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Sample records for osteoprotegerin total soluble

  1. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Tyrovola, Joanna B; Perrea, Despoina; Halazonetis, Dimitrios J; Dontas, Ismene; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Makou, Margarita

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption.

  2. Osteoprotegerin protects against muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Frenette, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-activator of NF-κB, its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Although there is a strong association between osteoporosis and skeletal muscle atrophy/dysfunction, the functional relevance of a particular biological pathway that synchronously regulates bone and skeletal muscle physiopathology still is elusive. Here, we show that muscle cells can produce and secrete osteoprotegerin and pharmacologic treatment of dystrophic mdx mice with recombinant osteoprotegerin muscles. (Recombinant osteoprotegerin-Fc mitigates the loss of muscle force in a dose-dependent manner and preserves muscle integrity, particularly in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus.) Our data identify osteoprotegerin as a novel protector of muscle integrity, and it potentially represents a new therapeutic avenue for both muscular diseases and osteoporosis.

  3. Circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in polycystic ovary syndrome: relationships to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pepene, Carmen Emanuela; Ilie, Ioana Rada; Marian, Ioan; Duncea, Ileana

    2011-01-01

    There is plenty of evidence that osteoprotegerin (OPG) is linked to subclinical vascular damage and predicts cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. Our aim is to investigate the relationships of OPG/free soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (sRANKL) to insulin resistance, brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, impaired glucose control, and endothelial injury. A cross-sectional, observational study. Hormonal and metabolic profiles, FMD, CIMT, serum OPG, and ampli-sRANKL were assessed in 64 young PCOS patients and 20 controls of similar age. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. OPG was significantly lower in PCOS and related negatively to free testosterone and positively to estradiol (E(2)) levels. In multivariate analysis, OPG but not ampli-sRANKL correlated positively to fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity indices, and FMD. Neither OPG nor ampli-sRANKL was associated with CIMT. Significantly lower adjusted FMD values were demonstrated in women in the upper OPG quartile group (>2.65 pmol/l) compared with all other quartile groups together (P=0.012). In PCOS, multiple regression analysis retained E(2)/sex hormone-binding globulin ratio, fat mass, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance as independent predictors of OPG. In PCOS, circulating OPG is related to both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, independent of obesity and androgen excess, suggesting OPG as a useful biomarker of these effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate OPG in relation to cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in PCOS.

  4. C-telopeptide pyridinoline crosslinks of type I collagen, soluble RANKL, and osteoprotegerin levels in crevicular fluid of dental implants with peri-implantitis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Fatih; Buduneli, Nurcan; Lappin, David F

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate levels of C-telopeptide pyridinoline crosslinks of type I collagen (ICTP), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the crevicular fluid of endosseous dental implants with the clinical diagnosis of peri-implantitis and to compare these with the crevicular fluid of clinically healthy implants. Peri-implant crevicular fluid samples were obtained from 18 root-type implants with peri-implantitis in 12 patients and 21 clinically healthy implants in 16 other patients. Modified Plaque Index, probing depths, Gingival Index, and bleeding on probing were recorded at the crevicular fluid sampling sites. ICTP, sRANKL, OPG, and albumin levels in the peri-implant crevicular fluid samples were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical and biochemical data were evaluated statistically using Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman correlations were used to determine relationships between the biochemical data and the clinical parameters. Duration of implant loading, peri-implant crevicular fluid volume, and all clinical periodontal measurements were significantly greater in the peri-implantitis group than in the clinically healthy group. Total amounts of ICTP were significantly higher in the peri-implantitis group than in the healthy group. sRANKL concentrations, OPG total amounts, and OPG concentrations were significantly higher in the healthy group. The present findings suggest that local levels of ICTP and OPG reflect an increased risk of alveolar bone loss around dental implants, and their local levels may help to distinguish diseased and healthy sites.

  5. Osteoprotegerin and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Montañez-Barragán, Alejandra; Gómez-Barrera, Isaias; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Ucero, Alvaro C; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is associated to increased mortality. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily receptor that inhibits the actions of the cytokines receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by preventing their binding to signaling receptors in the cell membrane. OPG-deficient mice display vascular calcification while OPG prevented calcification of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and protected kidney cells from TRAIL-induced death. OPG may be a biomarker in patients with kidney disease. Circulating OPG is increased in predialysis, dialysis and transplant CKD patients and may predict vascular calcification progression and patient survival. By contrast, circulating OPG is decreased in nephrotic syndrome. In addition, free and exosome-bound urinary OPG is increased in human kidney disease. Increased urinary OPG has been associated with lupus nephritis activity. Despite the association of high OPG levels with disease, experimental functional information available suggests that OPG might be protective in kidney disease and in vascular injury in the context of uremia. Thus, tissue injury results in increased OPG, while OPG may protect from tissue injury. Recombinant OPG was safe in phase I randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to fully define the therapeutic and biomarker potential of OPG in patients with kidney disease.

  6. Relationship between circulating serum osteoprotegerin and total receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand levels, triglycerides, and coronary calcification in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Indu G; Mackey, Rachel H; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cauley, Jane A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of blood osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL) levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk factors in two studies of postmenopausal women. OPG, a marker of bone turnover, and its ligand, RANKL, may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that serum OPG and RANKL levels were associated with CAC and cardiovascular disease risk factors among postmenopausal women in the Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition Study (WOMAN Study; n = 86; mean [SD], age 58 [2.9] y) and replicated our findings in the Healthy Women Study (HWS; n = 205; mean [SD] age, 61 [2.3] y). Serum OPG, total RANKL, and CAC were measured at baseline and 48 months in the WOMAN Study and on the eighth postmenopausal visit in the HWS. In the WOMAN Study, higher OPG was associated with higher CAC, and higher total RANKL was associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In the HWS, higher total RANKL was also associated with lower CAC and triglycerides. In logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index and triglycerides, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in OPG were 1.78 (1.17-2.73) for the WOMAN Study and 1.02 (0.84-1.24) for the HWS, and the odds ratios (95% CIs) for CAC per unit increase in log total RANKL were 0.86 (0.64-1.17) for the WOMAN Study and 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for the HWS. The inverse association of total RANKL with CAC and triglycerides is a new finding and may have important implications given the increasing use of drugs that modify total RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of nuclear κ-B.

  7. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand levels in patients with a history of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a case-controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Massimo; Cecoli, Francesca; Fazzuoli, Laura; De Franchis, Vincenzina; Ceresola, Enrica; Ferone, Diego; Mussap, Michele; Minuto, Francesco

    2007-05-01

    Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with changes in bone metabolism, whereas the effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) load in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANK-L) in patients with DTC with suppressed endogenous thyrotropin due to L-T4 regimen. A cohort of 80 subjects with DTC (68 women and 12 men; age range, 27-81 years) was studied. A cohort of 55 subjects with a history of partial or total surgery for nonmalignant thyroid pathology served as a control group. Groups were matched for sex, age, and body mass index. Per-week dosage of L-T4 was significantly higher in patients with DTC than in controls (P < .001). More elevated free T(4) concentrations (P < .001) and more suppressed thyrotropin and thyroglobulin levels (P < .001) were found in subjects with DTC than in controls. No difference in serum or urinary parameters related to bone metabolism or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was noted between the groups. Overall, OPG levels were similar in both groups but were significantly (P = .03) lower in postmenopausal women with DTC than in postmenopausal control women. Only control women showed lower OPG levels in premenopausal than in postmenopausal (P = .002) conditions. Overall, RANK-L levels were significantly higher (P = .03) in subjects with DTC than in controls. In both groups, OPG and RANK-L levels were unrelated to each other. A significant positive correlation was seen between OPG levels and age in both subjects with DTC (P < .001) and controls (P < .001). Serum RANK-L correlated negatively with age in subjects with DTC (P = .05). Although there were several differences in L-T4 dosages, OPG and RANK-L levels were similar in patients with a history of DTC and those with a history of nonmalignant thyroid diseases. The correlation between circulating OPG and RANK-L levels was not significant. The increase

  8. Total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Chile.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Carola A; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Cury, Jaime A

    2012-12-01

    Regardless of the total amount of fluoride (F) in a dentifrice, only the soluble fraction presents anti-caries activity and its concentration must be above 1000 ppm. No information regarding the quality of F in Chilean toothpastes is available. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the F concentration present in commercially-available toothpastes in Chile. Eighteen toothpastes of five different brands were tested, each purchased from three different chain drugstores in Chile. For each toothpaste, total, total soluble and ionic F concentrations were assessed and expressed as ppm of F (μg F/g). Among the dentifrices evaluated, 77.8% contained NaF (sodium fluoride), 16.7% MFP (monofluorphosphate) and 5.6% both types of F salts; 77.2% of the dentifrices showed similar total F content to that declared by the manufacturer in the labeling with only five with lower concentration than expected, beyond a 5% disagreement tolerance range. Total soluble F ranged from 958.8-1496.3 ppm (mean ± SD: 1270.5 ± 183.7). Five toothpastes showed lower total soluble F than total F. Only one toothpaste showed soluble salt levels below the recommended dose for this type of dentifrice. Most Chilean dentifrices evaluated contained soluble F within the range of 1000-1500 ppm and, therefore, may have anti-caries activity.

  9. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  10. Soluble and total myrosinase activity in defatted Crambe abyssinica meal.

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, M G; Iori, R; Palmieri, S

    2001-02-01

    Crambe defatted meal contains 4-6% w/w of glucosinolates, with epiprogoitrin accounting for >90% of the total. This feature limits the use of the meal as feed due to the antinutritional properties of myrosinase-glucosinolate breakdown products. In this context, myrosinase activity assumes particular importance. In this study the total and soluble myrosinase activities have been evaluated directly on defatted meals of eight Crambe abyssinica varieties. The pH-stat method, which is the most suitable for assays in heterogeneous solid-water systems, was used. The total myrosinase activity in C. abyssinica varieties, determined using epiprogoitrin as substrate, ranged from 288 to 653 units g(-1). These activity values were up to 26 times higher than those obtained using other substrates, namely, sinigrin, glucosinalbin, glucotropaeolin, progoitrin, and glucoraphenin. Crambe myrosinase is unusual in that, unlike other Brassicaceae containing a typical main glucosinolate, it does not show the same specificity toward its natural substrates.

  11. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  12. TGF-β1, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin, and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand in girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Zofia; Ziora, Katarzyna; Oświęcimska, Joanna; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Marek, Bogdan; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Gołąbek, Karolina; Wołkowska-Pokrywa, Kinga; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Numerous investigations, and especially in vitro studies, indicate that TGF-β1 may act as an important regulator of bone remodelling. Thus, it could be expected that disturbances of this cytokine production observed by several researchers might play a role in the mechanism leading to the development of osteoporosis in girls with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the study was to determine whether 1) girls with AN exhibited a relationship between TGF-β1 and bone metabolism (as assessed based on serum OC and CTx concentrations) and 2) whether OPG and sRANKL might modify the possible relationship between TGF-β1 and bone metabolism. Serum concentrations of TGF-β, OC, CTx, OPG, and its soluble ligand sRANKL were determined by ELISA in 60 girls with AN and in 20 healthy controls (C). All study participants were aged 13 to 17 years. Body weight, BMI, BMI-SDS and the Cole index, serum TGF-β1, OC, CTx, and the OPG/sRANKL ratio were significantly reduced, while OPG and sRANKL levels were significantly increased, in girls with AN compared to healthy participants. BMI and the Cole index correlated negatively and significantly with serum CTx and OPG (AN group) or CTx only (groups C and C + AN). Girls with AN showed a positive and significant correlation between the Cole index and serum TGF-β1. The combination group (C + AN) showed a positive and significant correlation between BMI, the Cole index, and the OPG/sRANKL ratio and TGF-β1 concentration, while TGF-β1 correlated positively and significantly with OC concentrations and the OPG/sRANKL ratio. The Cole index and BMI were identified to be significant and independent predictors of CTx (C, AN, and C+AN groups) and OPG (AN group); the Cole index, BMI, and TGF-β1 independently predicted the OPG/sRANKL ratio (C, AN, and C + AN groups); TGF-β1 was found to be an independent predictor of OC (C + AN group). Changes in bone markers, OPG, and/or OPG/sRANKL ratio observed in girls with AN are associated with changes in serum

  13. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  14. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7–8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78–0.90 and 0.79–0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties. PMID:26217951

  15. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7-8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78-0.90 and 0.79-0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties.

  16. Measurement of Soluble and Total Hexavalent Chromium in the Ambient Airborne Particles in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Shin, Jin Young; Fan, Zhihua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and may have both soluble and insoluble forms. The sum of the two forms is defined as total Cr(VI). Currently, there were no methods suitable for large-scale monitoring of total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This study developed a method to measure total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This method includes PM collection using a Teflon filter, microwave extraction with 3% Na2CO3-2% NaOH at 95°C for 60 minutes, and Cr(VI) analysis by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetry at 540 nm. The recoveries of total Cr(VI) were 119.5 ± 10.4% and 106.3 ± 16.7% for the Cr(VI)-certified reference materials, SQC 012 and SRM 2700, respectively. Total Cr(VI) in the reference urban PM (NIST 1648a) was 26.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg (%CV = 11.9%) determined by this method. The method detection limit was 0.33 ng/m3. This method and the one previously developed to measure ambient Cr(VI), which is soluble in pH ~9.0 aqueous solution, were applied to measure Cr(VI) in ambient PM10 collected from three urban areas and one suburban area in New Jersey. The total Cr(VI) concentrations were 1.05–1.41 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.99–1.56 ng/m3 in the summer. The soluble Cr(VI) concentrations were 0.03–0.19 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.12–0.37 ng/m3 in the summer. The summer mean ratios of soluble to total Cr(VI) were 14.3–43.7%, significantly higher than 4.2–14.4% in the winter. The winter concentrations of soluble and total Cr(VI) in the suburban area were significantly lower than in the three urban areas. The results suggested that formation of Cr(VI) via atmospheric chemistry may contribute to the higher soluble Cr(VI) concentrations in the summer. PMID:26120324

  17. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  18. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  19. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  20. Reduction in diarrhea incidence by soluble fiber in patients receiving total or supplemental enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Homann, H H; Kemen, M; Fuessenich, C; Senkal, M; Zumtobel, V

    1994-01-01

    Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Although the causes of diarrhea are diverse, the enteral nutrition solution is frequently suspected of playing a leading role in causing diarrhea. Our randomized, prospective, double-blind trial with 100 patients assessed the effects of feeding a standard diet (Nutrodrip Standard) vs the same diet supplemented with 20 g of soluble fiber, containing partially hydrolyzed guar gum (Sunfiber), per 1000 mL. Thirty patients received total enteral nutrition postoperatively, and 70 patients received enteral supplementation. The patients receiving total enteral nutrition with soluble fiber had decreased diarrhea but increased flatulence. In none of these patients did enteral feeding have to be discontinued because of gastrointestinal side effects, whereas in four patients who were on a standard diet, enteral feeding had to be interrupted because of diarrhea (p < .05). Similar observations were made in patients receiving enteral supplementation. In both groups, the incidence of diarrhea decreased significantly with the soluble fiber diet compared with the standard diet (6 vs 15, p < .05). Enteral feeding with a formula supplemented with partially hydrolyzed guar gum reduces the incidence of diarrhea in patients receiving total enteral nutrition as well as in those receiving enteral supplementation, regardless of the cause of diarrhea. The increased hydrogen production and the significantly higher rate of flatulence are likely to result from fermentation of the soluble fiber in the colon, with concomitant production of short-chain fatty acids, which leads to increased absorption of short-chain fatty acids, sodium, and water by the colonocytes. This effect, together with the observed cholecystokinin-mediated decrease in colonic transit time with partially hydrolyzed guar gum, may explain the reduction in the incidence of diarrhea in this study.

  1. Physical training increases osteoprotegerin in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Sven A; Andersson, Göran; Brinck, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether mechanical loading by exercise over a 1-year period in postmenopausal women had an effect on the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system or the levels of the Wnt-signaling antagonist sclerostin. A total of 112 postmenopausal were randomized to either sedentary life (controls) or physical activity (training group). Ninety-two women fulfilled the study protocol. The training program consisted of three fast 30-min walks and one or two 1-h aerobic training sessions per week. The effect on the bone mineral density of the hip assessed with dual X-ray absorptiometry was positive as reported earlier. Blood samples were taken from participants at baseline and after 1 year and serum levels of OPG, RANKL and sclerostin were quantified together with the bone metabolism markers C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). The results were analyzed using an analysis of covariance model using baseline values as the covariate. The training group displayed a clear mean increase of OPG +7.55 pg/ml compared to controls (p = 0.007). The mean changes for RANKL +0.19 pg/ml (square-root transformed data) and sclerostin +0.62 pmol/l were non-significant (p = 0.13 and p = 0.34). The changes in bone turnover markers CTX and BALP showed a tendency to decrease in the training group versus controls but the changes were small and non-significant. Although our study is limited in number of participating women, we have been able to show an OPG-associated, and RANKL- and sclerostin-independent, training-induced inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss.

  2. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, G. Di; Mansueto, P.; Melluso, M.; Morici, G.; Cigna, D.; Candore, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23) from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity. PMID:18475696

  3. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  4. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  5. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  6. NOTCH1 Mutations in Aortic Stenosis: Association with Osteoprotegerin/RANK/RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Zhiduleva, Ekaterina; Freylikhman, Olga; Rotar, Oxana; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana; Kostareva, Anna; Moiseeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Background. The NOTCH pathway is known to be important in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease, possibly through regulators of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL) system. The purpose of the present study was to search for possible associations between NOTCH1 gene mutations and circulating levels of OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Methods. The study was performed on 61 patients with AS including 31 with bicuspid and 30 with tricuspid aortic valves. We applied a strategy of targeted mutation screening for 10 out of 34 exons of the NOTCH1 gene by direct sequencing. Serum OPG and sRANKL levels were assessed. Results. In total, 6 genetic variants of the NOTCH1 gene including two new mutations were identified in the study group. In an age- and arterial hypertension-adjusted multivariable regression analysis, the serum OPG levels and the OPG/sRANKL ratio were correlated with NOTCH1 missense variants. All studied missense variants in NOTCH1 gene were found in Ca(2+)-binding EGF motif of the NOTCH extracellular domain bound to Delta-like 4. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the OPG/RANKL/RANK system might be directly influenced by genetic variants of NOTCH1 in aortic valve calcification. PMID:28246602

  7. Changes in total soluble proteins and Ca2+ upon cryopreservation of Prunus mume pollen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y L; Li, B L; Wang, H; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mei Flowers (Prunus mume) are traditional Chinese ornamental plants. Fifty-one Mei cultivars have been conserved in a pollen cryobank since 2003. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of total soluble proteins and flow cytometric detection of Ca2+ fluorescence to probe changes in pollen grains before and after cryopreservation. Results indicated that: (1) electrophoresis maps of total soluble proteins before and after cryostorage of pollen from three cultivars were different, even though 70 percent of the protein spots among these three cultivars were matched after cryopreservation. We found some protein spots that changed in all three cultivars; their molecular weights and pI were between 12.6-72.8 kDa and 5.6-7.3, respectively; (2): the geometric mean of Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (GMFI) value of cryopreserved pollen was significantly higher compared with that of fresh pollen in cultivar 'Beijing Yudie'. GMFI increased during pollen germination in our studied cultivars, especially after 0.5 and 1.0 h of culturing. In addition, no positive correlation was found between pollen germination rate and GMFI in the present study.

  8. Total and acid-soluble fluoride content of infant cereals, beverages and biscuits from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, M A; de Almeida, B S; Cardoso, V E; Olympio, K P; Furlani, T de Almeida

    2004-03-01

    Total fluoride (TF) and HCl 0.01 M ('gastric juice')-soluble fluoride (SF) were analysed in infant foods, beverages and calcium-rich biscuits. Samples were divided into seven categories: children cereals (A), chocolate-flavoured milk (B), soy beverages (C), filled biscuits (D), non-filled biscuits (E), wafer biscuits (F) and corn starch biscuits (G). Mean TF concentrations +/- SD (amplitude, unit microgram F ml-1 or microgram F g-1) were: (A) 4.25 +/- 3.04 (0.20-7.84, n = 6); (B) 0.34 +/- 0.47 (0.05-1.27, n = 6); (C) 0.15 +/- 0.07 (0.09-0.29, n = 8); (D) 8.44 +/- 1.76 (7.65-10.47, n = 4); (E) 12.41 +/- 1.15 (10.69-13.68, n = 4); (F) 0.35 +/- 0 (0.34-0.36, n = 4) and (G) 7.77 +/- 1.12 (6.86-8.68, n = 2). Five samples of cereals, one sample of chocolate-flavoured milk and 10 samples of biscuits were analysed for SF. In cereals analysed for SF, all fluoride was soluble, while for the chocolate-flavoured milk, approximately 50% of TF was soluble. Regarding the biscuits analysed for SF approximately 20% of TF was soluble. It was observed that some of the cereals and beverages, and most of the biscuits analysed, might be important contributors to total daily fluoride intake. When consumed just once per day, cereals and beverages might supply up to 25% of the maximum recommended daily fluoride intake (0.07 mg F kg-1 body weight) for a 2-year-old child (12 kg). For the filled, non-filled and corn starch biscuits, when 3, 32 or 20 units of them, respectively, are consumed just once per day, they may supply up to 16% of the maximum recommended daily fluoride intake. However, only approximately 25% of fluoride absorption occurs from the stomach and 75% from the small intestine. Therefore, a higher fluoride bioavailability is possible.

  9. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels with Bone Loss in Chronic Kidney Disease: Insights from the KNOW-CKD Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Han, Seung Hyeok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Lee, Joongyub; Chae, Dong Wan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Patients aged ≥50 years and with a T-score ≤ –2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated independent association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (B: –0.489, 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.883 to –0.095, P = 0.015), and total hip (B: –0.349, 95% CI: –0.672 to –0.027, P = 0.027). However, bone mineral density of the femur neck was not associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels in women. After adjustments, no independent association was found between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone mineral density in men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum osteoprotegerin levels were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR]: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.35 to 16.52, P = 0.015), but not in men (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.31, P = 0.095). To summarize, in female patients with chronic kidney disease, increased serum osteoprotegerin levels were independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and total hip, and with increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the measurement of serum osteoprotegerin concentration might be useful as a surrogate marker for determining bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially for women, although not so

  10. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets. 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Burton, J W; Brake, J

    2008-03-01

    Dietary Ca has been reported to influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and affect the solubility of P in excreta. To address the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion, 12 dietary treatments were fed to broilers from 16 to 21 d of age. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of phytate P (0.10, 0.24, and 0.28%) and 4 levels of Ca (0.47, 0.70, 0.93, and 1.16%) in a randomized complete block design. Feed phytate concentrations were varied by formulating diets with 3 different soybean meals (SBM): a low-phytate SBM, a commercial SBM, and a high phytate Prolina SBM having phytate P concentrations of 0.15 to 0.51%. Fresh excreta was collected from cages during 2 separate 24-h periods; collection I commenced after the start of dietary treatments (16 to 17 d) and collection II followed a 3-d adaptation period (19 to 20 d). Ileal samples were also collected at 21 d. Excreta samples were analyzed for total P, water soluble P (WSP), and phytate P, whereas ileal samples were analyzed for total P and phytate P. Results indicated that excreta total P could be reduced by up to 63% and WSP by up to 66% with dietary inclusion of low-phytate SBM. There was a significant effect of dietary Ca on both the excreta WSP and the ratio of WSP:total P. As dietary Ca increased, the excreta WSP and WSP:total P decreased, with the effects being more pronounced following a dietary adaptation period. There was a linear relationship between the slope of the response in WSP to dietary Ca and feed phytate content for excreta from collection II (r(2) = 0.99). There was also a negative correlation between excreta phytate concentration and excreta WSP during both excreta collections. The response in WSP to dietary manipulation was important from an environmental perspective because WSP in excreta has been related to potential for off-site P losses following land application.

  11. Anthropogenic Influence on Secondary Aerosol Formation and Total Water-Soluble Carbon on Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, Adriana; Mateus, Vinicius; Monteiro, Isabela; Taira, Fabio; Esteves, Veronica; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    On a global scale, the atmosphere is an important source of nutrients, as well as pollutants, because of its interfaces with soil and water. Important compounds in the gaseous phase are in both organic and inorganic forms, such as organic acids, nitrogen, sulfur and chloride. In spite of the species in gas form, a huge number of process, anthropogenic and natural, are able to form aerosols, which may be transported over long distances. Sulfates e nitrates are responsible for rain acidity; they may also increase the solubility of organic compounds and metals making them more bioavailable, and also can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected in a rural and industrial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to quantify chemical species and evaluate anthropogenic influences in secondary aerosol formation and organic compounds. Samples were collected during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from August 2010 to July 2011. The aerosol mass was determined by Gravimetry. The water-soluble ionic composition (WSIC) was obtained by Ion Chromatography in order to determine the major anions (NO3-, SO4= and Cl-); total water-soluble carbon (TWSC) was determined by a TOC analyzer. The average aerosol (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 1 to 43 ug/m3 in the industrial site and from 4 to 35 ug/m3 in the rural area. Regarding anions, the highest concentrations were measured for SO42- (10.6 μg/m3-12.6 μg/m3); where the lowest value was found in the rural site and the highest in the industrial. The concentrations for NO3- and Cl- ranged from 4.2 μg/m3 to 9.3 μg/m3 and 3.1 μg/m3 to 6.4 μg /m3, respectively. Sulfate was the major species and, like nitrate, it is related to photooxidation in the atmosphere. Interestingly sulfate concentrations were higher during the dry period and could be related to photochemistry activity. The correlations between nitrate and non-sea-salt sulfate were weak, suggesting different sources for these

  12. Estimated fluoride doses from toothpastes should be based on total soluble fluoride.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria José L; Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2013-11-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children's toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children's toothpaste is used.

  13. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Tenuta, Livia M. A.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children’s toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used. PMID:24189183

  14. Development of a Total Organic Carbon method for the quantitative determination of solubility enhancement by cyclodextrins: Application to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) is known to enhance guest solubility in aqueous medium. Different techniques allow determining the evolution in solubility of individual guest compounds. However, examination of mixtures solubility encapsulated in CDs is still a challenge. This is mainly related to the difference in the response of mixture components to the applied technique or to the fact that most of the conventional methods examine the signal of an individual constituent of the mixture. Thus, applying current techniques may not reflect the behavior of the whole mixture. Here, we used for the first time Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis to explore and assess the efficiency of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to enhance the solubility of natural complex mixtures such as essential oils (EOs). Phase solubility studies were performed for eleven EOs with HP-β-CD. The TOC method has provided good validation parameters for linearity, precision and accuracy. For further validation of the method, phase solubility studies were performed with HP-β-CD for eugenol, as a model EO component. The eugenol solubility was determined by UV-Visible and TOC analyses in order to compare the results. Data obtained from both methods were similar (p < 0.05), thereby proving the effectiveness of the developed TOC method. Finally, the phase solubility diagrams of EOs showed that the solubilizing potential of CD increased proportionally with the decrease in EO intrinsic solubility. Results proved that TOC could be successfully applied to investigate CD/guest inclusion complexes and is expected to have a broad range of applications in the field of mixtures encapsulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nondestructive determination of total soluble solid content and firmness in plums using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paz, Patricia; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero, José-Emilio; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2008-04-23

    The fruit industry requires rapid, economical, and nondestructive methods for classifying fruit by internal quality, which can be built into the processing line. Total soluble solid content and firmness are the two indicators of plum internal quality that most affect consumer acceptance. These parameters are routinely evaluated using methods which involve destruction of the fruit; as a result, only control batches can be analyzed. The development of nondestructive analytical methods would enable the quality control of individual fruits. Near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to assess total soluble solid content (SSC, degrees Brix) and firmness (N) in intact plums. A total of 720 plums (Prunus salicina L. cv. 'African Pride', 'Black Diamond', 'Fortune', 'Laetitia', 'Larry Anne', 'Late Royal', 'Prime Time', 'Sapphire', and 'Songold') were used to obtain calibration models based on reference data and near-IR spectral data. Standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) and coefficients of determination for cross-validation (r(2)) were (0.77 degrees Brix; 0.83) for total soluble solids content and (2.54 N; 0.52) for firmness. Results suggest that NIRS technology enables fruit to be classified in terms of total soluble solid content and firmness, thus allowing increased sampling of each production batch and ensuring a given quality with greater precision and accuracy.

  16. Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L

    2012-10-11

    Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development.

  17. Effect of retrograde aminophylline administration on calcium and phosphate solubility in neonatal total parenteral nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A E; Holcombe, B J; Sawyer, W T

    1989-12-01

    The effect of retrograde administration of aminophylline injection on calcium and phosphate solubility in neonatal total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions was studied. Neonatal TPN solutions containing two amino acids solutions in three concentrations (Travasol 1% and 2% and TrophAmine 2%) were formulated. Calcium and phosphate salts were added to achieve calcium concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 40 meq/L and phosphorus concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 40 mmol/L. Samples were inspected visually after 18-24 hours; solutions free of precipitation were then infused through two parallel syringe-pump systems designed to simulate clinical conditions for TPN solution administration to a 1-kg neonate. To one system, a 7.5-mg aminophylline dose was added as a manual retrograde injection; sterile water for injection was added as a manual retrograde injection to the other system. The solutions were inspected throughout a one-hour infusion period for precipitate formation in the i.v. apparatus, and the pH of the effluents was determined. Concurrent aminophylline administration resulted in visible precipitate in all but a few of the solutions tested. The solution containing Travasol 2%, calcium 10 meq/L, and phosphorus 10 mmol/L remained clear, as did the solutions containing TrophAmine 2% and the following concentrations of calcium and phosphorus: calcium 10 meq/L and phosphorus 10, 15, or 20 mmol/L; calcium 15 meq/L and phosphorus 10 or 15 mmol/L; and calcium 20 meq/L and phosphorus 10 or 15 mmol/L. An average increase in pH of 0.63 unit was noted in all solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  19. Development of a factory/refinery method to measure total, soluble, and insoluble starch in sugar products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An easy, rapid, and inexpensive method was developed to measure total, soluble, and insoluble starch in products at the factory and refinery, using microwave-assisted neutralization chemistry. The method was optimized using the previously developed USDA Starch Research method as a reference. Optimal...

  20. Characterisation of osteoprotegerin autoantibodies in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Real, Ana; Gilbert, Nick; Hauser, Barbara; Kennedy, Nick; Shand, Alan; Gillett, Helen; Gillett, Peter; Goddard, Clive; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina; Fraser, William D; Satsangi, Jack; Ralston, Stuart H; Riches, Philip L

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies neutralising the effect of the bone regulatory cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been described in a patient with severe osteoporosis and coeliac disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and epitope specificity of autoantibodies to OPG in patients with coeliac disease, and correlate their presence with bone mineral density. A direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed and used to screen patients with coeliac disease for autoantibodies to OPG. Recombinant fragments of OPG were made to evaluate the epitope specificity and affinity of these antibodies. Phenotype information of the patients was obtained by case note review. Raised titres of antibodies to OPG were found in 7/71 (9.8 %) patients with coeliac disease, compared with 1/72 (1.4 %) non-coeliac osteoporosis clinic control patients (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that a polyclonal antibody response to OPG is raised in these patients capable of recognising different epitopes of OPG with varying affinity. The titre of OPG antibodies was associated with lower bone mineral density Z-score of the hip in coeliac patients on univariate (p < 0.05) and multivariate analysis including age, sex height and weight as covariates (p < 0.01). Polyclonal antibodies to OPG are more common in patients with coeliac disease and are independently associated with lower bone mineral density Z-scores of the hip. Further work is required to establish the clinical utility of testing for OPG antibodies.

  1. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750

  2. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  3. Gingival crevicularfluid osteoprotegerin levels in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bandari, Purnima; Prasad, M. V. Ramachandra; Maradi, Arun; Pradeep, A. R.; Mallika, A.; Sharma, Dileep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Initial research indicated that higher concentration of osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with healthy periodontium (protective) and its concentration decreases as the periodontal disease progresses. However, till date, there are no studies to investigate the levels of OPG in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after the treatment of periodontitis. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess its concentration in GCF to find out their association if any, and to explore its possible use as a ‘novel bone marker’ of the host modulation of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four subjects were divided into 4 groups (16 each), based on clinical attachment loss (CAL) and radiological parameters (bone loss); healthy (group I), gingivitis (group II), slight periodontitis (group III), and moderate-to-severe periodontitis (group IV). Moderate-to-severe periodontitis subjects, after nonsurgical periodontal treatment, (SRP) constituted group V. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of OPG using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Kruskal-Wallis, Man-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were carried out to compare OPG levels among groups. The Spearman rank correlation test was used to correlate OPG levels between the study groups and the clinical parameters; P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The highest mean OPG concentration in GCF was obtained for group I (162.47 ± 51.171 pg/ μL) and the least for group IV (10.92 ± 1.913 pg/μL), suggesting a negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL. OPG concentrations in GCF after the treatment of group IV increased from 10.92 ± 1.913 pg/μL to 15.63 ± 4.679 pg/μL. Conclusion: OPG concentration in GCF was inversely proportional to CAL and not an active progression factor for periodontal disease. Further, after the treatment of moderate-to-severe periodontitis subjects (group IV), OPG concentrations increased. Hence, it can be concluded that OPG

  4. [Study on predicting total acid content and soluble sugar of tomato juice by near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Bing-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    In order to explore a simple, rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method, in the present experiment near infrared spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples. The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm, which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples; A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples, the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured. Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples, and the regression equation was statistically analysed. The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coefficient was 0.967, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133, standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103; the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463, and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 460. The above data achieved better forecasting results, which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible. The method is rapid, simple and can do multicomponent analysis on the same sample simultaneously. It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field.

  5. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  6. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  7. First trimester serum levels of the soluble transcobalamin receptor, holo-transcobalamin, and total transcobalamin in relation to preeclampsia risk.

    PubMed

    Abuyaman, Omar; Torring, Niels; Obeid, Rima; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-12-01

    Human placenta expresses CD320, a receptor that ensures the uptake of holo-transcobalamin (holoTC). Soluble CD320 (sCD320) is present in the circulation and its concentration increases during pregnancy. To investigate a possible association of sCD320, holoTC and total transcobalamin (TC) with the risk of subsequent preeclampsia using serum samples from asymptomatic first trimester pregnant women. Moreover, we aimed to establish reference intervals of the aforementioned biomarkers for first trimester pregnant women who remained healthy throughout pregnancy. This study was a retrospective case-control study that we performed on biobank serum samples. Cases (n = 50) and controls (n = 198) (matched for gestational age and date of sample collection) were asymptomatic women in early pregnancy [median (range) gestational age = 10 (8-12) weeks]. Cases developed preeclampsia while the controls remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of sCD320, holoTC, and total TC by using in-house ELISA methods. First trimester median concentrations of sCD320, holoTC and total TC were not significantly different between cases and controls. The odd ratio for developing preeclampsia based on exposure to low or high levels of sCD320, holoTC or total TC at first trimester was not significant. The reference intervals (2.5-97.5% percentiles (median)) derived from the controls were 50-170 (90) pmol\\L for sCD320, 20-140 (70) pmol\\L for holoTC and 560-1300 (810) pmol\\L for total TC. The risk of preeclampsia is not predicted by first trimester serum concentrations of sCD320, holoTC or total TC. The first trimester reference intervals for the three parameters is reported.

  8. Assessment of efficacy and safety of various adjuvant formulations with a total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, J; Deville, S; Perret, C; Vallée, I; Boireau, P

    2001-06-01

    Trichinellosis, a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries and pig, is the main species responsible for its transmission to human. Vaccination of swine could be an alternative to prevent the risk of human contamination. In order to develop an efficient and safe inactivate vaccine, the choice of the adjuvant is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and select potent and safe adjuvants by screening them in an experimental model with a crude soluble antigen from L1 muscular larvae (ML) of Trichinella spiralis (Ts). The efficacy was checked by the quantification of specific antibody levels. Specific and non-specific IgE antibody levels were also assessed. Safety was checked by the assessment of the local reaction at the injection site. Various Montanide ISA adjuvant formulations including water in oil, oil in water and multiphasic emulsions, but also nanoparticles or microbeads were tested. The results clearly showed differences between the antibody responses induced by the adjuvants and demonstrated the necessity to use an adjuvant to obtain a specific IgG (IgG1 or IgG2a) response directed against the total soluble extract of Ts. All the formulations enhanced the humoral immune response. The origin of the oil contained in the emulsions played an important role on the efficacy. Indeed emulsions based on mineral oils were more efficient than those based on metabolisable oils. However it was linked with stronger local reactions. Multiphasic and oil in water emulsions but also nanoparticles failed to induce IgG2a antibody levels. Microbeads and water in oil formulations based on mineral oils were more efficient. This experimentation allowed then the selection of several adjuvants which efficacy will be further investigated by a challenge test and an analysis of the cellular populations involved in the mechanism of the immune response.

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  10. Influence of total soluble salt concentration on growth and elemental concentration of winged bean seedlings, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L. ) DC

    SciTech Connect

    Csizinszky, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (L.) DC) seedlings of the accession TPT-1, were grown in a greenhouse with graded, balanced total soluble salt (TSS) concentrations. After 45 days, plant height increased quadratically, with a maximum (149 cm) at 3000 ppm TSS. Seedlings were shortest at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS, 44.0 and 79.0 cm, respectively. Fresh weight of shoots increased quadratically with greatest weight, 29.03 g, at 5000 ppm TSS. Percent dry matter increased linearly with increasing TSS. Concentration of N, K and P increased quadratically with an increase in the TSS concentration in the growth medium. Concentration of Ca decreased quadratically with increasing TSS. Among the micronutrients, Fe and Mo concentration was quadratic, both elements were highest in the seedlings at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS rates. Concentrations of Mn and Zn increased linearly with increasing TSS. Winged bean seedlings at the 1000 to 3000 ppm TSS rates had spindly stems and a sparse, yellow foliage, typical for winged bean seedlings observed in the field during the first 4 to 5 weeks of growth. Seedlings at the 4000 and 5000 ppm TSS rates had sturdy stems and an abundant green foliage. At higher TSS concentrations, 5000 to 10,000 ppm TSS, seedlings had short intermodes and dark green foliage.

  11. Total Serum Bilirubin Predicts Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiency Better Than Serum Bile Acids in Infants with Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Venkat, Veena L.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Magee, John C.; Turmelle, Yumirle; Arnon, Ronen; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Hertel, Paula M.; Karpen, Saul J; Kerkar, Nanda; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Molleston, Jean; Murray, Karen F.; Ng, Vicky L.; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwartz, Kathleen; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wang, Kasper; Whitington, Peter F.; Heubi, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiency is a well-recognized consequence of cholestatic liver disease and reduced intestinal intraluminal bile acids. We hypothesized that serum bile acids (SBA) would predict biochemical FSV deficiency better than serum total bilirubin level (TB) in infants with biliary atresia. Methods Infants enrolled in the Trial of Corticosteroid Therapy in Infants with Biliary Atresia (START) after hepatoportoenterostomy were the subjects of this investigation. Infants received standardized FSV supplementation and monitoring of TB, SBA and vitamin levels at 1, 3 and 6 months. A logistic regression model was used with the binary indicator variable insufficient/sufficient as the outcome variable. Linear and non-parametric correlations were made between specific vitamin measurement levels and either TB or SBA. Results The degree of correlation for any particular vitamin at a specific time point was higher with TB than SBA (higher for TB in 31 circumstances versus 3 circumstances for SBA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) shows that TB performed better than SBA (AUC 0.998 vs. 0.821). Including both TB and SBA did not perform better than TB alone (AUC 0.998). Conclusion We found that TB was a better predictor of FSV deficiency than SBA in infants with biliary atresia. The role of SBA as a surrogate marker of FSV deficiency in other cholestatic liver diseases, such as PFIC, alpha-one antitrypsin deficiency and Alagille syndrome where the pathophysiology is dominated by intrahepatic cholestasis, warrants further study. PMID:25419594

  12. Endogenous pH, Titratable Acidity and Total Soluble Solid Content of Mouthwashes Available in the Brazilian Market

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Ramos, Ianny Alves; Leite, Rafaela Bastos; da Costa Oliveira, Mariana; de Melo Menezes, Karynna; Fernandes, Lígia Virgínio; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Vieira, Fernando Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate in vitro the endogenous pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solid content (TSSC) of mouthwashes available in the Brazilian market. Methods: The study sample was composed of 10 commercial brands of mouthwashes based on different active ingredients: Cepacol®, Clinerize®, Equate®, Listerine Cool Citrus®, Oral-B®, Periogard®, Peroxyl®, Plax Overnight®, Prevident 220® and Sanifill®. The experiments were performed in triplicate. The endogenous pH was evaluated by potentiometry, titratable acidity was evaluated by the addition of 0.1N KOH increments to the mouthwashes, and TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer. Results: pH values ranged from 3.56 (Peroxyl®) to 7.43 (Cepacol®) and three mouthwashes presented pHs below 5.5. The titratable acidity values ranged from 0.007 (Periograd®) to 0.530 (Prevident®). Oral B® and Clinerize® presented the lowest (4.7%) and the highest (23.70%) TSSC, respectively. Conclusions: Some of the mouthwashes evaluated in this study presented low endogenous pH, even below the critical value for enamel dissolution (pH<5.5), high titratable acidity and high TSSC, and may be potentially erosive to the dental tissues if not properly used. PMID:20396446

  13. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LUNG INJURY IS INDUCED BY INSOLUBLE AND TOTAL BUT NOT SOLUBLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) COLLECTED IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient air PM has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects; however, causative components have not been identified. The solubility of PM constituents and their bioavalability may influence their toxicity. Chemically characterized PM10 an...

  15. LUNG INJURY IS INDUCED BY INSOLUBLE AND TOTAL BUT NOT SOLUBLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) COLLECTED IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient air PM has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects; however, causative components have not been identified. The solubility of PM constituents and their bioavalability may influence their toxicity. Chemically characterized PM10 an...

  16. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Selma; Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  17. Osteoporosis and polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin gene in postmenopausal women – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Grazio, Simeon; Kosovic, Pasezada; Uremovic, Melita; Nemcic, Tomislav; Bobic, Jasminka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has an important role in bone remodeling, and it has been proposed that the OPG gene might be a candidate gene for osteoporosis predisposition. Several studies have already assessed the connection between OPG gene polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we wanted to analyze the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD and bone turnover markers in women with and without osteoporosis. Material and methods In 22 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (aged 65.6 ±12.6) and 59 women without osteoporosis (aged 60.8 ±8.7) we analyzed the association of two polymorphisms in the OPG gene with BMD, measured by dual energy absorptiometry and with bone turnover markers (crosslaps and osteoprotegerin). A163G, G209A, T245G and G1181C polymorphisms were determined. Results No significant differences in age, anthropometry, number of fractures, osteocalcin and cross-laps were found between women with and without osteoporosis. Women with osteoporosis were significantly longer in postmenopause. Significantly more women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism (p = 0.038) compared to women without osteoporosis, while no significant difference was found in prevalence of TT and GG polymorphism between patients with and without osteoporosis. No relationship was found between investigated polymorphism and bone turnover markers. A significant negative correlation between total hip BMD and crosslaps (p = 0.046) as well as between total hip T score and crosslaps (p = 0.044) was found in women without osteoporosis Conclusions Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had AG polymorphism more frequently than women without osteoporosis. Our results indicate that A163G polymorphism could have an impact on higher bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:27407270

  18. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  19. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens J; Julshamn, Kåre; Skov, Kasper; Amlund, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    In the present study liver samples (n=26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2)=0.80, p<0.001) was observed between the total arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid-soluble species. Arsenic speciation analysis of the lipid-soluble fractions of the livers, using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), revealed the presence of several arsenolipids. Three major arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (C17H39AsO, C19H41AsO and C23H37AsO) and five arsenic-containing fatty acids (C17H35AsO3, C19H39AO3, C19H37AsO3, C23H37AsO3 and C24H37AsO3) were identified using HPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Arsenobetaine was the major arsenic species in the water-soluble fraction of the livers, while dimethylarsinate, arsenocholine and inorganic arsenic were minor constituents. Inorganic arsenic accounted for less than 0.1% of the total arsenic in the liver samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of combination therapy with olmesartan and azelnidipine on serum osteoprotegerin in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Uzui, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Tetsuji; Nakano, Akira; Amaya, Naoki; Fukuoka, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Kentaro; Arakawa, Kenichiro; Lee, Jong-Dae; Tada, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Vascular calcification is a potent predictor of plaque instability and cardiac events. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), well-known vascular calcification mediator, is a signaling molecule involved in bone remodeling, which has been implicated in the regulation of vascular calcification and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the combination treatments of olmesartan/azelnidipine and olmesartan/diuretics on serum bone-related markers in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 48 patients with hypertension treated with 20 mg olmesartan were randomized to receive combination treatment with 16 mg azelnidipine (O/A group) or diuretics (1 mg indapamide; O/D group) for 12 months. Osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) were measured after 3 and 12 months of treatment. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was measured as the arterial stiffness using a VaSera CAVI instrument at the same time points. In both groups, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction is similar. Serum OPG, MMP-2, and hs-CRP were significantly decreased at 12 months in the O/A group (P < .05), while there were no significant reductions in the O/D group. CAVI was significantly improved at 12 months in both the treatment groups. The improvement in CAVI was significantly greater in the O/A group than in the O/D group. Azelnidipine, but not indapamide, combined with olmesartan, improved arterial stiffness and were associated with significant decrease in OPG, MMP-2, and hs-CRP concentrations. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of the combination treatments of olmesartan/azelnidipine on arterial stiffness are mediated by alteration in bone-remodeling and inflammatory markers.

