, clusterin, albumin, total protein, and beta-2 microglobulin. Given these data, both urinary OPN and NGAL are appropriate for use with current methods for assessing nephrotoxicity to identify and monitor DIKI in regulatory toxicology studies in rats. These data also support exploratory use of urinary OPN and NGAL in safety monitoring strategies of early clinical trials to aid in the assurance of patient safety.

  9. α-Iso-Cubebene Inhibits PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Osteopontin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min A.; Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Seung Eun; Park, So Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms. Thus, we examined the effect of ICB on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular diseases. When VSMCs primary cultured from rat thoracic aorta were stimulated with PDGF (1–10 ng/ml), cell proliferation and osteopontin (OPN) expression were concomitantly up-regulated, but these effects were attenuated when cells were treated with MPIIIB10, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody for OPN. In aortic tissues exposed to PDGF, sprouting VSMC numbers increased, which was attenuated in tissues from OPN-deficient mice. Furthermore, VSMC proliferation and OPN expression induced by PDGF were attenuated dose-dependently by ICB (10 or 30 μg/ml). Reporter assays conducted using OPN promoter-luciferase constructs showed that the promoter region 538–234 bp of the transcription start site was responsible for transcriptional activity enhancement by PDGF, which was significantly inhibited by ICB. Putative binding sites for AP-1 and C/EBPβ in the indicated promoter region were suggested by TF Search, and increased binding of AP-1 and C/EBPβ in PDGF-treated VSMCs was demonstrated using a ChIP assay. The increased bindings of AP-1 and C/EBPβ into OPN promoter were attenuated by ICB. Moreover, the PDGF-induced expression of OPN was markedly attenuated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA for AP-1 and C/EBPβ. These results indicate that ICB inhibit VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the AP-1 and C/EBPβ signaling pathways and thus downregulating OPN expression. PMID:28114367

  10. Serum Osteopontin Predicts Degree of Hepatic Fibrosis and Serves as a Biomarker in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsue, Yasuhiro; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Saito, Takashi; Tsuchishima, Mutsumi; Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; George, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein that upregulates during pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate whether serum OPN could be used as a biomarker to assess the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Needle biopsy was performed on HCV patients and scored as zero fibrosis (F0), mild fibrosis (F1), moderate fibrosis (F2), severe fibrosis (F3) and liver cirrhosis (F4) based on Masson’s trichrome and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. Serum OPN levels were measured using ELISA and correlated with the degree of fibrosis. Furthermore, the OPN values were correlated and evaluated with platelets count, serum hyaluronic acid (HA), and collagen type IV and subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Serum OPN levels were remarkably increased from F0 through F4 in a progressive manner and the differences were significant (P < 0.001) between each group. The data were highly correlated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. The ROC curve analysis depicted that serum OPN is an independent risk factor and an excellent biomarker and a prognostic index in HCV patients. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that serum OPN levels reflect the degree of hepatic fibrosis and could be used as a biomarker to assess the stage of fibrosis in HCV patients which would help to reduce the number of liver biopsies. Furthermore, serum OPN serves as a prognostic index towards the progression of hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25760884

  11. Evidence of ectokinase-mediated phosphorylation of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein by osteoblasts during bone formation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X; Luo, C; Ferrier, J M; Sodek, J

    1997-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are phosphorylated glycoproteins that, together with osteonectin/secreted protein, acidic, rich in cysteine (SPARC) and osteocalcin, comprise the major non-collagen proteins of bone. Although phosphorylation of OPN and BSP, which is known to influence the biological properties of these proteins, has been shown to occur intracellularly, recent studies have demonstrated ectokinase activity in bone cell populations [Mikuni-Takagaki, Kakai, Satoyoshi, Kawano, Suzuki, Kawase and Saito (1995) J. Bone Miner. Res. 10, 231-241]. To determine whether OPN and BSP are phosphorylated by ectokinase activity we have used [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as cell-impenetrable phosphate donors to analyse for ectokinase activity in osteoblastic UMR106.06 cells and fetal rat calvarial cells (FRCCs). By pulse-labelling confluent cells with radiolabelled nucleotides, the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenously added OPN and BSP was demonstrated together with the labelling of a number of cell surface proteins. These phosphorylation reactions were inhibited by a cell-impermeable ectokinase inhibitor, K252b, and cell surface phosphorylation was also inhibited by exogenously added OPN and BSP substrates, indicating competition for the ectokinase enzyme. However, phosphorylation of OPN and BSP, both of which can mediate cell attachment through Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motifs, was not inhibited by an RGD peptide, suggesting that binding of OPN and BSP to cell surface integrins is not required. In similar experiments, ectokinase-mediated phosphorylation of OPN and BSP was demonstrated during mineralized tissue formation by FRCCs in vitro. These studies demonstrate that OPN and BSP secreted by bone cells are phosphorylated by a casein kinase II-like ectokinase present on the surface of osteoblastic cells. PMID:9169595

  12. Magnesium-based bone implants: immunohistochemical analysis of peri-implant osteogenesis by evaluation of osteopontin and osteocalcin expression.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, A; Angrisani, N; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Seitz, J M; Waizy, H; Reifenrath, J