  1. The effect of osteoprotegerin on implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Hu, Jing; Liu, Biao; Jiang, Xiliang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoprotegerin (OPG), the endogenous inhibitor of RANKL, prevents or reverses bone loss in a variety of preclinical models of bone disease. Preclinical studies indicate that osteoporosis significantly impairs implant fixation. This study aims to investigate the role of OPG in implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. Material and methods Twelve weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, each rat accepted two titanium screws in the proximal tibiae. All animals were then randomly divided into two groups: the control (10 rats) and OPG group (10 rats). Subcutaneous injection of OPG (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was performed three times a week. Eight weeks later, tibiae with screws were harvested for micro-computed tomography (μCT), histological and biomechanical analysis. Results Compared to control, OPG increased the percent bone volume by 124%, the percent osseointegration by 167%, the mean trabecular number by 111%, the mean trabecular thickness by 92% (p < 0.01), the mean connective density by 95% (p < 0.05); and decreased the mean trabecular separation by 64% in μCT analysis (p < 0.05). Osteoprotegerin also increased bone area density by 160% and bone-to-implant contact by 234% in histomorphometric evaluation (p < 0.01), and increased the maximal push-out force by 228% in biomechanical test (p < 0.01). Conclusions Systemic administration of OPG improved implant osseointegration and fixation in ovariectomized rats, resulting from the increased peri-implant bone mass and improved trabecular microarchitecture. PMID:28261305

  2. Comparison the relationship between the levels of insulin resistance, hs-CRP, percentage of body fat and serum osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand in prediabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Yavuz, Mehmet; Bilgir, Ferda; Akan, Ozden Y; Bayindir, Aslı G; Calan, Mehmet; Bozkaya, Giray; Yuksel, Arif

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPN) are soluble members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Growing evidence suggest that there is link between inflammation, insulin resistance and OPG, sRANKL. We aimed to ascertain whether OPG and sRANKL levels are altered in prediabetic subjects and there is association between OPG, sRANKL and metabolic parameters.

  3. Effects of solid dispersion and self-emulsifying formulations on the solubility, dissolution, permeability and pharmacokinetics of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoying; Duan, Jingze; Xie, Yan; Lin, Guobei; Luo, Huilin; Li, Guowen; Yuan, Xiurong

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solid dispersions (SD) and self-emulsifying (SE) formulations on the solubility and absorption properties of active components in total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH). The solubility, dissolution rate, permeability and pharmacokinetics of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in TFH SD/SE formulations and TFH were compared. The results showed that the solubility and dissolution rate of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in SD/SE formulations were significantly enhanced compared to those in TFH, however, their intestinal permeability was comparable. The bioavailability of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in rats remarkably increased after oral administration of TFH SD formulations compared to TFH, but there was no significant increase after oral administration of TFH SE formulations. The results of this study indicated the SD formulations on the improvement of pharmacokinetic properties of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in TFH were much better than those of SE formulations. The improvement of pharmacokinetic properties of isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol in TFH by SD formulations was probably ascribed to the enhancement of the solubility and dissolution of the three components, but was not relevant to the intestinal permeability. Therefore, as for herb extracts containing multiple components, especially for their major components with poor water solubility, solid dispersion formulations might have the better potential to enhance their bioavailability.

  4. Osteoprotegerin in human milk: a potential role in the regulation of bone metabolism and immune development.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Karine; van den Broek, Peter; Lorget, Florence; Donnet-Hughes, Anne

    2004-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. It is a soluble "decoy" receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and ligand of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB. As such, OPG inhibits osteoclast activity and regulates the immune system. Human milk is a complex biologic fluid that supplies nutritional and protective factors to the breast-fed infant. In the present study, human milk samples at various times postpartum were assessed for the presence of OPG. Using biochemical as well as immunologic and biologic techniques we showed that human milk contains OPG at a level that is 1000-fold higher than that found in normal human serum. We observed that human breast milk cells and the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-7 express OPG, indicating that both cell types are possible sources of milk OPG in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that milk OPG is biologically active and suggested that it may contribute to the antiresorptive activity of milk on bone, as well as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation. OPG-like activity was also observed in bovine colostrum and milk. Furthermore, we were able to detect human OPG in the sera of rats gavaged with human milk. We discuss the relevance of our findings for the breast-fed infant and for the prevention of immune and bone disorders.

  5. Association between osteoprotegerin genetic variants and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengbin; Huang, Xiaoxing; Miao, Jinhao; Guo, Long; Tao, Degang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. A total of 338 Chinese postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis and 367 healthy controls were enrolled. The lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), total hip and femoral neck hip of BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). OPG genetic variants were genotyped through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. In this study, the g.18861A>G and g.25548C>T SNPs were detected and our data suggested that the significant differences of spine BMD, femoral neck hip BMD and total hip BMD were found among different g.18861A>G genotype, subjects with the AA genotype were significantly higher than those of AG and GG genotypes (p < 0.05). The g.25548C>T variant was not significantly associated with spine BMD, femoral neck hip BMD and total hip BMD (p > 0.05), while almost reached at the significant level in total hip BMD (p = 0.061). These findings suggeste that OPG gene variants are related to BMD and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  6. On-line filtration system for determining total chromium and chromium in the soluble fraction of industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-García, I; Merino Meroño, B; Campillo, N; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2002-05-01

    Two manifolds were assessed for the purpose of determining both the total chromium content and that present as a soluble form in industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS). To determine the chromium content in the soluble fraction the samples were used without additional treatment, a 0.45 microm filter being included in the FI system. To determine the total chromium content, the samples were acidified with nitric acid 20% (v/v) and heated for 30 s in a microwave oven (temperatures of about 70 degrees C were reached). The problem posed by the very different concentration range in which total and soluble chromium are present was overcome by using programmed flow rate methodology and by only partially emptying the sample loop. A personal computer controlled both the rotation speed of a peristaltic pump and the volume of sample injected into the system, thus obtaining the dispersion degree required. Using the manifold proposed, the chromium content in the soluble fraction can be determined in the 0.5-20 microg mL(-1) range using a 10 microg mL(-1) single standard for calibration. To determine the total chromium content, a calibration line in the 20-200 microg mL(-1) range was obtained using a single 50 microg mL(-1) chromium standard solution. The reliability of the semi-automatic devices was verified by comparing the results obtained with those found by treating the samples and using both FAAS in a conventional way and a spectrophotometric method using diphenylcarbazide at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA test). The proposed procedures showed a RSD lower than +/-3%.

  7. Osteoprotegerin/sRANKL Signaling System in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis: A Bronchoalveolar Lavage Study.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, W; Naumnik, B; Niklińska, W; Ossolińska, M; Chyczewska, E

    2017-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor family molecule, protects endothelial cells from apoptosis in vitro and promotes neovascularization in vivo. Angiogenesis may be crucial for the course and outcome of sarcoidosis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of OPG and its ligand, a soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (sRANKL), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with sarcoidosis (BBS, Besniera-Boeck-Schaumann disease). We studied 22 BBS patients and 15 healthy volunteers as a control group. The levels of OPG, sRANKL, and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were measured by the Elisa method. The BALF levels of sRANKL and IL-18 were higher in the BBS patients compared with controls [sRANKL: 2.12 (0.82-10.23) vs. 1.12 (0.79-4.39) pmol/l, p = 0.03; IL-18: 34.29 (12.50-133.70) vs. 13.05 (12.43-25.88) pg/ml, p = 0.001]. There were no significant differences between the concentration of OPG in the BBS patients and healthy controls [0.22 (0.14-0.81) vs. 0.23 (0.14-0.75) pmol/l]. In the BBS patients we found correlations between sRANKL and IL-18 in BALF (r = 0.742, p = 0.0001) and between OPG and lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.528, p = 0.029). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to find the cut-off for the BALF level of sRANKL (BBS vs. healthy: 1.32 pmol/l). We conclude that OPG and sRANKL may have usefulness in clinical evaluation of BBS patients.

  8. Generalized Degenerative Joint Disease in Osteoprotegerin (Opg) Null Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Bolon, B; Grisanti, M; Villasenor, K; Morony, S; Feige, U; Simonet, W S

    2015-09-01

    Bone structure is modulated by the interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL). Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, modifies osteoclast-mediated bone resorption directly and spares articular cartilage indirectly in rodents with immune-mediated arthritis by preventing subchondral bone destruction. The OPG/RANKL balance also seems to be critical in maintaining joint integrity in osteoarthritis, a condition featuring articular bone and cartilage damage in the absence of profound inflammation. The current study explored the role of OPG in sparing articular cartilage by evaluating joint lesions in adult C57BL/6J mice lacking osteoprotegerin (Opg (-) (/-)). At 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 months of age, both sexes of Opg (-) (/-) mice developed severe degenerative joint disease (DJD) characterized by progressive loss of cartilage matrix and eventually articular cartilage. Lesions developed earlier and more severely in Opg (-) (/-) mice relative to age-matched, wild-type (Opg (+) (/+)), or heterozygous (Opg (+) (/-)) littermates (P ≤ .05). The femorotibial joint was affected bilaterally at 3 months, while other key weight-bearing diarthrodial joints (eg, coxofemoral, scapulohumeral, humeroradioulnar) were affected later and unilaterally. Cortical bone in subchondral plates and long bone diaphyses of Opg (-) (/-) mice but not Opg (+/+) or Opg (+) (/-) animals was osteoporotic by 3 months of age (P ≤ .05); the extent of porosity was less than the degree of DJD. Closure of the physes in long bones (P ≤ .05) and cartilage retention in the femoral primary spongiosa (P ≤ .05) affected chiefly Opg (-) (/-) mice. These data suggest that OPG plays an essential direct role in maintaining cartilage integrity in the articular surfaces and physes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The relationship between osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingfu; Chen, Zhuanghong; Huang, Yong; Li, Qi; Zhu, Lixin; Cai, Xianhua; He, Guochao; Xie, Yonghui; Liu, Qin

    2013-10-01

    Previous evidence supports that the osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between OPG gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. A total of 764 subjects were included in this study. The bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine (L2-4), neck hip and total hip was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The g.19190C>A and g.25602A>G SNPs were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. As for g.19190C>A, our data suggested that the BMD value of lumbar spine (L2-4), neck hip and total hip for subjects with CC genotype was significantly higher than that of CA and AA genotypes (P<0.05). No significant difference was detected between the association of g.25602A>G genotypes with spine BMD and neck hip BMD, while total hip BMD almost reached the significant level (P=0.063). These findings provide more evidence that the SNPs in OPG gene could affect BMD and osteoporosis, and the allele-A of g.19190C>A and allele-G of g.25602A>G genetic variants are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. © 2013.

  10. Association analyses of osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; He, Chunlei; Chen, Gang; Li, Fangcai; Gao, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) is an important candidate gene of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between OPG gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 336 Chinese postmenopausal women were included in this study. OPG gene polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. BMD was evaluated at the lumbar spine (L(2-4)), total hip and femoral neck. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.21775C>T and g.23367T>C) were identified and the association analysis showed significant difference of spine BMD among different g.23367T>C genotype, subjects with the genotype TT was significantly higher than those of genotype TC and CC. Such a significant difference was not observed at the neck hip BMD and total hip BMD. The g.21775C>T polymorphism was not significantly associated with spine BMD, total hip BMD and neck hip BMD in the studied subjects. These findings suggested that OPG gene polymorphisms were associated with BMD in Chinese postmenopausal women. Results from this study will be helpful in further studies to determine the role of OPG gene in osteoporosis.

  11. Secondary formation of water-soluble organic acids and α-dicarbonyls and their contributions to total carbon and water-soluble organic carbon: Photochemical aging of organic aerosols in the Arctic spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kasukabe, Hideki; Barrie, Leonard A.

    2010-11-01

    Water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C6, C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) were determined in the Arctic aerosols collected in winter to early summer, as well as aerosol total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Concentrations of TC and WSOC gradually decreased from late February to early June with a peak in spring, indicating a photochemical formation of water-soluble organic aerosols at a polar sunrise. We found that total (C2-C11) diacids (7-84 ng m-3) increased at polar sunrise by a factor of 4 and then decreased toward summer. Their contributions to TC (average 4.0%) peaked in early April and mid-May. The contribution of total diacids to WSOC was on average 7.1%. It gradually increased from February (5%) to a maximum in April (12.7%) with a second peak in mid-May (10.4%). Although oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant diacid until April, its predominance was replaced by succinic acid (C4) after polar sunrise. This may indicate that photochemical production of C2 was overwhelmed by its degradation when solar radiation was intensified and the atmospheric transport of its precursors from midlatitudes to the Arctic was ended in May. Interestingly, the contributions of azelaic (C9) and ω-oxobutanoic acids to WSOC increased in early summer possibly due to an enhanced emission of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids from the ocean followed by photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. An enhanced contribution of diacids to TC and WSOC at polar sunrise may significantly alter the hygroscopic properties of organic aerosols in the Arctic.

  12. [Determination of six C-Glycoside flavones and antitumor activity of water-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Hai-ming; Li, Ai; Xu, Lan-fang; Chen, Jian-nan; Huang, Song; He, Lian

    2015-04-01

    This research established an HPLC method for determination of six C-Glycoside flavones of warer-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus (Benth.) H. Hara, and studied the antitumor activity of the warer-soluble total flavonoids. The HPLC system consisted of Kromasil 100-5 C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column and a solution system of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid gradient elution at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL x min(-1) and the wavelength of detector was at 334 nm. The column temperature was 25 degrees C. The antitumor activity of water-soluble flavonoids was assayed using HepG2 cell as the tested cell. The linear ranges of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabinosylapigenin were 0.25-2.53, 0.12-1.20, 0.37-3.69, 0.16-1.63, 0.19-1.92, 0.14-1.42 microg, respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 99.6% (RSD 0.87%), 100.2% (RSD 2.0%), 99.6% (RSD 1.8%), 97.9% (RSD 1.5%), 98.8% (RSD 1.2%), 98.6% (RSD 1.2%), respectively. After exposure in 24, 48, 72 h, the total flavonoids showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells with IC50 as the evaluation index, the IC50 values of 1.89, 1.71, 1.51 g x L(-1), respectively. The method is quick, simple and accurate with good re- producibility, and can be used for determination of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabino- sylapigenin in the warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides var. gerardianus. The warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides have inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells.

  13. Downregulation of osteoprotegerin expression in metastatic colorectal carcinoma predicts recurrent metastasis and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the downregulation of osteoprotegerin expression in primary colorectal carcinoma and its significant association with aggressive oncogenic behavior, which suggest that this process contributes to colorectal carcinoma development and progression. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate osteoprotegerin expression in 81 colorectal liver metastasis tissue samples and investigated its possible association with the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastasis. These tissues exhibited significantly reduced expression of osteoprotegerin compared to primary colorectal carcinomas and normal colorectal mucosa. This reduced expression was significantly associated with the extent of colorectal liver metastasis, including multiplicity of metastatic tumors, involvement of the bilateral hepatic lobes, and higher histological grade. In addition, reduced osteoprotegerin expression was an independent significant predictor of recurrent liver metastasis and prognostic factor for reduced patient survival. These findings suggest that osteoprotegerin expression may be a novel predictor of recurrent liver metastasis and a prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal liver metastasis. Patients harboring colorectal liver metastasis with reduced osteoprotegerin expression should be carefully monitored after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastasis to enable early detection of potentially resectable metastatic recurrences. PMID:27764814

  14. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  15. Receptor activator NFkappaB-ligand and osteoprotegerin protein expression in human periapical cysts and granulomas.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Renato; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; da Silva Paiva, Katiúcia Batista; Letra, Ariadne; Carneiro, Everdan; Fernando Zambuzzi, Willian; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) associated with bone destruction in periapical cysts and granulomas. Forty human dental chronic periapical lesions were collected after periapical surgery. The lesions collected were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histologically processed. At least 2 sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic diagnosis. After that, 10 human periapical granulomas and 10 cysts were selected for immunohistochemical analysis for RANKL, OPG, and CD68+. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes were stained for RANKL and OPG in both lesions. Epithelial cells were also stained for RANKL and OPG in periapical cysts. Quantitative analysis was conducted and the results were expressed as a ratio of the number of immunostained cells over the total number of cells in the field (n = 100). The ratio of RANKL+/total cells was higher than OPG+/total cells in periapical granulomas (0.553 +/- 0.153 and 0.483 +/- 0.189, respectively; P < .0012; paired t test) and in cysts (0.519 +/- 0.09 and 0.339 +/- 0.117, respectively; P < .0001; paired t test). The ratios of OPG+/total cells (P < .0001; paired t test) and RANKL+/total cells (P < .0322; paired t test) were greater in granulomas than in cysts. However, the ratio RANKL+/OPG+ in granulomas (1.336 +/- 0.723) and cysts (1.404 +/- 0.385) was not significantly different. The ratio of CD68+/total cells was significantly higher in granulomas (0.381 +/- 0.040) than in cysts (0.307 +/- 0.068) (P < .0001; unpaired t test with Welch correction). Taking into account the limitations of the experimental approach employed, our findings indicate the presence of RANKL and OPG in cysts and granulomas, strongly suggesting the involvement of these gene products in the development of periapical lesions.

  16. Osteoprotegerin Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis upon Microbial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Maruyama, Kenta; Fujii, Hideki; Sugawara, Isamu; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Yasuda, Hisataka; Matsui, Hidenori; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL’s osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria or influenza virus also show elevated serum OPG levels. We then asked whether OPG upregulation following microbial invasion had an effect outside of bone. To do so, we treated mice with LPS and observed OPG production in pancreas, especially in β-cells of pancreatic islets. Insulin release following LPS administration was enhanced in mice lacking OPG, suggesting that OPG inhibits insulin secretion under acute inflammatory conditions. Consistently, treatment of MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with OPG decreased their insulin secretion following glucose stimulation in the presence of LPS. Finally, our findings suggest that LPS-induced OPG upregulation is mediated in part by activator protein (AP)-1 family transcription factors, particularly Fos proteins. Overall, we report that acute microbial infection elevates serum OPG, which maintains β-cell homeostasis by restricting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly preventing microbe-induced exhaustion of β-cell secretory capacity. PMID:26751951

  17. Osteoprotegerin levels in patients with severe mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Sigrun; Melle, Ingrid; Aukrust, Pål; Agartz, Ingrid; Lorentzen, Steinar; Steen, Nils Eiel; Djurovic, Srdjan; Ueland, Thor; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe mental disorders are associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. In the present study, we investigated whether osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family involved in calcification and inflammation, is elevated in patients with severe mental disorders. Methods We measured the plasma levels of OPG in patients with severe mental disorders (n = 312; 125 with bipolar disorder and 187 with schizophrenia) and healthy volunteers (n = 239). Results The mean plasma levels of OPG were significantly higher in patients than in controls (t531 = 2.6, p = 0.01), with the same pattern in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The increase was significant after adjustment for possible confounding variables, including age, sex, ethnic background, alcohol consumption, liver and kidney function, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases and levels of cholesterol, glucose and C-reactive protein. Limitations Owing to the cross-sectional design, it is difficult to determine causality. Conclusion Our results indicate that elevated OPG levels are associated with severe mental disorders and suggest that mechanisms related to calcification and inflammation may play a role in disease development. PMID:20569643

  18. Apportionment of air pollution sources with directional sampling size segregation and soluble/total elemental determination of air particlates in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.S.; Cheung, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    With an aim to improve the identification of pollution sources, to enhance the ability to resolve source types and to assist the interpretation of results, a computer controlled sampling station has been developed for directional sampling and size segregation of air particulates collected using a High Volume Sampler running at a flow rate of 40 cfm. A given set of criteria was monitored by the microcomputer to stop sampling during raining and calm period (<0.5 ms{sup -1}), and to start the pump when more than 60% of the wind direction data are within the designated sector. Two size fractions of the particulates were collected (coarse, 3.0-10 um, and fine, M 3.0 um) daily with a net sampling time of 16-24 hours. Elemental analysis was performed on the particulates sampled for their total and soluble contents using FTIR for the PAHs, Capillary Electrophoresis and DC Arc Plasma Emission Spectroscopy for soluble and total anion and cation analysis.

  19. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of the osteoprotegerin gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Song, J F; Jing, Z Z; Hu, W; Su, Y X

    2013-09-03

    Osteoporosis is an important and common complex health problem, particularly in postmenopausal women. It is characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and a deterioration of bone microarchitecture with a consequent increase of fracture risk. The osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We analyzed SNPs of the OPG gene and associations between these polymorphisms and BMD in 399 Chinese postmenopausal women. BMD was quantified at the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck, and total hip. The g.2264T>C and g.27676A>C SNPs were detected by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. A significant association with spine BMD was found for g.27676A>C. The spine BMD value for subjects with genotype AA was significantly higher than those with genotypes GA and AA. No significant association was detected between any of the SNP marker genotypes and the other traits. We conclude that g.27676A>C in the OPG gene affects spine BMD and that the C allele is associated with increased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  20. Stabilization of tooth movement by administration of reveromycin A to osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yabumoto, Takahiro; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Shoji, Satsuki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Kadota, Manami; Yoshizako, Mamoru; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Goto, Shigemi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, mechanical stress in the form of tooth movement was applied to osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout mice, which served as an animal model for juvenile Paget's disease. To compare and evaluate bone turnover and response of the surrounding bony tissue, we administered reveromycin A. We also investigated the ability of reveromycin A to control osteoclastic activity in juvenile Paget's disease. Eight-week-old male osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout and wild-type mice were injected with reveromycin A (15 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally twice daily. An elastic module was inserted interproximally between the maxillary left first and second molars. Administration of reveromycin A to osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout mice reduced tooth movement distances, increased bone volumes at the interradicular septum, decreased osteoclast counts, and reduced serum alkaline phosphatase and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. Reveromycin A administration also caused a temporal shift in peak Runx2 staining in osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout mice so that the overall staining time course was similar to that observed for wild-type mice. Reveromycin A administration in osteoprotegerin-deficient knockout mice inhibited bone resorption and normalized bone formation. As a result, normal bone turnover was obtained. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A method for measuring total aerosol oxidative potential (OP) with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and comparisons between an urban and roadside site of water-soluble and total OP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dong; Fang, Ting; Verma, Vishal; Zeng, Linghan; Weber, Rodney J.

    2017-08-01

    An automated analytical system was developed for measuring the oxidative potential (OP) with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay of filter extracts that include both water-soluble and water-insoluble (solid) aerosol species. Three approaches for measuring total oxidative potential were compared. These include using methanol as the solvent with (1) and without (2) filtering the extract, followed by removing the solvent and reconstituting with water, and (3) extraction in pure water and performing the OP analysis in the extraction vial with the filter. The water extraction method (the third approach, with filter remaining in the vial) generally yielded the highest DTT responses with better precision (coefficient of variation of 1-5 %) and was correlated with a greater number of other aerosol components. Because no organic solvents were used, which must be mostly eliminated prior to DTT analysis, it was easiest to automate by modifying an automated analytical system for measuring water-soluble OP developed by Fang et al. (2015). Therefore, the third method was applied to the field study for the determination of total OP. Daily 23 h filter samples were collected simultaneously at a roadside (RS) and a representative urban (Georgia Tech, GT) site for two 1-month study periods, and both water-soluble (OPWS-DTT) and total (OPTotal-DTT) OP were measured. Using PM2. 5 (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) high-volume samplers with quartz filters, the OPWS-DTT-to-OPTotal-DTT ratio at the urban site was 65 % with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.71 (N = 35; p value < 0.01), compared to a ratio of 62 % and r = 0. 56 (N = 31; p value < 0.01) at the roadside site. The same DTT analyses were performed, and similar results were found using particle composition monitors (flow rate of 16.7 L min-1) with Teflon filters. Comparison of measurements between sites showed only slightly higher levels of both OPWS-DTT and OPTotal-DTT at the RS site, indicating both OPWS-DTT and OPTotal-DTT were

  2. Effect of lifestyle interventions with or without metformin therapy on serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand in patients with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Tutal, Esra; Sahin, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Ucan, Bekir; Ozturk, Gulfer; Cakal, Erman; Biyikli Gencturk, Zeynep; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2017-02-01

    Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance variables, osteoprotegerin, and nuclear factor-B ligand markers, carotid intima media thickness were examined at baseline for all participants. To evaluate the effect of therapy we determined the same parameters after the end of the study. Measurements of waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage and levels of fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride levels and hsCRP and carotid intima media thickness were significantly higher in patients with prediabetes (p < 0.05). We also found higher osteoprotegerin and lower nuclear factor-B ligand levels in patients than in controls however, the value was non-significant (p > 0.05). Patients with prediabetes were under lifestyle interventions with (group 1, n = 33) or without metformin (group 2, n = 21) therapy. Baseline anthropometric and metabolic characteristics were not found statistically different in group 1 and group 2. Mean follow up period of the patients were 7.9 ± 2.2 month (min-max: 6-12 months). After the follow up period we evaluated the same parameters and found significant differences between waist circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and

  3. Characterization of Gravity Regulated Osteoprotegerin Expression in Fish Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, J.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Alestrom, P.; Seibt, D.; Goerlich, R.; Schartl, M.; Winkler, C.

    Human osteoprotegerin (opg) is a secreted protein of 401 amino acids that acts as a decoy receptor for RANKL (receptor activator of NFB ligand). Opg prevents binding of RANKL to its receptor, which is present on osteoclasts and their precursors. Thereby, opg blocks the formation, differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and stimulates apoptosis of mature osteoclasts. As a consequence, opg regulates the degree of bone resorption in order to keep a constant bone mass under normal gravity conditions. Recently, clinorotation experiments using mammalian cell cultures have shown that the opg gene is down-regulated in simulated microgravity at the transcriptional level (Kanematsu et al., Bone 30, 2002). We have identified opg genes in the fish models Medaka and zebrafish to study gravity regulation of opg expression in these models at the organismal level. In Medaka embryos, opg expression starts at stages when first skeletal elements are already detectable. Putative consensus binding sites for transcription factors were identified in the promoter region of the Medaka opg gene indicating possible evolutionary conservation of gene regulatory mechanisms between fish and mammals. To analyze, whether model fish species are suitable tools to study microgravity induced changes at the molecular level in vivo, we investigated regulation of fish opg genes as a consequence of altered gravity. For this, we performed centrifugation and clinorotation experiments, subjecting fish larvae to hypergravity and simulated microgravity, and analyzed expression profiles of skeletal genes by real-time PCR. Our data represent the first experiments using whole animal model organisms to study gravity induced alteration of skeletal factors at the molecular level. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (50 WB 0152) and the European Space Agency (AO-LS-99-MAP-LSS-003).

  4. Osteoprotegerin expression and sensitivity in otosclerosis with different histological activity.

    PubMed

    Karosi, Tamás; Csomor, Péter; Szalmás, Anita; Kónya, József; Petkó, Mihály; Sziklai, István

    2011-03-01

    Otosclerosis is a complex bone dystrophy of the human otic capsule leading to conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Since otosclerosis may, at least in part, be considered as an autoimmune-inflammatory disease, disturbed balance of TNF-alpha and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression has been implicated in the pathological bone remodeling. It has been supposed that active otosclerosis is characterized by decreased or missing local OPG production with invariable OPG sensitivity of the otosclerotic foci. Ankylotic stapes footplates (n = 41) removed by stapedectomy were processed to histological examination, OPG-specific RT-PCR, tissue culturing and alkaline-phosphatase (AP) activity assessment, respectively. OPG concentration of serum specimens (n = 41) was measured by ELISA. Cortical bone fragments harvested from the external ear canal were used as negative controls of otosclerosis. Among 41 ankylotic stapes footplates, 22 active and 19 inactive otosclerosis cases were histologically diagnosed. OPG expression was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in active otosclerosis compared to inactive cases. Osteoclast cultures originated from active otosclerotic foci showed a considerable susceptibility against external OPG dosage, which resulted in a significant decrease of AP activity (p < 0.001). In contrast, OPG serum levels were in the normal range (5-100 ng/ml) indicating a non-systemic bone resorption. In conclusion, secondary decreased local OPG production might play an important role in the pathogenesis of otosclerotic bone remodeling disorder. As to previous and current results, decreased OPG sensitivity of lesion-forming cells should be excluded. These observations may indicate the potential role of recombinant OPG treatment in early stages of otosclerosis.

  5. Origin identification of dried distillers grains with solubles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy after in situ oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ph; Fernández Pierna, J A; Abbas, O; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V

    2015-12-15

    The ban on using processed animal proteins in feedstuffs led the feed sector to look for other sources of protein. Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could be considered as an important source in this regard. They are imported into Europe mainly for livestock feed. Identifying their origin is essential when labelling is missing and for feed safety, particularly in a crisis situation resulting from contamination. This study investigated applying attenuated total reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-MIR) to the oil fraction extracted from samples in situ in order to identify the origin of DDGS. The use of spectroscopic and chemometric tools enabled the botanical and geographical origins of DDGS, as well as the industrial process used to produce them, to be identified. The models developed during the study provided a classification higher than 95% using an external validation set.

  6. Compared with casein or total milk protein, digestion of milk soluble proteins is too rapid to sustain the anabolic postprandial amino acid requirement.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Magali; Bos, Cécile; Léonil, Joëlle; Airinei, Gheorge; Luengo, Catherine; Daré, Sophie; Benamouzig, Robert; Fouillet, Hélène; Fauquant, Jacques; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2006-11-01

    The in vivo quality of milk protein fractions has seldom been studied in humans. Our objective was to compare the postprandial utilization of dietary nitrogen from 3 [(15)N]-labeled milk products: micellar caseins (MC), milk soluble protein isolate (MSPI), and total milk protein (TMP). The macronutrient intakes of 23 healthy volunteers were standardized for 1 wk, after which time the subjects ingested a meal containing MC (n = 8), MSPI (n = 7), or TMP (n = 8). [(15)N] was measured for an 8-h period in plasma amino acids, proteins, and urea and in urinary urea. The transfer of dietary nitrogen to urea occurred earlier after MSPI ingestion than after MC and TMP ingestion, and concentrations remained high for 8 h, concomitantly with higher but transient hyperaminoacidemia and a higher incorporation of dietary nitrogen into plasma amino acids. In contrast, deamination, postprandial hyperaminoacidemia, and the incorporation of dietary nitrogen into plasma amino acids were lower in the MC and TMP groups. Finally, total postprandial deamination values were 18.5 +/- 2.9%, 21.1 +/- 2.8%, and 28.2 +/- 2.9% of ingested nitrogen in the TMP, MC, and MSPI groups, respectively. Our results confirm the major role of kinetics in dietary nitrogen postprandial utilization and highlight the paradox of MSPI, which, despite its high Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, ensures a rate of amino acid delivery that is too rapid to sustain the anabolic requirement during the postprandial period. Milk proteins had the best nutritional quality, which suggested a synergistic effect between soluble proteins and caseins.

  7. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-06-19

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  8. Effects of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy on Osteoprotegerin, Neopterin, and sRANKL Concentrations in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Katharina; Herold, Manfred; Russe, Elisabeth; Klotz, Werner; Weiss, Guenter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint erosions, progressive focal bone loss, and chronic inflammation. Methods. 20 female patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis were treated with anti-TNF-antibody adalimumab in addition to concomitant antirheumatic therapies. Patients were assessed for overall disease activity using the DAS28 score, and neopterin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) concentrations were determined before therapy and at week 12. Neopterin as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by commercial ELISAs. Results. Before anti-TNF therapy patients presented with high disease activity and elevated concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers. OPG concentrations correlated with neopterin (rs = 0.494, p = 0.027), but not with DAS28. OPG concentrations and disease activity scores declined during anti-TNF-treatment (both p < 0.02). Patients who achieved remission (n = 7) or showed a good response according to EULAR criteria (n = 13) presented with initially higher baseline OPG levels, which subsequently decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.018 for remission, p = 0.011 for good response). Conclusions. Adalimumab therapy was effective in modifying disease activity and reducing proinflammatory and bone remodelling cascades. PMID:26576067

  9. Effects of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy on Osteoprotegerin, Neopterin, and sRANKL Concentrations in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Katharina; Herold, Manfred; Russe, Elisabeth; Klotz, Werner; Weiss, Guenter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint erosions, progressive focal bone loss, and chronic inflammation. 20 female patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis were treated with anti-TNF-antibody adalimumab in addition to concomitant antirheumatic therapies. Patients were assessed for overall disease activity using the DAS28 score, and neopterin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) concentrations were determined before therapy and at week 12. Neopterin as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by commercial ELISAs. Before anti-TNF therapy patients presented with high disease activity and elevated concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers. OPG concentrations correlated with neopterin (rs = 0.494, p = 0.027), but not with DAS28. OPG concentrations and disease activity scores declined during anti-TNF-treatment (both p < 0.02). Patients who achieved remission (n = 7) or showed a good response according to EULAR criteria (n = 13) presented with initially higher baseline OPG levels, which subsequently decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.018 for remission, p = 0.011 for good response). Adalimumab therapy was effective in modifying disease activity and reducing proinflammatory and bone remodelling cascades.

  10. Formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a new osteoprotegerin-chitosan gel for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jayash, Soher Nagi; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, N A

    2017-02-01

    The osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. The study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel. The OPG-chitosan gel was formulated using human OPG protein and water-soluble chitosan. The physicochemical properties were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Gel morphology was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then it was subjected to a protein release assay and biodegradability test. An in vitro cytotoxicity test on normal human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts and normal human (NH) osteoblasts was carried out using the AlamarBlue assay. In vivo evaluation in a rabbit model involved creating critical-sized defects in calvarial bone, filling with the OPG-chitosan gel and sacrificing at 12 weeks. In vitro results demonstrated that the 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel had the highest rate of protein release and achieved 90% degradation in 28 days. At 12 weeks, the defects filled with 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel showed significant (p < 0.05) new bone formation and the highest expression of osteocalcin and osteopontin compared to controls. Thus, the 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel could be a promising new biomaterial for tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 398-407, 2017.

  11. Concentrations of fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin and α-Klotho in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Anna; Sak, Jarosław Jerzy; Tarach, Jerzy; Toruń-Jurkowska, Anna; Lachowska-Kotowska, Patrycja; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of fetuin-A, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and α-Klotho protein in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis at different stages of the disease, and to demonstrate that fetuin-A, osteoprotegin and α-Klotho may be used as markers of the severity of cirrhosis. A total of 54 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals in the Lublin region of Poland were randomly enrolled. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Serum levels of fetuin-A, OPG and α-Klotho were measured by ELISA kits. Levels of fetuin-A were significantly reduced in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared with the control group. OPG levels were higher in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis than in the controls, whereas the levels of α-Klotho were comparable in the cirrhosis and control groups. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of fetuin-A, OPG and α-Klotho protein were demonstrated according to type of liver cirrhosis. The findings of the present study revealed a significant negative correlation between the level of α-Klotho protein and C-reactive protein in the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Concentrations of fetuin-A were lower, whereas those of OPG were higher, in the alcoholic liver cirrhosis group compared with the control group. Fetuin-A, OPG and α-Klotho may not be good indicators of liver cirrhosis severity. In conclusion, fetuin-A and OPG may be used in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. PMID:27882180

  12. Microscale Solubility Measurements of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization (MALDI) Matrices Using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) Coupled with Partial Least Squares (PLS) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorre, Elsa; Owens, Kevin G

    2016-11-01

    In this work an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption based method is used to measure the solubility of two matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) matrices in a few pure solvents and mixtures of acetonitrile and water using low microliter amounts of solution. Results from a method that averages the values obtained from multiple calibration curves created by manual peak picking are compared to those predicted using a partial least squares (PLS) chemometrics approach. The PLS method provided solubility values that were in good agreement with the manual method with significantly greater ease of analysis. As a test, the solubility of adipic acid in acetone was measured using the two methods of analysis, and the values are in good agreement with solubility values reported in literature. The solubilities of the MALDI matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and sinapinic acid (SA) were measured in a series of mixtures made from acetonitrile (ACN) and water; surprisingly, the results show a highly nonlinear trend. While both CHCA and SA show solubility values of less than 10 mg/mL in the pure solvents, the solubility value for SA increases to 56.3 mg/mL in a 75:25 v/v ACN:water mixture. This can have a significant effect on the matrix-to-analyte ratios in the MALDI experiment when sample protocols call for preparation of a saturated solution of the matrix in the chosen solvent system.

  13. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  14. Gingival crevicular fluid, serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and interleukin-17 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis and with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Pınar; Buduneli, Eralp; Bıyıkoğlu, Başak; Aksu, Kenan; Saraç, Fulden; Nile, Christopher; Lappin, David; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2013-11-01

    This study is performed to evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-17A/F, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoporosis (OPR), and those who are systemically healthy (SH), all with periodontal disease. GCF and serum samples were obtained before any periodontal intervention from 17 women with RA, 19 with OPR, and 13 who were SH with periodontitis. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. sRANKL, OPG, and IL-17 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical periodontal measurements were similar in the three study groups. Although the total amounts of GCF albumin, OPG, IL-17A, and IL-17A/F were similar in the study groups, there were statistically significant differences in GCF concentrations of sRANKL, OPG, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, and IL-17A/F. The sRANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the RA group than in the OPR and SH groups (P <0.05). Serum sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG, and IL-17A/IL-17E ratios were significantly higher, whereas OPG concentrations were significantly lower in the RA group compared to other groups (P <0.05). Serum IL-17A concentrations were significantly higher in the RA and OPR groups than in the SH group (P <0.05). Increased inflammatory mediator levels in patients with RA, despite the long-term use of various anti-inflammatory drugs, suggest that these patients may have a propensity to overproduce these inflammatory mediators.

  15. Study on size distribution of total aerosol and water-soluble ions during an Asian dust storm event at Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Song, C B; Kim, M C; Kwon, S B; Lee, K W

    2004-01-01

    Soil dust particles transported from loess regions of the Asian continent, called Asian dust, highly influences the air quality of north-eastern Asia and the northern Pacific Ocean. In order to investigate the effects of these dust storms on the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles with different size, measurements of size distributions of total aerosol and major ion species were carried out on Jeju Island, Korea during April 2001. Juju Island was chosen for the study because the levels of emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants are very low. A 5-stage cascade impactor was used to sample size-fractionated aerosol particles. Samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ions using Dionex DX-120 ion chromatograph. The average mass concentration of total aerosol was found to be 24.4 and 108.3 microg m(-3) for non-Asian dust and Asian dust periods, respectively. The total aerosol size distribution, measured during the non-Asian dust period, was bimodal, whereas the coarse particles dominated the size distribution of total aerosol during the Asian dust period. It was found that SO4(2-), NH4+ and K+ were mainly distributed in fine particles, while Cl-, NO3-, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were in coarse particles. Although SO4(2-) was mainly distributed in fine particles, during the Asian dust period, the concentrations in coarse particles were significantly increased. This indicates heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on wet surfaces of basic soil dust particles. The NH4+ was found to exist as (NH4)2SO4 in fine particles, with a molar ratio of NH4+ to SO4(2-) of 2.37 and 1.52 for non-Asian dust and Asian dust periods, respectively. Taking into account the proximity of the sampling site to the sea, and the observed chloride depletion, coarse mode nitrate, during the non-Asian dust period, is assumed to originate from the reaction of nitric acid with sodium chloride on the surfaces of sea-salt particles although the chloride depletion was not shown to be large enough to

  16. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestion of nutrients. In Exp. 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete block design (initial BW 391.1 +/- 9.51 kg) and fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets consisting of (DM basis) 0% distillers grains (CON), 15% SDG, 30% SDG, 15% CDG, 30% CDG, 15% of a 50:50 blend of SDG and CDG, and 30% of a 50:50 blend of CDG and SDG. Decreased carcass-adjusted final BW and HCW (P < or = 0.05) were noted as the inclusion amount of distillers grains increased in the diet. Body weight gain efficiency did not differ among the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON treatments, but G:F was numerically less with either amount of SDG than for CON, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) as distillers grains were increased from 15 to 30%. Cattle fed CON had greater carcass yield grades than those fed the distillers grain diets (P < or = 0.05). In Exp. 2, crossbred beef steers (n = 36; initial BW 567.3 +/- 53.1 kg) were used in a generalized randomized block design and fed SFC-based diets with 0% distillers grains (CON) and 15% (DM basis) CDG or SDG. Digestibility was determined with a pulse dose of Cr(2)O(3). Feeding steers 15% CDG or SDG increased intakes of CP and NDF (P < or = 0.05), but intakes of DM, OM, and starch did not differ among treatments (P >o r = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch (P > or = 0.25) did not differ among the 3 treatments. Fecal pH averaged over all sampling times was not affected by treatment, nor were average fecal pH values for prefeeding samples (0, 24, 48, and 72 h after the pulse dose) or for samples taken after feeding (12, 36, and 60 h after the pulse dose; P > or = 0.11). Results suggest that with 15% distillers grains in the DM, G:F was similar for cattle fed the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON diets

  17. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013–2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900–1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65–151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19–9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%–13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R2 = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R2 = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R2 = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R2 = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R2 = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits. PMID:28398228

  18. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  19. Impact of pH and Total Soluble Solids on Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics during High Pressure Processing of Mango (Mangifera indica) Pulp.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neelima; Nadella, Tejaswi; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to enhance the enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing (HPP) with pH and total soluble solids (TSS) as additional hurdles. Impact of mango pulp pH (3.5, 4.0, 4.5) and TSS (15, 20, 25 °Brix) variations on the inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were studied during HPP at 400 to 600 MPa pressure (P), 40 to 70 °C temperature (T), and 6- to 20-min pressure-hold time (t). The enzyme inactivation (%) was modeled using second order polynomial equations with a good fit that revealed that all the enzymes were significantly affected by HPP. Response surface and contour models predicted the kinetic behavior of mango pulp enzymes adequately as indicated by the small error between predicted and experimental data. The predicted kinetics indicated that for a fixed P and T, higher pulse pressure effect and increased isobaric inactivation rates were possible at lower levels of pH and TSS. In contrast, at a fixed pH or TSS level, an increase in P or T led to enhanced inactivation rates, irrespective of the type of enzyme. PPO and POD were found to have similar barosensitivity, whereas PME was found to be most resistant to HPP. Furthermore, simultaneous variation in pH and TSS levels of mango pulp resulted in higher enzyme inactivation at lower pH and TSS during HPP, where the effect of pH was found to be predominant than TSS within the experimental domain. Exploration of additional hurdles such as pH, TSS, and temperature for enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing of fruits is useful from industrial point of view, as these parameters play key role in preservation process design. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  2. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  3. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion.

  4. NF-kappaB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-kappaB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-kappaB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-kappaB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-kappaB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis

  5. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of the osteoprotegerin gene and its association with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guixi; Meng, Limin; Wang, Hui; Lu, Yun; Jia, Jian; Zhang, Yinguang; Zhang, Haibin; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common complex and polygenic disease in postmenopausal women, which is characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). The osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPG gene and BMD. OPG gene polymorphisms and BMD were analyzed in 352 Chinese postmenopausal women. BMD was quantified at the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck, and total hip. Through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing methods, an allelic variant corresponding to the G→A mutations at position 23276 in exon 3 of the OPG gene could be detected. The association between g.23276 G>A polymorphisms and BMD was analyzed, and a significant association was found between g.23276 G>A and spine BMD. The mean of genotype GG was significantly higher than those of genotype GA and AA. There was no significant difference in neck hip BMD and total hip BMD among different genotypes. These findings suggested that g.23276 G>A genotypes in the OPG gene were associated with spine BMD in Chinese postmenopausal women. The A-allele was associated with lower BMD and an increased risk for osteoporosis.

  6. Association of the g.27563G>A osteoprotegerin genetic polymorphism with bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y P; Zhao, D W; Wang, W M; Wang, B J; Zhang, Y; Li, Z G

    2014-02-14

    Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disease in postmenopausal women. This study aimed to investigate the association of the g.27563G>A osteoprotegerin (OPG) genetic polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. A case-control study was carried out with 435 osteoporosis postmenopausal women cases and 442 age-matched healthy controls. The BMD at the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), and total hip were assessed by Norland XR-46 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The genotypes of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism were detected by created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction and verified by DNA sequencing methods. We detected that the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism was a non-synonymous mutation that resulted in an arginine (Arg) to glutamine (Gln) amino acid replacement (p.Arg333Gln). Significant differences were found in the BMD of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), and total hip among different genotypes of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism. Subjects with the genotype GG had significantly higher BMD values than those with genotypes GA and AA (P < 0.05). Our data indicated that the A allele of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism in OPG could be associated with lower BMD values in the Chinese postmenopausal women evaluated, and that it might be an increased risk factor for osteoporosis.

  7. Circulating Maternal Total Cell-Free DNA, Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Soluble Endoglin Levels in Preeclampsia: Predictors of Adverse Fetal Outcome? A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    AbdelHalim, Radwa Marawan; Ramadan, Dalia Ibrahim; Zeyada, Reham; Nasr, Ahmed Soliman; Mandour, Iman Atef

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE) is based on the measurement of maternal blood pressure and proteinuria; however, these parameters are not used in the prediction of adverse fetal outcomes that may occur due to fetal stress. The plasma concentrations of total cell-free DNA (cf-DNA), cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) and soluble endoglin (sEng) are higher in women with established PE than in normotensive controls, and the increase is particularly marked in those with severe PE. We aimed to evaluate the levels of cf-DNA, cff-DNA and sEng in pregnant Egyptian women with PE in order to assess the severity of the disease and to detect their potential utility in the future prediction of time of delivery and adverse fetal outcome. The study included 107 pregnant females with established PE during their third trimester (51 with mild PE and 56 with severe PE), together with 93 normotensive pregnant women. Absolute quantitation of the hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) and testis-specific protein, Y-linked 1 (TSPY1) genes for the measurement of cf-DNA and cff-DNA in maternal blood, respectively, was carried out using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) together with the measurement of serum sEng using ELISA. An almost twofold increase in cf-DNA and cff-DNA was detected in the severe PE group over the mild group, and both were significantly different from the control group. Significantly higher levels of cf-DNA, cff-DNA and sEng, with variable magnitudes, were detected in the preterm labor and unfavorable fetal outcome groups compared with the term and favorable outcome groups, respectively. The three markers were almost equivalent with regard to the area under the curve for predicting adverse fetal outcome in the severe PE group. The same was also true for cf-DNA and cff-DNA within the mild PE group. Incorporation of cf-DNA, cff-DNA and sEng into the prenatal care service should be considered as a serious addition for the screening and detection of adverse pregnancy outcomes

  8. Osteoprotegerin Contributes to the Metastatic Potential of Cells with a Dysfunctional TSC2 Tumor-Suppressor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Wendy K.; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Glasgow, Connie G.; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Lin, Jing-Ping; Zheng, Gang; Moss, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In addition to its effects on bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor family of receptors, promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and may act as a survival factor for tumor cells. We hypothesized that these cellular mechanisms of OPG may be involved in the growth and proliferation of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) cells, abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor-suppressor genes (TSC1/TSC2) that cause LAM, a multisystem disease characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic infiltration, and abdominal tumors. Herein, we show that OPG stimulated proliferation of cells cultured from explanted LAM lungs, and selectively induced migration of LAM cells identified by the loss of heterozygosity for TSC2. Consistent with these observations, cells with TSC2 loss of heterozygosity expressed the OPG receptors, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules showed reactivities to antibodies to tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules also produced OPG, as shown by expression of OPG mRNA and colocalization of reactivities to anti-OPG and anti-gp100 (HMB45) antibodies in LAM lung nodules. Serum OPG was significantly higher in LAM patients than in normal volunteers. Based on these data, it appears that OPG may have tumor-promoting roles in the pathogenesis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, perhaps acting as both autocrine and paracrine factors. PMID:23867796

  9. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

  10. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of receptor activator nuclear κB ligand and osteoprotegerin in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Moraes, Maiara; das Neves Silva, Emília Beatriz; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti; de Almeida Freitas, Roseana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immunohistochemical detection of receptor activator nuclear κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs), solid ameloblastomas (SAs), and keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). A total of 20 RCs, 20 DCs, 20 KOTs, 14 dental follicles (DFs), and 18 SAs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-RANKL and anti-OPG antibodies. The analysis was quantitative, and the number of positive cells was counted in 10 microscopic high-power fields (400×). The DFs, KOTs, and SAs showed higher expression of RANKL than did the RCs and DCs in the epithelium (P < .05). The epithelial expression of OPG was higher in the DFs, KOTs, RCs, and DCs than in the SAs (P < .05). The ratio of OPG less than RANKL was more frequent in SAs and OPG greater than RANKL in DCs (P < .05). Our results have shown differences in RANKL and OPG detection in the odontogenic cysts and tumors studied. The higher RANKL and lower OPG detection in SA could play a role in bone resorption, compatible with the tumor's biologic behavior. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of fluoride and low versus high levels of dietary calcium on mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    The ratio of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) determines the delicate balance between bone resorption and synthesis. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible role of OPGL and OPG in the bone metabolism of rats exposed to fluoride and the protective or aggravating effect of calcium (Ca). In a 6-month study, 270 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 70 and 90 g were divided randomly into six groups of 45 rats in each group. Three groups (groups I, III, and V)served as controls and drank deionized water and were fed purified rodent diets containing either 1,000 mg Ca/kg (low Ca), 5,000 mg Ca/kg (normal Ca), or 20,000 mg Ca/kg (high Ca). The three experimental groups (groups II, IV, and VI) were given the same diets but they drank water containing 100 mg F ion/L (from NaF). Every 2 months 15 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed for the study. The ratio of OPGL mRNA to OPG mRNA was significantly increased by the sixth month in the distal femur joints of the F-exposed rats. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and serum calcitonin activity in the F-exposed groups was increased, although changes were not apparent in the serum alkaline phosphatase or Gla-containing proteins, especially in the low calcium and high calcium diet F-exposed groups. The results indicated that OPG and OPGL may play important roles in skeletal fluorosis, and that fluoride may enhance osteoclast formation and induce osteoclastic bone destruction. A high Ca diet did not play a protective role, but rather may aggravate the damage of fluoride.

  13. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  14. Changes in RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression after chronic exposure to indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with biomass fuel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with unprocessed biomass on membrane-bound and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand 1 (RANKL), its soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast precursor CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was investigated. Seventy-four pre-menopausal women from eastern India using biomass and 65 control women who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas were enrolled. PM10 and PM2.5 levels in their indoor air were measured with real-time aerosol monitors. The levels of membrane-bound RANKL on leukocytes and percentage CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in the subjects' blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Soluble RANKL and OPG in serum were measured by ELISA. The results showed that PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly higher in the indoor air of biomass-using households. Compared with the control women, the levels of CD4(+) and CD19(+) lymphocytes and circulating granulocytes with elevated levels of membrane-bound RANKL were higher in biomass users. The serum levels of RANKL were increased by 41% whereas serum OPG was reduced by 22% among biomass users. The absolute number of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was significantly increased in biomass users than the control women. After controlling for potential confounders, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were found to be positively associated with leukocyte and serum RANKL and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels, but negatively with serum OPG. From these results, we can conclude that chronic exposure to biomass smoke increased membrane-bound and soluble RANKL and circulating osteoclast precursors but decreased OPG, suggesting an increased risk of bone resorption and consequent osteoporosis in biomass-exposed women of a child-bearing age. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, M.M.; Hayashi, S.Y.; Riella, M.C.; Lindholm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, and plays a role in vascular calcification. We evaluated the relationship between osteoprotegerin levels and inflammatory markers, atherosclerosis, and mortality in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. A total of 145 subjects (median age 61 years, 61% men; 36 patients on hemodialysis, 55 patients on peritoneal dialysis, and 54 patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease) were studied. Clinical characteristics, markers of mineral metabolism (including fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23]) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and the intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid arteries were measured at baseline. Cardiac function was assessed by color tissue Doppler echocardiography. After 36 months follow-up, the survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was significantly different according to OPG levels (χ 2=14.33; P=0.002). Increased OPG levels were positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.38, P<0.001), FGF-23 (r=0.26, P<0.001) and hsCRP (r=0.0.24, P=0.003). In addition, OPG was positively associated with troponin I (r=0.54, P<0.001) and IMT (r=0.39, P<0.0001). Finally, in Cox analysis, only OPG (HR=1.07, 95%CI=1.02-1.13) and hsCRP (HR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04) were independently associated with increased risk of death. These results suggested that elevated levels of serum OPG might be associated with atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:25296363

  16. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of osteoprotegerin accelerates osteointegration of titanium implants in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, G; Chen, J; Wei, S; Wang, H; Chen, Q; Lin, Y; Hu, J; Luo, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of human osteoprotegerin (hOPG) transgene to accelerate osteointegration of titanium implant in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Bone marrow stromal cells transduced with Ad-hOPG-EGFP could sustainedly express hOPG. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells treated by the hOPG were examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone slice resorption assay. The results showed differentiation and function of osteoclasts were significantly suppressed by hOPG in vitro. Ad-hOPG-EGFP was locally administered to the bone defect prior to implant placement in OVX and sham rats. After 3, 7, 28 days of implantation, the femurs were harvested for molecular and histological analyses. Successful transgene expression was confirmed by western blot and cryosectioning. A significant reduction in TRAP+ numbers was detected in Ad-hOPG-EGFP group. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR examination revealed that hOPG transgene markedly diminished the expression of cathepsin K and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand in vivo. The transgene hOPG modification revealed a marked increasing osteointegration and restored implant stability in OVX rats (P<0.01), compared with the control groups (Ad-EGFP or sterilized phosphate-buffered saline) 28 days after implantation. In conclusion, hOPG via direct adenovirus-mediated gene transfer could accelerate osteointegration of titanium implants in OVX rats. Osteoprotegerin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to osteointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions.

  17. The effect of exercise and estrogen on osteoprotegerin in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah L; Scheid, Jennifer L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are widely recognized, however physically active women can develop exercise associated menstrual cycle disturbances such as amenorrhea (i.e., estrogen deficiency) secondary to a chronic energy deficiency. To assess the effects of exercise status and estrogen deficiency on osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its relationship to bone resorption in premenopausal exercising women. Cross-sectional study of serum OPG, urinary c-telopeptides (uCTX), urinary estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G), urinary pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (PdG) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured on multiple occasions in 67 women. Volunteers were retrospectively grouped: 1) sedentary menstruating group (SedMen n=8), 2) exercising menstruating group (ExMen, n=36), and 3) exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen, n=23). One-way ANOVAs were performed, and LSD post-hoc tests were performed when differences were detected. Subjects were similar with respect to age (24.2+/-1.0 years), weight (57.8+/-1.7 kg), and height (164.3+/-1.3 cm) (p>0.05). ExMen and ExAmen groups were more aerobically fit (p=0.003) and had less body fat (p=0.002) than the SedMen group. Resting energy expenditure/fat free mass was lowest (p=0.001) in the ExAmen groups. Mean E1G across the measurement period (p<0.001) and overall E1G exposure as assessed by E1G area under the curve (AUC) (p<0.001) were lower in the ExAmen group vs. the SedMen and ExMen groups. U-CTX-I was elevated (p=0.033) in the ExAmen group (281.8+/-40.3 microg/L/mmCr), compared with the SedMen and ExMen groups (184.5+/-22.4, 197.2+/-14.7 microg/L/mmCr, respectively). OPG was suppressed (p=0.005) in the ExAmen group (4.6+/-0.2 pmol/L) vs. ExMen group (5.2+/-0.2 pmol/L), and OPG was lower in the SedMen group (4.1+/-0.3 pmol/L) compared with the ExMen group. Findings were translated to BMD; the ExAmen group had suppressed total body BMD (p=0.014) and L2-L4 BMD (p=0.015) vs. the ExMen group. Our results suggest that OPG responds to the bone loading effect of

  18. Isoliquiritigenin Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell-induced Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Ratio in Human Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Bone destruction induced by the metastasis of breast cancer cells is a frequent complication that is caused by the interaction between cancer cells and bone cells. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and the endogenous soluble RANKL inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), directly play critical roles in the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts. In patients with bone metastases, osteoclastic bone resorption promotes the majority of skeletal-related events and propagates bone metastases. Therefore, blocking osteoclast activity and differentiation via RANKL inhibition can be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer-associated bone diseases. We investigated the potential of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which has anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects, as a preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer cell-induced bone destruction. ISL at non-toxicity concentrations significantly inhibited the RANKL/OPG ratio by reducing the production of RANKL and restoring OPG production to control levels in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ISL reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated by CM of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, ISL may have inhibitory potential on breast cancer-induced bone destruction. PMID:26734591

  19. Beneficial effects of TQRF and TQ nano- and conventional emulsions on memory deficit, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble Aβ levels in high fat-cholesterol diet-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus Abu; Yida, Zhang; Stanslas, Johnson; Sani, Dahiru; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2017-09-25

    The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE). The TQRF and TQ conventional emulsions (CE), named as TQRFCE and TQCE, respectively were studied for comparison. Statin (simvastatin) and non-statin (probucol) cholesterol-lowering agents, and a mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease drug (donepezil) were served as control drugs. The Sprague Dawley rats were fed with HFCD for 6 months, and treated with the intervention groups via oral gavage daily for the last 3 months. As a result, HFCD-fed rats exhibited hypercholesterolaemia, accompanied by memory deficit, increment of lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels, decrement of total antioxidant status and down-regulation of antioxidants genes expression levels. TQRFNE demonstrated comparable effects to the other intervention groups and control drugs in serum biomarkers as well as in the learning and memory test. Somehow, TQRFNE was more prominent than those intervention groups and control drugs in brain biomarkers concomitant to gene and protein expression levels. Supplementation of TQRFNE into an HFCD thus could ameliorate memory deficit, lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels as well as improving the total antioxidant status and antioxidants genes expression levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bjerre, Mette; Iversen, Allan Z; Galatius, Soren; Frystyk, Jan; Jensen, Jan S

    2012-02-15

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to clinical and subclinical atherosclerotic disease in a large community-based, cross-sectional population study. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, OPG concentrations were measured in 5,863 men and women. A total of 494 participants had been hospitalized for ischemic heart disease or ischemic stroke, and compared to controls, this group with clinical atherosclerosis had higher mean OPG (1,773 vs 1,337 ng/L, p <0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (2.3 vs 1.6 mg/L, p <0.001). In a multivariate model with age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and OPG, OPG remained significantly associated with clinical atherosclerosis (p <0.01); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, in contrast, did not (p = 0.74). In the control group without clinical atherosclerosis, OPG was independently associated with hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis as measured by ankle brachial index. For each doubling of the plasma OPG concentration, the risk for subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis increased by 50% (p <0.001) after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, OPG appears to be a promising biomarker of atherosclerosis that is independently associated with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, subclinical peripheral atherosclerosis, and clinical atherosclerotic disease such as ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke.

  1. Diagnostic and Prognostic Properties of Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Acute Dyspnoea: Observations from the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Mohammed Osman; Pedersen, Marit Holmefjord; Brynildsen, Jon; Høiseth, Arne Didrik; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels are increased in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The diagnostic and prognostic merit of OPG measurement in patients admitted with acute dyspnoea is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of measuring OPG in patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea. Methods OPG was analysed by ELISA in 308 patients admitted due to acute dyspnoea. Investigators blinded to OPG results adjudicated the diagnosis for the index hospitalization. Clinical outcomes were obtained from hospital records. Results In total, 139 patients (45%) were hospitalized with acute HF. OPG levels on hospital admission were higher in patients with acute HF vs. no acute HF, 7.8 (5.5–10.4) vs. 5.4 (3.8–7.2) pmol/L, p<0.001. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC AUC) of OPG to discriminate between HF vs. non-HF was 0.695 [95% CI 0.636–0.754]. OPG did not provide incremental information to the ED physician’s prediction or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide regarding the diagnosis of acute HF. OPG levels (log transformed) were associated with mortality in crude analysis (HR (95% CI) 1.87 (1.34 to 2.61), p<0.001), but this association was attenuated and no longer significant after including established cardiac biomarkers into the model. Conclusion In patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea, OPG levels are higher in patients with acute HF than in those with dyspnoea from other causes. However, OPG does not provide incremental information beyond ED physician assessment for the diagnosis of acute HF or beyond clinical risk variables and established cardiac biomarkers concerning prognosis. PMID:27463973

  2. Lysine-specific gingipain promotes lipopolysaccharide- and active-vitamin D3-induced osteoclast differentiation by degrading osteoprotegerin.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Rika; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Takami, Masamichi; Imamura, Takahisa; Potempa, Jan; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2009-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major pathogens of periodontitis, a condition characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption by osteoclasts. The bacterium produces cysteine proteases called gingipains, which are classified according to their cleavage-site specificity into Kgps (lysine-specific gingipains) and Rgps (arginine-specific gingipains). In the present study we examined the effects of gingipains on osteoclast differentiation. In co-cultures of mouse bone-marrow cells and osteoblasts, formation of multinucleated osteoclasts induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) was augmented by Kgp but not by RgpB. A physiological concentration (0.1 nM) of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced the osteoclast formation in the presence of 100 nM Kgp to an extent comparable with that induced by 10 nM 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Kgp also enhanced osteoclastogenesis induced by various microbial components, including lipopolysaccharide. Combined use of Kgp and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) or lipopolysaccharide also increased the number of resorption pits developed on dentin slices, indicating that the osteoclasts formed in the presence of Kgp possess bone-resorbing activity. The enhanced osteoclastogenesis by Kgp was correlated with a depletion of osteoprotegerin in co-culture medium and was proteolytic-activity-dependent, since benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-lysylacycloxyketone, an inhibitor of Kgp, completely abolished osteoclastogenesis induced by Kgp. Kgp digested osteoprotegerin, since its recombinant protein was susceptible to degradation by Kgp in the presence of serum. As a result, Kgp did not augment osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures of osteoprotegerin-deficient osteoblasts and bone-marrow cells. In addition, enhanced osteoclastogenesis by Kgp was abolished by an excess amount of recombinant osteoprotegerin. These findings suggest that degradation of osteoprotegerin is one of the mechanisms underlying promotion of osteoclastogenesis by Kgp.

  3. Effect of Osteoprotegerin and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 on Radiological Progression in Tightly Controlled Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Irene; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto; Ivorra, José; Narváez, José Antonio; Hernández-Gañán, Javier; Alía, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1) and radiological progression in patients with tightly controlled rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Serum levels of OPG and DKK-1 were measured in 97 RA patients who were treated according to a treat-to-target strategy (T2T) aimed at remission (DAS28<2.6). Radiologic joint damage progression was assessed by changes in the total Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS) on serial radiographs of the hands and feet. The independent association between these biomarker levels and the structural damage endpoint was examined using regression analysis Results The mean age of the 97 RA patients (68 women) at the time of the study was 54 ± 14 years, and the median disease duration was 1.6 ± 1.5 years. Most patients were seropositive for either RF or ACPA, and the large majority (76%) were in remission or had low disease activity. After a median follow-up time of 3.3 ± 1.5 years (range, 1–7.5 yrs.), the mean total SHS annual progression was 0.88 ± 2.20 units. Fifty-two percent of the patients had no progression (defined as a total SHS of zero). The mean serum OPG level did not change significantly over the study period (from 3.9 ± 1.8 to 4.07 ± 2.23 pmol/L), whereas the mean serum DKK-1 level decreased, although not significantly (from 29.9 ± 10.9 to 23.6 ± 18.8 pmol/L). In the multivariate analysis, the predictive factors increasing the likelihood of total SHS progression were age (OR per year = 1.10; p = 0.003) and a high mean C-reactive protein level over the study period (OR = 1.29; p = 0.005). Circulating OPG showed a protective effect reducing the likelihood of joint space narrowing by 60% (95% CI: 0.38–0.94) and the total SHS progression by 48% (95% CI: 0.28–0.83). The DKK-1 levels were not associated with radiological progression. Conclusion In patients with tightly controlled RA, serum OPG was inversely associated with progression of joint

  4. Total Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as Predictive Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colhoun, Helen M.; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham; Neil, Andrew; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Bao, Weihang; DeMicco, David A.; Preston, Gregory M.; Deshmukh, Harshal; Tan, Kathryn; Fuller, John H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) likely comprise both a secreted isoform (esRAGE) and wild-type RAGE cleaved from the cell membrane. Both sRAGE and esRAGE have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but prospective data are limited. We examined the relationship of sRAGE and esRAGE to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients followed for 3.9 years in a trial of atorvastatin: the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a nested case-control design sampling all incident cases of CVD with available plasma and randomly selecting three control subjects, who were free of CVD throughout follow-up, per case. Analysis was by Cox regression with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. RESULTS sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.88) and were both higher in those with lower BMI (P < 0.001), higher adiponectin (P < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.009), and white ethnicity (P < 0.001). Both sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with incident CHD events, independently of treatment allocation and the above factors; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74 (95% CI 1.25–2.41; P = 0.002) for a doubling of the sRAGE level; HR = 1.45 (1.11–1.89; P = 0.006) for a doubling of the esRAGE level. There was no significant association with stroke; HR for sRAGE = 0.66 (0.38–1.14). Atorvastatin, 10 mg daily, did not alter sRAGE. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of sRAGE and esRAGE are associated with incident CHD but not stroke in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21771973

  5. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  6. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  7. Reveromycin A Administration Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Osteoprotegerin Knockout Mice with Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Manami; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yoshizako, Mamoru; Minamoto, Chisato; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Tamaoka, Yusuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Goto, Shigemi

    2015-11-12

    Chronic periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone loss and inflammatory changes. Reveromycin A (RMA) was recently developed and is a unique agent for inhibiting osteoclast activity. This study analysed the effects of RMA in an experimental mouse model of periodontitis involving osteoprotegerin (OPG)-knockout mice, specifically, whether it could control osteoclasts and reduce inflammation in periodontal tissue. We examined wild-type (WT) and OPG knockout mice (OPG KO) ligated with wire around contact points on the left first and second molars. RMA was administered twice a day to half of the mice. Using micro-computed tomography, we measured the volume of alveolar bone loss between the first and second molars, and also performed histological analysis. The OPG KO RMA+ group had significantly decreased osteoclast counts, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and inflammatory cytokine expression 8 weeks after ligation. Thus, RMA may reduce alveolar bone loss and inflamed periodontal tissues in patients with periodontitis.

  8. Is rationale to decrease serum osteoprotegerin and fetuin-A in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients?

    PubMed

    Berezin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fetuin-A and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are considered biomarkers of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, inflammation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with possible predictive value. Recent clinical studies have been shown that fetuin-A and OPG could be helpful for cardiovascular risk stratification in T2DM. Therefore, fetuin-A and OPG may offer protection against atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. However, clinical implication of decreased serum concentrations of these biomarkers in T2DM during treatment with thiazolidinediones, in particular pioglitazone, and metformin is not fully understood. The relation of thiazolidinediones- and metformin- induced post-treatment serum levels of fetuin-A and OPG to changes in CV risk requires more investigations.

  9. Reveromycin A Administration Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in Osteoprotegerin Knockout Mice with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Manami; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yoshizako, Mamoru; Minamoto, Chisato; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Tamaoka, Yusuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Osada, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Goto, Shigemi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone loss and inflammatory changes. Reveromycin A (RMA) was recently developed and is a unique agent for inhibiting osteoclast activity. This study analysed the effects of RMA in an experimental mouse model of periodontitis involving osteoprotegerin (OPG)-knockout mice, specifically, whether it could control osteoclasts and reduce inflammation in periodontal tissue. We examined wild-type (WT) and OPG knockout mice (OPG KO) ligated with wire around contact points on the left first and second molars. RMA was administered twice a day to half of the mice. Using micro-computed tomography, we measured the volume of alveolar bone loss between the first and second molars, and also performed histological analysis. The OPG KO RMA+ group had significantly decreased osteoclast counts, alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, and inflammatory cytokine expression 8 weeks after ligation. Thus, RMA may reduce alveolar bone loss and inflamed periodontal tissues in patients with periodontitis. PMID:26561427

  10. [The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteoprotegerin in trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yusheng; Huang, Hua; Chang, Shimin; Wang, Chengyue; Wang, Guijun

    2012-08-01

    To determine if locally administered bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) improved osteogenesis and new bone formation by trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis. Twenty four dogs were divided into three groups randomly and received new internal trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis treatment. Five days after operation, infusion apparatus with double-tube was inserted to submucosa near the distracted zone to deliver controlled release agent of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/fibrin sealant (rhBMP-2/PLGA/FS) in group A and group C. Recombinant human osteoprotegerin/fibrin sealant (rhOPG/ FS) was injected three weeks later in group B and group C. Histology staining and bone histomorphometry were used to measure the changes of maxillary bone sutura after distraction for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. New bone formation observed in distracted zone showed a significant increase in group A and C. Transmission electron microscope showed the osteoblast and osteocyte were active with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and a large number of chondriosomes and Golgi complex. After distraction for 6 weeks, indexes of osteoblast of group A, B, and C were 38.5 +/- 7.7, 35.7 +/- 6.5, and 41.7 +/- 11.0, indexes of osteoclast (Ioc) were 5.9 +/- 1.0, 1.2 +/- 0.3, and 2.8 +/- 0.4, bone trabecula thicknesses were (38.36 +/- 13.28), (66.20 +/- 9.16), and (51.85 +/- 9.92) microm respectively. Increased bone density and decreased Ioc were found in group B and C. The new elastic distractor is effective in inducing new bone formation. BMP-2 and OPG combination acts synergistically, and leads to significant enhancement of bone formation and remodeling.

  11. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  12. Osteoprotegerin and Denosumab Stimulate Human Beta Cell Proliferation through Inhibition of the Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kondegowda, Nagesha Guthalu; Fenutria, Rafael; Pollack, Ilana R; Orthofer, Michael; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Penninger, Josef M; Vasavada, Rupangi C

    2015-07-07

    Diabetes results from a reduction of pancreatic β-cells. Stimulating replication could normalize β-cell mass. However, adult human β-cells are recalcitrant to proliferation. We identified osteoprotegerin, a bone-related decoy receptor, as a β-cell mitogen. Osteoprotegerin was induced by and required for lactogen-mediated rodent β-cell replication. Osteoprotegerin enhanced β-cell proliferation in young, aged, and diabetic mice. This resulted in increased β-cell mass in young mice and significantly delayed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Osteoprotegerin stimulated replication of adult human β-cells, without causing dedifferentiation. Mechanistically, osteoprotegerin induced human and rodent β-cell replication by modulating CREB and GSK3 pathways, through binding Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANK) Ligand (RANKL), a brake in β-cell proliferation. Denosumab, an FDA-approved osteoporosis drug, and RANKL-specific antibody induced human β-cell proliferation in vitro, and in vivo, in humanized mice. Thus, osteoprotegerin and Denosumab prevent RANKL/RANK interaction to stimulate β-cell replication, highlighting the potential for repurposing an osteoporosis drug to treat diabetes.

  13. Compartmental flux and in situ methods underestimate total feed nitrogen as judged by the omasal sampling method due to ignoring soluble feed nitrogen flow.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, Pekka; Bayat, Alireza; Krizsan, Sophie J; Vanhatalo, Aila

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate ruminal feed N outflow in lactating cows using the omasal sampling, compartmental flux or in situ method. A total of five ruminally fistulated Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square study with 21 d periods. Experimental silages of grass or red clover harvested at two stages of maturity in addition to a supplement of 9·0 kg concentrate/d were fed to the cows. In vivo omasal N flow was determined using the omasal sampling technique. Ruminal in situ N flow was calculated from N intake and degradability (38 μm nylon bags). The samples of ruminal contents and faeces were divided into seven particle-size fractions by wet sieving; the concentrations of indigestible neutral-detergent fibre and N were used to calculate N flow in the compartmental flux method. In vivo omasal N flow was greater for the red clover silage diets than for the grass silage diets. The N flow calculated using the compartmental flux technique and that calculated using the in situ technique were highly correlated, but both were less than and poorly correlated with the in vivo N flow. In both in situ and compartmental flux techniques, forage maturity increased the particle-associated N flow, with the increase being significantly greater for the red clover diets than for the grass silage diets. In conclusion, the compartmental flux and in situ methods described the N flow associated with the particle fractions rather than the total ruminal outflow of feed N.

  14. A fast and accurate method for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its comparison with established techniques.

    PubMed

    Gleisner, Heike; Einax, Jürgen W; Morés, Silvane; Welz, Bernhard; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-04-05

    A fast and reliable method has been developed for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste, important quality control parameters in dentifrices. The method is based on the molecular absorption of gallium mono-fluoride, GaF, using a commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. Transversely heated platform tubes with zirconium as permanent chemical modifier were used throughout. Before each sample injection, a palladium and zirconium modifier solution and a gallium reagent were deposited onto the graphite platform and thermally pretreated to transform them into their active forms. The samples were only diluted and introduced directly into the graphite tube together with additional gallium reagent. Under these conditions the fluoride was stable up to a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, and the optimum vaporization (molecule formation) temperature was 1550 °C. The GaF molecular absorption was measured at 211.248 nm, and the limits of detection and quantification were 5.2 pg and 17 pg, respectively, corresponding to a limit of quantification of about 30 μg g(-1) (ppm) F in the original toothpaste. The proposed method was used for the determination of total and soluble fluorine content in toothpaste samples from different manufactures. The samples contained different ionic fluoride species and sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) with covalently bonded fluorine. The results for total fluorine were compared with those obtained with a modified conventional headspace gas chromatographic procedure. Accuracy and precision of the two procedures were comparable, but the proposed procedure was much less labor-intensive, and about five times faster than the latter one. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of the g.19074G>A genetic variant in the osteoprotegerin gene with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y D; Zhang, Z; Zhou, N F; Jia, W T; Cheng, X G; Wei, X J

    2014-08-28

    Primary osteoporosis is a common health problem in postmenopausal women. This study aimed to detect the association of the g.19074G>A genetic variant in the osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) with bone mineral density (BMD) and primary osteoporosis. The created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction method was used to investigate the g.19074G>A genetic variant. The BMD of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L2-4), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 856 unrelated Chinese postmenopausal women. We found significant differences in the BMDs of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L2-4), and total hip among different genotypes; individuals with the GG genotype had significantly higher BMDs than those with the GA and AA genotypes (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that the A allele was an increased risk factor for primary osteoporosis and the g.19074G>A genetic variant of the OPG gene was associated with BMD and primary osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  16. Osteoprotegerin Reduces Osteoclast Numbers and Prevents Bone Erosion in Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Romas, Evan; Sims, Natalie A.; Hards, Daphne K.; Lindsay, Mandy; Quinn, Julian W.M.; Ryan, Peter F.J.; Dunstan, Colin R.; Martin, T. John; Gillespie, Matthew T.

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by progressive synovial inflammation and joint destruction. While matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the erosion of unmineralized cartilage, bone destruction involves osteoclasts, the specialized cells that resorb calcified bone matrix. RANK ligand (RANKL) expressed by stromal cells and T cells, and its cognate receptor, RANK, were identified as a critical ligand-receptor pair for osteoclast differentiation and survival. A decoy receptor for RANKL, osteoprotegerin, (OPG) impinges on this system and regulates osteoclast numbers and activity. RANKL is also expressed in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in which focal collections of osteoclasts are prominent at sites of bone destruction. To determine the role of RANK signaling events in the effector phase of CIA, we investigated effects of Fc-osteoprotegerin fusion protein (Fc-OPG) in CIA. After induction of CIA in Dark Agouti rats, test animals were treated with or without Fc-OPG (3 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 5 days, beginning at the onset of disease. Paraffin-embedded joints were then analyzed histologically and the adjacent bone assessed by histomorphometry. Osteoclasts were identified using TRAP staining and expression of the mRNA for OPG and RANKL was identified by in situ hybridization. The results indicated that short-term Fc-OPG effectively prevented joint destruction, even though it had no impact on the inflammatory aspects of CIA. In arthritic joints, Fc-OPG depleted osteoclast numbers by over 75% and diminished bone erosion scores by over 60%. Although cartilage loss was also reduced by Fc-OPG, the effects on cartilage were less striking than those on bone. In arthritic joints OPG mRNA was highly expressed and co-localized with RANK ligand, and treatment with Fc-OPG did not affect the expression of endogenous RANKL or OPG mRNA. These data demonstrate that short term Fc-OPG treatment has powerful anti-erosive effects, principally on bone, even though

  17. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Male Sprague Dawley rats (140-260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1-15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  19. Variants of Osteoprotegerin Lacking TRAIL Binding for Therapeutic Bone Remodeling in Osteolytic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Jerome T.; Jarboe, John S.; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Chanda, Diptiman; Lee, Carnellia M.; Deivanayagam, Champion; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2015-01-01

    Osteolytic bone damage is a major cause of morbidity in several metastatic pathologies. Current therapies using bisphosphonates provide modest improvement, but cytotoxic side effects still occur prompting the need to develop more effective therapies to target aggressive osteoclastogenesis. Increased levels of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (TNFSF11/RANKL), leading to RANKL-RANK signaling, remains the key axis for osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B/OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL is significantly decreased in patients who present with bone lesions. Despite its potential in inhibiting osteoclast activation, OPG also binds to tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10/TRAIL), making tumor cells resistant to apoptosis. Towards uncoupling the events of TRAIL binding of OPG and to improve its utility for bone remodeling without inducing tumor resistance to apoptosis, OPG mutants were developed by structural homology modeling based on interactive domain identification and by superimposing models of OPG, TRAIL and its receptor DR5 (TNFRSF10B) to identify regions of OPG for rational design. The OPG mutants were purified and extensively characterized for their ability to decrease osteoclast damage without affecting tumor apoptosis pathway both in vitro and in vivo, confirming their potential in bone remodeling following cancer-induced osteolytic damage. PMID:25636966

  20. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Corrales, Alfonso; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease –IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patients and their clinical and demographic characteristics were also evaluated. Whereas OPG and OPG/TRAIL ratio expression were significantly increased in RA patients compared to controls (fold change = 1.79, p = 0.013 and 2.07, p = 0.030, respectively), RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly decreased (fold change = 0.50, p = 0.020). No significant differences were found between patients and controls in RANKL and TRAIL expression. Interestingly, TRAIL expression was significantly higher in RA patients with IHD compared to those without IHD (fold change = 1.46, p = 0.033). Moreover, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) significantly decreased RANKL expression in RA patients (p = 0.016). Our study supports an important role of OPG and TRAIL in RA. Furthermore, it highlights an effect of biologic DMARDs in the modulation of RANKL. PMID:27403809

  1. Osteoprotegerin and β2-Agonists Mitigate Muscular Dystrophy in Slow- and Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Frenette, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Our recent work showed that daily injections of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-immunoglobulin fragment complex (OPG-Fc) completely restore the function of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles in dystrophic mdx mice, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, despite marked improvements, OPG-Fc was not as effective in preventing the loss of function of slow-twitch soleus and diaphragm muscles. Because β2-agonists enhance the function of slow- and fast-twitch dystrophic muscles and because their use is limited by their adverse effects on bone and cardiac tissues, we hypothesized that OPG-Fc, a bone and skeletal muscle protector, acts synergistically with β2-agonists and potentiates their positive effects on skeletal muscles. We observed that the content of β2-adrenergic receptors, which are mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, is significantly reduced in dystrophic muscles but is rescued by the injection of OPG-Fc. Most important, OPG-Fc combined with a low dose of formoterol, a member of a new generation of β2-agonists, histologically and functionally rescued slow-twitch dystrophic muscles. This combination of therapeutic agents, which have already been tested and approved for human use, may open up new therapeutic avenues for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and possibly other neuromuscular diseases.

  2. In vitro evaluation of osteoprotegerin in chitosan for potential bone defect applications

    PubMed Central

    Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, NA

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. OPG has been used systemically in the treatment of bone diseases. In searching for more effective and safer treatment for bone diseases, we investigated newly formulated OPG-chitosan complexes, which is prepared as a local application for its osteogenic potential to remediate bone defects. Methods We examined high, medium and low molecular weights of chitosan combined with OPG. The cytotoxicity of OPG in chitosan and its proliferation in vitro was evaluated using normal, human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts in 2D and 3D cell culture. The cytotoxicity of these combinations was compared by measuring cell survival with a tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and AlamarBlue assay. The cellular morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope. A propidium iodide and acridine orange double-staining assay was used to evaluate the morphology and quantify the viable and nonviable cells. The expression level of osteopontin and osteocalcin protein in treated normal human osteoblast cells was evaluated by using Western blot. Results The results demonstrated that OPG in combination with chitosan was non-toxic, and OPG combined with low molecular weight chitosan has the most significant effect on NHPL fibroblasts and stimulates proliferation of cells over the period of treatment. PMID:27635307

  3. Use of spaceflight and spaceflight simulation to evaluate osteoprotegerin for treatment of disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Simske, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered naturally circulating protein (Amgen Inc.) that plays a role in regulating bone density. It inhibits the ability of osteoclasts to resorb bone by blocking the action of OPG ligand (OPGL). This limits osteoclastogenesis and the activation of mature osteoclasts and induces osteoclast apoptosis. Transgenic mice, altered to over-express OPG, develop increased bone density via dual X-ray absorptiometry analysis, similar to that of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice. Recombinant injection of OPG in mice increases metaphyseal trabecular bone volume of both the proximal tibia and distal femur. Recombinant OPG also ameliorates the effects of estrogen loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, causing an increase in bone volume and decreased osteoclast numbers relative to placebo controls. OPG has been examined for its ability to treat both tail suspension and nerve crush. OPG returns the mechanical properties of tail suspended mice to the levels of placebo treated nonsuspended controls. This increase in mechanical properties is not caused by returning formation levels to normal, but rather by inhibiting resorption while increasing percent mineral composition. OPG is also efficacious in treating nerve crush induced osteoporosis. The differences in bone mass (a consequence of disuse) between the crushed limb and contralateral control (noncrushed) is decreased by OPG treatment. .

  4. Biomarkers of the osteoprotegerin pathway: clinical correlates, subclinical disease, incident CVD and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Gona, Philimon; Larson, Martin G.; Massaro, Joseph M; Lipinska, Izabella; Keaney, John F.; Rong, Jian; Corey, Diane; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2011-01-01

    Objective Experimental evidence identified the osteoprotegerin [OPG]/receptor activator of nuclear factor–kappa-B [RANK]/RANK ligand [RANKL] pathway as a candidate system modulating vascular remodeling and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results Serum concentrations of OPG and RANKL were measured in 3250 Framingham Study participants (54% women, 61±9 years). During a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 143 (of 3084 free of CVD at baseline) participants developed a first CVD event and 235 died. In multivariable models OPG was associated with increased hazards for incident CVD and mortality (HR: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.54 and HR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.47 per one-SD increment in log-OPG, respectively). Log-OPG was positively related to multiple CVD risk factors including age, smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and prevalent CVD. In a subsample (n=1264), the prevalence of coronary artery calcification, measured by computed tomography, increased non-significantly with OPG-quartiles. RANKL concentrations displayed inverse associations with multiple CVD risk factors including smoking, diabetes and antihypertensive treatment, and were not related to coronary artery calcification or incident CVD or mortality. Conclusions Our prospective data reinforce OPG as marker for CVD risk factor burden and predictor for CVD and mortality in the community. PMID:20448212

  5. RANKL employs distinct binding modes to engage RANK and the osteoprotegerin decoy receptor.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Warren, Julia T; Wang, Michael W-H; Teitelbaum, Steven L; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-11-07

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily that regulate osteoclast formation and function by competing for RANK ligand (RANKL). RANKL promotes osteoclast development through RANK activation, while OPG inhibits this process by sequestering RANKL. For comparison, we solved crystal structures of RANKL with RANK and RANKL with OPG. Complementary biochemical and functional studies reveal that the monomeric cytokine-binding region of OPG binds RANKL with ∼500-fold higher affinity than RANK and inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis ∼150 times more effectively, in part because the binding cleft of RANKL makes unique contacts with OPG. Several side chains as well as the C-D and D-E loops of RANKL occupy different orientations when bound to OPG versus RANK. High affinity OPG binding requires a 90s loop Phe residue that is mutated in juvenile Paget's disease. These results suggest cytokine plasticity may help to fine-tune specific tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family cytokine/receptor pair selectivity.

  6. Sequence variations in the osteoprotegerin gene promoter in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Arko, B; Prezelj, J; Komel, R; Kocijancic, A; Hudler, P; Marc, J

    2002-09-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered member of the TNF receptor superfamily that acts as an important paracrine regulator of bone remodeling. OPG knockout mice develop severe osteoporosis, whereas administration of OPG can prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These findings implicate a role for OPG in the development of osteoporosis. In the present study, we screened the OPG gene promoter for sequence variations and examined their association with bone mineral density (BMD) in 103 osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing revealed a presence of four nucleotide substitutions: 209 G-->A, 245 T-->G, 889 C-->T, and 950 T-->C. The frequencies of genotypes were as follows: GG (89.3%), GA (10.7%) for 209 G-->A polymorphism; TT (89.3%), TG (10.7%) for 245 T-->G polymorphism; and TT (25.2%), TC (53.4%), CC (21.4%) for 950 T-->C polymorphism. Substitution 889 C-->T was found in only two patients. Statistically significant association of genotypes with BMD at the lumbar spine (P = 0.005) was observed for 209 G-->A and 245 T-->G polymorphisms. Haplotype GATG was associated with lower BMD as compared with GGTT haplotype. Our results suggest that 209 G-->A and 245 T-->G polymorphisms in the OPG gene promoter may contribute to the genetic regulation of BMD.

  7. Genetic association and altered gene expression of osteoprotegerin in otosclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Saurabh; Ray, Chinmay Sundar; Biswal, Narayan Chandra; Nayak, Soumya Ranjan; Panda, Khirod Chandra; Desai, Ashim; Ramchander, Puppala Venkat

    2015-07-01

    Otosclerosis (OTSC) is a late-onset hearing disorder characterized by increased bone turnover in the otic capsule. Disturbed osteoprotegerin expression has been found in the otosclerotic foci which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OTSC. To identify the genetic risk factors, we sequenced the coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the OPG gene in 254 OTSC patients and 262 controls. Sequence analysis identified five known polymorphisms c.9C>G, c.30+15C>T, c.400+4C>T, c.768A>G, and c.817+8A>C. Testing of these SNPs revealed sex specific association with c.9C>G in males and c.30+15C>T in females after multiple correction. Furthermore, meta-analysis provided evidence of association of the c.9C>G polymorphism with OTSC. In secondary analysis, we investigated the mRNA expression of OPG and associated genes RANK and RANKL in otosclerotic tissues compared to controls. Expression analysis revealed significantly missing/reduced OPG expression only in otosclerotic tissues. However, the signal sequence polymorphism c.9C>G has shown no effect on OPG mRNA expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that the risk of OTSC is influenced by variations in the OPG gene along with other factors which might regulate its altered expression in otosclerotic tissues. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these observations.

  8. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-04-22

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity.

  9. Osteoprotegerin independently predicts mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the CLARICOR trial.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Mette; Hilden, Jørgen; Kastrup, Jens; Skoog, Maria; Hansen, Jørgen F; Kolmos, Hans J; Jensen, Gorm B; Kjøller, Erik; Winkel, Per; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Gluud, Christian

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the prognostic power of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum OPG levels were measured in the CLARICOR trial cohort of 4063 patients with stable CAD on blood samples drawn at randomization. The follow-up was 2.6 years for detailed cardiovascular events and 6 years for all-cause mortality. OPG levels were significantly increased in non-survivors (21%) compared to survivors (median [quartiles] 2092 ng/L [1636; 2800] compared to 1695 ng/L [1322; 2193, p < 0.0001]). The 2.6-year follow-up showed that OPG adds to the prediction of both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in combination with clinical risk factors (HR [one log10 unit increase] 6.1 [95% CI 2.4-15.6, p = 0.0001]) and HR 6.5 [95% CI 3.4-12.5, p < 0.0001], respectively). Similar, in the 6-year follow-up, OPG was found to be a strong predictor for all-cause mortality. Importantly, OPG remained an independent predictor of mortality even after adjustment for both clinical and conventional cardiovascular risk markers (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.6-3.9, p < 0.0001]). Serum OPG has a long-lasting independent predictive power as to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD.

  10. Osteoprotegerin Polymorphisms in a Mexican Population with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Generalized Osteoporosis: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Cornejo-Toledo, Jesus Alejandro; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Aguilar-Chavez, Erika Anita; Alcaraz-Lopez, Miriam Fabiola; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Alicia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex phenomenon where genetic risk factors have been partially evaluated. The system formed by receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG): RANK/RANKL/OPG is a crucial molecular pathway for coupling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, since OPG is able to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activation. We aim to evaluate the association between SNPs C950T (rs2073617), C209T (rs3134069), T245G (rs3134070) in the TNFRSF11B (OPG) gene, and osteoporosis in RA. We included 81 women with RA and 52 healthy subjects in a cross-sectional study, genotyped them, and measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. Mean age in RA was 50 ± 12 with disease duration of 12 ± 8 years. According to BMD results, 23 (33.3%) were normal and 46 (66.7%) had osteopenia/osteoporosis. We found a higher prevalence of C allele for C950T SNP in RA. Polymorphisms C209T and T245G did not reach statistical significance in allele distribution. Further studies including patients from other regions of Latin America with a multicenter design to increase the sample size are required to confirm our findings and elucidate if C950T SNP could be associated with osteoporosis in RA. PMID:26065000

  11. RNA interference-mediated repression of sucrose-phosphatase in transgenic potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) strongly affects the hexose-to-sucrose ratio upon cold storage with only minor effects on total soluble carbohydrate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Zanor, María-Inés; Hornyik, Csaba; Debast, Stefan; Lacomme, Christophe; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sonnewald, Uwe; Börnke, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Storage of potato tubers at low temperatures leads to the accumulation of glucose and fructose in a process called 'cold sweetening'. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of sucrose-phosphatase (SPP) in potato tuber carbohydrate metabolism at low temperature (4 degrees C). To this end, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to reduce SPP expression in transgenic potato tubers. Analysis of SPP specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), SPP protein accumulation and enzyme activity indicated that SPP silencing in transgenic tubers was stable during the cold treatment. Analysis of soluble carbohydrates showed that in transgenic tubers, cold-induced hexogenesis was inhibited while, despite strongly reduced SPP activity, sucrose levels exceeded wild-type (WT) values four- to fivefold after 34 d of cold treatment. This led to a drastic change in the hexose-to-sucrose ratio from 1.9 in WT tubers to 0.15 to 0.11 in transgenic tubers, while the total amount of soluble sugars was largely unchanged in both genotypes. Sucrose-6(F)-phosphate (Suc6P), the substrate of SPP, accumulated in transgenic tubers in the cold which most likely enables the residual enzyme to operate with maximal catalytic activity in vivo and thus, in the long term, counterbalances reduced SPP activity in the transformants. Northern analysis revealed that cold-induced expression of vacuolar invertase (VI) was blocked in SPP-silenced tubers explaining a reduced sucrose-to-hexose conversion. Suc6P levels were found to negatively correlate with VI expression. A possible role of Suc6P in regulating VI expression is discussed.

  12. Analysis of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene polymorphism in Iranian patients with chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Ebadian, Ahmad Reza; Brook, Azam

    2012-01-01

    Receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/OPG pathway plays a redundant role in osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast activation and regulation of bone resorption. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been reported as a co-factor in pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis in an Iranian population. 77 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 40 patients with peri-implantitis (PI) and 89 periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. A total of 5 ml of blood was obtained from the arm vein of participants. DNA was extracted based on the salting out method. Two functional SNPs (T950C and G1181C) were analysed by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR_RFLP). The prevalence differences in three batches were evaluated by chi-square test. An evaluation of the T950C genotype found that there was no statistical difference between groups. A comparison of the G1181C genotype distribution between peri-implantitis and chronic periodontitis groups, and between peri-implantitis and normal groups found that the frequency of the CC genotype was significantly higher in patients with peri-implantitis (P = 0.005). Our results indicate that a SNP at G1181C is associated with the presence of PI.