    2014-05-01

    The functions of some bone proteins, as osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), have been discovered by the latest studies. This fact suggests the possibility of their immunodetection to characterize peri-implant osteogenesis and implant impact on it. Cylindrical pins of Mg alloys (MgCa0.8, LAE442, ZEK100, LANd442) and titanium alloy (TiAl6V4) were implanted into the tibial medullae of 46 rabbits. Each group was divided regarding to implant duration (3 and 6 months). Bone samples adjacent to the implants were decalcified and treated with routine histological and immunohistochemical protocols using OC and OPN-antibodies. OC was detected in matrix of compact bone, but very rarely in osteoid and bone cells. OPN was detected intracellularly and in osteoid. After 3 months, the highest level of both markers was found in titanium group, followed by LAE442-group. In contrast to LAE442 and TiAl6V4, the other Mg alloys showed increasing levels of OC after 6 months. Lower levels of OP and OC compared to the control group are related to the continuous implant degradation and instability of bone-implant interface in early post-surgical period. Reduced marker's expression in LAE442 and TiAl6V4 groups after 6 months may indicate stabilization of bone-implant interface and completion of peri-implant neo-osteogenesis. Declining characters of OC and OPN expression over the implantation time, as well as their lowest levels in late post-surgical term, suggest a more appropriate biocompatibility of LAE442, which therefore seems to be the most preferable of the tested materials for the use in orthopaedic applications.

  13. Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Jea, Seung-Youn; Oh, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Douglas J; Fautsch, Michael P

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes. METHODS. OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)-treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS. OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.

  14. Osteopontin (OPN) Is an Important Protein to Mediate Improvements in the Biocompatibility of C Ion-Implanted Silicone Rubber

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Shen, Li-ru; Lei, Ze-yuan; Zhang, Zhi-qing; Cao, Cong; Fan, Dong-li

    2014-01-01

    Medical device implants are drawing increasing amounts of interest from modern medical practitioners. However, this attention is not evenly spread across all such devices; most of these implantable devices can cause adverse reactions such as inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis, and infection. In this work, the biocompatibility of silicone rubber (SR) was improved through carbon (C) ion implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that these newly generated carbon-implanted silicone rubbers (C-SRs) had large, irregular peaks and deep valleys on their surfaces. The water contact angle of the SR surface decreased significantly after C ion implantation. C ion implantation also changed the surface charge distribution, silicone oxygen rate, and chemical-element distribution of SR to favor cell attachment. The dermal fibroblasts cultured on the surface C-SR grew faster and showed more typical fibroblastic shapes. The expression levels of major adhesion proteins, including talin-1, zyxin, and vinculin, were significantly higher in dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR coated plates than in dermal fibroblasts cultured on SR. Those same dermal fibroblasts on C-SRs showed more pronounced adhesion and migration abilities. Osteopontin (OPN), a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, was up-regulated and secreted from dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also increased. These cells were highly mobile and were able to adhere to surfaces, but these abilities were inhibited by the monoclonal antibody against OPN, or by shRNA-mediated MMP-9 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that C ion implantation significantly improves SR biocompatibility, and that OPN is important to promote cell adhesion to the C-SR surface. PMID:24911051

  15. Effect of otoconial proteins fetuin A, osteopontin, and otoconin 90 on the nucleation and growth of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Mina; Moreland, K. Trent; Chen, Jiajun; Teng, Henry H.; Thalmann, Ruediger; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-10-30

    Here, we investigated the roles of three proteins associated with the formation of otoconia including fetuin A, osteopontin (OPN), and otoconin 90 (OC90). In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the effects of these proteins on the growth of atomic steps on calcite surfaces were performed to obtain insight into their effects on the growth kinetics. We also used scanning electron microscopy to examine the effects of these proteins on crystal morphology. All three proteins were found to be potent inhibitors of calcite growth, although fetuin A promoted growth at concentrations below about 40 nM and only became an inhibitor at higher concentrations. We then used in situ optical microscopy to observe calcite nucleation on films of these proteins adsorbed onto mica surfaces. By measuring the calcite nucleation rate as a function of supersaturation, the value of the interfacial energy that controls the free energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation was determined for each protein. OPN and OC90 films led to significantly reduced interfacial energies as compared to the value for homogeneous calcite nucleation in bulk solution. The value for fetuin A was equal to that for bulk solution within experimental error. Zeta potential measurements showed all of the proteins possessed negative surface charge and varied in magnitude according to sequence fetuin A > OC90 > OPN. In addition, the interfacial energies exhibited an inverse scaling with the zeta potential. In analogy to previous measurements on polysaccharide films, this scaling indicates the differences between the proteins arise from the effect of protein surface charge on the solution–substrate interfacial energy.

  16. The Dietary Supplement Protandim® Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Rabon, Rick E.; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K.; McCord, Joe M.; Tseng, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim® is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim® provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim®-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim® chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim®, a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim® group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim®-treated mice. Protandim® increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim® showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim® did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria. PMID:20740052

  17. The Dietary Supplement Protandim Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C; Arevalo, Nicole L; Rabon, Rick E; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K; McCord, Joe M; Tseng, Brian S

    2010-06-01

    Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim((R)) is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim((R)) provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim((R))-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim((R)) chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim((R)), a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim((R)) group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim((R))-treated mice. Protandim((R)) increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim((R)) showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim((R)) did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria.

  18. Improvement of cosmological neutrino mass bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusarma, Elena; Gerbino, Martina; Mena, Olga; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Ho, Shirley; Freese, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    The most recent measurements of the temperature and low-multipole polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck satellite, when combined with galaxy clustering data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey in the form of the full shape of the power spectrum, and with baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, provide a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper bound on the sum of the three active neutrinos ∑mν<0.183 eV , among the tightest neutrino mass bounds in the literature, to date, when the same data sets are taken into account. This very same data combination is able to set, at ˜70 % C.L., an upper limit on ∑mν of 0.0968 eV, a value that approximately corresponds to the minimal mass expected in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy scenario. If high-multipole polarization data from Planck is also considered, the 95% C.L. upper bound is tightened to ∑mν<0.176 eV . Further improvements are obtained by considering recent measurements of the Hubble parameter. These limits are obtained assuming a specific nondegenerate neutrino mass spectrum; they slightly worsen when considering other degenerate neutrino mass schemes. Low-redshift quantities, such as the Hubble constant or the reionization optical depth, play a very important role when setting the neutrino mass constraints. We also comment on the eventual shifts in the cosmological bounds on ∑mν when possible variations in the former two quantities are addressed.

  19. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli enterobactin-specific isochorismate synthase (EntC) bound to its reaction product isochorismate: implications for the enzyme mechanism and differential activity of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sudharsan; Howard, Nigel; Kerbarh, Olivier; Błaszczyk, Michał; Abell, Chris; Blundell, Tom L

    2010-03-19

    EntC, one of two isochorismate synthases in Escherichia coli, is specific to the biosynthesis of the siderophore enterobactin. Here, we report the crystal structure of EntC in complex with isochorismate and Mg(2+)at 2.3 A resolution, the first structure of a chorismate-utilizing enzyme with a non-aromatic reaction product. EntC exhibits a complex alpha+beta fold like the other chorismate-utilizing enzymes, such as salicylate synthase and anthranilate synthase. Comparison of active site structures allowed the identification of several residues, not discussed previously, that might be important for the isochorismate activity of the EntC. Although EntC, MenF and Irp9 all convert chorismate to isochorismate, only Irp9 subsequently exhibits isochorismate pyruvate lyase activity resulting in the formation of salicylate and pyruvate as the reaction products. With a view to understanding the roles of these amino acid residues in the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate and to obtaining clues about the pyruvate lyase activity of Irp9, several mutants of EntC were generated in which the selected residues in EntC were substituted for those of Irp9: these included A303T, L304A, F327Y, I346L and F359Q mutations. Biochemical analysis of these mutants indicated that the side chain of A303 in EntC may be crucial in the orientation of the carbonyl to allow formation of a hydrogen bond with isochorismate. Some mutations, such as L304A and F359Q, give rise to a loss of catalytic activity, whereas others, such as F327Y and I346L, show that subtle changes in the otherwise closely similar active sites influence activity. We did not find a combination of these residues that conferred pyruvate lyase activity.

  20. Triple head-to-head comparison of fibrotic biomarkers galectin-3, osteopontin and gremlin-1 for long-term prognosis in suspected and proven acute heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Behnes, Michael; Bertsch, Thomas; Weiss, Christel; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz; Akin, Ibrahim; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Lang, Siegfried; Neumaier, Michael; Borggrefe, Martin; Hoffmann, Ursula

    2016-01-15

    To comparatively evaluate long-term prognostic values of fibrotic biomarkers galectin-3, gremlin-1 and osteopontin in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) suspected of acute heart failure (AHF). Patients with acute dyspnea or peripheral edema were enrolled in the ED. Biomarkers were measured and added to prognostic models including 11 conventional risk factors plus NT-proBNP assessing state-of-the-art statistics of discrimination, calibration, reclassification and Cox regression analyses. Prognostic outcomes were long-term all-cause mortality (ACM) and AHF-related rehospitalization (AHF-RH) at 1 and 5 years. 401 patients including 122 AHF patients were enrolled (mean age 67 years, males 51%). During 5 years follow-up 129 patients (30%) died and 73 (18%) were re-hospitalized because of AHF. In multivariate analysis, galectin-3 (hazard ratios (HR) range 1.4–1.9; p = 0.03) and osteopontin (HR range 1.2–1.4; p = 0.001) remained associated with ACM overall and in the AHF population at 5 years, whereas gremlin-1 remained associated with AHF-RH at 1 year in AHF patients (HR 1.3; p = 0.002). ACM in whole cohort was best discriminated (AUC = 0.85, p = 0.0001), calibrated and re-classified (NRI + 0.50 to + 0.56, p = 0.0001) by galectin-3, whereas in AHF patients ACM was bes