  13. Effects of Minocycline on Urine Albumin, Interleukin-6, and Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Tong, Lili; Pak, Youngju; Andalibi, Ali; LaPage, Janine A.; Adler, Sharon G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We tested minocycline as an anti-proteinuric adjunct to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and measured urinary biomarkers to evaluate minocycline’s biological effects. Methods Design: Prospective, single center, randomized, placebo-controlled, intention-to-treat pilot trial. Inclusion. Type 2 diabetes/DN; Baseline creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min; proteinuria ≥ 1.0 g/day; Age ≥30 years; BP <150/95 mm Hg; intolerant of/at maximum RAASi dose. Protocol. 3-wk screening; Baseline randomization; Urine and blood measures at months 1, 2, 4, and Month 6 study completion. Urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin were measured in a subset. Primary outcome. Natural log of urine protein/creatinine (ln U P:Cr) ratio at Month 6 vs Baseline. Results 30 patients completed the study. The 15% decline in U P: Cr in minocycline patients (6 month P:Cr ÷ Baseline P:Cr, 0.85 vs. 0.92) was not significant (p = 0.27). Creatinine clearance did not differ in the 2 groups. Urine IL-6:Cr (p = 0.03) and osteoprotegerin/Cr (p = 0.046) decrements were significant. Minocycline modified the relationship between urine IL-6 and proteinuria, suggesting a protective biological effect. Conclusions Although the decline in U P:Cr in minocycline patients was not statistically significant, the significant differences in urine IL-6 and osteoprotegerin suggest that minocycline may confer cytoprotection in patients with DN, providing a rationale for further study. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01779089 PMID:27019421

  14. Association of osteoprotegerin and bone loss after adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Drew R.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Reinbolt, Raquel E.; Pan, Xueliang; Wesolowski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure (CIOF) results in rapid bone loss. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANK-L) signaling balances bone resorption and formation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for RANK, interrupting osteoclast activation and bone resorption. This study examined the relationship between OPG and bone loss in women with CIOF. Methods Premenopausal women with stage I/II breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated at chemotherapy initiation, 6 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ionized calcium, osteocalcin, and OPG were serially measured. CIOF was defined as a negative pregnancy test, FSH levels >30 MIU/mL, and ≥3 months of amenorrhea. Results Forty women were enrolled; 31 (77.5%) met CIOF criteria. BMD significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the CIOF group at both time points: LS BMD decreased from a median of 0.993 g/cm2 to 0.976 g/cm2 and 0.937 g/cm2 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. OPG was significantly elevated at 6 months (median increase 0.30 pmol/L, p = 0.015) and then decreased at 12 months to levels still above baseline (median difference 0.2 pmol/L, p = 0.70). Conclusions In what was likely a compensatory response to rapid bone loss, CIOF patients’ OPG levels increased at 6 months and then decreased at 12 months to values greater than baseline assessments. This phenomenon is described in other diseases, but never before in CIOF. PMID:25575458

  15. Osteoprotegerin Gene (OPG) Polymorphisms Associated with Peri-Implantitis Susceptibility in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between T950C (rs2073617) and G1181C (rs2073618) polymorphisms of the osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) and the susceptibility of peri-implantitis in the Chinese Han population. Material/Methods 110 patients with peri-implantitis and 116 healthy persons from the Chinese Han population were included in this study using a case-control design; rs2073617 and rs2073618 in OPG were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were performed with Haploview software. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was assessed in the control group based on the genotype distributions of OPG polymorphisms. The genotype, allele, and haplotype distribution differences between the case and control groups were analyzed by chi-square test, and the relative risk of PD was expressed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The study results showed that people carrying the CC genotype of rs2073618 were more likely to have peri-implantitis than GG genotype carriers (OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03–4.62, p=0.04). In addition, patients with the C allele had 1.47 times the risk of suffering from peri-implantitis (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.01–2.13, p=0.04), but not rs2073617 polymorphism. The G-C haplotype frequency of rs2073618-rs2073617 in OPG was significantly correlated to the increased susceptibility of peri-implantitis (OR=2.27, 95% CI=1.20–4.30). Conclusions OPG rs2073618 polymorphism may be related to the risk of peri-implantitis, but not rs2073617. Moreover, haplotype is also a non-ignorable risk factor. PMID:27828936

  16. A pharmacodynamic investigation into the efficacy of osteoprotegerin during aseptic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Curl, Linda; Barker, Christopher; Dreyer, Craig; Sampson, Wayne

    2012-11-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), as an osteoclast antagonist, limits mineralised tissue resorption under physiological conditions. Previous work investigating OPG in a rat periodontal ligament (PDL) ankylosis model found no inhibitory effect on osteoclasts when OPG was administered at a dosage of 2.5mg/kg. The object of this study was to determine whether dosages higher than 2.5 mg/kg of OPG were required to limit osteoclastic activity in an aseptic inflammatory model in rats. Dry ice was applied for 15 minutes to the upper right first molar crown of eighteen, 8-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of 3 were injected with OPG at dosages of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight immediately following the thermal insult. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed and each maxilla processed for histological examination and stained for osteoclastic activity using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Osteoclast population numbers were estimated via light microscopy and results were analysed using a comparative mixed model statistical analysis. Results showed OPG inhibited osteoclastic activity in a dose-dependent manner. From 2.5 mg/kg to 7.5 mg/kg, osteoclast populations were linearly reduced by 39.78% (p < 0.05). OPG did not appear to affect the inflammatory process and had varied efficacy in different regions of individual teeth. Although osteoclastic activity reduced, it was not completely eliminated, perhaps because dosages were still inadequate, or additional factors might influence OPG and osteoclast activation in the aseptic inflammatory model.

  17. Association between omentin-1, adiponectin and bone health under consideration of osteoprotegerin as possible mediator.

    PubMed

    Menzel, J; Di Giuseppe, R; Biemann, R; Aleksandrova, K; Kuxhaus, O; Wittenbecher, C; Fritsche, A; Schulze, M B; Isermann, B; Boeing, H; Weikert, C

    2016-11-01

    Several studies implicated a crosstalk between bone and fat in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Few studies indicated an association between adiponectin and omentin-1 on the bone remodeling process and bone mineral density, and suggested osteoprotegerin (OPG) as a mediator of this relationship. However, only limited evidence on this relationship is available in humans. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between omentin-1, adiponectin and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in peri-/premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to assess the role of OPG as a possible mediator. Data from the German population-based EPIC-Potsdam cohort comprising 637 women were analyzed. Multivariable-adjusted ANCOVA including age, BMI, waist circumference, smoking status, education, physical activity, adiponectin or omentin-1 and hormone use was used to investigate potential relationships between the adipokines and BUA levels. A mediation analysis assessed the mediating effect of OPG on the association of BUA and omentin-1 levels. Peri-/premenopausal women had higher BUA levels (112.5 ± 10.1 dB/MHz), compared to postmenopausal women (106.3 ± 10.0 dB/MHz). In peri-/premenopausal women neither adiponectin nor omentin-1 was significantly associated with BUA. In postmenopausal women, adiponectin was not associated with BUA, but 10 % increase in the omentin-1 concentration was significantly associated with 0.44 dB/MHz lower BUA levels (p = 0.01). Omentin-1 was positively associated with OPG (p = 0.02); however, OPG was not significantly related to BUA (p = 0.62). Our study provides evidence for an inverse association between circulating omentin-1 and BUA levels in postmenopausal women. However, the present findings do not support a mediating effect of OPG in the adipose tissue-bone pathway.

  18. Boric acid inhibits alveolar bone loss in rats by affecting RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, M; Hatipoğlu, M; Köseoğlu, S; Esen, H H; Kelebek, S

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic boric acid on the levels of expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on histopathologic and histometric changes in a rat periodontitis model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: nonligated (NL); ligature only (LO); and ligature plus treatment with boric acid (BA) (3 mg/kg per day for 11 d). A 4/0 silk suture was placed in a subgingival position around the mandibular right first molars; after 11 d the rats were killed, and alveolar bone loss in the first molars was histometrically determined. Periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically to assess the differences among the study groups. RANKL and OPG were detected immunohistochemically. Alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the LO group than in the BA and NL groups (p < 0.05). The number of inflammatory infiltrate and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that in the NL and BA groups (p < 0.05). The numbers of osteoblasts in LO and BA groups were significantly higher compared with NL group (p < 0.05). There were significantly more RANKL-positive cells in the LO group than in the BA and NL groups (p < 0.05). There was a higher number of OPG-positive cells in the BA group than in the LO and NL groups (p < 0.05). The present study shows that systemic administration of boric acid may reduce alveolar bone loss by affecting the RANKL/OPG balance in periodontal disease in rats. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Serum osteoprotegerin and renal function in the general population: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Vik, Anders; Brodin, Ellen E; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Brox, Jan; Jørgensen, Lone; Njølstad, Inger; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2017-02-01

    Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases with decreasing renal function. However, there are limited data regarding the association between OPG and renal function in the general population. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation between serum OPG and renal function in subjects recruited from the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 6689 participants recruited from the general population in Tromsø, Norway. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. OPG was modelled both as a continuous and categorical variable. General linear models and linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders were used to study the association between OPG and eGFR. Analyses were stratified by the median age, as serum OPG and age displayed a significant interaction on eGFR. In participants ≤62.2 years with normal renal function (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) eGFR increased by 0.35 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI 0.13-0.56) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in serum OPG after multiple adjustment. In participants older than the median age with impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), eGFR decreased by 1.54 (95% CI -2.06 to -1.01) per 1 SD increase in serum OPG. OPG was associated with an increased eGFR in younger subjects with normal renal function and with a decreased eGFR in older subjects with reduced renal function. Our findings imply that the association between OPG and eGFR varies with age and renal function.

  20. Serum osteoprotegerin and renal function in the general population: the Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, Ellen E.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Brox, Jan; Jørgensen, Lone; Njølstad, Inger; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases with decreasing renal function. However, there are limited data regarding the association between OPG and renal function in the general population. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation between serum OPG and renal function in subjects recruited from the general population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 6689 participants recruited from the general population in Tromsø, Norway. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. OPG was modelled both as a continuous and categorical variable. General linear models and linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders were used to study the association between OPG and eGFR. Analyses were stratified by the median age, as serum OPG and age displayed a significant interaction on eGFR. Results In participants ≤62.2 years with normal renal function (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) eGFR increased by 0.35 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI 0.13–0.56) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in serum OPG after multiple adjustment. In participants older than the median age with impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2), eGFR decreased by 1.54 (95% CI −2.06 to −1.01) per 1 SD increase in serum OPG. Conclusions OPG was associated with an increased eGFR in younger subjects with normal renal function and with a decreased eGFR in older subjects with reduced renal function. Our findings imply that the association between OPG and eGFR varies with age and renal function. PMID:28638603

  1. Osteoprotegerin CGA Haplotype Protection against Cerebrovascular Complications in Anti-CCP Negative Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Santos; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Corrales, Alfonso; Ubilla, Begoña; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Pina, Trinitario; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; López-Longo, Francisco J.; Carreira, Patricia; Blanco, Ricardo; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with high incidence of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Several polymorphisms in the OPG gene with functional effects on cardiovascular disease in non-rheumatic individuals have been described. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of three of these functional OPG polymorphisms on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large and well-characterized cohort of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Three OPG gene variants (rs3134063, rs2073618 and rs3134069) were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 2027 Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing was positive in 997 of 1714 tested. Also, 18.3% of the whole series had experienced cardiovascular events, including 5.4% with cerebrovascular accidents. The relationship between OPG variants and cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox regression. Results No association between OPG gene variants and cardiovascular disease was observed in the whole group of rheumatoid arthritis patients or in anti-CCP positive patients. Nevertheless, a protective effect of CGA haplotype on the risk of cardiovascular disease in general, and specifically in the risk of cerebrovascular complications after adjusting for sex, age at disease diagnosis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors was disclosed in anti-CCP negative patients (HR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.31–0.95; p = 0.032 and HR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04–0.78; p = 0.022, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate a protective effect of the OPG CGA haplotype on cardiovascular risk, mainly due to a protective effect against cerebrovascular events in anti-CCP negative rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:25184828

  2. Trabecular bone volume and osteoprotegerin expression in uremic rats given high calcium.

    PubMed

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Ettenger, Robert B; Salusky, Isidro B; Kuizon, Beatriz D

    2010-11-01

    Calcium (Ca)-containing phosphate binders have been recommended for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in children with chronic kidney disease. To study the effects of high Ca levels on trabecular bone volume (BV) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in uremic young rats, a model of marked overcorrection of secondary hyperparathyroidism was created by providing a diet of high Ca to 5/6 nephrectomized young rats (Nx-Ca) for 4 weeks. The results of chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, osteoclastic activity, OPG expression and BV were compared among intact rats given the control diet, intact rats given a high Ca diet and 5/6 nephrectomized rats given the control diet (Nx-Control) and the high Ca diet (Nx-Ca). Ionized Ca levels were higher and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in Nx-Ca rats than in the other groups. Final weight, final length and final tibial length of Nx-Ca rats were significantly less than those of the other groups, although the length gain did not differ among the groups. The hypertrophic zone width was markedly enlarged in Nx-Ca rats. Chondrocyte proliferation rates did not differ among the groups, whereas osteoclastic activity was decreased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control animals. The OPG expression and BV were increased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control rats. Increased BV should improve bone strength, whereas disturbance of osteoclastogenesis interferes with bone remodeling. Bone quality has yet to be determined in high Ca-fed uremic young rats.

  3. Plasma osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Odén, Lovisa; Akbari, Mohammad; Zaman, Tasnim; Singer, Christian F.; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a role of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling in breast cancer development. Lower osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels, the endogenous decoy receptor for RANKL which competes with RANK for binding of RANKL, has been reported among BRCA mutation carriers. Whether low OPG levels contribute to the high breast cancer risk in this population is unknown. OPG concentrations were measured in plasma of 206 cancer-free BRCA mutation carriers using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subjects were categorized as high vs. low based on the median of the entire cohort (95 ng/mL) and followed for a new diagnosis of breast cancer. Cumulative incidence by baseline plasma OPG concentration was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios for the association between plasma OPG and breast cancer risk. Over a mean follow-up period of 6.5 years (range 0.1–18.8 years), 18 incident breast cancer cases were observed. After ten years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer among women with low OPG was 21%, compared to 9% among women with high OPG (P-log rank = 0.046). After multivariate adjustment, women with high plasma OPG had a significantly decreased risk of developing breast cancer, compared to women with low OPG (HR = 0.25; 95%CI 0.08–0.78; P = 0.02). These data suggest that low OPG levels are associated with an increased risk of BRCA-associated breast cancer. Targeting RANK signalling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for BRCA mutation carriers. PMID:27893411

  4. Crystallizing nanoparticles derived from vascular smooth muscle cells contain the calcification inhibitor osteoprotegerin.

    PubMed

    Schoppet, Michael; Kavurma, Mary M; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2011-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, was initially found to modulate bone mass by blocking osteoclast maturation and function. Rodent models have also revealed a role for OPG as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. However, the precise mode of how OPG blocks mineralization is unclear. In this study, OPG was found in an in vitro assay to significantly inhibit calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by high calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) treatment (p=0.0063), although this effect was blunted at high OPG concentrations. By confocal microscopy, OPG was detected in VSMC in the Golgi, the same localization seen in osteoblasts, which express OPG in bone. Treatment of VSMC by minerals (Ca, P, or both) induced OPG mRNA expression as assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, and VSMC derived from atherosclerotic plaque material also exhibited higher OPG expression as compared to control cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, OPG was detected by Western blotting in matrix vesicles (MV), nanoparticles that are released by VSMC with the capacity to nucleate mineral. In atherosclerotic arteries, OPG colocalized immunohistochemically with annexin VI, a calcium-dependent membrane and phospholipid binding protein found in MV. Thus, the calcification inhibitor OPG is contained in crystallizing MV and has a biphasic effect on VSMC: physiologic concentrations inhibit calcification, whereas high concentrations commonly seen in patients with vascular disease have no effect. Like other calcification inhibitors, OPG may be specifically loaded into these nanoparticles to be deposited at remote sites, where it acts to inhibit calcification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Local application of osteoprotegerin-chitosan gel in critical-sized defects in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Jayash, Soher N; Hashim, Najihah M; Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, N A

    2017-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is used for the systemic treatment of bone diseases, although it has many side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel for local application to repair bone defects. Recent studies have reported that immunodetection of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC) can be used to characterise osteogenesis and new bone formation. The osteogenic potential of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated in rabbits. Critical-sized defects were created in the calvarial bone, which were either left unfilled (control; group I), or filled with chitosan gel (group II) or OPG-chitosan gel (group III), with rabbits sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks. Bone samples from the surgical area were decalcified and treated with routine histological and immunohistochemical protocols using OC, OPN, and cathepsin K (osteoclast marker) antibodies. The toxicity of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated by biochemical assays (liver and kidney function tests). The mean bone growth in defects filled with the OPG-chitosan gel was significantly higher than those filled with the chitosan gel or the unfilled group (p < 0.05). At 6 and 12 weeks, the highest levels of OC and OPN markers were found in the OPG-chitosan gel group, followed by the chitosan gel group. The number of osteoclasts in the OPG-chitosan gel group was lower than the other groups. The results of the liver and kidney functional tests indicated no signs of harmful systemic effects of treatment. In conclusion, the OPG-chitosan gel has many characteristics that make it suitable for bone repair and regeneration, highlighting its potential benefits for tissue engineering applications.

  6. Plasma osteoprotegerin, its correlates, and risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Biemann, Ronald; Wirth, Janine; Menzel, Juliane; Isermann, Berend; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fritsche, Andreas; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B; Weikert, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a disabling condition involving complex vascular, neurohormonal and immune systems' interactions. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a bone-regulatory cytokine, has been suggested to play a key role in skeletal, vascular, and immune biology, with elevated levels observed in both experimental and clinical HF. In the present study we aimed to identify clinical OPG correlates and investigated whether elevated OPG, as a marker of HF vascular and immune activation, may interact with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a marker of HF neurohormonal activation, thus synergistically increasing HF risk. We used a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam, comprising 2647 participants including 252 incident HF cases identified during a mean follow-up of 8.2 ± 1.6 years. In both men and women significant positive associations were observed between OPG and age, smoking, prevalent diabetes, C-reactive protein, sex hormone-binding globulin, and additionally prevalent coronary heart disease and uric acid in men only. In women, OPG was furthermore positively related to hypertension and fetuin-A. After multivariable adjustment each doubling of OPG was associated with a 3.01-fold increased HF risk (95 % CI 1.49-6.06) in men. A significant interaction was observed between OPG and NT-proBNP. In men, a combination of high levels of both OPG and NT-proBNP, compared to a combination of low levels, was associated with an approximately fivefold increased HF risk. In women, no associations were observed. These findings suggest that, in men, the activation of different immune, neurohormonal, and vascular pathophysiological pathways may confer increased HF risk.

  7. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  8. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of low‐grade and high‐grade prostate carcinoma: relative changes of parathyroid hormone‐related protein and its parathyroid hormone 1 receptor, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor‐kB ligand

    PubMed Central

    Pérez‐Martínez, Francisco C; Alonso, Verónica; Sarasa, José L; Nam‐Cha, Syon‐Ghyun; Vela‐Navarrete, Remigio; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Calahorra, Francisco J; Esbrit, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate multiple bone cytokines produced by prostate carcinoma (PCa) as a novel strategy to differentiate potential aggressiveness in localised PCa using immunohistochemical analysis. Methods A total of 47 cases of PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy or transurethral prostatic resection at our institution (Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Grupo Capio), Madrid, Spain) between January 1991 and June 1998 were identified as low‐grade (⩽4; n = 22) or high‐grade (⩾7, excluding 7 (3+4) cases; n = 25) PCa according to Gleason grade. PCa specimens were immunostained for: parathyroid hormone (PTH)‐related protein (PTHrP), the PTH1 receptor, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor‐κ B ligand (RANKL), as well as Ki67 (a proliferation marker) and CD34 (an angiogenesis marker). Results PCa samples showed an increased immunostaining for both osteoprotegerin and RANKL, associated with tumour grade and PTHrP positivity, in the tumoral epithelium. Using a score value of 4—corresponding to moderate staining—as cut‐off, the best sensitivity value was for PTHrP (with C‐terminal antiserum C6; 100 %); wheras the best specificity value was for RANKL (95 %). Conclusions All the evaluated factors are overexpressed mainly in the high‐grade tumours. Our findings indicate that, in most patients with PCa (with Ki67 values between 1% and 9%), sequential determination of C‐terminal PTHrP and RANKL immunoreactivities is a useful approach to discriminate low‐grade and high‐grade tumours. PMID:16775117

  10. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  11. Association Between Osteoprotegerin G1181C and T245G Polymorphisms and Diabetic Charcot Neuroarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zelano, Giovanni; Gioffrè, Giuseppina; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zaccardi, Francesco; Martini, Francesca; Musella, Tittania; Scavone, Giuseppe; Galli, Marco; Caputo, Salvatore; Mancini, Lorena; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Charcot neuroarthropathy is a disabling complication of diabetes. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, we suppose that genetics may play a relevant role. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a case-control study with 59 subjects with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (Ch group), 41 with diabetic neuropathy without Charcot neuroarthropathy (ND group), and 103 healthy control subjects (H group) to evaluate the impact of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the osteoprotegerin gene (G1181C and T245G) on the risk of Charcot neuroarthropathy. RESULTS Regarding the SNPs of G1181C, we found a significant linkage between the G allele and Charcot neuroarthropathy (Ch vs. ND, odds ratio [OR] 2.32 [95% CI 1.3–4.1], P = 0.006; Ch vs. H, 2.10 [1.3–3.3], P = 0.002; and ND vs. H, 0.90 [0.7–1.9], P = 0.452); similarly, we found a linkage with the G allele of T245G (Ch vs. ND, 6.25 [2.2–19.7], P < 0.001; Ch vs. H, 3.56 [1.9–6.7], P = 0.001; and ND vs. H, 0.54 [0.6–5.7], P = 0.304), supporting a protective role for the allele C and T, respectively. For this reason we investigated the frequency of the protective double homozygosis CC + TT (7% in Ch) that was significantly lower in Ch compared with H (0.18 [0.06–0.5], P = 0.002) and with ND (0.17 [0.05–0.58], P = 0.006), whereas there was no difference between H and ND (1.05 [0.43–2.0], P = 0.468). In a multivariate logistic backward regression model, only weight and the lack of CC and TT genotypes were independently associated with the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study that shows an association between genetic regulation of bone remodeling and Charcot neuroarthropathy. PMID:19502537

  12. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  13. Eurycoma longifolia upregulates osteoprotegerin gene expression in androgen- deficient osteoporosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into: Sham-operated group (SHAM); orchidectomised-control group (ORX); orchidectomised and given 15 mg/kg EL extract (ORX + EL) and orchidectomised and given 8 mg/kg testosterone (ORX + T). The rats were treated for 6 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone, osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured using the ELISA technique. The femoral bones were subjected to biomechanical testing. The tibial bone gene expressions of RANKL, OPG and MCSF were measured using the branch DNA technique. Results The post-treatment level of testosterone was found to be significantly reduced by orchiectomy (p < 0.05). Both ORX + EL and ORX + T groups have significantly higher post-treatment testosterone levels compared to their pre-treatment levels (p < 0.05). The bone resorption marker (CTx) was elevated after orchiectomy but was suppressed after treatment in the ORX + EL and ORX + T groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant finding for the femoral biomechanical parameters. The tibial OPG gene expression in the ORX group was significantly lower compared to the SHAM and ORX + EL groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Supplementation with EL extract elevated the testosterone levels, reduced the bone resorption marker and upregulated OPG

  14. [Soluble of Metals within TSP in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Feng, Chong; Qu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of metals within aerosol particles is meaningful to evaluate the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected in Shanghai. We extracted the water soluble and acid soluble (pH = 2) metals by the mini-recirculation-leach-system and measured their concentrations by the high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dissolution kinetics were rapid, the maximum solubility of metals could be reached in a few minutes. Overall, the average water-soluble concentrations were low for Co, Cr, Cd, V and Ni, median for Cu, Pb and Mn and high for Fe, Al, Zn and Mg. Combine the soluble metal concentrations with the back trajectory, the original air mass had significant impacts on water soluble metal concentrations. The water solubility and acid solubility were different for various metals, the water solubility of Fe was the lowest (2.0%), others followed an order: Al, Cr, V, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Mg, Zn. The metals' solubility was increased with the decrease of the solvent pH value. While the chemical speciation of metals was the internal cause of metals' solubility, the metals' ionic potential and the water solubility was negatively correlated.

  15. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in Bone Loss Related to Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ugay, Ludmila; Kochetkova, Evgenia; Nevzorova, Vera; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent clinical and biological researches have increasingly delineated the biomolecular pathways of bone metabolism regulation in COPD. We extended this work by examining the specific association and potential contribution of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in advanced COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of serum OPG, RANKL, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) with bone turnover in men with very severe COPD. Methods: Pulmonary function, T-score at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum OPG, RANKL, soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-I and II (sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II), osteocalcin (OC), and β-CrossLaps (βCL) levels were measured in 45 men with very severe stage COPD and 36 male non-COPD volunteers. COPD patients and healthy controls were compared using an independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. The Pearson coefficient was used to assess the relationships between variables. Results: OPG and OC were lower in male COPD patients than in control subjects whereas RANKL, serum βCL, TNF-α, and its receptors were higher. OPG directly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted (r = 0.46, P < 0.005), OC (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), LS (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and FN T-score (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). In contrast, serum RANKL inversely associated with LS and FN T-score (r = −0.62, P < 0.001 and r = −0.48, P < 0.001) but directly correlated with βCL (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). In addition, OPG was inversely correlated with RANKL (r = −0.39, P < 0.01), TNF-α (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and sTNFR-I (r = −0.40, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum OPG and RANKL levels are inversely associated with bone loss in men with advanced stage COPD. PMID:27411457

  16. Does Osteoprotegerin or Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand Mediate the Association between Bone and Coronary Artery Calcification?

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Accumulating evidence indicates that vascular and bone mineralization may be related, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether an observed inverse association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in postmenopausal women currently taking estrogen therapy is mediated by osteoprotegerin (OPG) or receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Design: Participants were 92 postmenopausal women (aged 58–81 yr) taking estrogen therapy who had hip and spine BMD assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CAC measured by electron-beam computed tomography in 1998–2002 and serum RANKL and OPG levels measured in samples collected in 1997–1999. Total CAC score was dichotomized as none/minimal (≤10) vs. some (>10). Results: OPG serum levels were higher in women who had some CAC compared with those who had none/minimal (126.8 ± 1.08 vs. 102.9 ± 1.07 pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.03); these differences became nonsignificant after adjustment for age and other risk factors (P = 0.51). A 1 sd increase in hip BMD was associated with significantly lower odds of having CAC > 10 (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.29–0.93) independent of age, fat-free mass, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, current smoking, and use of cholesterol-lowering medications. Other skeletal sites demonstrated a similar pattern. Addition of RANKL and/or OPG to the model had minimal effect on the magnitude or statistical significance of the BMD-CAC association. Additionally, a test of interaction indicated that RANKL and OPG are not significant effect modifiers. Conclusions: Serum OPG and RANKL do not account for the observed association between bone and coronary artery calcification among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy. PMID:18319315

  17. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand in children with early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 2-year prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of observations of serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not clear. To elucidate the potential role of OPG and RANKL in JIA we determined serum levels of OPG and RANKL in patients with early JIA compared to healthy children, and prospectively explored changes in relation to radiographic score, bone and lean mass, severity of the disease, and treatment. Methods Ninety children with early oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA (ages 6-18 years; mean disease duration 19.4 months) and 90 healthy children individually matched for age, sex, race, and county of residence, were examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up. OPG and RANKL were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses. Results Serum OPG was significantly lower in patients than controls at baseline, and there was a trend towards higher RANKL and a lower OPG/RANKL ratio. Patients with polyarthritis had significantly higher increments in RANKL from baseline to follow-up, compared to patients with oligoarthritis. RANKL was a significant negative predictor for increments in total body lean mass. Patients who were receiving corticosteroids (CS) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at follow-up had higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared with patients who did not receive this medication. Conclusions The data supports that levels of OPG are lower in patients with JIA compared to healthy children, and higher levels of RANKL is associated with more serious disease. RANKL was a significant negative predictor of lean mass in patients with JIA. The OPG/RANKL ratio was higher in patients on DMARDs or CS treatment. PMID:21134287

  18. Association of serum osteoprotegerin with ankle-brachial index and urine albumin: creatinine ratio in African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zeenat; Ellington, Allison A; Mosley, Thomas H; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2009-10-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been implicated in vascular disease. We investigated the association of serum OPG with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), in a bi-ethnic cohort of 1324 African-Americans (mean age 64 years, 71% women) and 1237 non-Hispanic whites (mean age 59 years, 57% women) belonging to hypertensive sibships. Serum levels of OPG were measured by solid phase sandwich immunoassay. ABI was measured using a standard protocol and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) defined as ABI<0.90. UACR was expressed as mg albumin/gm creatinine. Multivariable regression analysis using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed to assess whether serum OPG levels were associated with ABI and UACR. After adjustment for conventional risk factors (age, sex, diabetes, waist circumference, history of smoking, total and HDL cholesterol, hypertension), prior history of myocardial infarction or stroke, and medication (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, statins, aspirin, estrogen) use, higher OPG levels were significantly associated with lower ABI and higher UACR in African-Americans (P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively) and non-Hispanic whites (P=0.017 and P=0.002, respectively); the association remained significant after further adjustment for plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in both ethnic groups. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher OPG levels were associated with PAD in African-Americans, independent of the covariates listed above (P=0.026); the association remained significant after additional adjustment for plasma CRP (P=0.047). In non-Hispanic whites, the association of higher OPG levels with PAD was of borderline significance after adjustment for the relevant covariates (P=0.106). We conclude that higher OPG levels are associated with lower ABI and higher UACR, independent of conventional risk factors and plasma CRP.

  19. Significant associations between the A163G and G1181C polymorphisms of the osteoprotegerin gene and risk of osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Hu, Zhenming; Hao, Jie; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Jieliang; Zhao, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Whereas some studies have reported that the osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene is associated with osteoporosis risk in some studies, their results have proved inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of studies on the associations between OPG A163G and G1181C polymorphisms and the risk of osteoporosis. A literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China Biological Medicine (CBM) databases was conducted to identify all eligible case-control studies published before August 15th, 2013. Pooled odds ratios with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the strength of the association under either a fixed- or random-effect model according to the heterogeneity test. Ten case-control studies were included with a total of 1673 osteoporosis cases and 1554 healthy controls in this meta-analysis. For the OPG A163G polymorphism, the combined results showed that the G allele of the A163G polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis. Stratified analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was similar among the Caucasian and postmenopausal women subgroups. Unlike the A163G polymorphism, the meta-analysis results revealed that the C allele of the G1181C polymorphism may be associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis, especially in the Asian and postmenopausal women subgroups. No publication bias was detected for either polymorphism. Our findings showed that the G allele of the OPG A163G polymorphism may increase osteoporosis risk, whereas the C allele of the G1181C polymorphism may protect individuals from osteoporosis. Both of these effects were observed in postmenopausal women.

  20. Association of Osteoprotegerin with Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Ozlem; Tekin Nacaroglu, Hikmet; Yigit, Ozgul; Zengi, Oguzhan; Salih Akkurt, Mehmet; Tasdemir, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015. The study was performed on 107 children with obesity and 37 controls aged 5 - 17 years. In the obese subset, 62 patients had NAFLD. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than 2.5. Plasma OPG levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound. The mean age was 11.25 ± 3.38 years in the patient group and 10.41 ± 3.15 years in the control group. The OPG level in the obese group with the mean of 55.20 ± 24.55 pg/mL (median = 48.81 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in the control group with the mean of 70.78 ± 33.41 pg/mL (median = 64.57 pg/mL) (P = 0.0001). The optimal cut-off point (sensitivity, specificity) of the OPG level for the diagnosis of obesity was ≤ 46, 19 pg/mL. According to logistic regression analysis, fasting insulin (P = 0.036) and OPG (P = 0.01) levels were most affected by obesity. In the obese patients, who had HOMA-IR < 2.5, the mean level of OPG was 58.91 ± 6.88729 pg/mL (median = 49.55). In the obese patients, who had HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5, the mean level of OPG was 54.19 ± 22.21 pg/mL (median = 48.47). No significant correlations were found between OPG and HOMA-IR (P = 0.791). No statistically significant difference was observed in the mean OPG between patients with hepatosteatosis (mean = 54.55 ± 25.01 pg/mL) (median = 49.46) and those without the

  1. Association of Osteoprotegerin with Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Ozlem; Tekin Nacaroglu, Hikmet; Yigit, Ozgul; Zengi, Oguzhan; Salih Akkurt, Mehmet; Tasdemir, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015. The study was performed on 107 children with obesity and 37 controls aged 5 - 17 years. In the obese subset, 62 patients had NAFLD. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than 2.5. Plasma OPG levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound. Results The mean age was 11.25 ± 3.38 years in the patient group and 10.41 ± 3.15 years in the control group. The OPG level in the obese group with the mean of 55.20 ± 24.55 pg/mL (median = 48.81 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in the control group with the mean of 70.78 ± 33.41 pg/mL (median = 64.57 pg/mL) (P = 0.0001). The optimal cut-off point (sensitivity, specificity) of the OPG level for the diagnosis of obesity was ≤ 46, 19 pg/mL. According to logistic regression analysis, fasting insulin (P = 0.036) and OPG (P = 0.01) levels were most affected by obesity. In the obese patients, who had HOMA-IR < 2.5, the mean level of OPG was 58.91 ± 6.88729 pg/mL (median = 49.55). In the obese patients, who had HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5, the mean level of OPG was 54.19 ± 22.21 pg/mL (median = 48.47). No significant correlations were found between OPG and HOMA-IR (P = 0.791). No statistically significant difference was observed in the mean OPG between patients with hepatosteatosis (mean = 54.55 ± 25.01 pg

  2. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  3. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli in feces and feedlot surface manure from cattle fed diets with or without corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and fee...

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies two loci associated with circulating osteoprotegerin levels

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Johnny S.H.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Dupuis, Josée; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Eriksson, Joel; Handelman, Samuel K.; Aragaki, Aaron; Karasik, David; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Martin G.; Lau, Kam-Shing; Lorentzon, Mattias; Pichler, Irene; Sham, Pak C.; Taliun, Daniel; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Ohlsson, Claes; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kung, Annie W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in bone homeostasis and tumor cell survival. Circulating OPG levels are also important biomarkers of various clinical traits, such as cancers and atherosclerosis. OPG levels were measured in serum or in plasma. In a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 10 336 individuals from European and Asian origin, we discovered that variants >100 kb upstream of the TNFRSF11B gene encoding OPG and another new locus on chromosome 17q11.2 were significantly associated with OPG variation. We also identified a suggestive locus on chromosome 14q21.2 associated with the trait. Moreover, we estimated that over half of the heritability of OPG levels could be explained by all variants examined in our study. Our findings provide further insight into the genetic regulation of circulating OPG levels. PMID:25080503

  5. Drop in transforming growth factor-alpha and osteoprotegerin level in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Otogoto, Junichi; Mogi, Makio

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators, especially cytokine, play a central role in the pathogenesis of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the various growth factors, and cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with gingivitis, as compared with those of control subjects. The levels of cytokine in the samples were determined by their respective ELISAs. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were significantly lower in patients with gingivitis than in the controls (p < 0.05). Also, there was a positive correlation between TGF-alpha and OPG levels (r = 0.761). These results suggest that the decrease in growth factor TGF-alpha is associated with the pathophysiology and/or the progress of gingivitis.

  6. The role of serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in metabolic bone disease of women after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Balsa, José A; Lafuente, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Galindo, Julio; Peromingo, Roberto; García-Moreno, Francisca; Rodriguez-Velasco, Gloria; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic bone disease may appear as a complication of obesity surgery. Because an imbalance in the osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system may underlie osteoporosis, we aimed to study this system in humans in the metabolic bone disease occurring after obesity surgery. In this study we included sixty women with a mean age of 47 ± 10 years studied 7 ± 2 years after bariatric surgery. The variables studied were bone mineral density, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links (a bone resorption marker), the bone formation markers osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1, serum osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Serum osteoprotegerin inversely correlated with the bone remodeling markers osteocalcin, β-isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen cross-links and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1. The osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio also correlated inversely with serum parathormone and osteocalcin. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was associated with age (β = -0.235, P = 0.046), percentage of weight loss (β = 0.421, P = 0.001) and osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand ratio (β = 0.259, P = 0.029) in stepwise multivariate analysis (R (2) = 0.29, F = 7.49, P < 0.001). Bone mineral density at the hip site was associated only with percentage of weight loss (β = 0.464, P < 0.001) in stepwise multivariate regression (R (2) = 0.21, F = 15.1, P < 0.001). These data show that the osteoprotegerin and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand system is associated with bone markers and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine after obesity surgery.

  7. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  8. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  9. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  10. IL-4 gene therapy for collagen arthritis suppresses synovial IL-17 and osteoprotegerin ligand and prevents bone erosion.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, E; Joosten, L A; Chabaud, M; van Den Bersselaar, L; Oppers, B; Coenen-De Roo, C J; Richards, C D; Miossec, P; van Den Berg, W B

    2000-06-01

    Bone destruction is the most difficult target in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we report that local overexpression of IL-4, introduced by a recombinant human type 5 adenovirus vector (Ad5E1mIL-4) prevents joint damage and bone erosion in the knees of mice with collagen arthritis (CIA). No difference was noted in the course of CIA in the injected knee joints between Ad5E1mIL-4 and the control vector, but radiographic analysis revealed impressive reduction of joint erosion and more compact bone structure in the Ad5E1mIL-4 group. Although severe inflammation persisted in treated mice, Ad5E1mIL-4 prevented bone erosion and diminished tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, indicating that local IL-4 inhibits the formation of osteoclast-like cells. Messenger RNA levels of IL-17, IL-12, and cathepsin K in the synovial tissue were suppressed, as were IL-6 and IL-12 protein production. Osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) expression was markedly suppressed by local IL-4, but no loss of OPG expression was noted with Ad5E1mIL-4 treatment. Finally, in in vitro studies, bone samples of patients with arthritis revealed consistent suppression by IL-4 of type I collagen breakdown. IL-4 also enhanced synthesis of type I procollagen, suggesting that it promoted tissue repair. These findings may have significant implications for the prevention of bone erosion in arthritis.

  11. Osteocyte Regulation of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand/Osteoprotegerin in a Sheep Model of Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Merboth, Felix; Malhan, Deeksha; Böcker, Wolfgang; Daghma, Diaa E S; Stoetzel, Sabine; Kern, Stefanie; Hassan, Fathi; Rosenbaum, Dirk; Langenstein, Judith; Bauer, Natali; Schlagenhauf, Anja; Rösen-Wolff, Angela; Schulze, Felix; Rupp, Markus; Hose, Dirk; Secklinger, Anja; Ignatius, Anita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Lips, Katrin S; Heiss, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis induction in a sheep model by steroid administration combined with ovariectomy recapitulates decreased bone formation and substandard matrix mineralization in patients. Recently, the role of osteocytes has been frequently addressed, with focus on their role in osteoclastogenesis. However, the quantification of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling in osteocytes was not studied in sheep. The current study reproduced the sheep model of osteoporosis to study the RANKL/OPG ratio correlation to the method of osteoporosis induction. We investigated the induction of osteoporosis after 8 months using 31 female merino land sheep divided into four groups: control, ovariectomy, ovariectomy with dietary limitation, and ovariectomy with dietary limitation and steroid injection. In accordance to previous reports, the present study showed trabecular thinning, higher numbers of apoptotic osteocytes, and imbalanced metabolism, leading to defective mineralization. The global RANKL/OPG ratio in the spine after 8 months of steroid and dietary treatment was not different from that of the control. Interestingly, assessment of the osteocyte-specific RANKL/OPG ratio showed that the steroid-induced osteoporosis in its late progressive phase stimulates RANKL expression in osteocytes. Sclerostin is suggested to induce RANKL expression in osteocytes. The findings of this study can contribute to further explain the success of sclerostin antibodies in treating osteoporotic patients despite increased osteocyte-expressed RANKL. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin system in bone and other tissues (review).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-05-01

    The receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system was identified in the late 1990s, ending the search for the specific factors expressed by osteoblasts and stromal cells in order to regulate osteoclastogenesis. The identification of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system was a breakthrough in bone biology; however, the system not only works as a dominant mediator in osteoclast activation, formation and survival, but also functions in other tissues, including the mammary glands, brain and lymph nodes. Evidence has indicated that the existence of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in these tissues suggests that it may have specific functions beyond those in bone. Disorders of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system are associated with certain human diseases, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bone tumors and certain bone metastatic tumors. Genetic studies have indicated that the RANKL/RANK/OPG system may be a key regulator in the formation of lymph nodes and in the autoimmune disease RA, which further suggests that the immune system may interact with the RANKL/RANK/OPG system. The present review aimed to provide an overview of the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in osteoclastogenesis, bone disease and tissues beyond bone.

  13. Omentin-1 attenuates arterial calcification and bone loss in osteoprotegerin-deficient mice by inhibition of RANKL expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Xie, Ping-Li; Wu, Xian-Ping; Chen, San-Mei; Zhou, Hou-De; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Sheng, Zhi-Feng; Tang, Si-Yuan; Luo, Xiang-Hang; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2011-11-01

    Omentin-1 (also known as intelectin-1) is a recently identified visceral adipose tissue-derived cytokine that is inversely related to obesity. Our previous study showed that omentin-1 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs) in vitro. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of omentin-1 on arterial calcification and bone metabolism in vivo. In vitro, omentin-1 stimulated production of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and inhibited production of receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in both CVSMCs and osteoblasts. In vivo, adenovirus-mediated over-expression of omentin-1 attenuated arterial calcification and bone loss in OPG(-/-) mice. All these in vitro and in vivo actions were abrogated by blockade of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Furthermore, omentin-1 reduced serum levels of RANKL, tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and osteocalcin, all of which are increased dramatically in OPG(-/-) mice. These data suggest that omentin-1 ameliorates arterial calcification and bone loss in vivo through the regulation of the RANK signalling pathway.

  14. [Interleukin-4 and osteoprotegerin suppress polyethylene wear debris-induced osteolysis in a murine air pouch model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Rui; Wu, Ning-ning; Mou, Yu-qin; Li, Rui-dong; Deng, Zhong-liang

    2011-10-01

    To test the effect of recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) and recombinant osteoprotegerin (OPG) in suppressing bone resorption induced by polyethylene wear particles.. A cranial bone allograft was introduced into the air pouches induced on the back of BALB/c mice, followed by injection of 1 ml suspension of polyethylene particles into the pouches. The mouse models were then divided into 3 groups to receive injections of saline (control), IL-4 alone, or IL-4 and OPG into the pouches. The tissues were harvested 21 days after bone implantation for molecular and histological analyses. Polyethylene wear particles-stimulated inflammatory responses (increased cellular infiltration and IL-1 and TNF production) were markedly reduced by IL-4 treatment either alone or combined with OPG (P<0.05). Polyethylene particles significantly increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone absorption of the implanted bone graft, and IL-4 treatment, either alone or combined with OPG, obviously reduced the osteolysis induced by polyethylene particles (P<0.05). IL-4 offers protection against polyethylene wear debris-induced inflammation and bone resorption in this mouse model. IL-4 combined with OPG can be a feasible and effective therapeutic approach to the treatment and prevention of polyethylene wear debris-associated osteolysis and aseptic loosening of the prosthetic components.

  15. Osteoprotegerin inhibits osteolysis and decreases skeletal tumor burden in syngeneic and nude mouse models of experimental bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Morony, S; Capparelli, C; Sarosi, I; Lacey, D L; Dunstan, C R; Kostenuik, P J

    2001-06-01

    Certain malignancies, including breast cancer, frequently metastasize to bone, where the tumor cells induce osteoclasts to locally destroy bone. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. We tested the ability of recombinant OPG to inhibit tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteolysis, and skeletal tumor burden in two animal models. In a syngeneic model, mouse colon adenocarcinoma (Colon-26) cells were injected into the left ventricle of mice. Treatment with OPG dose-dependently decreased the number and area of radiographically evident lytic bone lesions, which, at the highest dose, were undetectable. Histologically, OPG also decreased skeletal tumor burden and tumor-associated osteoclasts. In a nude mouse model, OPG treatment completely prevented radiographic osteolytic lesions caused by human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Histologically, OPG decreased skeletal tumor burden by 75% and completely eradicated MDA tumor-associated osteoclasts. In both models, OPG had no effect on metastatic tumor burden in a panel of soft tissue organs. These data indicate that OPG may be an effective therapy for preventing osteolysis and decreasing skeletal tumor burden in patients with bone metastasis.

  16. Polymorphism in vitamin D receptor and osteoprotegerin genes in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients with and without osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hussien, Yousry Mostafa; Shehata, Amal; Karam, Rehab A; Alzahrani, Saad S; Magdy, Hanem; El-Shafey, Abeer M

    2013-05-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates the expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL), and downregulates osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. We tested the effects of polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), and OPG gene in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls and their relationship to bone mineral density (BMD) and development of osteoporosis. Three hundred and fifty women were evaluated, 200 women having RA and 150 healthy control. The subjects were genotyped for polymorphism at BsmI in VDR and A163G in OPG genes by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. BMD was also measured. In A163G, the G allele increased the risk for RA and for the development of osteoporosis. We found a significant association between lower hip (BMD-h) and genotype variants of VDR (BsmI) and OPG A163G in RA patients with osteoporosis. Our results suggested that OPG A163G polymorphism was associated with RA susceptibility and with the development of osteoporosis in these patients. Also, VDR and OPG genes are important candidates for osteoporosis in RA patients.

  17. Comparative levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, procalcitonin, osteoprotegerin, interleukin-8, hs-C reactive protein, D-dimer in febrile neutropenia, newly diagnosed cancer patients, and infectious fever.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Kebapcilar, Levent; Bozkaya, Giray; Çalan, Mehmet; Kırbıyık, Halil; Avci, Meltem; Sari, İsmail; Yuksel, Arif; Isikyakar, Tolgay

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of procalcitonin (PCT), IL-8 (interleukin-8), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor), osteoprotegerin (OPG), hs-CRP and D-dimer during fever above 38.3°C due to various causes. Blood samples taken from a total of consecutive 65 hospitalized patients during fever were prospectively tested for hsCRP, PCT, IL-8, OPG, MIF and D-dimer. Of these patients, there were 26 patients presenting with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia who had no infectious agents found; 23 patients, who had a malignancy with a febrile episode which was neither a microbiologically documented infection nor a chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and 16 patients who did not have a malignancy and were considered to have a clinically and microbiologically documented infection. IL-8 and D-dimer levels were higher in patients with febrile neutropenia than in the other two groups. Although MIF and OPG were higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancers, there were no differences among the three groups regarding PCT and hs-CRP values. High serum IL-8 and D-dimer levels can be useful markers to identify hospitalized chemotherapy-induced neutropenia patients. MIF and OPG were found to be higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer and soluble FAS.

    PubMed

    Abbasova, S G; Vysotskii, M M; Ovchinnikova, L K; Obusheva, M N; Digaeva, M A; Britvin, T A; Bahoeva, K A; Karabekova, Z K; Kazantzeva, I A; Mamedov, U R; Manuchin, I B; Davidov, M I

    2009-10-01

    A test system developed by the authors was used to measure serum concentrations of soluble Fas in patients with malignant and benign tumors of different location and morphology. Relationships between soluble Fas levels and the main clinical and morphological characteristics of cancer were evaluated. It is proven that the concentrations and incidence of detection of soluble Fas in the sera of patients with tumors are significantly higher than in normal subjects. No appreciable differences in the concentrations of soluble Fas were detected in malignant and benign tumors of the mammary gland, bones, ovaries, and adrenals. In thyroid cancer, soluble Fas levels were higher than in benign and hyperplastic processes in this organ. High level of soluble Fas is associated with late stages of the disease (ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, adrenocortical and colorectal cancer) and with poor differentiation of the tumor (ovarian cancer and cancer of the corpus uteri), with local metastases (colorectal and adrenocortical cancer), and with tumor invasion into the myometrial tissue, intestinal wall, and adjacent tissues (cancer of the corpus uteri and colorectal cancer). A significantly high level of soluble Fas was detected in colorectal and adrenocortical cancer in the presence of at least 2 local metastases. Soluble Fas levels depended on tumor histogenesis in malignant and benign ovarian tumors. High concentration of soluble Fas was detected in large tumors in patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer and adenoma, and in adrenocortical cancer. Initially high levels of soluble Fas are characteristic of patients whose tumors are little sensitive to nonadjuvant radiotherapy. The overall 5-year survival of patients with low levels of soluble Fas is better in osteosarcoma, cancer of the corpus uteri, ovarian and adrenocortical cancer.

  19. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  20. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  1. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  2. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  3. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Madison A.; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N.; Johnston, Kathryn A.; Lopez, Karlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM−1 cm−1. No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  4. Total soluble and endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products as predictive biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: an analysis from the CARDS trial.

    PubMed

    Colhoun, Helen M; Betteridge, D John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham; Neil, Andrew; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Bao, Weihang; Demicco, David A; Preston, Gregory M; Deshmukh, Harshal; Tan, Kathryn; Fuller, John H

    2011-09-01

    Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) likely comprise both a secreted isoform (esRAGE) and wild-type RAGE cleaved from the cell membrane. Both sRAGE and esRAGE have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but prospective data are limited. We examined the relationship of sRAGE and esRAGE to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients followed for 3.9 years in a trial of atorvastatin: the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). We used a nested case-control design sampling all incident cases of CVD with available plasma and randomly selecting three control subjects, who were free of CVD throughout follow-up, per case. Analysis was by Cox regression with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.88) and were both higher in those with lower BMI (P < 0.001), higher adiponectin (P < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.009), and white ethnicity (P < 0.001). Both sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with incident CHD events, independently of treatment allocation and the above factors; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74 (95% CI 1.25-2.41; P = 0.002) for a doubling of the sRAGE level; HR = 1.45 (1.11-1.89; P = 0.006) for a doubling of the esRAGE level. There was no significant association with stroke; HR for sRAGE = 0.66 (0.38-1.14). Atorvastatin, 10 mg daily, did not alter sRAGE. Higher levels of sRAGE and esRAGE are associated with incident CHD but not stroke in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin levels with coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Bum-Su; Kang, Jin-Ho; Oh, Ki-Won; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Ii; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Park, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Sun-Woo; Lee, Man-Ho; Park, Jung-Roe

    2005-03-01

    OPG (osteoprotegerin) is an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and recent work suggests it has a role in atherosclerosis. Therefore we measured serum OPG levels in patients with coronary artery disease, compared the serum OPG levels among the different groups according to the number of stenotic vessels and determined whether there was any correlation with aortic calcification, LV (left ventricular) mass index and serum CRP (C-reactive protein) levels. Subjects (n=100; mean age, 57 years) who underwent coronary angiograms were enrolled. Blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles and CRP levels were measured and the LV mass indices were calculated using ECGs. Serum OPG levels were measured by ELISA. The presence of calcification in the aortic notch was checked by a chest X-ray. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the number of stenotic vessels. The mean serum OPG levels increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, and the mean serum OPG levels were higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no- or one-vessel disease. The mean serum CRP level was significantly higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no-, one- and two-vessel disease. Age and LV mass index showed significant positive correlations with serum OPG levels, although significance was lost after an adjustment for age. Serum CRP levels were positively correlated with serum OPG levels even after an adjustment for age. There were no differences in serum OPG levels according to the presence of fasting hyperglycaemia or aortic calcification. In conclusion, serum OPG level was related to the severity of stenotic coronary arteries and serum CRP levels. LV mass indices showed no significant correlation with OPG levels. The precise mechanism for the role of OPG in atherosclerosis needs to be investigated further.

  6. The effect of A163G polymorphism in the osteoprotegerin gene on osteoporosis related traits in Slovak postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicova, Vladimira; Omelka, Radoslav; Durisová, Jana; Martiniakova, Monika; Galbavy, Drahomir; Bauerova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays an important role in the osteoclast differentiation as an effective inhibitor of osteoclast maturation and activation. We examined a potential effect of A163G single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the OPG gene on femoral neck (FN-BMD) and lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD), as well as circulating alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin (ALP, OC; formation markers), beta-CrossLaps (CTx; resorption marker) in Slovak postmenopausal women. In addition, fractures of spine, radius and femur were examined.Altogether 284 women (62.28 ± 8.40 years) were selected according to strict inclusion criteria. The polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP method. Genotype frequencies were tested using the chi-square test. The differences of quantitative variables between the genotypes were analyzed by covariance analysis (GLM procedure) after correction of the measurements for age and BMI. Fracture incidence in association with OPG genotype was evaluated by Binary Logistic Regression with the genotype, age, and BMI as covariates. The frequencies of genotypes were 76.8 %, 21.1 %, and 2.1 % for AA, AG, and GG, respectively. Statistically significant associations of OPG genotypes with FN-BMD (p < 0.01) and LS-BMD (p < 0.05) were observed. The GG genotype was associated with higher BMD values likewise decreased CTx concentration (p < 0.05) in compared with the other genotypes, which indicates that the allele G has a protective effect on bone. These associations were not followed by the effect of OPG on fracture incidence. Our results suggest that OPG/A163G polymorphism could contribute to the genetic regulation of BMD or bone turnover markers in Slovak population and thus could increase or decreased osteoporosis risk.

  7. Osteoprotegerin, s-RANKL, and selected interleukins in the pathology of bone metabolism in patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wysocka, Ewa; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Eder, Piotr; Michalak, Michał; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Stawczyk-Eder, Kamila; Klimczak, Katarzyna; Linke, Krzysztof; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) promotes the development of osteopaenia/osteoporosis, the cytokine background of which is not fully known. Aim Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD), the prevalence of osteopaenia and osteoporosis, and the determination of the levels of selected interleukins (IL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and s-RANKL proteins in patients with CD in relation to a control group and assessment of the relationship between the tested cytokines, OPG, s-RANKL, and BMD. Material and methods Thirty-seven CD patients and 37 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled into the study. Densitometry of the lumbar spine (L2–L4) and of the femoral neck using the DXA technique was carried out. Serum levels of: IL-13, IL-4, IL-17, IL-1β, OPG, and s-RANKL were determined using the ELISA method. Progression-of-disease questionnaires were collected. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopaenia in the CD group was: 18.92% and 32.43% in L2–L4; 13.51% and 35.13% in the neck, respectively. The IL-13 and IL-1β concentrations were significantly higher and OPG was significantly lower in CD patients when compared to controls. In the case of all subjects: IL-13 correlated negatively with the BMD of the neck, IL-17 correlated negatively with the Z-score of L2–L4, and OPG correlated negatively with the IL-13. In the case of CD patients, IL-4 correlated negatively with the BMD of L2–L4. Conclusions The incidence of osteopaenia and osteoporosis in Polish CD patients is high. IL-13, IL-1β, and IL-4 seem to be connected with the pathology of decreased BMD in CD. It can be hypothesised that IL-13 may lower BMD by modulating OPG. PMID:27110308

  8. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  9. Anabolic Effect of Insulin Therapy on the Bone: Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Up-Regulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Raul Hernandes; Freire Neto, Francisco Paulo; Arcaro, Carlos Alberto; Bezerra, João Felipe; da Silva, Flávio Santos; Ururahy, Marcela Abbott Galvão; Souza, Karla Simone da Costa; Lima, Valeria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte Moreira; Luchessi, André Ducati; Lima, Francisco Pignataro; Lia Fook, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva, Bartolomeu Jorge; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Abreu, Bento João; de Rezende, Luciana Augusto; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with several skeletal alterations, particularly in conditions of poor glycaemic control. Insulin therapy is the major conservative treatment for T1DM; however, the effects of this hormone on bone markers of T1DM rats are limited, and the regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, the evaluation of molecular and non-molecular parameters in a chronic animal model of T1DM-induced bone loss, treated with and without insulin, may help in elucidating the insulin mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were assigned into three groups: control, T1DM (T1DM rats induced with streptozotocin [STZ] at 40 mg/kg intravenously) and T1DM plus insulin therapy (T1DMI). After 8 weeks, we evaluated the serum biochemical, tibia histomorphometric and biomechanical parameters, as well as the gene expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OC) of femur mRNA. Compared with T1DM, the T1DMI group showed less bone loss, which was revealed by the increased trabecular width (TbWi, p < 0.001) and trabecular bone area (BAr, p < 0.01), reduced trabecular separation (TbSp, p < 0.01) and increased Young's modulus (p < 0.05). Moreover, molecular analyses indicated that the expression of OPG and OC was up-regulated (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the up-regulation of OPG and OC in the T1DMI group supports an anabolic effect of insulin, which was demonstrated by the maintenance of bone architecture and flexibility. These results suggest that insulin therapy may prevent T1DM-induced bone loss via the effects on the bone formation.

  10. Osteoprotegerin is secreted into the coronary circulation: a possible association with the renin-angiotensin system and cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S; Tsuruda, T; Ideguchi, T; Kawagoe, J; Onitsuka, H; Ishikawa, T; Date, H; Hatakeyama, K; Asada, Y; Kato, J; Kitamura, K

    2014-07-01

    The circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) level reflects a series of cardiovascular diseases; however, the source(s) of circulating OPG remain(s) to be determined. This study explored whether OPG is released in the coronary circulation and whether it is associated with cardiac structure and function. Fifty-six patients (67±10 years old, male 57%, hypertension 73%, coronary artery disease 50%) were enrolled, and blood samples were collected simultaneously from the orifice of the left coronary artery (CA) and the coronary sinus (CS) after angiography. The concentration of OPG was higher in the CS than in the CA (7.7±4.1 vs. 6.7±3.6 pmol/l, p<0.001). The trans-cardiac OPG concentration was significantly (p=0.019) decreased in patients who have been prescribed either an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB). In patients subgroup who did not take an ACEI/ARB (n=27), the trans-cardiac OPG level was positively correlated with age (r=0.396, p=0.041) and relative wall thickness of left ventricle (r=0.534, p=0.004). In multivariate linear regression analysis, relative wall thickness remained to be the independent variable for the trans-cardiac OPG level (p=0.004). Moreover, trans-cardiac OPG was significantly (p=0.021) increased in patients with relative wall thickness greater than 0.45 but it did not differ if the left ventricular mass index was increased (≥116 for males, or ≥ 104 for females, g/m(2)) or not (p=0.627). This study suggests that OPG is secreted into the coronary circulation and is associated with concentric remodeling/hypertrophy of LV, possibly in interactions with the renin-angiotensin system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Osteoblast CFTR inactivation reduces differentiation and osteoprotegerin expression in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease.

    PubMed

    Stalvey, Michael S; Clines, Katrina L; Havasi, Viktoria; McKibbin, Christopher R; Dunn, Lauren K; Chung, W Joon; Clines, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mass and increased fracture risk are recognized complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF-related bone disease (CFBD) is characterized by uncoupled bone turnover--impaired osteoblastic bone formation and enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Intestinal malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory cytokines contribute to CFBD. However, epidemiological investigations and animal models also support a direct causal link between inactivation of skeletal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), the gene that when mutated causes CF, and CFBD. The objective of this study was to examine the direct actions of CFTR on bone. Expression analyses revealed that CFTR mRNA and protein were expressed in murine osteoblasts, but not in osteoclasts. Functional studies were then performed to investigate the direct actions of CFTR on osteoblasts using a CFTR knockout (Cftr-/-) mouse model. In the murine calvarial organ culture assay, Cftr-/- calvariae displayed significantly less bone formation and osteoblast numbers than calvariae harvested from wildtype (Cftr+/+) littermates. CFTR inactivation also reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts. Although CFTR was not expressed in murine osteoclasts, significantly more osteoclasts formed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ bone marrow cultures. Indirect regulation of osteoclastogenesis by the osteoblast through RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling was next examined. Although no difference in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (Rankl) mRNA was detected, significantly less osteoprotegerin (Opg) was expressed in Cftr-/- compared to Cftr+/+ osteoblasts. Together, the Rankl:Opg ratio was significantly higher in Cftr-/- murine calvarial osteoblasts contributing to a higher osteoclastogenesis potential. The combined findings of reduced osteoblast differentiation and lower Opg expression suggested a possible defect in canonical Wnt signaling. In fact, Wnt3a and PTH-stimulated canonical Wnt signaling

  12. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Otsuka, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Nakakami, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation. PMID:25290095

  13. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness, preclinical atherosclerosis, and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Erdoğan, Turan; Türkyılmaz, Aysegül Kücükali; Devrimsel, Gül; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Beyazal, Mehmet; Sahin, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reportedly have a higher mortality and morbidity risk. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was recently defined as an important cardiovascular (CV) marker in the general population. We aimed to assess the relationship of serum OPG levels with arterial stiffness, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and clinical and laboratory data in AS patients. We examined 60 AS patients without CV disease or risk factors and 50 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), whereas functional capacity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Serum OPG levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness, whereas CIMT (examined via carotid ultrasonography) was used to evaluate preclinical atherosclerosis. The mean serum OPG level, PWV, and CIMT were significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (106.7 ± 50.9 vs. 58.1 ± 12.7 pg/mL; 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 m/s; 0.72 ± 0.13 vs. 0.57 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). In AS patients, the serum OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV and CIMT but were significantly correlated with erthrocyte sedimentation rate, BASFI, and ASDAS. AS patients without CV disease or risk exhibited high OPG levels and increased PWV and CIMT values. Although OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV or CIMT, future long-term follow-up studies will help define the predictive value of OPG in these patients.

  14. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  15. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  16. Circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin are higher in old compared with young men and women and positively associated with whole-body bone mineral density in older adults.

    PubMed

    Coulson, J; Bagley, L; Barnouin, Y; Bradburn, S; Butler-Browne, G; Gapeyeva, H; Hogrel, J-Y; Maden-Wilkinson, T; Maier, A B; Meskers, C; Murgatroyd, C; Narici, M; Pääsuke, M; Sassano, L; Sipilä, S; Al-Shanti, N; Stenroth, L; Jones, D A; McPhee, J S

    2017-06-05

    Bone mineral density declines with increasing older age. We examined the levels of circulating factors known to regulate bone metabolism in healthy young and older adults. The circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin were positively associated with whole-body bone mineral density (WBMD) in older adults, despite the average WBMD being lower and circulating dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin being higher in old than young. This study aims to investigate the relationship between whole-body bone mineral density (WBMD) and levels of circulating factors with known roles in bone remodelling during 'healthy' ageing. WBMD and fasting plasma concentrations of dickkopf-1, fibroblast growth factor-23, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin and sclerostin were measured in 272 older subjects (69 to 81 years; 52% female) and 171 younger subjects (18-30 years; 53% female). WBMD was lower in old than young. Circulating osteocalcin was lower in old compared with young, while dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin were higher in old compared with young. These circulating factors were each positively associated with WBMD in the older adults and the relationships remained after adjustment for covariates (r values ranging from 0.174 to 0.254, all p < 0.01). In multivariate regression, the body mass index, circulating sclerostin and whole-body lean mass together accounted for 13.8% of the variation with WBMD in the older adults. In young adults, dickkopf-1 and body mass index together accounted for 7.7% of variation in WBMD. Circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin are positively associated with WBMD in community-dwelling older adults, despite the average WBMD being lower and circulating dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin being higher in old than young.

  17. [Influence of zinc administered by total parenteral nutrition on plasmatic zinc levels, on reactive C protein, on serum interleukin-6 and on serum interleukin-6 soluble receptor, in critical patients].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A M; De Portela, M L; Weisstaub, A; Montemerlo, H; Guidoni, M E; Rusí, F; Zeni, S

    2009-01-01

    To study the interrelationship between serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum Interleukin-6 soluble Receptor (IL-6 sR), C-Reactive Protein (C-RP), plasmatic Zinc levels (PlZn) and their response in relation to Zn administered by TPN, in critical patients. 17 patients, receiving TPN as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (n = 4) or after a major abdominal surgery due to intestinal cancer (n = 7), intestinal fístula (n = 3), intestinal obstruction (n = 2) or intestinal íleus (n = 1) were studied. At the beginning (To) and at the end of the TPN administration (6-21 days) serum IL-6 and IL-6 sR were determined by ELISA; C-RP ultrasensitive (C-RP us) by inmunoturbidimetric method; Zn was determined in TPN and in plasma by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Characteristics of the patients were (mean +/- SD and ranges): age: 60.6 +/- 11.7 (37-77) years; BMI (kg/m(2)): 26.0 +/- 3.4 (19.9-34.0). The results (mean +/- standard deviation and ranges) were: Zn provided by TPN (mg/d): 6.1 +/- 2.0 (range 2.8 to 10.8). Biochemical levels were, at To and Tf, respectively: (mean+/-SD and ranges) were at To y Tf, respectively: Zn Pl (microg/dl): 104 +/- 46 (35-177); 120 +/- 55 (52-229); IL-6 (pg/mL) 93 +/- 74 (10-262); 117 +/- 180 (7-761); IL6sR (pg/mL): 1,012 +/- 322 (589-1855); 1,269 +/- 451 (631-2195); C-RP us (mg/L): 71 +/- 63 (2-196); 65 +/- 43 (0-137). There was no correlation between variations of IL6, IL6sR, C-RP, PlZn levels and the daily amount of Zn administered in the TPN mixtures. Two patients presented a bad evolution; they received 4.2 and 5.2 md/d of Zn and showed an increase of IL6 levels, maintained high levels of IL6sR but C-RP levels decreased. the range of 2.8 to 10.8 mg/d of Zn administered in TPN mixtures did not exacerbate the inflammatory response.

  18. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Total Escherichia coli in Feces and Feedlot Surface Manure from Cattle Fed Diets with and without Corn or Sorghum Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Varel, Vincent H; Hales, Kristin E; Kalchayanand, Norasak

    2017-08-01

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and feedlot pen surfaces of cattle fed WDGS. In the first study, feces from steers fed 0, 20, 40, or 60% corn WDGS were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 0% corn WDGS rapidly decreased (P < 0.05), from 6.28 to 2.48 log CFU/g of feces by day 14. In contrast, the E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 20, 40, and 60% corn WDGS were 4.21, 5.59, and 6.13 log CFU/g of feces, respectively, on day 14. A second study evaluated the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces from cattle fed 0 and 40% corn WDGS. Feces were collected before and 28 days after the dietary corn was switched from high-moisture corn to dry-rolled corn. Within dietary corn source, the pathogen persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) in 40% corn WDGS feces at day 7 than in 0% WDGS. For 40% corn WDGS feces, E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) at day 7 in feces from cattle fed high-moisture corn (5.36 log CFU/g) than from those fed dry-rolled corn (4.27 log CFU/g). The percentage of WDGS had no effect on the E. coli O157:H7 counts in feces from cattle fed steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 0, 15, and 30% sorghum WDGS. Greater persistence of E. coli O157:H7 on the pen surfaces of animals fed corn WDGS was not demonstrated, although these pens had a higher prevalence of the pathogen in the feedlot surface manure after the cattle were removed. Both or either the greater persistence and higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment of cattle fed WDGS may play a part in the increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle by increasing the transmission risk.

  19. Path Analysis Identifies Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand, Osteoprotegerin, and Sclerostin as Potential Mediators of the Tophus-bone Erosion Relationship in Gout.

    PubMed

    Chhana, Ashika; Aati, Opetaia; Gamble, Gregory D; Callon, Karen E; Doyle, Anthony J; Roger, Mark; McQueen, Fiona M; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    To determine the relationship between tophus, erosion and bone remodeling factors in gout. Computed tomography bone erosion and circulating bone factors were measured in adults with tophaceous gout. Multiple regression modeling and path analysis were used to determine predictors of erosion. Tophus number, Māori or Pacific ethnicity, creatinine, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and sclerostin were independently associated with erosion. Path analysis showed a direct effect of tophus number on erosion, partially mediated through OPG, RANKL, and sclerostin. Tophus number is strongly associated with bone erosion in gout. Circulating RANKL, OPG, and sclerostin are potential mediators of tophus-related erosion.

  20. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  1. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  2. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  3. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Optimizing solubility: kinetic versus thermodynamic solubility temptations and risks.

    PubMed

    Saal, Christoph; Petereit, Anna Christine

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data in guiding medicinal chemistry during lead optimization. The solubility of 465 research compounds was measured using a kinetic and a thermodynamic solubility assay. In the thermodynamic assay, polarized-light microscopy was used to investigate whether the result referred to the crystalline or to the amorphous compound. From the comparison of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data it was noted that kinetic solubility measurements frequently yielded results which show considerably higher solubility compared to thermodynamic solubility. This observation is ascribed to the fact that a kinetic solubility assay typically delivers results which refer to the amorphous compound. In contrast, results from thermodynamic solubility determinations more frequently refer to a crystalline phase. Accordingly, thermodynamic solubility data--especially when used together with an assessment of the solid state form--are deemed to be more useful in guiding solubility optimization for research compounds.

  5. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  6. Extended Hansen approach: calculating partial solubility parameters of solid solutes.

    PubMed

    Wu, P L; Beerbower, A; Martin, A

    1982-11-01

    A multiple linear regression method, known as the extended Hansen solubility approach, was used to estimate the partial solubility parameters, delta d, delta p, and delta h for crystalline solutes. The method is useful, since organic compounds may decompose near their melting points, and it is not possible, to determine solubility parameters for these solid compounds by the methods used for liquid solvents. The method gives good partial and total solubility parameters for naphthalene; with related compounds, less satisfactory results were obtained. At least three conditions, pertaining to the regression equation and the solvent systems, must be met in order to obtain reasonable solute solubility parameters. In addition to providing partial solubility parameters, the regression equations afford a calculation of solute solubility in both polar and nonpolar solvents.

  7. Hansen solubility parameters for polyethylene glycols by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Adamska, Katarzyna; Voelkel, Adam

    2006-11-03

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been applied to determine solubility parameter and its components for nonionic surfactants--polyethylene glycols (PEG) of different molecular weight. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi) and solubility parameter (delta(2)) were calculated according to DiPaola-Baranyi and Guillet method from experimentally collected retention data for the series of carefully selected test solutes. The Hansen's three-dimensional solubility parameters concept was applied to determine components (delta(d), delta(p), delta(h)) of corrected solubility parameter (delta(T)). The molecular weight and temperature of measurement influence the solubility parameter data, estimated from the slope, intercept and total solubility parameter. The solubility parameters calculated from the intercept are lower than those calculated from the slope. Temperature and structural dependences of the entopic factor (chi(S)) are presented and discussed.

  8. The Effect of Osteoprotegerin Gene Modification on Wear Debris Induced Osteolysis in a Murine Model of Knee Prosthesis Failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Yu, Haiying; Gong, Weiming; Zhang, Laibo; Jia, Tanghong; Wooley, Paul H.; Yang, Shang-You

    2009-01-01

    Using an in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated gene transfer technique, this study evaluated the therapeutic effects of an Osteoprotegerin (OPG) transgene against orthopaedic wear debris–induced osteolysis in a long-term murine model. A titanium pin was surgically implanted into proximal tibia of Balb/c mice to mimic a weight-bearing knee arthroplasty, followed by an intra-articular challenge with Ti-particles to provoke periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis. rAAV-hOPG or AAV-LacZ vectors were injected into the prosthetic joint at 3 weeks post-op. The tissues were harvested at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after transfection for histological and molecular analyses. Successful transgene expression at the local site was confirmed by real-time PCR and ELISA. Inflammatory pseudo-membranes were ubiquitously presence at the interface between the Ti implant and the surrounding bone in both LacZ and virus-free control groups, while soft tissue was only observed sporadically at the bone-implant interface in the OPG group. A significant reduction in TRAP+ osteoclast numbers was observed in the OPG treatment group. MicroCT assessment indicated a marked reversal in the loss of peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD) in the OPG-transduced group, when compared with the LacZ and virus-free controls. Further, OPG gene modification appeared to reduce local bone collagen loss by a mean of 40%. Real time PCR examination confirmed that in vivo OPG gene transfer dramatically influenced the periprosthetic tissue gene expression profiles by diminishing the mRNA expression of TNF, IL-1, CPK and RANKL. There were no transgene-associated toxic effects apparent during the experiment, and the PCR detection of transgenes in remote organs such as lungs, kidneys, liver, and muscle of contralateral limb were consistently negative. Overall, rAAV-mediated OPG gene transfer effectively reversed Ti-particle induced bone resorption in this experimental model. The therapeutic effects may be

  9. Predictive ability of circulating osteoprotegerin as a novel biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury induced by sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schaalan, Mona; Mohamed, Waleed

    2017-06-01

    Though significant progress has been made towards new diagnostic approaches for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by different factors, there is still an urgent demand for a more specific and predictive biomarker for each type. The aim of this study is to unravel the potential diagnostic utility of circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) in septic patients who developed AKI in the ICU, compared to cystatin C (a renal function maker) and KIM-1 (a kidney damage marker). Eighty patients (male = 43, female = 37) with ages ranging from 42 to 46 years and with sepsis, 40 of whom developed AKI, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Results revealed significant progressive elevation of OPG, along with cystatin C and KIM-1, among sepsis, severe sepsis, and sepsis-AKI patients. The progression of OPG levels paralleled the deterioration of kidney and endothelial functions from sepsis to sepsis-AKI, revealed as progressively increased levels of serum E-selectin (15.3%), endothelin-1 (ET-1) (19.6%), and decreased nitric oxide (NO) (29.7%), associated with elevations of TNF-α (25.5%) and TGF-β (18%). Their comparative prognostic validity of sepsis-AKI was assessed using ROC analysis, which revealed that OPG, KIM-1, and cystatin C showed similar AUCs (0.827-0.83) but with different sensitivities, viz., 84%, 88%, and 92%, respectively. Although cystatin showed 82% specificity, OPG showed a higher, similar specificity to KIM-1 of 85%, indicating its potential function as a marker of renal damage such as KIM-1. This study revealed a significant elevation of circulating OPG in septic patients with different levels of severity and those who progressed to AKI. Moreover, OPG showed a significant correlation to KIM-1 and cystatin, as well as conventional renal, inflammatory, and endothelial markers. Having a similar specificity to KIM-1, as evidenced by the ROC analysis, OPG has the potential to serve as a reliable biomarker of kidney damage

  10. Effect of bisphosphonates on human gingival fibroblast production of mediators of osteoclastogenesis: RANKL, osteoprotegerin and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Tipton, D A; Seshul, B A; Dabbous, M Kh

    2011-02-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is associated with bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. BPs alter osteoblast production of mediators of osteoclastogenesis, including interleukin (IL)-6, RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG), a RANKL antagonist. This can inhibit bone turnover and lead to necrosis. There is little information on the contribution of gingival fibroblasts, near bone-resorption sites, to the IL-6/RANKL/OPG network, the effects of BPs, or fibroblast involvement in ONJ pathogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of alendronate and pamidronate on the constitutive production, or the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or IL-1β-stimulated production, of IL-6, RANKL and OPG by human gingival fibroblasts. Human gingival fibroblasts were derived from explants obtained from healthy individuals with noninflamed gingiva. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring the activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. Fibroblasts were pre-incubated or not with BPs (0.01 nm-1 μm), then incubated or not with LPS or IL-1β. The concentrations of IL-6, OPG and RANKL were measured using ELISA. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffé's F procedure. LPS and BPs were not cytotoxic. The cells produced IL-6, OPG and RANKL, all of which were stimulated by IL-1β or LPS (p ≤ 0.04). BPs generally increased the production of IL-6 and OPG (p ≤ 0.04) and decreased the production of RANKL (p ≤ 0.02). BPs generally further increased the production of LPS- or IL-1β-stimulated IL-6 (p ≤ 0.04) and had no effect on, or further increased, the production of LPS- or IL-1β-stimulated OPG (p ≤ 0.04). BPs decreased the production of LPS- or IL-1β-stimulated RANKL (p ≤ 0.04) and decreased constitutive, LPS-stimulated and IL-1β-stimulated RANKL/OPG ratios (p ≤ 0.02). The action of alendronate and pamidronate on human gingival fibroblasts, through altering the production of RANKL and OPG, appears to contribute to a microenvironment favoring the

  11. Influence of calcium hydroxide-loaded microcapsules on osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jiguang; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-12-01

    Calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) microcapsules were synthesized to allow controlled release of Ca(OH)2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Ca(OH)2 microcapsules on osteoprotegerin (OPG) activity, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) activity, and the OPG/RANKL ratio compared with pure Ca(OH)2 powder and Vitapex (Neo Dental Chemical Products Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). One formula of Ca(OH)2 microcapsules was evaluated, and pure Ca(OH)2 powder was used as a control. A commonly used Ca(OH)2 medication containing an oily vehicle (Vitapex) was also evaluated, and the in vitro release profile of Vitapex was studied. The human osteosarcoma cell line MG63 was used to evaluate the influence of Ca(OH)2 microcapsules, pure Ca(OH)2 powder, and Vitapex on OPG and RANKL activity. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of OPG and RANKL was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of OPG and RANKL in supernatants was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vitapex prolonged the release of Ca(OH)2 compared with pure Ca(OH)2 powder, and the release rate of Vitapex was faster than that of the microcapsules. The OPG/RANKL ratio in the microcapsules group was up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels compared with the negative control group and the pure Ca(OH)2 powder group. The ratio in the Vitapex group was lower than the microcapsule group both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ca(OH)2 microcapsules increased the expression of OPG although they did not increase the expression of RANKL compared with pure Ca(OH)2 powder and Vitapex. This increase in expression led to an increase in the OPG/RANKL ratio and eventual inhibition of osteoclast activity. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crosstalk between osteoprotegerin (OPG), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer: implications in carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sudeshna; Sharma-Walia, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    The crosstalk between malignant and nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment, as maneuvered by cytokines/chemokines, drives breast cancer progression. In our previous study, we discovered Osteoprotegerin (OPG) as one of the cytokines heavily secreted by breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that OPG is expressed and secreted at very high levels from the highly invasive breast cancer cell lines SUM149PT and SUM1315MO2 as compared to normal human mammary epithelial HMEC cells. OPG was involved in modulating aneuploidy, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Mass spectrometry analysis performed in this study revealed OPG interacts with fatty acid synthase (FASN), which is a key enzyme of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in breast cancer cells. Further, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and fluorescence quantitation assays highlighted the presence of a large number of lipid bodies (lipid droplets) in SUM149PT and SUM1315MO2 cells in comparison to HMEC. We recently showed upregulation of the COX-2 inflammatory pathway and its metabolite PGE2 secretion in SUM149PT and SUM1315MO2 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue samples displayed high expression of OPG, PGE2 and fatty acid synthase (FASN). FASN is a multifunctional enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the co-existence of COX-2 and FASN in the lipid bodies of breast cancer cells. We reasoned that there might be crosstalk between OPG, FASN, and COX-2 that sustains the inflammatory pathways in breast cancer. Interestingly, knocking down OPG by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in breast cancer cells decreased FASN expression at the protein level. Here, we identified cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 and FASN by recombinant human OPG (rhOPG). Treatment with FASN inhibitor C75 and COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib individually decreased the number of lipid bodies/cell, downregulated phosphorylation of ERK

  13. [Study on solubility of Chinese herbal compound by solubility parameter].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Weifeng; Guan, Yongmei

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate the solubility of Chinese herbal compound with solubility parameters. The solubility parameters of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound were determined by inverse gas chromatograph (IGC) and group contribution. Hansen ball was plotting by HSPiP, which could be used to investigate the solubility of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound in different solvents. And the results were verified by approximate solubility. Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound could be dissolved in chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, octanol and ether, and were slightly soluble in glycerol, methanol, ethanol and propanediol, but could not be dissolved in water. They were all liposoluble, and the results were the same as the test results of the approximate solubility. The solubility of Chinese herbal compound can be expressed by solubility parameters, and it is accurate, convenient and visual.

  14. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  17. Bone Metabolism and the c.-223C > T Polymorphism in the 5'UTR Region of the Osteoprotegerin Gene in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Kaczmarek-Ryś, Marta; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Michalak, Michał; Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Marzena; Drwęska-Matelska, Natalia; Marcinkowska, Michalina; Eder, Piotr; Łykowska-Szuber, Lilianna; Wysocka, Ewa; Linke, Krzysztof; Słomski, Ryszard

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis is more frequent in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A reduction in bone mineral mass in these individuals is caused not only by inflammatory processes in the bowel, because osteoporosis occurs already in very young IBD patients and in newly diagnosed individuals who have not yet undergone any pharmacological treatment. One of individual determinants of the bone turnover parameters is osteoprotegerin (OPG) encoded by the TNFRSF11B gene. The c.-223C > T polymorphism in this gene has been extensively studied in post-menopausal osteoporosis patients. However, no such studies exist for osteoporosis related to IBD. The aim of our study was to determine whether the c.-223C > T (rs2073617) polymorphism in the 5'UTR region of the gene encoding osteoprotegerin is a functional polymorphism which may change the gene expression and resulting OPG levels, and so be associated with osteopenia and osteoporosis, and impaired bone metabolism in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Our study included 198 IBD patients and 41 healthy controls. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density, T-score, Z-score as well as OPG, RANKL, vitamin D, calcium and interleukin 4 and 10 concentrations were determined for all study subjects. Genotyping of the TNFRSF11B polymorphic site was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistica software. Odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals, and P values were calculated using the HWE calculator. Our results did not allow determining an unequivocal association between the polymorphic variants of the TNFRSF11B 5'UTR region and a susceptibility to osteoporosis in IBD patients. We have shown, however, that the c.-223T allele was twice as more frequent in Crohn's disease (CD) patients than among controls (OR = 1.99, P value = 0.009). Interestingly, average osteoprotegerin levels in CD patients did not significantly differ from those in

  18. Soluble biomarkers may differentiate psoriasis from psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vinod

    2012-07-01

    Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have a higher inflammatory burden and poorer quality of life compared to patients with psoriasis without PsA. Early identification of PsA may prevent joint damage progression and improve quality of life. Soluble biomarkers have the potential to be useful for screening patients with psoriasis for underlying PsA so that appropriate referral to a rheumatologist is made. Pilot studies have shown that C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), Dickkopf-1, and macrophage-colony stimulating factor may differentiate PsA from psoriasis without PsA. Compared with controls, increased serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and COMP are independently associated with psoriatic disease. Increased levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), MMP-3, and the ratio of C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII) to collagen fragment neoepitopes Col2-3/4 C(long mono) (C2C) are independently associated with PsA. A combination of hsCRP, OPG, MMP-3, and the ratio CPII of C2C was able to distinguish patients with PsA from those with psoriasis alone in a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, with area under the curve 0.904. Therefore, a combination of the above biomarkers may at least have a role in screening patients with psoriasis for PsA. These findings need to be validated in prospective studies.

  19. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  20. Mixed Hydrotropy: Novel Science of Solubility Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, R. K.; Jagwani, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional furosemide tablets are practically insoluble in water, have slow onset of action (45-60 min) and poor bioavailability (39-53%), and therefore cannot be given in emergency clinical situations like hypertension or pulmonary edema. So purpose of research was to provide a fast dissolving oral dosage form of furosemide, which can provide quick onset of action by using concept of mixed hydrotropy. Initially solubility of furosemide was determined individually in 4 hydrotropic agents namely urea, sodium acetate, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate at concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/v solutions using purified water as solvent. Highest solubility was obtained in 40% sodium benzoate solution. Then different combinations of 2, 3 and 4 hydrotropic agents in different ratios were used to determine solubility, so that total concentration of hydrotropic agents was always 40%. Highest solubility was obtained in solution of urea+sodium benzoate+sodium citrate at optimum ratio of 15:20:5. This optimized combination was utilized in preparing solid dispersions by common solvent technique using distilled water as solvent. Solid dispersions were evaluated for flow properties, XRD, DSC, SEM and were also compressed to form tablets. Dissolution studies of conventional and prepared tablets were done using USP Type II apparatus. It was concluded that the concept of mixed hydrotropic solid dispersion is novel, safe and cost-effective technique for enhancing bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by dissolving drug in nonionized form. The magical enhancement in solubility of furosemide is clear indication of its potential to be used in future for other poorly water-soluble drugs in which low bioavailability is major concern. PMID:22303061

  1. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  2. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  3. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  4. Bergapten exerts inhibitory effects on diabetes-related osteoporosis via the regulation of the PI3K/AKT, JNK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoprotegerin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Ju; Zhu, Zhe; Han, Si-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, as a serious metobolic disorder, poses global threat to human health. It is estimated that over 50 million individuals are already affected by diabetes. Currently, diabetes-related osteoporosis has been a research hotspot due to its high incidence rate in older individuals. Osteoprotegerin, as an important protein for the prevention of osteoporosis, has been proven to be key to the suppression of osteoporosis. Hence, the loss of function of osteoprotegerin may promote the development of osteoporosis. Bergapten, as a natural anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent isolated from bergamot essential oil, other citrus essential oils, and grapefruit juice, has been proven to have the ability to attenuate a number of metabolic disorders. In view of these findings, in this study, we used a high-fat diet to construct a mouse model of diabetes-related osteoporosis and a mouse model of diabetes-related osteoporosis using osteoprotegerin knockout mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), qPCR, western blot analysis, immunohistochemical assay, H&E staining, Oil Red O staining, Masson's staining and other biochemical analyses were used to evaluate the related signaling pathways involved in the development of diabetes-related osteoporosis. We also examined the role of osteoprotegerin in the activation of these pathways and in the development of osteoporosis, as well as the protective effects of bergapten against diabetes-related osteoporosis and on the activation of related signaling pathways. Our results revealed that in diabetes-related osteoporosis, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways were activated and the expression levels of related indicators were increased. At the same time, osteoprotegerin knockout further promoted the activation of these pathways. By contrast, bergapten exerted effects similar to those of osteoprotegerin

  5. Bioconcentration factors and lipid solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S. ); Baughman, G.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The log-log relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity breaks down for several medium and high molecular weight solutes that bioconcentrate either to a small extent or not at all. Much of the failure is attributed to the relatively low solubility of these compounds in lipid. Inclusion of a term in octanol solubility (in place of lipid solubility, which is generally unavailable) considerably improves the quality of the relationship (r = 0.95). It is speculated that the octanol solubility term compensates for the relatively low solubility of large compounds in lipid.

  6. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  7. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  8. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOEpatents

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-12-03

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents.

  10. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  11. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  12. Lipid Lowering with Soluble Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Berglund, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels. Hypocholesterolemic benefits were also observed with some fiber-rich foods, such as whole oats, whole barley, legumes, peas, beans, flax seeds, apples, and citrus foods.

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  15. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  16. Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as acetamide, Nmethylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  17. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  18. Precipitation and Solubility of Calcium Hydrogenurate Hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Babić-Ivančić, V; Füredi-Milhofer, H; Brničević, N; Marković, M

    1992-01-01

    Solid phases formed in the quaternary system: uric acid-calcium hydroxide -hydrochloric acid-water aged for 2 months at 310 K were studied to determine conditions for calcium hydrogenurate hexahydrate, Ca(C5H3N4O)2 · 6H2O precipitation. The precipitates were identified by chemical and thermogravimetric analyses, x-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In the precipitation diagram the concentration region in which calcium hydrogenurate hexahydrate precipitated as a single solid phase was established. The solubility of calcium hydrogenurate hexahydrate was investigated in the pH range from 6.2 to 10.1 at different temperatures. The total soluble and ionic concentration of calcium (atomic absorption spectroscopy and Ca-selective electrode), total urate concentration (spectrophotometry), and pH were determined in equilibrated solutions. The data are presented in the form of tables and chemical potential diagrams. By using these data the thermodynamic solubility products of calcium hydrogenurate hexahydrate, Ks = a(Ca(2+)) · a(2)(C5H3N4O3(-)), were determined: [Formula: see text]The formation of calcium hydrogenurate hexahydrate crystals in urinary tract of patients with pathologically high concentrations of calcium and urates (hypercalciuria and hyperuricosiuria) is possible.

  19. [The expression and significance of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin in periapical cyst and periapical granuloma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meihua; Yu, Yunzhi; Miao, Yu

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in periapical cyst and periapical granuloma by comparison with the expression in the normal periodontal tissue as control, and to identify their functional mechanism in the bone destruction of periapical cyst and granuloma. 20 periapical cyst tissues (cyst group), 20 periapical granuloma tissues (granuloma group), and 20 normal periodontal tissues (control group) were collected respectively. Immunohistochemical technology was performed to detect the expression of RANKL and OPG in above three groups. In cyst group, granuloma group and control group, the expression of RANKL were 75.00 +/- 7.54, 68.40 +/- 6.74 and 29.40 +/- 2.46, respectively. The expression of OPG were 38.10 +/- 7.09, 47.65 +/- 13.85 and 58.60 +/- 5.88, respectively. The differences among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). RANKL and OPG in cysts group were negatively correlated (r=-0.56, P=0.01) and were not correlated with granuloma and control group (P>0.05). RANKL and OPG play roles in the bone absorption of periapical disease. In periapical disease, abnormal expression of RANKL and OPG are detected, RANKL significantly increase, OPG decrease, bone absorption accelerate and osteolytic lesion are observed. In periapical cyst, the bone absorption is more active compared with periapical granuloma.

  20. Puerarin concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin and inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and interleukin-6 production in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Wen Li; Zhao, Yan Wei; Li, Zong Min; Sun, Wei Jia; Li, Ling Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Puerarin, a daidzein-8-C-glucoside, is the major isoflavone glycoside found in the Chinese herb radix of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and has received increasing attention because of its possible role in the prevention of osteoporosis. In our previous studies, puerarin reduced the bone resorption of osteoclasts and promoted long bone growth in fetal mouse in vitro. Further study confirmed that puerarin stimulated proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in rat. However, the mechanisms underlying its actions on human bone cells have remained largely unknown. Here we show that puerarin concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin (OPG) and inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by human osteoblastic MG-63 cells containing two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes. Treatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 abrogates the above actions of puerarin on osteoblast-derived cells. Using small interfering double-stranded RNAs technology, we further demonstrate that the effects of puerarin on OPG and RANKL expression are mediated by both ERα and ERβ but those on IL-6 production primarily by ERα. Moreover, we demonstrate that puerarin may promote activation of the classic estrogen response element (ERE) pathway through increasing ERα, ERβ and steroid hormone receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 expression. Therefore, puerarin will be a promising agent that prevents or retards osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of gallium nitrate on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwu; Wang, Guang-Bin; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by the progressive loss of bone mass and the micro‑architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fracture. Gallium has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of several diverse disorders that are characterized by accelerated bone loss. Osteoblasts orchestrate bone degradation by expressing the receptor activator of NF‑κB ligand (RANKL), however they additionally protect the skeleton by secreting osteoprotegerin (OPG). Therefore, the relative concentration of RANKL and OPG in bone is a key determinant of bone mass and strength. The current study demonstrated that gallium nitrate (GaN) is able to counteract bone loss in an experimental model of established osteoporosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibited significantly increased bone mineral density following GaN treatment for 4 and 8 weeks by 19.3 and 37.3%, respectively (P<0.05). The bone volume of the OVX + GaN group was increased by 40.9% (P<0.05) compared with the OVX group. In addition, the current study demonstrated that GaN stimulates the synthesis of OPG however has no effect on the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts, as demonstrated by RT‑qPCR, western blotting and ELISA, resulting in an increase in the OPG/RANKL ratio and a reduction in osteoclast differentiation in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Effect of gallium nitrate on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LI, JINGWU; WANG, GUANG-BIN; FENG, XUE; ZHANG, JING; FU, QIN

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by the progressive loss of bone mass and the micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fracture. Gallium has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of several diverse disorders that are characterized by accelerated bone loss. Osteoblasts orchestrate bone degradation by expressing the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), however they additionally protect the skeleton by secreting osteoprotegerin (OPG). Therefore, the relative concentration of RANKL and OPG in bone is a key determinant of bone mass and strength. The current study demonstrated that gallium nitrate (GaN) is able to counteract bone loss in an experimental model of established osteoporosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibited significantly increased bone mineral density following GaN treatment for 4 and 8 weeks by 19.3 and 37.3%, respectively (P<0.05). The bone volume of the OVX + GaN group was increased by 40.9% (P<0.05) compared with the OVX group. In addition, the current study demonstrated that GaN stimulates the synthesis of OPG however has no effect on the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR, western blotting and ELISA, resulting in an increase in the OPG/RANKL ratio and a reduction in osteoclast differentiation in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26647856

  3. Effects of vitamin E on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in rats treated with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Maizatul-Neza, J; Azarina, A; Nazrun, A S; Norliza, M; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2010-03-01

    Vitamin E is found to reverse the effects of nicotine on bone and this study aimed to determine its mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated for 3 months: Group 1 was the control group (RC). Groups 2 (N), 3 (N+TT) and 4 (N+ATF) received nicotine 7 mg/kg throughout the treatment period. In addition, groups 3 and 4 received tocotrienol 60 mg/kg and alpha-tocopherol 60 mg/kg respectively during months 2 and 3. Parameters measured were serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), serum receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), femoral and lumbar bone calcium content and body weight. Nicotine did not affect OPG or RANKL levels but reduced bone calcium content suggesting the calcium loss is not due to increase osteoclastogenesis. OPG was increased in N+ATF while RANKL was slightly increased in N+TT. Both vitamin E supplements restored bone calcium loss induced by nicotine. Nicotine impaired weight gain in all treatment groups starting week 4 however, N+TT group was comparable to RC from week 6 onwards. Bone protective effects of ATF, but not TT, may be partly due to inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.

  4. The role of the osteoprotegerin/tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand axis in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Allan

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal condition driven by a progressive remodelling of the small pulmonary arteries through sustained vasoconstriction, and vascular cell proliferation. This process causes a substantial reduction in luminal area increasing pulmonary vascular resistance and blood pressure leading to right heart failure. Current medical therapies can alleviate some symptoms and reduce the vasoconstrictive aspects of disease but new treatments are required that target the vascular cell proliferation if we are to develop new therapies. Expression of the tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) proteins are increased in IPAH. Specifically OPG is increased within the serum of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and has prognostic utility, and both OPG and TRAIL are increased within pulmonary vascular lesions of patients with IPAH, and are mitogens for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. We have demonstrated that genetic deletion, or antibody blockade of TRAIL prevents, and critically reverses the development of PAH in multiple rodent models. The role OPG plays in this process both through interacting with TRAIL, and indirectly through other mechanisms is currently unclear these but data highlight the critical importance of this pathway in PAH pathogenesis, and its potential for future therapies.

  5. Dickkopf-1 negatively regulates the expression of osteoprotegerin, a key osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, by sequestering Lrp6 in primary and metastatic lytic bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hang; Zhang, Yuanjin; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yun-Yan; Sun, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an inverse role for Wnt signaling in the development of osteoclasts in the bone was demonstrated. In the present study, we examined whether there is a commonality in the mechanism of bone resorption and lysis that occur in a diverse set of bone metastatic lesions, as well as in primary bone lesions. Compared with control bone tissue and bone biopsies from patients with nonmetastatic primary tumors (i.e., breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and prostate carcinoma), patients with bone metastatic lesions from the three aforementioned primary tumors, as well as osteolytic lesions obtained from the bone biopsies of patients with multiple myeloma, demonstrated an upregulated expression of the glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, by coimmunoprecipitation, Dickkopf-1 pulled-down low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), which is a key downstream effector of the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of Lrp6 was unaltered in the osteometastatic lesions. This negative regulation was associated with a lowered expression of osteoprotegerin in the osteometastatic lesions, an observation that was previously reported to promote osteoclastogenesis. These findings provide a common mechanism for the inverse relationship between the Wnt signaling pathway and the development of primary or metastatic bone lesions. Pharmacological modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway might benefit the clinical management of primary and metastatic bone lesions.

  6. The association between carotid or femoral atherosclerosis and low bone mass in postmenopausal women referred for osteoporosis screening. Does osteoprotegerin play a role?

    PubMed

    Pennisi, P; Russo, E; Gaudio, A; Veca, R; D'Amico, F; Mangiafico, R A; Laspina, M; Tringali, G; Signorelli, S S; Fiore, C E

    2010-12-01

    Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis appear to be epidemiologically correlated. Most (but not all) animal and clinical studies suggest that osteoprotegerin (OPG) may represent a possible molecular link between bone loss and vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of OPG with bone mineral density (BMD) and vascular plaques, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the link between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The study population consisted of 100 consecutive postmenopausal women referred for routine osteoporosis screening. BMD was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of carotid or femoral plaques was examined by ultrasonography. OPG was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Seventy-two subjects had low bone mass and were categorized as osteopenic (32) or osteoporotic (40). Fifty-two subjects had one or more atherosclerotic plaques at carotid or femoral level. Both lumbar spine and femoral BMD were associated with the number of plaques (r=-0.5370; p<0.0001, and r=-0.4423; p=0.0012, respectively), however only spine BMD remained significantly associated with the number of plaques after adjustment. OPG serum values showed a significant association with age (r(2)=0.057; p=0.042). The association between OPG and the number of plaques was significant only in patients with concomitant involvement of carotid and femoral districts (r(2)=0.758; p<0.0001).

  7. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  8. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  9. Iron Solubility Depending on the Mineralogical Composition of Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Chevaillier, S.; Caquineau, S.

    2008-12-01

    collected in source area, in the range of 0,15 and 0,6%. In these cases, mineralogical factor does not seem to control totally iron solubility. Others factors, probably due to atmospheric transport, knowing to play on iron dissolution process, have to be taken into account. In this study, none of those "external" factors seems to prevail. Finally, besides showing that for non-transported dust, iron solubility can be easily parameterized according to dust mineralogical composition, this work open up a new way of examination for iron dust solubility studies.

  10. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway is a promising target to reduce atherosclerotic plaque calcification.

    PubMed

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Luciano Viviani, Giorgio; Dallegri, Franco; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque calcification represents a common pathophysiologic process in the advanced phases of the disease. Both inflammatory and vascular cells (such as osteoblast-like cells, osteoclast-like cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells) are active players in the balance between intraplaque bone deposition and resorption. Inflammatory processes underlying plaque calcification are regulated by soluble mediators that also contribute to plaque destabilization and increased vulnerability. Among different mediators, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) ligand (RANKL)/osteoprogerin (OPG) system is a major determinant in inflammatory cell differentiation toward osteoclast-like cells. Thus, this system might be a promising parameter to be investigated as a marker of calcification-related cardiovascular risk and a therapeutic target. Despite some promising results, several limitations have been shown in the potential clinical use of serum RANKL/OPG to better assess the cardiovascular risk. At present, the potential relationship between RANKL/OPG and the content of calcium within the intima of the coronary arteries (CAC score, assessed by computed tomography) needs to be explored in large clinical studies. On the other hand, the antiatherosclerotic relevance of treatments antagonizing RANKL is still under investigation. Despite that clinical evidence is needed, this therapeutic approach might be of particular benefit in selective populations (such as rheumatoid arthritis patients) with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. In vitro stoichiometry of complexes between the soluble RANK ligand and the monoclonal antibody denosumab.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Kelly K; Gabrielson, John P; Hawkins, Nessa; Anafi, Dan; Wypych, Jette; Nagi, Athena; Sullivan, John K; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2012-01-24

    The in vitro binding stoichiometry of denosumab, an IgG2 fully human monoclonal therapeutic antibody, to RANK ligand was determined by multiple complementary size separation techniques with mass measuring detectors, including two solution-based techniques (size-exclusion chromatography with static light scattering detection and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation) and a gas-phase analysis by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry from aqueous nondenaturing solutions. The stoichiometry was determined under defined conditions ranging from small excess RANK ligand to large excess denosumab (up to 40:1). High concentrations of denosumab relative to RANK ligand were studied because of their physiological relevance; a large excess of denosumab is anticipated in circulation for extended periods relative to much lower concentrations of free soluble RANKL. The studies revealed that an assembly including 3 denosumab antibody molecules bound to 2 RANKL trimers (3D2R) is the most stable complex in DPBS at 37 °C. This differs from the 1:1 binding stoichiometry reported for RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble homodimeric decoy receptor which binds RANKL with high affinity. Denosumab and RANKL also formed smaller assemblies including 1 denosumab and 2 RANKL trimer molecules (1D2R) under conditions of excess RANKL, 3 denosumab molecules and 1 RANKL trimer (3D1R) under conditions of excess denosumab, and larger assemblies, but these intermediate species were only present at lower temperatures (4 °C), shortly after mixing denosumab and RANKL, and converted over time to the more stable 3D2R assembly.

  12. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  13. Students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmi, Chusnur; Katmiati, Siti; Wiji, Mulyani, Sri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to obtain some information regarding profile of students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept. A descriptive qualitative method was the method employed in the study. The participants of the study were students XI grade of a senior high school in Bandung. To collect the data, diagnostic test on mental model-prediction, observation, explanation (TDM-POE) instrument was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that on the concept of precipitation formation of a reaction, 30% of students were not able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, but they were not able to explain the interaction of particles that involved in the reaction and to calculate Qsp; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the particles involved, but they did not have the knowledge about the interactions occured and were uncapable of calculating Qsp; and 18% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the interactions of the particles involved in the reactions but they were not able to calculate Qsp. On the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility concept, 96% of students were not able to explain the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; while 4% of students were only able to explain the effect of adding common ions towards the solubility based on the chemical equilibrium shifts and predict the effect of decreasing pH towards the solubility. However, they were not able to calculate the solubility before and after

  14. Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Pamela

    2001-02-01

    This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. Le Châtelier's principle, solubility, unit conversion, and thermodynamics are tied together to calculate heats of solution by two methods: heats of formation and an application of the van't Hoff equation. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting. Background information on the value of understanding and predicting solubility is provided.

  15. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  16. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  17. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  18. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  19. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  20. Experimental Studies on Rutile Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Klemme, S.; Butler, I. B.; Harley, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Rutile (TiO2) is an important high field strength element (HFSE) sequestering mineral, and has been implicated in the observed depletion of HFSE in arc magmas. It is thought that rutile is insoluble in slab-derived fluids, and remains residual in the subducted slab. Indeed, experimental data indicates a very low solubility of rutile in pure H2O (Tropper and Manning, 2005), and this low solubility may result in HFSE depleted fluids imparting a depleted signature to arc magmas. However, there is scant experimental data available on rutile solubility in fluids of more complex compositions (Ayers and Watson, 1993). We are carrying out a systematic experimental study into the effect of specific chemical components on rutile solubility in fluids and also silicate melts. This should further our understanding of HFSE mobility in metamorphic rocks within subduction zones. References: J. C. Ayers and E. B. Watson (1993) Rutile solubility in supercritical aqueous fluids and the high P-T mobility of elements it concentrates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 114, 321-330. P. Tropper and C. E. Manning (2005) Very low solubility of rutile in H2O at high pressure and temperature, and its implications for Ti mobility in subduction zones. American Mineralogist 90(2-3), 502-505.

  1. Sulfide solubilities in Alteration-controlled Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Hodgson, C.J.; Thatcher, A.B.

    1967-01-01

    Solubilities of sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS) were determined at 300?? to 500??C and 1000 bars total pressure in a chemical environment buffered by silicate mineral equilibria. Chloride solutions and muscovite-bearing assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal wall-rock alteration were used; weak acidities at temperature were therefore involved. The metal concentrations encountered tended to be higher than those observed in high bisulfide-H2S systems at neutral to weakly basic pH used in most previous experimentation; the chemical conditions of the work, although not completely satisfactory, are geologically more realistic than previous experimentation done in the basic-pH region.

  2. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  3. Synergistic enhancement of new bone formation by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteoprotegerin in trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis: a pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yusheng; Wang, Guijun; Wang, Zhiying; Wang, Chengyue; Zhang, Haizhong; Liu, Chunming

    2011-11-01

    The previous decade has witnessed increasing emphasis on the technique of trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis (TSDO), a new and challenging procedure to reconstruct deficiencies in craniomaxillofacial bone. The purpose of this study was to determine if locally administered recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Fibrin sealant and recombinant human osteoprotegerin recombinant OPG fusion protein improves osteoblastogenesis and new bone formation by TSDO. Thirty-two dogs were divided into 4 groups: control, BMP-2, OPG, or BMP-2 plus OPG. Two dogs from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after initiating the DO protocol. Immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, and electron microscopic assessments were performed to investigate the effects of BMP-2 or OPG induced by TSDO. The animals demonstrated significant overgrowth of the maxilla (control, 19.5 ± 2.61 mm; BMP-2, 19.9 ± 1.47 mm; OPG, 18.3 ± 1.2 mm; BMP-2 + OPG, 20.5 ± 2.65 mm). Histologically, the palatine suture widened dramatically within 2 weeks after distraction. Osteoblast number, trabecular thickness, content of alkaline phosphatase, and integrated optical density of BMP-2 increased obviously in the BMP-2 + OPG group (P < .05). TSDO in growing dogs is a safe, well-tolerated technology. The study found that OPG alone did not improve bone regeneration, but that it acted synergistically with BMP-2 to increase recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells and led to a significant enhancement of bone formation and healing. The temporal pattern of BMP-2 expression is consistent with a role in the regulation of mechanical and biological interventions designed to promote bone regeneration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lentivirus-mediated TNF-α gene silencing and overexpression of osteoprotegerin inhibit titanium particle-induced inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Wang, Hongzhi; Song, Keguan; Wang, Hai; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and osteoclasts release proinflammatory factors and promote osteoclastogenesis following the phagocytosis of wear particles. During this pathological process, receptor of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are critical factors contributing to resorption and the inflammatory response. The present study aimed to construct recombination lentivirus vectors carrying TNF-α small interfering (si)RNA and osteoprotegerin (OPG) cDNA, and to examine the effects of Lenti‑siTNFα‑OPG on the wear particle‑induced inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis in a titanium (Ti) particle‑induced‑inflammatory response cell model. Lenti‑siTNFα‑OPG vectors were constructed and transnfected into RAW264.7 and MC3T3‑E1 cells, respectively, prior to particle stimulation. The protein levels of TNF‑α, OPG and RANKL were evaluated using western blot analysis and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays, and the mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory factors, TNF‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6, as well as OPG and RANKL, were measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined using an ALP kit. In the presence of the Lenti‑siTNFα‑OPG vector, the mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory factors and RANKL were downregulated, as were the protein levels of TNF‑α. The mRNA expression and protein levels of OPG were upregulated, and ALP activity was increased. These findings suggested that Lenti‑siTNFα‑OPG transfection inhibited the wear particle‑induced inflammatory response and osteoclastogenesis, which warrants further investigation for the prevention and/or treatment of wear particle-induced osteolysis.

  5. IL-17 promotes bone erosion in murine collagen-induced arthritis through loss of the receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin balance.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Erik; van den Bersselaar, Liduine; Oppers-Walgreen, Birgitte; Schwarzenberger, Paul; Coenen-de Roo, Christina J J; Kolls, Jay K; Joosten, Leo A B; van den Berg, Wim B

    2003-03-01

    IL-17 is a T cell-derived proinflammatory cytokine in experimental arthritis and is a stimulator of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In this study, we report the effects of IL-17 overexpression (AdIL-17) in the knee joint of type II collagen-immunized mice on bone erosion and synovial receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of NF-kappa B/osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Local IL-17 promoted osteoclastic bone destruction, which was accompanied with marked tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity at sites of bone erosion in cortical, subchondral, and trabecular bone. Accelerated expression of RANKL and its receptor, receptor activator of NF-kappa B, was found in the synovial infiltrate and at sites of focal bone erosion, using specific immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, AdIL-17 not only enhanced RANKL expression but also strongly up-regulated the RANKL/OPG ratio in the synovium. Comparison of arthritic mice from the AdIL-17 collagen-induced arthritis group with full-blown collagen-arthritic mice having similar clinical scores for joint inflammation revealed lower RANKL/OPG ratio and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in the latter group. Interestingly, systemic OPG treatment prevented joint damage induced by local AdIL-17 gene transfer in type II collagen-immunized mice. These findings suggest T cell IL-17 to be an important inducer of RANKL expression leading to loss of the RANKL/OPG balance, stimulating osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion in arthritis.

  6. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice.

    PubMed

    Kam, Winnie Wai-Ying; Meikle, Steven R; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Yu; Blair, Julie M; Seibel, Marcus; Dunstan, Colin R; Banati, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO), previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1), 499±106 Bq x mg(-1) in saline-treated controls). In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1)). Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18)F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18)F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18)F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  7. Asymmetric dimethylarginine but not osteoprotegerin correlates with disease severity in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

    PubMed

    Pina, Trinitario; Genre, Fernanda; Lopez-Mejias, Raquel; Armesto, Susana; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Veronica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Corrales, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos A; Gonzalez-Vela, Maria C; Blanco, Ricardo; Hernández, Jose L; Llorca, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Patients with psoriasis, in particular those with severe disease, have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with the general population. The aim of the present study is to determine whether correlation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), two biomarkers associated with CV disease, and disease severity may exist in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We also aimed to establish if baseline serum levels of these two biomarkers could correlate with the degree of change in the clinical parameters of disease severity following the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in these patients. This was a prospective study on a series of consecutive non-diabetic patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who completed 6 months of therapy with anti-TNF-α-adalimumab. Patients with kidney disease, hypertension or body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or more were excluded. Metabolic and clinical evaluation was performed immediately prior to the onset of treatment and at month 6. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. Unlike OPG, a significant positive correlation between ADMA and resistin serum levels was found at the onset of adalimumab and also after 6 months of biologic therapy. We also observed a positive correlation between the percent of body surface area affected (BSA) and ADMA levels obtained before the onset of adalimumab and a negative correlation between baseline ADMA levels and a 6-month BSA change compared with baseline results. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, ADMA levels correlate with clinical markers of disease severity.

  8. Evaluation of bone mineral density, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of the NFκB ligand serum levels during treatment with infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vis, M; Havaardsholm, E A; Haugeberg, G; Uhlig, T; Voskuyl, A E; van de Stadt, R J; Dijkmans, B A C; Woolf, A D; Kvien, T K; Lems, W F

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether treatment with anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α prevents loss of bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and hip (generalised) and in the hands (local) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to study the changes in markers of bone metabolism, including receptor activator of the NFκB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), during anti‐TNF treatment. Patients and methods 102 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with infliximab during 1 year, were included in this open cohort study. The BMD of the spine and hip (dual x ray absorptiometry ) and hands dual x ray radiogrammetry was measured before the start of treatment and after 1 year. Changes in osteocalcin formation, β‐isomerised carboxy terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β‐CTx, resorption), RANKL and OPG were determined at 0, 14, 30 and 46 weeks. Results The BMD of the spine and hip was unchanged during treatment with infliximab, whereas BMD of the hand decreased significantly by 0.8% (p<0.01). The BMD of the hip in patients with a good European League Against Rheumatism response showed a favourable change compared with patients not achieving such a response. Serum β‐CTx and RANKL were both considerably decreased compared with baseline at all time points. The decrease in β‐CTx was associated with the decrease in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints and C reactive protein during the 0–14 weeks interval. Conclusion In patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab, spine and hip bone loss is arrested, whereas metacarpal cortical hand bone loss is not stopped. The outcome of the study also supports a relationship between clinical response, in terms of reduced inflammatory activity, and changes in bone loss of the spine, hip and hands. PMID:16606653

  9. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, J; Cheng, L; Wang, X; Du, J; Wang, F; Peng, Z

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the influence of Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on the key bone resorption-regulating proteins, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells). Periodontal ligament cells were subjected to various concentrations of LTA. Cell viability was then determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, whilst the expression levels of RANKL and OPG were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The effect of the inhibitors [IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1/4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (SB203580)] on LTA-stimulated RANKL/OPG activation was examined. Cell viability and RANKL/OPG ratio in PDL cells were also analysed by MTT assay and Western blotting. Data were analysed using one-way anova or t-test at a significance level of P = 0.05. Cell viability was reduced significantly in the LTA group in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.05). In addition, LTA was found to upregulate the protein expression of RANKL, OPG and their relative ratio in PDL cells (P < 0.05). The optimal concentration of LTA used in PDL cells was determined to be 10 μg mL(-1) . Following IRAK1/4 and p38MAPK inhibition, LTA-stimulated increases of RANKL/OPG ratio were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Enterococcus faecalis LTA could upregulate the expression of RANKL and OPG at different rates, suggesting a potential role for LTA in the bone resorption process of refractory apical periodontitis through the regulation of RANKL and OPG. In addition, IRAK1/4 and p38MAPK signalling involving RANKL/OPG may contribute to inflammatory responses from PDL cells. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Differential expression of osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin mRNA in epicardial adipose tissue between patients with severe coronary artery disease and aortic valvular stenosis: association with HDL subclasses.

    PubMed

    Luna-Luna, María; Cruz-Robles, David; Ávila-Vanzzini, Nydia; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Martínez-Reding, Jesús; Criales-Vera, Sergio; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Tovar-Palacio, Armando Roberto; Fragoso, José Manuel; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

    2017-08-18

    Previous studies suggest a relationship of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with progression and calcification of the atherosclerotic plaque; however, it is unknown if this tissue expresses genes that may participate on these processes and if the expression of these genes is regulated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. To explore this possibility, we determined the mRNA expression by qPCR of a pro-calcifying gene (osteopontin (OPN)), and two anti-calcifying genes (osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteonectin (ON)), in biopsies of EAT obtained from 15 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by angiography, and 15 patients with diagnostic of aortic valve stenosis but without CAD as control group. We determined the distribution and composition of HDL subclasses by electrophoresis and their statistical relationship with the gene expression in EAT. EAT from CAD patients showed a higher expression level of OPN and OPG than control group, whereas ON expression was similar between groups. Large HDL subclasses were cholesterol-poor in CAD patients as estimated by the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio. A linear regression model showed an independent association of OPN expression with HDL3a-cholesterol, and OPG expression with the relative proportion of HDL3b protein. Logistic analysis determined that OPN expression was positively associated with the presence of atherosclerotic plaque CONCLUSION: OPN, ON, and OPG genes are transcribed in EAT; to the exception of ON, the level of expression was different in CAD patients and control group, and correlated with some HDL subclasses, suggesting a new role of these lipoproteins.

  11. Periodontal ligament cells under intermittent tensile stress regulate mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1 and -2.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kiyomi; Uno, Keiji; Zhang, Gui Xia; Tamura, Masato

    2004-01-01

    We studied the mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease (TIMP)-1 and -2, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 and -2 by human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under intermittent tensile stress using a Flexercell Strain Unit. Analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mechanical force upregulated OPG mRNA. We also demonstrated that the protein concentration of OPG in conditioned medium increased upon loading with tensile stress, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA levels also increased, whereas levels of RANKL, MMP-1, and MMP-2 mRNA were barely affected. We further examined the effect of loading with tensile stress and addition of Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mRNA expression of PDL cells. The amount of OPG mRNA induced by mechanical strain was found to decrease with the addition of LPS to cultures. The induction of OPG mRNA expression by stretching was inhibited in the presence of indomethacin or genistein, whereas TIMP-1 mRNA expression induced by stretching was inhibited by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that tensile stress regulates cyclooxygenase activities, tyrosine phosphorylation, and de novo protein synthesis in PDL cells through the induction of OPG and TIMP-1 mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that the mechanical stimulus of stretching is responsible for the observed regulation of bone resorption and tissue degradation in PDL tissue.

  12. The 18 kDa Translocator Protein (Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor) Expression in the Bone of Normal, Osteoprotegerin or Low Calcium Diet Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Winnie Wai-Ying; Meikle, Steven R.; Dunstan, Colin R.; Banati, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO), previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195. In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq.mg−1, 499±106 Bq.mg−1 in saline-treated controls). In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq.mg−1). Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [18F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [18F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [18F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone. PMID:22295097

  13. Serum osteoprotegerin and future risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality in the general population: the Tromsø study.

    PubMed

    Vik, Anders; Brodin, Ellen E; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Brox, Jan; Jørgensen, Lone; Njølstad, Inger; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2015-03-01

    The purpose was to investigate the association between serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and risk of incident cancer and cancer mortality in a general population. OPG was measured in serum collected from 6,279 subjects without prior cancer recruited from a general population. Incident cancer and cancer-related mortality were registered from inclusion in 1994-95 until end of follow-up December 31, 2008. Cox regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for age, sex and other confounders) hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR 95% CI). There were 948 incident cancers and 387 deaths in the cohort during 71,902 person-years of follow up (median 13.5 years). Subjects with serum OPG in the upper tertile had 79% higher risk of incident gastrointestinal cancer than those in the lowest tertile (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.19-2.67). In women <60 years, serum OPG (per SD 0.81 ng/ml) was associated with reduced risk of incident cancer (all cancers merged; 0.73; 0.57-0.94) and breast cancer (0.51; 0.31-0.83) after adjustment. Subjects in the upper tertile of OPG had higher risk of cancer-related mortality (1.63; 1.16-2.28), particularly mortality from cancer in the gastrointestinal system (2.28; 1.21-4.28) compared to those in the lowest OPG tertile. No significant association was detected between OPG and risk of death from cancer in the respiratory system or death from prostatic cancer. Our findings from a large population based cohort study suggest that serum OPG was associated with increased risk of incident gastrointestinal cancer, inversely associated with breast cancer, and predicts cancer-related mortality.

  14. Comparative effects of metformin and pioglitazone on fetuin-A and osteoprotegerin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Afarideh, Mohsen; Feyzi, Sahar; Noshad, Sina; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A is a circulating glycoprotein capable of inhibiting insulin signaling both in vivo and in vitro and is positively associated with insulin resistance. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a regulatory molecule with increased levels in the early stages of diabetes and atherosclerosis, and is also associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of pioglitazone and metformin as representative insulin-sensitizing therapies on fetuin-A and OPG levels. In a randomized clinical trial setting (NCT02027103), 88 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to pioglitazone (30 mg/day, n=46) or metformin (1000 mg/day, n=42) for 12 weeks. Various anthropometric and metabolic parameters, fetuin-A, OPG, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline and after three months. The reduction in fasting plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels was comparable in the two arms. Pioglitazone resulted in a significant reduction in both fetuin-A and OPG in men, but only fetuin-A in women. Metformin was only effective in lowering OPG levels in women. When compared, both medications were equally effective with regard to fetuin-A and OPG reduction in women (p=0.413 and 0.359, respectively). In men, pioglitazone more effectively decreased fetuin-A levels in both uni- (p=0.011) and multivariate models (p=0.015) and OPG levels in only uni- (p=0.023) but not the multivariate model (p=0.547). Metformin and pioglitazone differentially affect fetuin-A and osteoprotegrin levels in diabetic women and men. The level of change may not necessarily be associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodontal disease-associated compensatory expression of osteoprotegerin is lost in type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlates with alveolar bone destruction by regulating osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliete Aparecida F; Lopes Ferrucci, Danilo; Peroni, Luis Antônio; de Paula Ishi, Eduardo; Rossa-Junior, Carlos; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Stach-Machado, Dagmar Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption results from the inflammatory response to periodontal pathogens. Systemic diseases that affect the host response, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), can potentiate the severity of periodontal disease (PD) and accelerate bone resorption. However, the biological mechanisms by which DM1 modulates PD are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of DM1 on alveolar bone resorption and to evaluate the role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoclastogenesis in rats. PD was induced by means of ligature in nondiabetic and in streptozotocyn-induced DM1 rats. Morphological and morphometric analyses, stereology and osteoclast counting were performed. RANKL and OPG mRNA levels, protein content, and location were determined. PD caused alveolar bone resorption, increased the number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone crest and also promoted changes in RANKL/OPG mRNA expression. DM1 alone showed alveolar bone destruction and an increased number of osteoclasts at the periapical and furcal regions. DM1 exacerbated these characteristics, with a greater impact on bone structure, resulting in a low OPG content and a higher RANKL/OPG ratio, which correlated with prominent osteoclastogenesis. This work demonstrates that the effects of PD and DM1 enhance bone destruction, confirms the importance of the RANKL signaling pathway in bone destruction in DM1 in animal models and suggests the existence of alternative mechanisms potentiating bone degradation in PD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Solubility of Fe(III) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently Kuma et al. [K. Kuma, J. Nishioka, K. Matsunaga, Controls on iron (III) hydroxide solubility in seawater: The influence of pH and natural organic chelators, Limnol. Oceanogr. 41 (1996) 396-407] made some careful measurements of the solubility of Fe(III) in UV and non-UV irradiated seawater as a function of pH (5-8). They showed that organic compounds can increase the solubility (32-65%) at pH=8.1, apparently due to the formation of Fe(III) organic complexes. In this paper I have examined how these results can be quantified using a speciation model for Fe(III). The results indicate that the effect of pH (2-9) on coastal and open ocean waters by Kuma et al. and the earlier filtration measurement of Byrne and Kester [R.H. Byrne, D.R. Kester, Solubility of hydrous ferric oxide and iron speciation in sea water, Mar. Chem. 4 (1976) 255-274] can be adequately represented by considering the formation of FeOH 2+ and Fe(OH) 2+ using the hydrolysis constants ( K ∗1=10 -2.62, K ∗2=10 -6.0) determined by Millero et al. [F.J. Millero, W. Yao, J. Aicher, The speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in natural waters, Mar. Chem. 50 (1995) 21-39]. The solubility measurements [Kuma et al., 1996] on unaltered coastal and open ocean waters appear to require the consideration of the formation of Fe(OH) 30 ( K ∗3=10 -13.3-10 -14.3). A more careful look at these measurements indicates that the curvature between pH 7 and 8 can be attributed to the formation of complexes of Fe 3+ with organic ligands (FeL). Model speciation calculations (pH 6-8) yield total ligand concentrations of [L] T=1.2 nM and 0.17 nM for unaltered coastal and open ocean waters, respectively, assuming K' FeL=10 21. These estimates are in good agreement with the values found for ocean waters by voltammetric methods. The model calculations for the solubility of Fe(III) (0.2 nM at pH=8.1 and 0.6 nM at pH=7.65) are in good agreement with measured open ocean surface (0.2 nM) and deep waters (0.6 nM) determined by

  17. Warmer and wetter climate: More soluble pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    While the IPCC AR4 models indicate a global increase of total precipitation in a future climate, simulated precipitation changes exhibit strong regional and seasonal variability, likely affecting the distributions of soluble pollutants that are primarily removed by wet scavenging. We conduct a pair of 20-year simulations in the GFDL AM3 global climate model to examine the impact of climate change on pollutant distributions from 1981-2000 (present-day) to 2081-2100 (future). The present-day simulation is driven by a 20-year mean climatology of monthly mean observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice. The future simulation is driven by this observed climatology plus the 19-model (from IPCC AR4) ensemble mean difference of 20-year average values (separately for each month) from present-day to future, and by long-lived greenhouse gases under the SRES A1B scenario. To isolate the impact of precipitation change on the wet deposition of soluble pollutants, we implement a simple carbon monoxide (CO)-like tracer (COt) with CO emissions from the RETRO and GFED v2 inventories for 2001 and a fixed 25-day lifetime. We also implement a soluble version of that tracer (SAt) with wet deposition of sulfate. In the future, reduced lower tropospheric ventilation contributes to a degradation of surface air quality for COt, but horizontal circulation patterns and the corresponding spatial distribution of COt are relatively unchanged from the present-day simulation. Despite higher global precipitation, soluble pollutant concentrations near the surface increase more than for insoluble pollutants, reflecting weaker wet deposition. It is thus misleading to use the total global precipitation change alone to predict the response of soluble pollutants in a future climate. The zonal mean annual wet deposition change can be explained mainly by the zonal mean of large-scale (LS) precipitation change since LS precipitation dominates wet deposition in our model. Over some regions such as North

  18. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  19. The Solubility Rules: Why Are All Acetates Soluble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sluys, William G.

    2001-01-01

    According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. The thermodynamic factors that contribute to the solubility of acetates are compared with those of other slightly basic anions. In particular, the hydration enthalpy of acetate is calculated using the Born-Haber approach, from lattice energies, heats of solution, and the hydration energies of several cations. The hydration enthalpy of acetate (-375 kJ/mol) is similar to that of chloride ({355 kJ/mol), nitrite ({383 kJ/mol), and nitrate ({370 kJ/mol), which are all considerably less exothermic than fluoride ({497 kJ/mol). This was somewhat unexpected, since hydration enthalpies generally correlate well with the acid-base properties of an ion, and acetate is more basic than fluoride. Factors influencing the solubility and acid-base properties of acetates, such as the electron donating and hydrophobic nature of the methyl group, are discussed in light of the thermodynamic data.

  20. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  1. Prediction of solubility curves and melting properties of organic and pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Fredrik L; Rasmuson, Ake C

    2009-02-15

    The relationships between solubility, temperature dependence of solubility, melting temperature and melting enthalpy are investigated for the purpose of finding relations that can significantly reduce the need for experimental work in the selection of the solvent for processing of organic fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The relationships are investigated theoretically and by evaluation of experimental data for 41 organic and pharmaceutical compounds comprising a total of 115 solubility curves in organic and aqueous solvents. The work considers (i) selection of the equation for correlation of solubility data based on thermodynamic considerations and ability to predict melting properties of the solute from solubility data, (ii) prediction of the temperature dependence of solubility, and (iii) prediction of solubility curves in new solvents. While it is a simple task to find an equation to obtain a decent fit of experimental solubility data, it is more challenging to find relations that are sufficiently sound thermodynamically to allow for extrapolation to the melting temperature. However, with a proper choice of equation it is shown that the melting temperature of the solute can readily be predicted from solubility data in organic solvents (average accuracy of -5K, standard deviation of 26K). Relationships are identified by which the entire solubility curve can be predicted of the compound in a new solvent using only the melting properties and a single solubility data point in that solvent.

  2. A single nucleotide polymorphism in osteoprotegerin, an anti-inflammatory protein produced in response to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is associated with an increased risk of non-secretory bacterial diarrhea in US travelers to Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Jamal A.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Flores, Jose; Carlin, Lily G.; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Martinez-Sandoval, Francisco J.; Guo, Dongchuan; White, Clinton A.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Osteoprotegerin (OPG), an immunoregulatory member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is expressed in inflamed intestinal mucosa. We investigated whether OPG is produced by intestinal epithelial cells and tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the osteoprotegerin gene are associated with travelers’ diarrhea (TD) among US travelers to Mexico. Methods OPG concentration was measured in the supernatants of T84 cells infected with various diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes. Genotyping was performed for four SNPs in the OPG gene from 968 US travelers with and without TD. Stools from travelers with TD were evaluated for the presence of enteric pathogens. Results T84 cells produced higher OPG levels in response to infection with various diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes than E. coli controls (P < .05). A SNP in exon1 region of the OPG gene (OPG+1181 G>C) was associated with TD in Caucasian travelers who stayed in Mexico for more than one week during the summer (P = .009) and for TD due to non-secretory pathogens (P = .001). Conclusions Our study suggests that OPG is secreted by intestinal epithelial cells in response to enteropathogens and that a polymorphism in the OPG gene is associated with an increased susceptibility to TD. PMID:19128145

  3. Stability of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins in artificially prepared, vitamin-enriched, lyophilized serum.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Naotaka; Matsubayashi, Tadashi; Futaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Masayuki; Sagawa, Naotoshi; Fujisaki, Makoto; Mita, Kazuo; Kadota, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin-enriched, lyophilized serum (VES) was prepared for an inter-laboratory study to compare vitamin assays. The VES contained water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folate), fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin E), and cholesterol. We performed stability studies and determined vitamin concentrations and total cholesterol in VES stored at -20 degrees C for 12 months. Our recovery of the water-soluble vitamins in reconstituted VES was 70-142%, but we recovered only 33-45% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Physicochemical properties, such as specific gravity and viscosity of the reconstituted VES did not affect manual or automated measurements of these vitamins. Vial-to-vial differences found for the VES were the same as the within-day analytical variations. There was no evidence of degradation of vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, vitamin C, folate, and cholesterol over 12 months in VES stored at -20 degrees C. Following deproteinization, vitamin C concentration was found to be lower than when not deproteinated. Vitamin E was less stable in VES, however, and the degradation during 12 months was lower than the between-day analytical variation of the assay. Our VES is the first preparation of lyophilized control serum that contains water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is a Potential Biomarker of Insulin Resistance in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the circulating OPG levels in postmenopausal women with diabetes and prediabetes and explore the relationships between serum OPG and insulin resistance. A total of 271 unrelated Chinese postmenopausal women were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group (n = 93), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n = 90), and normal glucose regulation group (NGR) (n = 88), according to different glucose regulation categories. Serum OPG levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum OPG concentration in NGR group, 151.00 ± 45.72 pg/mL, was significantly lower than that in IGR group (169.28 ± 64.91 pg/mL) (p = 0.031) and T2DM group (183.20 ± 56.53 pg/mL) (p < 0.01), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR, age, 2hPG, AST, ALP, and eGFR were found to be independent predictors of OPG. Increased serum OPG levels (OR = 1.009, p = 0.006) may be a risk factor for insulin resistance. The present study suggests that OPG might be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and is a potential biomarker of insulin resistance in subjects with diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:28255300

  5. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  6. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  7. Effects of Roughly Focused Extracorporeal Shock Waves Therapy on the Expressions of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Osteoprotegerin in Osteoporotic Fracture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-Ming; Li, Xiao-Lin; Tu, Shu-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Lu, Chang-Chun; Jiang, Liang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Roughly focused extracorporeal shock waves therapy (ESWT) is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning, and less pain during treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of roughly focused ESWT on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in osteoporotic fractures in rats. Methods: Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 3 months old, were divided into sham-operated group (n = 6) and an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n = 66). Sixty OVX SD rats were used as a model of double proximal tibial osteotomy and inner fixation. The osteotomy site in the left tibia was treated with roughly focused ESWT once at an energy density of 0.26 mJ/mm2, 60 doses/min, and 2000 pact quantities. The contralateral right tibia was left untreated and served as a control. Expression of OPG and BMP-2 in the callus of the osteoporotic fracture area was assessed using immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Western blotting analysis. Results: Bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal tibia, femur, and L5 spine was significantly reduced after ovariectomy. BMD of proximal tibia was 12.9% less in the OVX group than that in the sham-operated group. Meanwhile, bilateral oophorectomy resulted in a lower trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in the proximal tibia of the sham-OVX animals. Three months after bilateral oophorectomy, BV/TV was 14.29% of baseline BV/TV in OVX legs versus 45.91% in the sham-OVX legs (P < 0.001). These data showed that the SD rats became a suitable model of osteoporosis, 3 months after they were OVX. Immunohistochemical analysis showed higher levels of BMP-2 and OPG expression in the treatment group than those in the control group. Compared with the contralateral controls, decreased expression of OPG and BMP-2 at 3 days after roughly focused ESWT, followed by a later increase at 7 days, was indicated by real-time PCR and Western

  8. Interdependence between osteoprotegerin and active von Willebrand factor in long-term cardiovascular mortality prediction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta; Lang, Irene M; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Roest, Mark; Jilma, Bernd

    2017-08-30

    The interdependence of the predictive accuracy of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels for long-term cardiovascular outcomes has not been investigated so far. This was a prospective observational cohort study in 361 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Baseline levels of OPG, vWF, active vWF (act vWF) and ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RICO) were measured. Cardiovascular mortality was recorded over a median of five years. OPG concentrations >3.7 µg/ml emerged as the strongest predictor of cardiovascular (CV) death: 30 % of patients died during the five-year follow-up in this group, as compared to 10 % in patients with OPG ≤3.7 µg/ml (p<0.001). Act vWF had a significant prognostic impact on CV mortality when OPG levels were low (≤3.7 µg/ml): patients with act vWF concentration >1 µg/ml died in 14 %, whereas those with act vWF values ≤1 µg/ml had a mortality rate of 1 % (p=0.015). We stratified patients into three groups: high OPG, low OPG/high act vWF and low OPG/low act vWF. Patients with high OPG values had a 13-fold higher risk for CV death than those with low OPG/low act vWF concentrations (adj. HR: 12.6; 95 %CI: 1.7-94.7; p=0.014), and a two-fold higher risk as compared to those patients with low OPG/high act vWF concentrations (adj. HR: 2.0; 95 %CI: 1.1-3.7; p=0.03) in the adjusted Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, elevated OPG at the time of PCI was a strong independent predictor of five-years cardiovascular mortality, whereas act vWF had a significant prognostic impact on CV mortality when OPG levels were low.

  9. A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Ashley, David T; Davenport, Colin; Penugonda, Lakshmi; Kelleher, Grainne; Devlin, Niamh; Crowley, Rachel; O'Shea, Paula; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J; O'Gorman, Donal J; Smith, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance. 115 men underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. OPG, hsCRP and adiponectin were measured using ELISA. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Men with abnormal glucose tolerance (n=38) were older (58.3±11.2 vs 47.3±11.4 years, P<.001), had higher body mass index (BMI) (31.1±2.9 vs 27.9±3.2 kg/m(2), P<.001) and were more insulin resistant (median (I.Q.) HOMA-IR 5.88 (3.38) vs 1.13 (1.14), P<.001) than those with normal glucose tolerance (n=77). After adjustment for age and BMI, OPG (6.28 (2.32) vs 5.16 (1.86) pmol/L, P<.001) and hsCRP (2.07 (5.47) vs 0.78 (1.05) mg/L, P<.001) were higher and adiponectin (3.02±1.17 vs 4.78±2.38 μg/mL, P<.001) was lower in those with AGT. After adjustment for age and BMI, adiponectin (r=-0.317, P<.001) and hsCRP (r=0.318, P<.001), but not OPG (r=0.126, P=.196) correlated with HOMA-IR. On multiple linear regression analysis, adiponectin and hsCRP but not OPG were independent predictors of HOMA-IR. OPG is higher in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance, but unlike adiponectin and hsCRP, does not correlate with HOMA-IR, suggesting its elevation within this cohort of individuals is due to factors other than insulin resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Values of osteoprotegerin in aortic valve tissue in patients with significant aortic stenosis depend on the existence of concomitant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fojt, Richard; Pirk, Jan; Kamenický, Peter; Karpíšek, Michal; Straka, Zbyněk; Malý, Marek; Moťovská, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a serious clinical problem. The strongest predictor of CAVS progression is the amount of calcium in the aortic valve. The pathogenesis of CAVS is largely consistent with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, about 50% of patients with CAVS do not exhibit significant atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular calcification is currently considered an actively regulated process, in which the important role is attributed to the RANKL/RANK/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/RANK/osteoprotegerin) axis. We measured OPG levels in the tissue of calcified, stenotic aortic valves in relation to the presence or absence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Aortic valve samples were collected from 105 patients with calcified, mainly severe aortic stenosis, who were divided into two groups according to the presence of CAD. In Group A (n=44), there were normal coronary artery findings, while in Group B (n=61), there was angiographically demonstrated >50% stenosis of at least one coronary artery. The control Group C (n=21) consisted of patients without aortic stenosis and with normal angiographic findings on coronary arteries. The highest tissue concentrations of OPG [median (pmol/L), 25th-75th percentile] were found in Group A [6.95, 3.96-18.37], which was significantly different compared to the other two groups (P=.026 and .001, respectively). The levels of OPG in Group B [4.15, 2.47-9.16] and in Group C [2.25, 1.01-5.08] did not differ significantly (P=.078); however, the lowest concentrations of OPG were found in Group C. Neither age nor gender in our study had effect on tissue levels of OPG (P=.994 for gender; P=.848 for age). Calcified and narrowed aortic valves, compared to the normal valves, were accompanied by a change in tissue concentrations of OPG, which is, in addition, dependent on the presence or absence of CAD. The highest tissue concentrations of OPG in our work were found in patients with significant aortic

  11. Inhibition of bone resorption, rather than direct cytotoxicity, mediates the anti-tumour actions of ibandronate and osteoprotegerin in a murine model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Brennan, Karen; Blair, Julie M; Modzelewski, James R K; Seibel, Markus J; Dunstan, Colin R

    2007-02-01

    Inhibition of bone resorption either by bisphosphonate (BP) treatment or by blocking RANKL signalling with osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to reduce tumour burden in bone and inhibit bone destruction in murine xenograft models of breast cancer. However, whether the anti-tumour effect of OPG or BP in bone is mediated by inhibition of bone resorption or by direct effects on tumour cells is uncertain. The current study is designed to investigate anti-tumour effects of OPG and ibandronate (IBN), dosed alone or in combination, on tumour growth to determine if there is experimental support for combination treatments and to provide evidence for the presence of direct anti-tumour effects. To this aim, 10 microl (5 x 10(6) cells/ml) of the bone-seeking MDA-MB-231 (Tx-SA) cell line was injected intra-tibially into nude mice. After 10 days, when the tumours were evident radiologically, mice were treated with vehicle, OPG (1 mg/kg/day), ibandronate (IBN) (160 microg/kg/day) or IBN and OPG at the same doses (IBN+OPG) for a week, and the effects of each treatment on lytic lesions, tumour cell growth, cell apoptosis and proliferation were measured by radiography, immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Compared to vehicle controls, in vivo treatment with OPG, IBN, or IBN+OPG, each prevented the expansion of osteolytic bone lesions (increase in lytic lesion area day 10 to day 17: OPG -3.2%, IBN 6.6%, IBN+OPG 3.6%, Vehicle 232.5%; p<0.01). Treatment with OPG, IBN or IBN+OPG each produced similar reductions in tumour area relative to vehicle-treated mice (OPG 52%, IBN 54%, IBNp and OPG 48%, p<0.01 vs. vehicle) OPG and IBN alone and in combination each produced a similar increase in cancer cell apoptosis (OPG 330%, IBN 342%, IBN and OPG 347%, p<0.01 vs. vehicle) and a decrease in cancer cell proliferation (OPG 59%, IBN 62%, IBN and OPG 58%, p<0.05 vs. vehicle). Our findings indicate that (i) combined treatment with OPG and a bisphosphonate is not significantly more effective

  12. Apparent solubility of drugs in partially crystalline systems.

    PubMed

    Mosharraf, Mitra; Nyström, Christer

    2003-07-01

    Using several griseofulvin samples, representing different solid-state structures, the solubility behavior of drugs in both one-state (totally ordered, semiordered or disordered) and two-state systems was studied. Special attention was directed towards the surface structure of the particles. The partially crystalline samples were obtained by milling the raw material (crystalline standard) or storing the quenched sample (amorphous standard). The solid-state structure of the materials was studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The saturation concentration of the materials was studied in suspensions containing different dispersion concentrations of drug after centrifugation and filtration, using spectrophotometry. In all cases these dispersion concentrations exceeded the solubility of the drug. The solubilities were plotted vs. dispersion concentrations for each sample. Several solubility plateaus were found. The lowest and highest solubility plateaus corresponded to the solubilities of crystalline and amorphous standards. These plateaus were reached at 8 and 44 microg/mL for crystalline and amorphous griseofulvin standards, respectively. An intermediate plateau served as an indication of the existence of a totally semiordered structure. This was reached at 19 microg/mL for griseofulvin. Any deviation from these plateaus was suggested to be indicative of the existence of heterogeneity on the surface structure, which in most cases could be described as a two state system. In such cases, the apparent solubility was a function of dispersion concentration, until at very high dispersion concentrations (4000-20,000 microg/mL) the saturation concentration of the totally disordered (44 microg/mL) or semiordered (19 microg/mL) one-state phase was reached. No reduction in these values was observed during storage for 50 days. It is thus concluded that, in partially

  13. Soluble biomarkers associated with response to treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vinod; Shen, Hua; Pollock, Remy A; Pellett, Fawnda J; Carty, Adele; Cook, Richard J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2013-06-01

    To identify soluble biomarkers associated with response to therapy with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The study was conducted at a PsA clinic where patients are assessed every 6 months, and serum samples are collected and stored once a year at the time of clinical assessment. Forty patients with active PsA who gave serum samples prior to treatment with TNFi and after at least 3 months of therapy were identified. Patients were classified as TNFi responders if tender joint count was < 3, swollen joint count was 0, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was < 4 at the time the second sample was collected. The following biomarkers were tested by ELISA: TNF superfamily 14, matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, osteoprotegerin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), CPII, C2C and C1-2C, CS-846, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Paired t tests and logistic regression was used for statistical analyses. After a mean treatment duration of 11 months with TNFi (etanercept 28 patients, adalimumab 6, golimumab 4, infliximab 2), 29 patients were classified as TNFi responders. Baseline level of MMP-3 was independently associated with responder status (OR 1.067 for each 1-unit increase, p = 0.045). A reduction in MMP-3 levels with therapy increased the odds of achieving response (OR 1.213 for each 1-unit change, p = 0.030), whereas a reduction in COMP decreased the odds (OR 0.587, for each 100-unit increase, p = 0.039). None of the other biomarkers was associated with response. Baseline as well as reduction in serum MMP-3 and increase in serum COMP are independently associated with response to TNFi therapy in patients with PsA.

  14. A soluble bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor increases bone mass and bone strength.

    PubMed

    Baud'huin, Marc; Solban, Nicolas; Cornwall-Brady, Milton; Sako, Dianne; Kawamoto, Yoshimi; Liharska, Katia; Lath, Darren; Bouxsein, Mary L; Underwood, Kathryn W; Ucran, Jeffrey; Kumar, Ravindra; Pobre, Eileen; Grinberg, Asya; Seehra, Jasbir; Canalis, Ernesto; Pearsall, R Scott; Croucher, Peter I

    2012-07-24

    Diseases such as osteoporosis are associated with reduced bone mass. Therapies to prevent bone loss exist, but there are few that stimulate bone formation and restore bone mass. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGFβ superfamily, which act as pleiotropic regulators of skeletal organogenesis and bone homeostasis. Ablation of the BMPR1A receptor in osteoblasts increases bone mass, suggesting that inhibition of BMPR1A signaling may have therapeutic benefit. The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effects of systemic administration of a soluble BMPR1A fusion protein (mBMPR1A-mFc) in vivo. mBMPR1A-mFc was shown to bind BMP2/4 specifically and with high affinity and prevent downstream signaling. mBMPR1A-mFc treatment of immature and mature mice increased bone mineral density, cortical thickness, trabecular bone volume, thickness and number, and decreased trabecular separation. The increase in bone mass was due to an early increase in osteoblast number and bone formation rate, mediated by a suppression of Dickkopf-1 expression. This was followed by a decrease in osteoclast number and eroded surface, which was associated with a decrease in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) production, an increase in osteoprotegerin expression, and a decrease in serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b) concentration. mBMPR1A treatment also increased bone mass and strength in mice with bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. In conclusion, mBMPR1A-mFc stimulates osteoblastic bone formation and decreases bone resorption, which leads to an increase in bone mass, and offers a promising unique alternative for the treatment of bone-related disorders.

  15. Calcium and phosphorus solubility in neonatal intravenous feeding solutions.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, P; Mayne, P D; Blair, M; Pope, C; Kovar, I Z

    1990-01-01

    The limited solubility of calcium and phosphorus in standard parenteral nutrition formulations has restricted the ability to provide sufficient minerals to preterm infants to prevent substrate deficient metabolic bone disease. We determined the solubility limits of calcium and phosphorus in a total of 160 formulations under carefully controlled conditions. By increasing the concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, and by using Addiphos instead of 8.7% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source, higher concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus were held in solution. This should permit the delivery of increased concentrations of these minerals at rates which approximate fetal accretion. PMID:2110803

  16. Calcium and phosphorus solubility in neonatal intravenous feeding solutions.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, P; Mayne, P D; Blair, M; Pope, C; Kovar, I Z

    1990-04-01

    The limited solubility of calcium and phosphorus in standard parenteral nutrition formulations has restricted the ability to provide sufficient minerals to preterm infants to prevent substrate deficient metabolic bone disease. We determined the solubility limits of calcium and phosphorus in a total of 160 formulations under carefully controlled conditions. By increasing the concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, and by using Addiphos instead of 8.7% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source, higher concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus were held in solution. This should permit the delivery of increased concentrations of these minerals at rates which approximate fetal accretion.

  17. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method.

  18. RANKL in the osteolysis of AES total ankle replacement implants.

    PubMed

    Koivu, H; Mackiewicz, Z; Takakubo, Y; Trokovic, N; Pajarinen, J; Konttinen, Y T

    2012-09-01

    Peri-implant tissue reactions in failed total ankle replacement (TAR) are characterized by early developing peri-implant osteolysis. The hypothesis of the study was that this reaction is mediated by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). Samples of peri-prosthetic tissues from failed TAR implants were stained for macrophages, RANKL, its receptor RANK and osteoprotegerin (OPG), and compared to control samples. The failed TAR implants were surrounded by implant capsule, synovial lining-like interface membrane or necrotic tissues. Infiltrating scavenger receptor I positive CD163(+) macrophages were frequent, in particular around necrotic soft tissues or bone sequestrate, and possibly in part formed due to ischemia and mechanical factors. In contrast, implant-derived wear debris was scanty. Still many RANK(+) macrophages were often seen in close contact with RANKL(+) mesenchymal cells, whereas OPG was mostly located at a distance in vascular endothelial cells. Foreign body giant cells were frequent. RANKL seems to stimulate locally accumulated CD163(+) RANK-expressing cells to fusion, which leads to the local formation of multinuclear foreign body giant cells (and probably of osteoclasts). Therefore, peri-implant osteolysis in early TAR implant failure seems to be caused by the RANKL-driven chronic foreign body inflammation directed against, not implant-derived particles, but against necrotic autologous tissues.

  19. A review of drug solubility in human intestinal fluids: implications for the prediction of oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Augustijns, Patrick; Wuyts, Benjamin; Hens, Bart; Annaert, Pieter; Butler, James; Brouwers, Joachim

    2014-06-16

    The purpose of this paper is to collate all recently published solubility data of orally administered drugs in human intestinal fluids (HIF) that were aspirated from the upper small intestine (duodenum and jejunum). The data set comprises in total 102 solubility values in fasted state HIF and 37 solubility values in fed state HIF, covering 59 different drugs. Despite differences in the protocol for HIF sampling and subsequent handling, this summary of HIF solubilities provides a critical reference data set to judge the value of simulated media for intestinal solubility estimation. In this regard, the review includes correlations between the reported solubilizing capacity of HIF and fasted or fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF/FeSSIF). Correlating with HIF solubilities enables the optimal use of solubility measurements in simulated biorelevant media to obtain accurate estimates of intestinal solubility during drug development. Considering the fraction of poorly soluble new molecular entities in contemporary drug discovery, adequate prediction of intestinal solubility is critical for efficient lead optimization, early candidate profiling, and further development.

  20. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  1. Soluble metalloendopeptidases and neuroendocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Shrimpton, Corie N; Smith, A Ian; Lew, Rebecca A

    2002-10-01

    Peptidases play a vital and often highly specific role in the physiological and pathological generation and termination of peptide hormone signals. The thermolysin-like family of metalloendopeptidases involved in the extracellular processing of neuroendocrine and cardiovascular peptides are of particular significance, reflecting both their specificity for particular peptide substrates and their utility as therapeutic targets. Although the functions of the membrane-bound members of this family, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, are well established, a role for the predominantly soluble family members in peptide metabolism is only just emerging. This review will focus on the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the soluble metalloendopeptidases EC 3.4.24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase) and EC 3.4.24.16 (neurolysin), as well as presenting evidence that both peptidases play an important role in such diverse functions as reproduction, nociception, and cardiovascular homeostasis.

  2. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  3. Synthesis of water soluble graphene.

    PubMed

    Si, Yongchao; Samulski, Edward T

    2008-06-01

    A facile and scalable preparation of aqueous solutions of isolated, sparingly sulfonated graphene is reported. (13)C NMR and FTIR spectra indicate that the bulk of the oxygen-containing functional groups was removed from graphene oxide. The electrical conductivity of thin evaporated films of graphene (1250 S/m) relative to similarly prepared graphite (6120 S/m) implies that an extended conjugated sp (2) network is restored in the water soluble graphene.

  4. Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    goal of producing a processible form of the conducting polymer polyaniline ( PANI ), the Phase I program concentrated on development of the synthesis of... polyaniline , on the other hand, has not only been successful in every respect, but makes other attempts towards processing PAni seem awkward and obsolete...29/92 TITLE AND SUBTITLE .... 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines 6. AUTHOR(S) - 63218C 1602 0O Dr Floyd L. Klavetter 7

  5. Sulfide solubilities in alteration-controlled systems.

    PubMed

    Hemley, J J; Meyer, C; Hodgson, C J; Thatcher, A B

    1967-12-22

    Solubilities of sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS) were determined at 300 degrees to 500 degrees C and 1000 bars total pressure in a chemical environment buffered by silicate mineral equilibria. Chloride solutions and muscovite-bearing assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal wall-rock alteration were used; weak acidities at temperature were therefore involved. The metal concentrations encountered tended to be higher than those observed in high bisulfide-H(2)S systems at neutral to weakly basic pH used in most previous experimentation; the chemical conditions of the work, although not completely satisfactory, are geologically more realistic than previous experimentation done in the basic-pH region.

  6. Effectiveness of fluidized pellet bed for removing soluble contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochang; Li, Zhihua; Wang, Zhen; Li, Jinrong; Li, Jiayu; Chen, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Fluidized pellet bed (FPB) has been successfully applied in water and wastewater treatment. However, the removal mechanism of contaminants especially the soluble ones, is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of FPB reactor for removing soluble contaminants from synthetic wastewater. By only coagulation through jar test operation with addition of polyaluminium chloride (PACl) as primary coagulant and polyacryamide (PAM) as coagulant-aid, the removals of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP), and NH4+ -N were found to be only 2.2%-7.5%, 5.7%-25.5%, and 9.9%-18.5%, respectively. However, by FPB operation under the same dosage of coagulants, these values increased to 82.7%, 37.2%, and 50%, indicating that the formation of pellets in the FPB effectively enhanced the removal of soluble contaminants. By careful comparison of the settleablility and filterability of the pollutants after coagulation, the originally soluble contaminants could be divided into three groups, namely: (1) coagulated-and-settleable, (2) coagulated-but-nonsettleable, and (3) uncoagulable. It was found that not only the first two groups but also a large part of the third group could be effectively removed by FPB operation. However, the mechanism for the removal of the uncoagulable pollutants by FPB operation still needs further investigation.

  7. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  8. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  9. Alkane Soluble Transition Metal Complexes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Al I7 𔃼 AKANE SOLUBLE TRANSITION METAL COUP rA’(U ROYAL3 MIARY COL OF SCIENCE SHRIVENHAM (ENGLAND) DEP O CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY F R HARTLEY OCT 83...Associate Investigator B.G. Murray Chemistry and Metallurgy Departmnt TeRylMilitary College of Science Shrlveahau ftindou1 Wiltshire, UK This work woo...Plenary lecture at the 17th International Conference on Coordination Chemistry , saw" 1376. 2. D.3. Webster, Ady. Oranometal Chbe., 1977, 15,147. 3

  10. Soluble and insoluble fiber contents of some Cameroonian foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Tanya, A K; Mbofung, C M; Keshinro, O O

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the lack of reliable data on the fiber content of African foodstuffs, a study to determine the dietary fiber contents (soluble, insoluble and total) on a dry weight basis of a selected variety of major Cameroonian foods was conducted. The influence of processing and preparation methods on the fiber content was also assessed. Vegetables were found to be the richest source of total dietary fiber (57%), followed by legumes and seeds (30%) and fruits (16.5%). Okro (Hibiscus esculenta), plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and beans (Phaseolus spp) showed varietal differences in their soluble and insoluble fiber content, while methods of processing and preparation significantly influenced the fiber content of cassava (Manihot esculenta), corn (Zea mays) and beans.

  11. In vitro solubility assays in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Edward H; Di, Li; Carter, Guy T

    2008-11-01

    The solubility of a compound depends on its structure and solution conditions. Structure determines the lipophilicity, hydrogen bonding, molecular volume, crystal energy and ionizability, which determine solubility. Solution conditions are affected by pH, co-solvents, additives, ionic strength, time and temperature. Many drug discovery experiments are conducted under "kinetic" solubility conditions. In drug discovery, solubility has a major impact on bioassays, formulation for in vivo dosing, and intestinal absorption. A good goal for the solubility of drug discovery compounds is >60 ug/mL. Equilibrium solubility assays can be conducted in moderate throughput, by incubating excess solid with buffer and agitating for several days, prior to filtration and HPLC quantitation. Kinetic solubility assays are performed in high throughput with shorter incubation times and high throughput analyses using plate readers. The most frequently used of these are the nephelometric assay and direct UV assay, which begin by adding a small volume of DMSO stock solution of each test compound to buffer. In nephelometry, this solution is serially diluted across a microtitre plate and undissolved particles are detected via light scattering. In direct UV, undissolved particles are separated by filtration, after which the dissolved material is quantitated using UV absorption. Equilibrium solubility is useful for preformulation. Kinetic solubility is useful for rapid compound assessment, guiding optimization via structure modification, and diagnosing bioassays. It is often useful to customize solubility experiments using conditions that answer specific research questions of drug discovery teams, such as compound selection and vehicle development for pharmacology and PK studies.

  12. Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-11-10

    The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol %) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases.

  13. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savjani, Ketan T.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.; Savjani, Jignasa K.

    2012-01-01

    Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. PMID:22830056

  14. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR...EQUILIBRIA AND OXIDE SOLUTION RELATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS ............................................. 2 IV. METHODS FOR DETERMINING SOLUBILITIES

  15. Solubility of nonelectrolytes: a first-principles computational approach.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas E; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-05-15

    Using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and symmetry adapted intermolecular perturbation theory, we develop a high-accuracy computational method for examining the solubility energetics of nonelectrolytes. This approach is used to accurately compute the cohesive energy density and Hildebrand solubility parameters of 26 molecular liquids. The energy decomposition of symmetry adapted perturbation theory is then utilized to develop multicomponent Hansen-like solubility parameters. These parameters are shown to reproduce the solvent categorizations (nonpolar, polar aprotic, or polar protic) of all molecular liquids studied while lending quantitative rigor to these qualitative categorizations via the introduction of simple, easily computable parameters. Notably, we find that by monitoring the first-order exchange energy contribution to the total interaction energy, one can rigorously determine the hydrogen bonding character of a molecular liquid. Finally, this method is applied to compute explicitly the Flory interaction parameter and the free energy of mixing for two different small molecule mixtures, reproducing the known miscibilities. This methodology represents an important step toward the prediction of molecular solubility from first principles.

  16. Soluble fiber dextrin enhances the satiating power of beverages.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Carter, Brett E; Christiansen, Matthew; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four types of fiber on satiety and energy intakes at the next meal using a standard double-blinded preload study design. Study participants (14 men and 22 women) each took part in 6 study sessions. Study preloads were a combination of a solid snack and a liquid beverage (energy range 0.78-0.83 MJ) containing four different types of fiber: soluble fiber dextrin (12 g), soluble corn fiber (11.8 g), polydextrose (11.8 g), and resistant starch (11.2g). All four fibers were compared to two control conditions of equal volume: an isoenergetic, low-fiber preload and a lower-energy, low-fiber preload. All preloads were presented twice for a total of 0.35-1.65 MJ and 1-24 g fiber. Satiety ratings were collected for 20 min intervals for 220 min during the morning testing session. A test meal was served at 1200 h and plate waste measured. The five higher-energy preloads led to higher fullness and lower hunger ratings compared to the low-energy control but were not significantly different from each other. Relative to the isoenergetic control, only soluble fiber dextrin significantly suppressed energy intakes (p=0.023). Supplementing beverages with soluble fiber dextrin affects short term energy intake and may have implications for weight control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2012-12-01

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  18. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  19. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  20. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  1. Aerosol iron and aluminum solubility in the northwest Pacific Ocean: Results from the 2002 IOC cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Clifton S.; Landing, William M.; Resing, Joseph A.; Lebon, Geoffrey T.

    2006-04-01

    Dust aerosol samples were collected across the western North Pacific Ocean during May-June 2002. Samples were analyzed for soluble aerosol Fe(II), Fe(II) + Fe(III), and Al as well as major cations and anions. The aerosol samples were leached using a 10 second exposure to either filtered surface seawater or ultrapure deionized water yielding a measure of the "instantaneous" soluble fraction. A variety of analytical methods were employed, including 57Fe isotope dilution high-resolution ICP-MS, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, graphite furnace AAS, ion chromatography, and the FeLume chemiluminescent technique. Fe was found to be more soluble in ultrapure deionized water leaches, especially during periods of higher dust concentrations. Fe solubility averaged 9 ± 8% in ultrapure water leaches and 6 ± 5% in seawater leaches. Significant correlations were found between both soluble aerosol FeT and soluble Fe(II) concentrations and aerosol acidity; however, the percentages of soluble aerosol FeT and Fe(II) did not correlate with aerosol acidity We also did not observe significant correlations between total and soluble aerosol Fe concentrations and the concentrations of either particulate Fe or dissolved Fe in surface waters.

  2. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  3. Aerosol iron solubility: Observations from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Clifton Stryker

    Large portions of the world ocean are less productive than they should be based on their nutrient concentrations. Dubbed high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, primary productivity in these areas may be limited by any number of factors including high zooplankton grazing rates as well as light and silicon limitation but, in general, iron (Fe) appears to most often be the factor limiting production. With approximately 30% of the world ocean comprised of Fe-limited HNLC waters, it is clear that the input of Fe to these waters, and its subsequent bioavailability, has an important role in stimulating primary productivity and lowering pCO2 possibly moderating the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and therefore could influence the planet's climate. The work described in this dissertation represents an effort to characterize the elemental solubility, including Fe, of marine aerosols. The research was conducted on four oceanographic research cruises in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In total, over 170 aerosol samples were collected in both total and size-fractionated samples. Precipitation events were sampled when possible to characterize the wet deposition of marine aerosols. The data will constrain estimates of aerosol Fe deposition to HNLC regions and improve models of the global carbon cycle. Elemental solubilities were measured using both seawater and ultrapure deionized water leaching methods under trace metal clean conditions. Leaching of the aerosol samples was conducted using a rapid exposure, small volume technique. Ultrapure deionized water leaches were analyzed directly by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), a relatively simple analysis technique. Soluble Fe in seawater leaches was analyzed by HR-ICP-MS following column extraction. Additionally, soluble aerosol Fe(II) was measured on four of the cruises. The sampling and analytical methods will be discussed in this dissertation and the results compared

  4. Relationship between solubility and toxicity of coal liquefaction materials to the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Gray, R.H.; Scott, A.J.; Thomas, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The potential ecological risk from complex coal liquids that may be released to freshwater ecosystems is ultimately dependent on both the degree of solubility of parent material and the toxic properties of constitutent compounds that an organism is exposed to. Thus, highly water-soluble components that remain bioavailable and are present in the water column at acutely toxic concentrations pose a problem for many aquatic organisms. We screened coal liquids derived from several processes and under different process designs to evaluate the acute toxicity of their water-soluble fractions (WSFs) to Daphnia magna. The solubility of materials treated varied and WSFs ranged from 44 to 2260 mg/L total carbon (TC). The most soluble materials in water exhibited greater toxicity based on percent dilution of the WSF. However, toxicity was similar for all materials tested when based on soluble components (TC in solution). Chemical characterization of the WSFs indicated that phenols comprised the majority of the TC in solution. Because toxicity based on total phenols was generally greater than that for individual phenolics tested separately, other soluble chemical classes in the complex mixtures likely contribute to observed toxicity.

  5. Amorphous solid dispersion enhances permeation of poorly soluble ABT-102: true supersaturation vs. apparent solubility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kerstin J; Rosenblatt, Karin M; Westedt, Ulrich; Hölig, Peter; Rosenberg, Jörg; Mägerlein, Markus; Fricker, Gert; Brandl, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) represent a promising formulation approach for poorly soluble drugs. We explored the formulation-related impact of ASDs on permeation rate, apparent solubility and molecular solubility of the poorly soluble drug ABT-102. The influence of fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) as dispersion medium was also studied. ASDs were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Permeation rate was assessed by the Caco-2 transwell assay. Cell viability and barrier integrity were assured by AlamarBlue©, TEER and permeability of the hydrophilic marker carboxyfluorescein. Apparent solubility and molecular solubility were evaluated by using centrifugation and inverse dialysis, respectively. The in vitro permeation rate of ABT-102 from aqueous dispersions of the ASD was found 4 times faster than that from the dispersions of the crystals, while apparent solubility and molecular solubility of ABT-102 were increased. Yet, a further increase in apparent solubility due to micellar solubilization as observed when dispersing the ASD in FaSSIF, did not affect molecular solubility or permeation rate. Overall, a good correlation between permeation rate and molecular solubility but not apparent solubility was seen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solubility Characteristics of PCBM and C60.

    PubMed

    Boucher, David; Howell, Jason

    2016-11-10

    Empirical data indicate that several good solvents for C60 and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have substantial polar and hydrogen-bonding components, which are not intrinsic to the structure of the C60 and PCBM molecules themselves. Functional solubility parameter (FSP) and convex solubility parameter (CSP) computations are performed on C60 and PCBM using solubility data available in the literature. The CSP and FSP results are compared to previously reported Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) and to the parameters calculated using additive functional group contribution methods. The CSP and FSP methods confirm the anomalously large polar and hydrogen-bonding parameters, δP and δH, obtained experimentally for C60 and PCBM. This behavior, which is quite irregular given the structure of the molecules, is due to the fact that several good solvents have high δP and δH values. Thus, these irregularities are highlighted by the CSP and FSP calculations. Additional contradictory solubility characteristics are disclosed by comparing the experimental solubility parameters to a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model, additive functional group calculations, and COSMO-RS computations. The FSP solubility function strongly suggests that the solubility parameters do not accurately represent the cohesive energy density properties of C60 and PCBM, as intended, but rather they manifest the properties of the solvents, e.g., high δP and δH values, that are necessary to accommodate these molecules in the liquid phase.

  7. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  8. Calculation of Drug Solubilities by Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Lindley A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of estimating the solubilities of drugs in water is reported that is based on a principle applied in quantitative structure-activity relationships. This procedure involves correlation of partition coefficient values using the octanol/water system and aqueous solubility. (Author/MLW)

  9. Airway exchange of highly soluble gases

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Frank L.; Anderson, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol. PMID:23305981

  10. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  11. Light extinction method for solubility measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jingkang; Yin, Qiuxiang; Wang, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    A novel measurement method for chemical solubility determination is brought forward, in which the advantages of two kinds of traditional methods are united. The results show that the concentration of unsolved particles suspending in the solution can be determined by measuring I/I0 (ratio of the transmission intensity to the incident intensity) of the laser beam permeating through the solution according to Lamben-Beer law. The biggest relative deviation for the solubility data determined is less than 1.5% for the sparingly soluble substances and 0.3% for the opulently soluble substances. By comparison of the experimental solubility data with previous data, the light extinction method is demonstrated to be stable and reliable.

  12. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  13. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  14. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of heat-induced gel prepared with chicken salt-soluble proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Seo, Kwang-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The technological effects of gamma irradiation (0, 3, 7, and 10 kGy) on chicken salt-soluble meat proteins in a model system were investigated. There were no significant differences in protein, fat, and ash content, and sarcoplasmic protein solubility among all samples. The samples with increasing gamma irradiation levels had higher pH, lightness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity, whereas moisture content, water holding capacity, redness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were the highest in the unirradiated control. The result from meat products using gamma irradiation was intended to provide a basic resource processing technology.

  16. Soluble Manganese(III) in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Oldham, V.; Madison, A.; Tebo, B.; Jones, M.; Jensen, L.; Owings, S.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have confirmed the presence of soluble manganese(III), which along with Mn(II) passes through a 0.2 μm filter, in suboxic marine waters. Here we applied a spectrophotometric method using a soluble porphyrin as a competitive ligand to calculate the concentrations and kinetics of Mn(II) and Mn(III) recovery. Data will be presented from the suboxic porewaters of the Saint Lawrence estuary, the suboxic and anoxic waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) accounts for up to 100% of the dissolved Mn pool with concentrations ranging from the detection limit of 50 nM to 80 μM at the oxic/anoxic interface of the non-sulfidic porewaters from the hemipelagic sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Data indicate weak-ligand complexation of Mn(III) formed from Mn(II) oxidation as well as reduction of MnO2. Complexation of Mn(III) in the anoxic waters of Chesapeake Bay appears stronger as the porphyrin could not outcompete the natural ligands binding Mn(III). Mn(III) complexes were reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine or hydrogen sulfide and detected as Mn(II). Soluble Mn(III) comprised up to 52 % of total dissolved Mn. Profiles over the course of a five day cruise showed that high Mn(III) concentrations (7.3 μM) were observed at low H2S (4.9 μM) whereas low Mn(III) (1.1 μM) was detected at high H2S (40 μM). The presence of Mn(III) in sulfidic waters indicated that it is kinetically stabilized in situ by strong ligands so reduction to Mn(II) was incomplete. One electron reductive dissolution of solid MnO2 particles formed at the oxic-anoxic interface appear to be the source of Mn(III). Lastly, soluble Mn(III) was detected in the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway (salinity ranging from freshwater to 31) bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn (maximum of 1.92

  17. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  18. Toward a molecular understanding of protein solubility: increased negative surface charge correlates with increased solubility.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ryan M; Shende, Varad R; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C Nick; Scholtz, J Martin

    2012-04-18

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility: Increased Negative Surface Charge Correlates with Increased Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Shende, Varad R.; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. PMID:22768947

  20. Solubility prediction of drugs in mixed solvents using partial solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Shayanfar, Ali; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Soleymani, Jafar; Yousefi, Behrooz H; Acree, William E; York, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Solubility of drugs in binary and ternary solvent mixtures composed of water and pharmaceutical cosolvents at different temperatures were predicted using the Jouyban-Acree model and a combination of partial solubility parameters as interaction descriptors in the solution. The generally trained version of the model produced the overall mean percentage deviation values for the back-calculated solubility of drugs in binary solvents of 34.3% and the predicted solubilities in ternary solvent mixtures of 38.0%. In addition, the applicability of the trained model for predicting the solvent composition providing the maximum solubility of a drug was investigated. The results of collected solubility data of drugs in various mixed solvents and the newly measured solubility data of five drugs in ethanol + propylene glycol + water mixtures at 25°C showed that the model provided acceptable predictions and could be used in the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Solubility of iron from combustion source particles in acidic media linked to iron speciation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-10-16

    In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.

  2. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: II. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2006-12-01

    Bone is a structurally complex material, formed of both organic and inorganic chemicals. The organic compounds constitute mostly collagen and other proteins. The inorganic or bone mineral components constitute predominantly calcium, phosphate, carbonate, and a host of minor ingredients. The mineralized bone is composed of crystals which are closely associated with a protein of which collagen is an acidic polysaccharide material. This association is very close and the protein integrates into the crystalline structure. The mineralization involves the deposition of relatively insoluble crystals on an organic framework. The solubility process takes place when the outermost ions in the crystal lattice breakaway from the surface and become separated from the crystal. This is characteristic for ions dissolving in water or aqueous solutions at the specified temperature. The magnitude of solubility is temperature and pH dependent. Bone is sparingly soluble in most solvents. Enamel is less soluble than bone and fluoroapatite is the least soluble of all apatites in acid buffers. Collagen is less soluble in neutral salt solution than in dilute acid solutions at ambient temperatures. The solubility of collagens in solvents gradually decreases with increasing age of the bone samples.

  3. Salt formation to improve drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2007-07-30

    Salt formation is the most common and effective method of increasing solubility and dissolution rates of acidic and basic drugs. In this article, physicochemical principles of salt solubility are presented, with special reference to the influence of pH-solubility profiles of acidic and basic drugs on salt formation and dissolution. Non-ideality of salt solubility due to self-association in solution is also discussed. Whether certain acidic or basic drugs would form salts and, if salts are formed, how easily they would dissociate back into their free acid or base forms depend on interrelationships of several factors, such as S0 (intrinsic solubility), pH, pKa, Ksp (solubility product) and pHmax (pH of maximum solubility). The interrelationships of these factors are elaborated and their influence on salt screening and the selection of optimal salt forms for development are discussed. Factors influencing salt dissolution under various pH conditions, and especially in reactive media and in presence of excess common ions, are discussed, with practical reference to the development of solid dosage forms.

  4. [Good laboratory practice of equilibrium solubility measurement].

    PubMed

    Baka, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The biggest part of my PhD work was the standardization of the classical saturation shake-flask solubility method. During the experiments we examined systematically which parameters have significant influence on the solubility value and how large experimental error (standard deviation) is caused by them in the solubility method. Hydrochlorothiazide was used as model compound. Modification in temperature, sedimentation time, composition of aqueous buffer and the technique of separation of solid and liquid phases were found to influence the equilibrium solubility results strongly. However, variations in the amount of solid excess and stirring time were found to have less influence. Based on this standardization study, we developed a new shorter (36 hours) protocol for measurements of equilibrium solubility of drug molecules. The new protocol was validated with the aid of 6 structurally different compounds. The equilibrium solubility was measured by both (standard and new) protocols. The results were in good agreement, so the shorter protocol can be applied to measure the equilibrium solubility of drug compounds.

  5. Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G

    2005-06-13

    The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species.

  6. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  7. Effect of Cyclodextrin Types and Co-Solvent on Solubility of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Charumanee, Suporn; Okonogi, Siriporn; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Wolschann, Peter; Viernstein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx) depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs) and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The results showed that in systems consisting of the drug dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures, the drug solubility increased exponentially with a rising concentration of ethanol. The phase solubility measurements of the drug in aqueous solutions of CDs, β-CD and γ-CD exhibited diagrams of AL-type, whereas 2,6-dimethyl-β-CD revealed AP-type. The destabilizing effect of ethanol as a co-solvent was observed for all complexes regardless of the CD type, as a consequence of it the lowering of the complex formation constants. In systems with a higher concentration of ethanol, the drug solubility was increased in opposition to the decreasing complex formation constants. According to this study, the type of CDs played a more important role on the solubility of Prx, and the use of ethanol as a co-solvent exhibited no synergistic effect on the improvement of Prx solubility. The Prx solubility was increased again due to the better solubility in ethanol. PMID:27763573

  8. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) co-localizes with receptor activator of NF-KB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-positive vesicles in rat osteoblasts and osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Solberg, L B; Stang, E; Brorson, S-H; Andersson, G; Reinholt, F P

    2015-02-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is well known as an osteoclast marker; however, a recent study from our group demonstrated enhanced number of TRAP + osteocytes as well as enhanced levels of TRAP located to intracellular vesicles in osteoblasts and osteocytes in experimental osteoporosis in rats. Such vesicles were especially abundant in osteoblasts and osteocytes in cancellous bone as well as close to bone surface and intracortical remodeling sites. To further investigate TRAP in osteoblasts and osteocytes, long bones from young, growing rats were examined. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy displayed co-localization of TRAP with receptor activator of NF-KB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in hypertrophic chondrocytes and diaphyseal osteocytes with Pearson's correlation coefficient ≥0.8. Transmission electron microscopy showed co-localization of TRAP and RANKL in lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) + vesicles in osteoblasts and osteocytes supporting the results obtained by confocal microscopy. Recent in vitro data have demonstrated OPG as a traffic regulator for RANKL to LAMP1 + secretory lysosomes in osteoblasts and osteocytes, which seem to serve as temporary storage compartments for RANKL. Our in situ observations indicate that TRAP is located to RANKL-/OPG-positive secretory lysosomes in osteoblasts and osteocytes, which may have implications for osteocyte regulation of osteoclastogenesis.

  9. [Effect of MT01/PEN complexes on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in human osteoblast-like cell line MG63].

    PubMed

    Ye, Cui; Yi, Zheng; Yuqin, Shen; Xu, Hou; Yixin, Lou; Xinhua, Sun

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to synthesize MTO1 (a kind of oligodeoxynucleotides) and N-isopropylacrylamide-modified polyethylenimines (PEN) complexes (MT01/PEN) as well as to investigate the effect of the complexes on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in the human osteoblast-like cell line MG63. MG63 cells were transfected by MT01/PEN complexes formed with three different mass ratios (1:2, 1:4, 1:6) of MT01 to PEN. MT01 and MT01-s were used as positive control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to estimate the amount of OPG and RANKL released into the culture media and in MG63 at 24, 48, 72 h. MG63 responded to the MT01/PEN complexes by significantly upregulating the OPG on the protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA levels of RANKL were lower in most of the groups with complexes, and the OPG/RANKL ratio were higher (P < 0.05). MG63 were affected by the MT01/PEN complexes with different mass ratios, particularly when the ratio was 1:6. MT01 can enhance the promotion of ossification by establishing the delivery system with PEN.

  10. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil.

  11. Evaluation of a rapid physical-chemical method for the determination of extant soluble COD.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Chandran, Kartik; Smets, Barth F; Grasso, Domenico

    2002-02-01

    Characterization of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater is critical for accurate modeling of constituent biotransformation steps. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of a commonly used soluble COD determination technique (coagulation using ZnSO4 at pH 10.5) in relation to three other physical-chemical separation techniques: destabilization with a non-hydrolyzing trivalent cation (LaCl3), sequential filtration, and ultracentrifugation. Samples of deionized water and domestic wastewater were spiked with aliquots of synthetic soluble COD and recoveries using the different separation methods were compared. Although mechanisms of coagulation using LaCl3 and ZnSO4 are different, the mean COD recoveries using these methods were in close agreement. Further, sorption of soluble COD onto zinc hydroxide precipitate flocs appeared to be negligible. The two coagulation methods yielded statistically different (p = 0.05) soluble COD values when applied to nine independent wastewater samples (obtained on nine different days). but the difference was less than 10%. The COD quantified by the coagulation techniques corresponded most closely with the < 1,000 Da molecular weight fraction defined as "truly soluble COD". Centrifugation of wastewater samples amended with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) at 10 mg/L overestimated the soluble COD concentration. Our results confirm that coagulation using either ZnSO4 or LaCI3 is appropriate for the rapid determination of soluble COD fraction in wastewater matrices.

  12. Identification of the Soluble Starch Synthase Activities of Maize Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Imparl-Radosevich, Jennifer; Guan, Hanping; Keeling, Peter L.; James, Martha G.; Myers, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    This study identified the complement of soluble starch synthases (SSs) present in developing maize (Zea mays) endosperm. The product of the du1 gene, DU1, was shown to be one of the two major soluble SSs. The C-terminal 450 residues of DU1 comprise eight sequence blocks conserved in 28 known or predicted glucan synthases. This region of DU1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to possess SS activity. DU1-specific antisera detected a soluble endosperm protein of more than 200 kD that was lacking in du1- mutants. These antisera eliminated 20% to 30% of the soluble SS activity from kernel extracts. Antiserum against the isozyme zSSI eliminated approximately 60% of the total soluble SS, and immunodepletion of du1- mutant extracts with this antiserum nearly eliminated SS activity. Two soluble SS activities were identified by electrophoretic fractionation, each of which correlated specifically with zSSI or DU1. Thus, DU1 and zSSI accounted for the great majority of soluble SS activity present in developing endosperm. The relative activity of the two isozymes did not change significantly during the starch biosynthetic period. DU1 and zSSI may be interdependent, because mutant extracts lacking DU1 exhibited a significant stimulation of the remaining SS activity. PMID:10318698

  13. Denatured Mammalian Protein Mixtures Exhibit Unusually High Solubility in Nucleic Acid-Free Pure Water

    PubMed Central

    Futami, Junichiro; Fujiyama, Haruna; Kinoshita, Rie; Nonomura, Hidenori; Honjo, Tomoko; Tada, Hiroko; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Abe, Yoshito; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is a major goal of biotechnology. Since protein aggregates are mainly comprised of unfolded proteins, protecting against denaturation is likely to assist solubility in an aqueous medium. Contrary to this concept, we found denatured total cellular protein mixture from mammalian cell kept high solubility in pure water when the mixture was nucleic acids free. The lysates were prepared from total cellular protein pellet extracted by using guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture of TRIzol, denatured and reduced total protein mixtures remained soluble after extensive dialysis against pure water. The total cell protein lysates contained fully disordered proteins that readily formed large aggregates upon contact with nucleic acids or salts. These findings suggested that the highly flexible mixtures of disordered proteins, which have fully ionized side chains, are protected against aggregation. Interestingly, this unusual solubility is characteristic of protein mixtures from higher eukaryotes, whereas most prokaryotic protein mixtures were aggregated under identical conditions. This unusual solubility of unfolded protein mixtures could have implications for the study of intrinsically disordered proteins in a variety of cells. PMID:25405999

  14. Denatured mammalian protein mixtures exhibit unusually high solubility in nucleic acid-free pure water.

    PubMed

    Futami, Junichiro; Fujiyama, Haruna; Kinoshita, Rie; Nonomura, Hidenori; Honjo, Tomoko; Tada, Hiroko; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Abe, Yoshito; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is a major goal of biotechnology. Since protein aggregates are mainly comprised of unfolded proteins, protecting against denaturation is likely to assist solubility in an aqueous medium. Contrary to this concept, we found denatured total cellular protein mixture from mammalian cell kept high solubility in pure water when the mixture was nucleic acids free. The lysates were prepared from total cellular protein pellet extracted by using guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture of TRIzol, denatured and reduced total protein mixtures remained soluble after extensive dialysis against pure water. The total cell protein lysates contained fully disordered proteins that readily formed large aggregates upon contact with nucleic acids or salts. These findings suggested that the highly flexible mixtures of disordered proteins, which have fully ionized side chains, are protected against aggregation. Interestingly, this unusual solubility is characteristic of protein mixtures from higher eukaryotes, whereas most prokaryotic protein mixtures were aggregated under identical conditions. This unusual solubility of unfolded protein mixtures could have implications for the study of intrinsically disordered proteins in a variety of cells.

  15. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water.

  16. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  17. Organogel formation rationalized by Hansen solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Matthieu; Bouteiller, Laurent

    2011-08-07

    Some organic compounds gelate particular solvents by forming a network of anisotropic fibres. We show that Hansen solubility parameters can be used to predict the range of solvents that are likely to be gelled by any given gelator.

  18. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  19. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  20. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  2. Predicting the octanol solubility of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2013-07-01

    The molar octanol solubility of an organic nonelectrolytes can be reasonably predicted solely from its melting point provided that its liquid (or a hypothetical super-cooled liquid) form is miscible with octanol. The aim of this work is to develop criteria to determine if the real or hypothetical liquid form of a given compound will be miscible with octanol based on its molar volume and solubility parameter. Fortunately, most organic compounds (including most drugs) conform to the criteria for complete liquid miscibility, and therefore have solubilities that are proportional to their melting points. The results show that more than 95% of the octanol solubilities studied are predicted with an error of less than 1 logarithmic unit.

  3. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  4. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  5. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  6. Nanoprecipitation for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao

    2017-10-04

    Approximately 60% of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in today's pharmaceutical industry are poorly water soluble drugs, and they are classified as BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class II compounds. Within the scope of this review, nanoprecipitation methods for poorly water soluble drugs as well as solvent removal techniques will be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Correlation of Catalytic Rates With Solubility Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; England, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Catalyst maximizes activity when its solubility parameter equals that of reactive species. Catalytic activities of some binary metal alloys at maximum when alloy compositions correspond to Hildebrand solubility parameters equal to those of reactive atomic species on catalyst. If this suggestive correlation proves to be general, applied to formulation of other mixed-metal catalysts. Also used to identify reactive species in certain catalytic reactions.

  8. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  9. Determination of soluble aluminium concentration in alkaline humic water using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K L; Lewis, D M; Jolly, M; Robinson, J

    2004-11-01

    The steps of the standard method to determine soluble aluminium concentration are filtering, followed by acidifying, then analysing with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). When applied to alkaline humic water, acidification gives rise to the formation of humic acid as a brown particulate matter. Of the total soluble aluminium in the original water, 49-61% forms complexes with the particulate humic acid upon acidification. Although the AAS is capable of detecting the binding aluminium, the particulate nature of humic acid easily induces inaccurate readings as a result of the non-uniform distribution of the particulate matter. A more precise analysis of soluble aluminium concentration of alkaline humic water is shown to be achievable in basicified solutions instead. Basicified solutions keep humic acid in the soluble form; hence maintain the homogeneity of the sample.

  10. Chromatographic determination of solubilities in superheated water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Neil; Clifford, Anthony A; Bartle, Keith D; Myers, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Superheated water (SHW) is an effective solvent for the extraction of a variety of environmental pollutants, but knowledge of the solubilities in water at elevated temperatures necessary to maximise the efficiency of the process is often lacking. Ambient temperature aqueous solubilities have been measured by reverse-phase HPLC from correlations with retention factors, k, but for poorly soluble organics the eluent must contain a proportion of organic modifier followed by extrapolation to pure water. The use of SHW as mobile phase allows direct determination of aqueous solubility from measurement of k on a modified HPLC system in which the eluent is cooled before detection to improve baseline stability. Alumina-bonded octadecylsilane columns were found to be more stable in SHW chromatography than their silica-bonded counterparts. To validate the procedure, measurements of k were made between 100 and 200°C for toluene and correlated with literature solubilities; the solubilities at 170°C of a number of related aromatics were then determined from their k-values.

  11. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  12. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  13. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  14. Estimating the Aqueous Solubility of Pharmaceutical Hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Stephen J.; Younis, Usir S.; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of crystalline solute solubility is well documented throughout the literature. However, the anhydrous crystal form is typically considered with these models, which is not always the most stable crystal form in water. In this study an equation which predicts the aqueous solubility of a hydrate is presented. This research attempts to extend the utility of the ideal solubility equation by incorporating desolvation energetics of the hydrated crystal. Similar to the ideal solubility equation, which accounts for the energetics of melting, this model approximates the energy of dehydration to the entropy of vaporization for water. Aqueous solubilities, dehydration and melting temperatures, and log P values were collected experimentally and from the literature. The data set includes different hydrate types and a range of log P values. Three models are evaluated, the most accurate model approximates the entropy of dehydration (ΔSd) by the entropy of vaporization (ΔSvap) for water, and utilizes onset dehydration and melting temperatures in combination with log P. With this model, the average absolute error for the prediction of solubility of 14 compounds was 0.32 log units. PMID:27238488

  15. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  16. Fluoride ion release and solubility of fluoride enriched interim cements.

    PubMed

    Lewinstein, Israel; Block, Jonathan; Melamed, Guy; Dolev, Eran; Matalon, Shlomo; Ormianer, Zeev

    2014-08-01

    Interim and definitive restorations cemented with interim cements for a prolonged interval are susceptible to bacterial infiltration and caries formation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fluoride release and solubility of aged ZnO-based interim cements enriched separately with 0.4% NaF and SnF2. Four different brands of cements (Tempbond, Tempbond NE, Procem, and Freegenol) were tested for fluoride release and solubility. For every test, 6 disk specimens of each cement with NaF and SnF2, and 6 with no fluoride enrichment (control) were fabricated, for a total of 72 specimens. The disks were incubated in deionized water. Fluoride ion release was recorded at 1, 7, 14, 21, 63, 91, and 182 days. Solubility was calculated as weight percent after 90 days of incubation. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test (P<.05). Cements mixed with fluorides released fluoride ions for at least 182 days. Cements mixed with NaF released more fluoride ions than those mixed with SnF2 (P<.001). The cumulative release rates from all the tested cements mixed with either NaF or SnF2 were linear with respect to t(½) (r>.97), indicating a diffusion-controlled fluoride release. Cement and fluoride types were the main affecting factors in fluoride ion release. The addition of fluorides slightly increased the solubility of the cements. Given their long-term sustained and diffusive controlled release, these fluorides, particularly NaF when mixed with ZnO-based interim cements, may be useful for caries prevention under provisionally cemented restorations. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium sulfate solubility in organic-laden wastewater. Progress report, September 1981-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Banz, I.; Luthy, R.G.

    1982-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the solubility of calcium sulfate in wastewaters, and to examine the effect of organic constituents in wastewater and in synthetic waters on calcium sulfate solubility. The study entailed both laboratory experiments and chemical equilibria computer modeling. The calcium sulfate solubility product in a solvent-extracted, ammonia-stripped coal gasification wastewater was found to be 3.65 x 10/sup -5/ M/sup 2/; this is 45% higher than that observed in clean water. Wastewater treated further by activated carbon adsorption showed the solubility product of calcium sulfate to be 2.87 x 10/sup -5/ M/sup 2/. This is only 14% higher than that observed in clean water; this indicates that organic material removed in the adsorption process may be responsible for enhanced solubility in wastewater. Synthetic wastewaters were prepared using humic-like organic compounds, since it was believed that humic-like material accounted for a major fraction of the residual organic carbon content of solvent-extracted coal gasification wastewater. Calcium sulfate solubility in oxidized samples of resorcinol, catechol, and tannic acid showed little difference from that in clean water. In humic acid, however, the calcium sulfate solubility product was 47% higher than in clean water; this increase in solubility product was similar to that observed in pretreated wastewater, indicating that a complex organic material is responsible for the increase in solubility. These results imply that calcium and organic constituents in wastewater form a chemical complex which has the effect of increasing total calcium in solution without preciptating calcium sulfate. Thus higher levels of calcium and sulfate may be maintained in wastewaters destined for reuse in recirculating cooling waters than would be indicated by considering only inorganic chemical interactions. 51 references, 18 figures, 40 tables.

  18. Influence of measurement uncertainties on soluble aerosol iron over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Johnson, M. S.; Hurley, D.; Dawson, K.

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust for global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of dust aerosol Fe associated with one of the flow-through leaching protocols to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. In the protocol aerosol Fe is defined soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to the analysis. To assess the concentrations of soluble Fe inferred by this flow-through leaching protocol we are using in situ measurements of dust size distribution with the prescribed of 50 % fractional solubility of Fe in less than 0.45 μm sized dust particles collected in the leachate. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using complex dust Fe dissolution module, or prescribed to be 1 and 4 %. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is typically higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (>30 %) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total dust mass. This study suggests that inconsistences in the operational definition of soluble Fe could contribute to the wide range of the fractional solubility of dust aerosol Fe reported in the literature.

  19. Cocrystal Transition Points: Role of Cocrystal Solubility, Drug Solubility, and Solubilizing Agents.

    PubMed

    Lipert, Maya P; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2015-10-05

    In this manuscript we bring together concepts that are relevant to the solubilization and thermodynamic stability of cocrystals in the presence of drug solubilizing agents. Simple equations are derived that allow calculation of cocrystal solubilization and transition point solubility. Analysis of 10 cocrystals in 6 different solubilizing agents shows that cocrystal solubilization is quantitatively predicted from drug solubilization. Drug solubilizing agents such as surfactants and lipid-based media are also shown to induce cocrystal transition points, where drug and cocrystal solubilities are equal, and above which the cocrystal solubility advantage over drug is eliminated. We have discovered that cocrystal solubility at the transition point (S*) is independent of solubilizing agent, and can be predicted from knowledge of only the aqueous solubilities of drug and cocrystal. For 1:1 cocrystals, S* = (Scocrystal,aq)(2)/Sdrug,aq. S* is a key indicator of cocrystal thermodynamic stability and establishes the upper solubility limit below which cocrystal is more soluble than the constituent drug. These findings have important implications to tailor cocrystal solubility and stability in pharmaceutical formulations from commonly available drug solubility descriptors.

  20. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  1. Low Soluble Syndecan-1 Precedes Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Gandley, Robin E.; Althouse, Andrew; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Bregand-White, Julia M.; McGonigal, Stacy; Myerski, Ashley C.; Gallaher, Marcia; Powers, Robert W.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndecan-1 (Sdc1; CD138) is a major transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the extracellular, luminal surface of epithelial cells and syncytiotrophoblast, thus comprising a major component of the glycocalyx of these cells. The “soluble” (shed) form of Sdc1 has paracrine and autocrine functions and is normally produced in a regulated fashion. We compared plasma soluble Sdc1 concentrations, in relation to placental Sdc1 expression, in uncomplicated (control) and preeclamptic pregnancies. Methods We evaluated soluble Sdc1 across uncomplicated pregnancy, and between preeclamptic, gestational hypertensive and control patients at mid-pregnancy (20 weeks) and 3rd trimester by ELISA. Placental expression level of Sdc1 was compared between groups in relation to pre-delivery plasma soluble Sdc1. Participants were recruited from Magee-Womens Hospital. Results In uncomplicated pregnancy, plasma soluble Sdc1 rose significantly in the 1st trimester, and reached an approximate 50-fold increase at term compared to post pregnancy levels. Soluble Sdc1 was lower at mid-pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia (P<0.05), but not gestational hypertension, compared to controls, and remained lower at late pregnancy in preeclampsia (P<0.01) compared to controls. Sdc1 was prominently expressed on syncytiotrophoblast of microvilli. Syncytiotrophoblast Sdc1 immunostaining intensities, and mRNA content in villous homogenates, were lower in preeclampsia vs. controls (P<0.05). Soluble Sdc1 and Sdc1 immunostaining scores were inversely associated with systolic blood pressures, and positively correlated with infant birth weight percentile. Conclusion Soluble Sdc1 is significantly lower before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, with reduced expression of Sdc1 in the delivered placenta, suggesting a role for glycocalyx disturbance in preeclampsia pathophysiology. PMID:27299886

  2. Solubility of methane in water under natural conditions: a laboratory study. Final report, April 1, 1978-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, C.W.; Price, L.C.

    1982-06-01

    The solubility of methane in aqueous solutions has been determined over a broad range of temperature, pressure and salinities. The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide and ethane on methane solubility has been determined at 302{sup 0}F. Also the solubility of crude oil and water in methane has been determined over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. The solubility of methane is raised by increasing pressure and temperature (above about 170{sup 0}F). There is a solubility minimum near 170{sup 0}F at constant pressure and salinity. Ionic salts effectively salt methane out of solution at all concentrations investigated. The effect of the addition of small amounts of carbon dioxide or ethane to the gas dissolved in aqueous solutions is to enhance methane solubility compared to solutions without other gases. Higher concentrations of dissolved gases, depending upon the salinity and the gas involved, decrease aqueous methane solubility. The addition of carbon dioxide always increased total gas content even when reducing the concentration of methane. With increasing concentration of ethane in the dissolved gases the total gas content reaches a maximum and then both methane and total gas content decrease. Comparison of experimental methane solubilities with gas/water ratios, salinities, bottom hole temperatures and pressures of geopressure test wells suggests that some formation fluids may be near saturation, while many others seem to be undersaturated. Petroleum is soluble in methane. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of crude oil in methane gas. At an elevated pressure, which depends upon the temperature, oil and gas form a single fluid phase.

  3. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New recommendations for measuring collagen solubility.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María E; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-08-01

    The heat-solubility of intramuscular collagen is usually conducted in 1/4 Ringer's solution at pH7.4, despite this ionic strength and pH being inappropriate for post-rigor meat. The current work studied the percentage of soluble collagen and hydrothermal isometric tension characteristics of perimysial strips on bovine semitendinosus muscles in either 1/4 Ringer's solution, distilled water, PBS, or a solution of the same salt concentration as 1/4 Ringer's but at pH5.6. Values of % soluble collagen were lower at pH7.4 than 5.6. Increasing ionic strength reduced % soluble collagen. The maximum perimysial isometric tension was independent of the bathing medium, but the percent relaxation was higher at pH7.4 than at pH5.6, and increased with ionic strength of the media. It is recommended that future measurements of collagen solubility and tests on connective tissue components of post-rigor meat should be carried out in a solution of concentrations NaCl and KCl equivalent to those in 1/4 Ringer's, but at pH5.6, a pH relevant to post-rigor meat.

  5. Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

    1997-11-01

    Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

  6. Influence of Milling Process on Efavirenz Solubility.

    PubMed

    Zaini, Erizal; Wahyu, Deni; Octavia, Maria Dona; Fitriani, Lili

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectroscopy infrared (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solubility test. The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2 with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20) as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  7. The solubility of uranium hexafluoride in perfluoroethers

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, E.J.

    1984-07-15

    The polyperfluoroethers are compatible with uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) and are suitable for use in diffusion pumps and in mechanical vacuum pumps which rely on oil as both the lubricant and the seal. The UF/sub 6/ is soluble in all fluids with which it is compatible. Because a number of vacuum pumps in the BOP facilities of the GCEP plant employ these perfluoroether oils as the working fluid and have oil chambers which are large, questions have been raised as to the relationships governing the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in these materials and the maximum quantities of UF/sub 6/ which could be dissolved in these oils under credible accident conditions. This report summarizes these solubility relations and the interaction of the UF/sub 6/ solubility and the pumping capability of this type of vacuum pump. It will be shown that, whereas the solubility of UF/sub 6/ in Fomblin Y25 fluoroether fluid under a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 760 torr and at the pump operating temperature of 160/sup 0/F is about 500 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil, the system controls are such as to isolate the system from the pumps before the quantity of UF/sub 6/ dissolved in the perfluoroether exceeds about 10 g of UF/sub 6/ per liter of oil. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  9. Extraction and analysis of soluble carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Maness, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Soluble sugars are a universal component of most living organisms and a fundamental building block in biosynthetic processes. It is no wonder that both qualitative and quantitative changes in carbohydrates often accompany plant's responses to stress. Depending on the speed of onset of stress, plant tissues can exhibit rapid and very site-specific shifts in their soluble carbohydrate pool - rapid and precise tissue collection and stabilization are necessary if analytical results are to truly represent the sugar composition at the instant of harvest. Since soluble carbohydrates are, by definition, soluble in the cell's aqueous environment, they may be analyzed directly from liquids obtained from plants or they may require extraction from the plant matrix. During extraction and prior to analysis, steps should be taken to avoid change in form or quantity of sugars by endogenous active enzyme conversion or by contaminating microbial growth. Many procedures for soluble sugar analysis exist; the choice of the most appropriate analytical protocol is ultimately dictated by the depth of information required to substantiate findings for a particular purpose.

  10. Melt extrusion with poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sejal; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Lu, Jiannan; Repka, Michael A

    2013-08-30

    Melt extrusion (ME) over recent years has found widespread application as a viable drug delivery option in the drug development process. ME applications include taste masking, solid-state stability enhancement, sustained drug release and solubility enhancement. While ME can result in amorphous or crystalline solid dispersions depending upon several factors, solubility enhancement applications are centered around generating amorphous dispersions, primarily because of the free energy benefits they offer. In line with the purview of the current issue, this review assesses the utility of ME as a means of enhancing solubility of poorly soluble drugs/chemicals. The review describes major processing aspects of ME technology, definition and understanding of the amorphous state, manufacturability, analytical characterization and biopharmaceutical performance testing to better understand the strength and weakness of this formulation strategy for poorly soluble drugs. In addition, this paper highlights the potential advantages of employing a fusion of techniques, including pharmaceutical co-crystals and spray drying/solvent evaporation, facilitating the design of formulations of API exhibiting specific physico-chemical characteristics. Finally, the review presents some successful case studies of commercialized ME based products.

  11. Chemical acylation of water-soluble antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB-w) and functional evaluation of oil-soluble AOB (cAOB-o).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingyi; Xia, Boneng; Jin, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) is a novel natural food antioxidant approved in China since 2004. Natural phenolics contained in the current AOB are usually polyhydroxy derivatives exhibiting hydrophilic character, which has been marked as water-soluble AOB (AOB-w). In order to broaden the application fields, oil-soluble AOB (cAOB-o) was obtained by chemical acylation of AOB-w with different chain-length fatty acids varying from C8 to C18. Results indicated that the yield and solubility of cAOB-o in 1-octanol solvent depended on the carbon chain length of acyl donor, and cAOB-o derived from C12 fatty acid exhibited the more powerful antioxidant activity evaluated by β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic content decreased by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the increase of a carbonyl (C = O) peak at 1701 cm(-1) and a decrease in the intensity of the absorption at 3400 cm(-1) (O-H stretching) in cAOB-o. Acylation was inferred to mainly occur on the hydroxyl groups of flavones C-glycosides according to the change of high-performance liquid chromatography spectra and the contents of total flavonoids and phenolic acids. cAOB-o with the addition of 0.02% significantly increased oxidative stability of palm oil 1.59 times, lard 3.74 times, and fried potato chips 2.08 times, which was better than the effect of oil-soluble tea polyphenol (P < 0.01). Moreover, cAOB-o was identified to be actually nontoxicity by an acute oral toxicity test. All the above results indicated that cAOB-o could be used as a novel and effective oil-soluble antioxidant in the food industry. Oil-soluble antioxidant of bamboo leaves (cAOB-o) was obtained by chemical acylation with water-soluble AOB (AOB-w) and different chain-length fatty acids. The solubility of cAOB-o in 1-octanol solvent increased sharply. cAOB-o was able to increase the oxidative stability of palm oil, lard, and fried potato chips. cAOB-o has been identified to be actually not

  12. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  13. In situ determination of the saturation solubility of nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs for dermal application.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Miriam; Staufenbiel, Sven; Rühl, Eckart; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine, in situ, the saturation solubility and dissolution rate of nanocrystals of three poorly water-soluble drugs for dermal application. The nanocrystals were prepared by wet bead milling. Their size could be controlled by various process parameters. The saturation solubility was measured in water or in the presence of surfactant at 32°C with a Sirius(®) inForm based on in situ UV-vis spectroscopy. The saturation solubility of nanocrystals with sizes of ∼300nm increased for each drug in comparison to non-milled drug powders, with factors of increase in the range 1.3-2.8. The tacrolimus solubility was further analyzed with excess nanocrystal amounts four and ten times higher than the drug powder solubility. The corresponding solubility increases were 2.8 and 6.6 and thus dependent on the amount of excess nanocrystals. The higher increase was due to the presence of a larger fraction of small size particles, and only crystals far below 1μm showed supersaturation. The solubility increase for nanocrystals determined in situ was remarkably lower than the one previously reported with the use of non in situ methods. Nanomilling increased the drug dissolution rates: the highest increase was obtained with ibuprofen (rate increase ∼30). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Milled industrial beet color kinetics and total soluble solid contents by image analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Industrial beets are an emerging feedstock for biofuel and bioproducts industry in the US. Milling of industrial beets is the primary step in front end processing (FEP) for ethanol production. Milled beets undergo multiple pressings with water addition during raw beet juice extraction, and extracted...

  15. Estimation methods and parameter assessment for ethanol yields from total soluble solids of sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation methods and evaluation of ethanol yield from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) based on agronomic production traits and juice characteristics is important for developing parents and inbred lines of sweet sorghum that can be used by the bio-ethanol industry. The objectives of th...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1178 Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible...

  19. Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight on Drug-Polymer Solubility: A Comparison between Experimentally Determined Solubility in PVP and Prediction Derived from Solubility in Monomer.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Langguth, Peter; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the influence of polymer molecular weight on drug-polymer solubility was investigated using binary systems containing indomethacin (IMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of different molecular weights. The experimental solubility in PVP, measured using a differential scanning calorimetry annealing method, was compared with the solubility calculated from the solubility of the drug in the liquid analogue N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP). The experimental solubility of IMC in the low-molecular-weight PVP K12 was not significantly different from that in the higher molecular weight PVPs (K25, K30, and K90). The calculated solubilities derived from the solubility in NVP (0.31-0.32 g/g) were found to be lower than those experimentally determined in PVP (0.38-0.40 g/g). Nevertheless, the similarity between the values indicates that the analogue solubility can provide valuable indications on the solubility in the polymer. Hence, if a drug is soluble in an analogue of the polymer, it is most likely also soluble in the polymer. In conclusion, the solubility of a given drug-polymer system is determined by the strength of the drug-polymer interactions rather than the molecular weight of the polymer. Therefore, during the first screenings for drug solubility in polymers, only one representative molecular weight per polymer is needed.

  20. Prediction of seawater solubility of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tokura, K.; Kishi, H.; Strachan, W.M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The salting-out effect by seawater constituents on the water solubilities of 11 aromatic compounds, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, biphenyl, naphthalene, p-nitrotoluene, p-toluidine, o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol and phenol was investigated. A best fit equation for the salting-out parameters, K, and distilled water solubilities, S/sub 0/, at 20/sup 0/C was found to be K = -0.0298 log S/sub 0/ + 0.114. Seawater solubilities, S, predicted for solutions of ionic strength, I, using the equation log S = (0.0298 I + 1)logS/sub 0/ - 0.114 I were in agreement with observed values within 13% and there were no significant differences between values from the Pacific Ocean seawater and those from 35% NaCl solutions. It was concluded that dissolved organic matter in seawater had an insignificant effect for the test chemicals.

  1. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  2. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  3. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  4. Cosolvency of dimethyl isosorbide for steroid solubility.

    PubMed

    Zia, H; Ma, J K; O'Donnell, J P; Luzzi, L A

    1991-04-01

    Dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), which is currently under investigation for its potential use as a pharmaceutical vehicle and drug permeation enhancer, is a water-miscible liquid with relatively low viscosity. The solubilization behavior of DMI as a cosolvent for nonpolar drugs was characterized via dielectric constant measurements of binary solvent systems containing DMI and either water, propylene glycol (PG), or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Evidence from the dielectric constant profiles and NMR studies suggest that DMI undergoes complexation with water and PG, but not with PEG, through hydrogen bonding interactions. The solvent complexation exhibited a major effect on the solubilities of prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone in the mixed solvent systems. Maximum solubility of each drug was found to occur near a DMI/water or DMI/PG concentration ratio of 1:2. In the DMI-PEG mixed system, while there is no apparent interaction between DMI and PEG molecules, the solubility of prednisone was found to increase with decreasing dielectric constant.

  5. Spectroscopic and solubility characteristics of oxidized soots

    SciTech Connect

    Chughtai, A.R.; Jassim, J.A.; Peterson, J.H.; Stedman, D.H.; Smith, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic and solubility studies of reaction products of soot (black carbon) with O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2} have revealed a relationship between reactivity and product solubility and structure. A remarkably high solubility of ozonated n-hexane soot has its origin in the formation of anhydride and lactone surface structures and their subsequent hydrolysis to carboxylic acid species. Calculations indicate that the rate of surface carboxylation of 0.1-{mu}m diameter spheroidal soot particles, in the presence of 50 ppbv ozone at ambient temperature, is such that solubilization may occur within a 30-minute time frame. Measurements on ambient air aerosol samples in metropolitan Denver are consistent with these observations and demonstrate the high reactivity of soot with ozone even at very low levels in natural systems.

  6. Water-Soluble Metallocene-Containing Polymers.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Arda; Wurm, Frederik R

    2016-09-01

    Metallocenes are organometallic compounds with reversible redox profiles and tunable oxidation and reduction potentials, depending on the metal and substituents at the cyclopentadienyl rings. Metallocenes have been introduced in macromolecules to combine the redox-activity with polymer properties. There are many examples of such hydrophobic polymer materials, but much fewer water-soluble examples are found scattered across the polymer literature. However, in terms of drug delivery and other biological applications, water solubility is essential. For this very reason, all the synthetic routes to water-soluble metallocene containing polymers are collected and discussed here. The focus is on neutral ferrocene- and ruthenocene-containing and charged cobaltocenium-containing macromolecules (i.e., symmetrical sandwich complexes). The synthetic protocols, self-assembly behavior, and other benefits of the obtained materials are discussed.

  7. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest.

  8. Vector-averaged gravity regulates gene expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand and osteoprotegerin in bone marrow stromal cells via cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, M; Yoshimura, K; Takaoki, M; Sato, A

    2002-04-01

    Bone loss due to unloading of the skeleton may be caused by an acceleration of osteoclastic bone resorption as well as a decline of osteoblastic bone formation. Recently, two molecular species that play important roles in osteoclastogenesis were discovered: (i) the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor induces osteoclastogenesis; and (ii) the OPG/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor potently inhibits osteoclastogenesis. To investigate the effects of gravity on gene expression of RANKL and OPG, a mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line, ST2, was cultured on a single axis clinostat, which generates a vector-averaged gravity environment. Northern blot analysis revealed that RANKL mRNA was increased, whereas that of OPG decreased. The clinostat culture also caused an increase in intracellular cyclic (cAMP) level. Both forskolin and dibutyryl-cAMP mimicked the regulation of RANKL and OPG transcription in clinostat culture. These modulations of gene expression in clinostat culture were blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, but not by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The enhancement of RANKL gene expression under clinostat culture and its inhibition by H89 were confirmed by a reporter assay with the murine RANKL 5'-flanking region. These results suggest that modulations of RANKL and OPG expression in stromal cells might be one of the causes of bone loss during skeletal unloading. An elevation of intracellular cAMP level caused through an as yet undetermined pathway is involved in modulation of RANKL and OPG expression during clinostat culture.

  9. Soluble ectodomain CD163 and extracellular vesicle-associated CD163 are two differently regulated forms of ‘soluble CD163’ in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Etzerodt, Anders; Berg, Ronan M. G.; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Andersen, Morten N.; Bebien, Magali; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Lawrence, Toby; Møller, Holger J.; Moestrup, Søren K.

    2017-01-01

    CD163 is the macrophage receptor for uptake of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. The human receptor can be shed from the macrophage surface owing to a cleavage site for the inflammation-inducible TACE/ADAM17 enzyme. Accordingly, plasma ‘soluble CD163’ (sCD163) has become a biomarker for macrophage activity and inflammation. The present study disclosed that 10% of sCD163 in healthy persons is actually extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated CD163 not being cleaved and shed. Endotoxin injection of human volunteers caused a selective increase in the ectodomain CD163, while septic patients exhibited high levels of both soluble ectodomain CD163 and extracellular vesicle (EV) CD163, the latter representing up 60% of total plasma CD163. A poor prognosis of septic patients measured as the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score correlated with the increase in membrane-associated CD163. Our results show that soluble ectodomain CD163 and EV CD163 in plasma are part of separate macrophage response in the context of systemic inflammation. While that soluble ectodomain CD163 is released during the acute systemic inflammatory response, this is not the case for EV CD163 that instead may be released during a later phase of the inflammatory response. A separate measurement of the two forms of CD163 constituting ‘soluble CD163’ in plasma may therefore add to the diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:28084321

  10. Soluble ectodomain CD163 and extracellular vesicle-associated CD163 are two differently regulated forms of 'soluble CD163' in plasma.

    PubMed

    Etzerodt, Anders; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Andersen, Morten N; Bebien, Magali; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Lawrence, Toby; Møller, Holger J; Moestrup, Søren K

    2017-01-13

    CD163 is the macrophage receptor for uptake of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. The human receptor can be shed from the macrophage surface owing to a cleavage site for the inflammation-inducible TACE/ADAM17 enzyme. Accordingly, plasma 'soluble CD163' (sCD163) has become a biomarker for macrophage activity and inflammation. The present study disclosed that 10% of sCD163 in healthy persons is actually extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated CD163 not being cleaved and shed. Endotoxin injection of human volunteers caused a selective increase in the ectodomain CD163, while septic patients exhibited high levels of both soluble ectodomain CD163 and extracellular vesicle (EV) CD163, the latter representing up 60% of total plasma CD163. A poor prognosis of septic patients measured as the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score correlated with the increase in membrane-associated CD163. Our results show that soluble ectodomain CD163 and EV CD163 in plasma are part of separate macrophage response in the context of systemic inflammation. While that soluble ectodomain CD163 is released during the acute systemic inflammatory response, this is not the case for EV CD163 that instead may be released during a later phase of the inflammatory response. A separate measurement of the two forms of CD163 constituting 'soluble CD163' in plasma may therefore add to the diagnostic and prognostic value.

  11. Solubility of KF and NaCl in water by molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, E.; Vega, C.

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of two ionic salts, namely, KF and NaCl, in water has been calculated by Monte Carlo molecular simulation. Water has been modeled with the extended simple point charge model (SPC/E), ions with the Tosi-Fumi model and the interaction between water and ions with the Smith-Dang model. The chemical potential of the solute in the solution has been computed as the derivative of the total free energy with respect to the number of solute particles. The chemical potential of the solute in the solid phase has been calculated by thermodynamic integration to an Einstein crystal. The solubility of the salt has been calculated as the concentration at which the chemical potential of the salt in the solution becomes identical to that of the pure solid. The methodology used in this work has been tested by reproducing the results for the solubility of KF determined previously by Ferrario et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4947 (2002)]. For KF, it was found that the solubility of the model is only in qualitative agreement with experiment. The variation of the solubility with temperature for KF has also been studied. For NaCl, the potential model used predicts a solubility in good agreement with the experimental value. The same is true for the hydration chemical potential at infinite dilution. Given the practical importance of solutions of NaCl in water the model used in this work, whereas simple, can be of interest for future studies.

  12. Solubilities of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.H.; Shockley, W.E.; Greene, C.W.

    1984-07-01

    The solubility behavior of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane was investigated for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in support of the fluorocarbon absorption process. The solubility data derived from solute radioisotopes had uncertainties of approx. 0.1%. Values for Henry's law constants were initially determined under equilibrium conditions at infinite solute dilution. Based on these results, the study was extended to finite solute concentrations. Nonidealities in the two binary systems were expressed as gas phase fugacity coefficients for each solute at 10/sup 0/ intervals over the range -30 to +50/sup 0/C. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  14. Soluble Salt Accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Implications for Paleolakes and Ross Sea Ice Sheet Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Sletten, R. S.; Prentice, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Soluble salt accumulations in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, provide a history of paleolakes and the advance of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet (RSIS). We measured soluble salts in 89 soils throughout Taylor Valley in soil-water extractions. In western Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are relatively high and are comprised primarily of Na, Ca, Cl, and SO4. In eastern Taylor Valley, soluble salt accumulations are much lower and are comprised primarily of Na and HCO3. Salt compositions measured in soil-water extractions are highly influenced by the dissolution of sparingly soluble salts (e.g. calcite and gypsum) and cation exchange reactions. Furthermore, during soil-water extractions, Ca from calcite or gypsum dissolution exchanges with exchangeable Na, K, and Mg. These processes can strongly influence both the total salt content measured in soils and ionic ratios. Thus, it is important to consider the effects of these reactions when interpreting soluble salt accumulations measured in soil-water extractions. Calcite dissolution and cation exchange reactions also appear to have a widespread natural occurrence, resulting in the Na-HCO3 compositions of soils, streams, and lakes in eastern Taylor Valley. The soluble salt data supports the hypotheses that a lobe of the RSIS expanded into eastern Taylor Valley and dammed proglacial paleolakes. However, in contrast to previous studies, our findings indicate that the RSIS advanced deeper into Taylor Valley and that paleolakes were less extensive. By comparing soluble salt distributions across Taylor Valley, we conclude that a lobe of the RSIS filled all of eastern Taylor Valley and dammed paleolakes in western Taylor Valley up to 300 m elevation. Following ice retreat, smaller paleolakes formed in both western and eastern Taylor Valley up to about 120 m, with a prominent still stands at 80 m that was controlled by the elevation of a major valley threshold.

  15. Connecting the solubility and CCN activation of complex organic aerosols: a theoretical study using solubility distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riipinen, I.; Rastak, N.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    We present a theoretical study investigating the cloud activation of multicomponent organic particles. We modeled these complex mixtures using solubility distributions (analogous to volatility distributions in the VBS, i.e., volatility basis set, approach), describing the mixture as a set of surrogate compounds with varying water solubilities in a given range. We conducted Köhler theory calculations for 144 different mixtures with varying solubility range, number of components, assumption about the organic mixture thermodynamics and the shape of the solubility distribution, yielding approximately 6000 unique cloud condensation nucleus (CCN)-activation points. The results from these comprehensive calculations were compared to three simplifying assumptions about organic aerosol solubility: (1) complete dissolution at the point of activation; (2) combining the aerosol solubility with the molar mass and density into a single effective hygroscopicity parameter κ; and (3) assuming a fixed water-soluble fraction ϵeff. The complete dissolution was able to reproduce the activation points with a reasonable accuracy only when the majority (70-80%) of the material was dissolved at the point of activation. The single-parameter representations of complex mixture solubility were confirmed to be powerful semi-empirical tools for representing the CCN activation of organic aerosol, predicting the activation diameter within 10% in most of the studied supersaturations. Depending mostly on the condensed-phase interactions between the organic molecules, material with solubilities larger than about 0.1-100 g L-1 could be treated as soluble in the CCN activation process over atmospherically relevant particle dry diameters and supersaturations. Our results indicate that understanding the details of the solubility distribution in the range of 0.1-100 g L-1 is thus critical for capturing the CCN activation, while resolution outside this solubility range will probably not add

  16. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

  17. Highly Acidic Ambient Particles, Soluble Metals, and Oxidative Potential: A Link between Sulfate and Aerosol Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Guo, Hongyu; Zeng, Linghan; Verma, Vishal; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J

    2017-03-07

    Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA. Elemental and organic carbon, ions, total and water-soluble metals, and water-soluble OP were measured. Particle pH was determined with a thermodynamic model using measured ionic species. Sulfate was spatially uniform and found mainly in the fine mode, whereas total metals and mineral dust cations were highest at the road-side site and in the coarse mode, resulting in a fine mode pH < 2 and near neutral coarse mode. Soluble metals and OP peaked at the intersection of these modes demonstrating that sulfate plays a key role in producing highly acidic fine aerosols capable of dissolving primary transition metals that contribute to aerosol OP. Sulfate-driven metals dissolution may account for sulfate-health associations reported in past studies.

  18. [Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals and legumes cultivated in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H

    1990-03-01

    Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.

  19. Children’s Acceptance, Nutritional, and Instrumental Evaluations of Whole Grain and Soluble Fiber Enriched Foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend 3 or more daily servings of whole grains (WG), and FDA suggests consumption of 25 g of total dietary fiber (TDF) and 6 g of soluble fiber (SF). Efforts to increase the consumption of WG and SF among elementary school-aged children are needed. The...

  20. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.

  1. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  2. Surface shear inviscidity of soluble surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Nowbahar, Arash; Mansard, Vincent; Leal, L. Gary; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Mecca, Jodi M.; Tucker, Christopher J.; Squires, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Foam and emulsion stability has long been believed to correlate with the surface shear viscosity of the surfactant used to stabilize them. Many subtleties arise in interpreting surface shear viscosity measurements, however, and correlations do not necessarily indicate causation. Using a sensitive technique designed to excite purely surface shear deformations, we make the most sensitive and precise measurements to date of the surface shear viscosity of a variety of soluble surfactants, focusing on SDS in particular. Our measurements reveal the surface shear viscosity of SDS to be below the sensitivity limit of our technique, giving an upper bound of order 0.01 μN·s/m. This conflicts directly with almost all previous studies, which reported values up to 103–104 times higher. Multiple control and complementary measurements confirm this result, including direct visualization of monolayer deformation, for SDS and a wide variety of soluble polymeric, ionic, and nonionic surfactants of high- and low-foaming character. No soluble, small-molecule surfactant was found to have a measurable surface shear viscosity, which seriously undermines most support for any correlation between foam stability and surface shear rheology of soluble surfactants. PMID:24563383

  3. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  4. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  5. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  6. Golden rule for buttressing vulnerable soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Berry, R Stephen

    2010-05-07

    Local weaknesses in the structure of soluble proteins have received little attention. The structure may be inherently weak at sites where hydration of the protein backbone is locally hampered by formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond which in turn is not fully stabilized through burial within a hydrophobic environment. The result is insufficient compensation for the thermodynamic cost of dehydrating the backbone polar groups. This work shows that these structural deficiencies, the unburied backbone hydrogen bonds, are compensated in natural proteins by disulfide bonds that are needed to maintain the structural integrity. Examination of all PDB-reported soluble structures reveals that, after suitable normalization, the number of disulfide bonds, X, correlates tightly with the number of unburied backbone hydrogen bonds, Y, beyond the baseline level Y = 20, revealing a simple balance relation: Y = 5X + 20. This equation introduces a 1:5 ratio associated with the buttressing of soluble proteins with structural deficiencies. The results are justified on thermodynamic grounds and have implications for biomolecular engineering as they introduce two constants of universal applicability determining the architecture of soluble proteins.

  7. A new expanded solubility parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Stefanis, Emmanuel; Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-04-15

    The partial or Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) are important properties of the various substances and very useful tools for the selection of their solvents or the prediction of their behaviour in numerous applications. Their design and evaluation relies on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility. The present work attempts to enhance the capacity of HSPs by incorporating into their evaluation the other basic rule of solubility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This is done in a simple and straightforward manner by splitting the hydrogen bonding HSP into its acidic or proton donor component and its basic or proton acceptor one. The splitting is based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions or sigma profiles of the quantum-mechanics based COSMO-RS theory. The whole development and application does not involve any sophisticated calculations or any strong specific background. The new method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceutical interest in order to verify the significant improvement over the classical HSP approach. The application of the new method requires, of course, the knowledge of the HSPs. For this reason, in Appendix A is presented an updated version of a robust and reliable group-contribution method for the calculation of the HSPs. The key features of this combined tool are critically discussed.

  8. Water-soluble constituents of dill.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kudo, Masato; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-04-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of dill (fruit of Anethum graveolens L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine, thirty-three compounds, including a new monoterpenoid, six new monoterpenoid glycosides, a new aromatic compound glucoside and a new alkyl glucoside were obtained. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  9. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  10. Partially soluble organics as cloud condensation nuclei: Role of trace soluble and surface active species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Kumar, P. Pradeep; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of partially soluble organic species to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been studied. A Köhler model incorporating solute solubility and droplet surface tension describes the behavior of solid adipic and succinic acid particles, whereas solid azelaic acid activates much more efficiently that predicted. In addition, it was shown that trace levels of either sulfate or surface active species have a dramatic effect on the activation of adipic acid, a moderately soluble organic, as predicted by the full Köhler model. For internally mixed particles in the atmosphere, these effects will greatly enhance the role of organic aerosols as CCN.

  11. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, and Ar Solubility in Serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to constrain the solubility of He, Ne, and Ar in natural samples of antigorite from three locations. Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material [1] and well gases [2] indicate that noble gases are recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. The mechanism by which uncharged atoms can be bound to a mineral and subsequently recycled remains unclear, but recent experimental work suggests that ring structures in silicate minerals are ideal sites for noble gases [3]. Serpentine contains such ring structures and is abundant in subducting slabs, providing significant potential for control of the recycling of noble gases. Experiments were performed in a cold seal pressure vessel at 350°C using a mix of equal parts He, Ne, and Ar as the pressure media (Brown University, USA). Pressures varied from 0.15 to 1.13 kbar total pressure and durations varied from 20 to 188 hours. Samples were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry (Open University, UK). He and Ne reached equilibrium during the experiments and both exhibit Henrian behavior. Data from the cleanest sample reduces the error by approximately an order of magnitude over previous work [3] and confirms that He is significantly more soluble (HCHe=6.05x10-10 mol/g/bar) than Ne (HCNe=5.12x10-12 mol/g/bar) in antigorite. Preliminary data from the cleanest sample suggests that Ar is more soluble than both He and Ne (HCAr=1.94x10-10 mol/g/bar). This provides a mechanism for fractionation of noble gases during recycling. 1. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G., and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Jackson, C.R.M., Parman, S.W., Kelley, S.P., Cooper, R.F., GCA, 159, 1-15, 2015

  12. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  13. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  14. Parallel Total Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  15. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    A total solar eclipse is seen on Monday, August 21, 2017 from onboard a NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center’s Gulfstream III 25,000 feet above the Oregon coast. A total solar eclipse swept across a narrow portion of the contiguous United States from Lincoln Beach, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  16. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  17. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  18. Predicting the solubility of drugs in solvent mixtures: multiple solubility maxima and the chameleonic effect.

    PubMed

    Escalera, J B; Bustamante, P; Martin, A

    1994-03-01

    An approach to reproduce the solubility profile of a drug in several solvent mixtures showing two solubility maxima is proposed in this work. The solubility of sulphamethoxypyridazine was determined at 25 degrees C in several mixtures of varying polarity (hexane:ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:ethanol and ethanol:water). Sulphamethoxypyridazine was chosen as a model drug because of its proton-donor and proton-acceptor properties. A plot of the mole fraction of the drug vs the solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures shows two solubility peaks. The two peaks found for sulphamethoxypyridazine demonstrate the chameleonic effect as described by Hoy and suggest that the solute-solvent interaction does not vary uniformly from one mixture to another. The different behaviour of the drug in mixtures of two proton-donor and proton-acceptor solvents (alcohol and water), and in mixtures of one proton acceptor (ethyl acetate) and one proton donor-proton acceptor (ethanol) is rationalized in terms of differences in the proton donor-acceptor ability of the solvent mixtures. An approach based on the acidic and basic partial solubility parameters together with the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures is developed to reproduce the experimental results quantitatively. The equation predicts the two solubility maxima as found experimentally, and the calculated values closely correspond to the experimental values through the range composition of the solvent mixtures. These results show that the chameleonic effect can be described in a quantitative way in terms of Lewis acid-base interactions; this approach can assist the product formulator to choose the proper solvent mixture for a new drug.

  19. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  20. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  1. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil(®) M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.

  2. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous mixtures of alkanolamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dawodu, O.F.; Meisen, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The solubility of CO[sub 2] in water + N-methyldiethanolamine + monoethanolamine (MDEA + MEA) and water + N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine (MDEA + DEA) are reported at two compositions of 3.4 M MDEA + 0.8 M MEA or DEA and 2.1 M MDEA + 2.1 M MEA or DEA at temperatures from 70 to 180 C and CO[sub 2] partial pressures from 100 to 3,850 kPa. The solubility of CO[sub 2] in the blends decreased with an increase in temperature but increased with an increase in CO[sub 2] partial pressure. At low partial pressures of CO[sub 2] and the same total amine concentration, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings were in the order MDEA + MEA > MDEA + DEA > MDEA. However, at high CO[sub 2] partial pressures, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings in the MDEA solutions were higher than those of the MDEA + MEA and MDEA + DEA blends of equal molar strengths due to the stoichiometric loading limitations of MEA and DEA. The nonadditivity of the equilibrium loadings for single amine systems highlights the need for independent measurements on amine blends.

  3. Water soluble organic constituents in Arctic aerosols and snow pack

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaomeng ); Winchester, J.W. )

    1993-01-08

    Eight water-soluble organic anions were measured in 70 aerosol samples and 10 snow samples at Barrow, Alaska in March-April, 1989. The ranking of the ions in aerosols according to total (coarse + fine aerosol) median concentrations was acetate (44 ng m[sup [minus]3]), oxalate (27), benzoate (23), formate (22), propionate (6), methanesulfonate (5), lactate (4), and pyruvate (4). When added up, the median organic anion mass was 156 ng m[sup [minus]3]. The organic anions/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio had a median of 0.18 and 0.07 in the coarse (>1 [mu]m) and fine (<1 [mu]m) size fractions, respectively, but can be very high on occasions. On average, the organic anions made up more than 10% of the water-soluble aerosol mass. A similar ranking in concentration was also found for the organic ions in the snow pack samples. The organic anion/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio in these samples was >0.5, substantially higher than in aerosols. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Siopack, J S; Jergesen, H E

    1995-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty, or surgical replacement of the hip joint with an artificial prosthesis, is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. In this review we briefly summarize the evolution of total hip arthroplasty, the design and development of prosthetic hip components, and the current clinical indications for this procedure. The possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, its clinical performance over time, and future directions in hip replacement surgery are also discussed. Images PMID:7725707

  6. [Total artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  7. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene with serum osteoprotegerin levels in healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Ki-Won; Yun, Eun-Joo; Jung, Chan-Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Il; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo

    2007-12-31

    Recent evidences suggest that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, which is an important transcriptional factor in adipocyte differentiation, also plays an important role in the bone microenvironment. The objective of the study was to clarify whether Pro12Ala polymorphism was related to the serum OPG levels and bone mineral metabolism in healthy Korean women. In 239 Korean women (mean age 51 years), who participated in medical check-up program in a health promotion center, anthropometric measurements, lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, urine deoxypyridinoline levels, and 24-h urine calcium excretion were measured. Serum levels of OPG were measured with ELISA method. DNAs were extracted from the samples and the genotyping of the Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) in the PPAR-gamma gene was performed via an allelic discrimination assay using a TaqMan probe. In addition, we examined the haplotype analysis between two polymorphisms of PPAR-gamma gene, Pro12Ala in exon B and C161T in exon 6 (rs3856806). Allelic frequencies were 0.950 for Pro allele and 0.050 for Ala allele, which was in compliance with Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no Ala12Ala genotype among the genotyped subjects. Mean serum OPG level was significantly lower (P=0.035), and serum total ALP was significantly higher (P=0.014) in the Pro12Ala genotype group compared with the Pro12Pro genotype group, which were consistently significant even after adjustment for weight, height, and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In multiple regression analysis with serum OPG as the dependent variable and age, weight, ALP, femoral neck BMD and Pro12Ala genotype included in the model, only Pro12Ala genotype was significant determinant of serum OPG level (b=??0.136, P=0.035). The haplotype analysis with C161T polymorphism revealed that subjects with Ala and T alleles

  8. Biorelevant solubility of poorly soluble drugs: rivaroxaban, furosemide, papaverine and niflumic acid.

    PubMed

    Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Szőke, Vera; Völgyi, Gergely; Horváth, Péter; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2013-09-01

    In this work the biorelevant solubility of four drugs representing different acid-base property, wide range of lipohilicity and low aqueous solubility was studied. The equilibrium solubility of rivaroxaban (non-ionizable), furosemide (acid), papaverine (base) and niflumic acid (ampholyte) was determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF pH 1.2), in simulated intestinal fluid fasted state (FaSSIF pH 6.5) and fed state (FeSSIF pH 5.0) and their corresponding blank buffers at a temperature of 37 °C using saturation shake-flask method. The concentration was measured by optimized HPLC analysis. The solubilizing effect of bile acid/lipid micelles as additive components of biorelevent media (BRM) is expressed with the solubility ratio (SR: SBRM/Sblank buffer) and the food effect was estimated from SFeSSIF/SFaSSIF coefficient. It was revealed that ionization plays primarily role in solubility of compounds which undergo ionization in BRM. The solubilizing effect in FaSSIF was marginal for the neutral compound (rivaroxaban) and for molecules are anionic at pH 6.5 (furosemide and niflumic acid). The higher concentration of solubilizing agents in FeSSIF improved the solubility of papaverine carrying positive charge and niflumic acid being partially zwitterionic at pH 5.0.

  9. Valence effects on solubility and sorption: the solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    The solubilities of technetium (IV) oxides have been determined in solutions of NaCl, HCl, and synthetic groundwaters in the pH range 0 to 10. Oxides were prepared either by electroreduction from Tc(VII) solutions onto platinum electrodes or by precipitation of Tc from Tc(VII) solutions using hydrazine. In some of the determinations, the oxide was precipitated onto purified sand by use of hydrazine. The oxide-covered sand was then placed into a column and the test solution continuously recirculated through the column. The oxide plated on platinum was placed into a small cell and the test solution stirred. Solubilities were determined by measuring the beta radiation of /sup 99/Tc in the stirred or circulated solution in contact with the oxide. In the pH range 4 to 10, solubilities were in the range 7.5 x 10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L, and most of the determinations were in the range 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L. In acid solutions the solubilities were generally higher for hydrazine-precipitated oxide than for the electrodeposited oxide, and they increased as the pH was lowered. Solubilities of Tc(IV) oxides will be useful for calculation of transport rates of technetium for the case of solubility-limited transport in nuclear waste repository environments.

  10. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  11. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  12. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  13. Multiclass Total Variation Clustering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Multiclass Total Variation Clustering Xavier Bresson University of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland xavier.bresson@unil.ch Thomas Laurent Loyola...recently motivated a new set of clustering algorithms that rely on the concept of total variation. While these al- gorithms perform well for bi-partitioning...tasks, their recursive extensions yield unimpressive results for multiclass clustering tasks. This paper presents a general framework for multiclass

  14. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    During the total solar eclipse, the Sun’s corona, only visible during the total eclipse, is shown as a crown of white flares from the surface. The red spots called Bailey's beads occurs where the moon grazes by the Sun and the rugged lunar limb topography allows beads of sunlight to shine through in some areas as photographed from NASA Armstrong’s Gulfstream III. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  15. 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    The diamond-ring effect occurred at the beginning and end of totality during a total solar eclipse. As the last bits of sunlight pass through the valleys on the moon's limb, and the faint corona around the sun is just becoming visible, it looks like a ring with glittering diamonds on it. Credit: (NASA/Carla Thomas)

  16. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  18. Analysis of effect of the solubility on gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, W. E., Jr.; Evans, J. W.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made of the gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lung models and in homogeneous lung models with the same total blood flow and ventilation. It is shown that the ratio of the rate of gas transfer of the inhomogeneous lung model over the rate of gas transfer of the homogeneous lung model as a function of gas solubility always has the qualitative features for gases with linear dissociation curves. This ratio is 1 for a gas with zero solubility and decreases to a single minimum. It subsequently rises to approach 1 as the solubility tends to infinity. The early portion of the graph of this function is convex, then after a single inflection point it is concave.

  19. Influence of pH, temperature and common ion on magnesium hydrogenurate octahydrate solubility.

    PubMed

    Babić-Ivancić, Vesna; Jendrić, Martina; Sostarić, Nives; Opacak-Bernardi, Teuta; Zorić, Sandra Tucak; Dutour Sikirić, Maja

    2010-03-01

    Physico-chemical investigation of urolithiasis today is mostly focused on applying physico-chemical description of precipitation processes to the stone formation with the aim to distinguish between stone formers and nonstone formers. This is done by calculating supersaturation for different solid phases which can be formed in urine using data obtained by urine analysis and existing solubility product, dissociation and complexation constants. In order for this approach to succeed it is of utmost importance that system is described as detailed as possible, i.e., that all species that can be formed are taken into account. Magnesium hydrogenurate octahydrate, Mg(C5H3N4O3)28H2O (Mg(HU)2.8H2O), is among species which can precipitate in the urine and for which solubility data doesn't exist. In order to fill this void crystals of Mg(C5H3N4O)2.8H2O phase I and phase II have been prepared and characterized. Solubility product constant of Mg(C5H3N4O3)2.8H2O phase I in water at 37 degrees C and phase II at different temperatures, pH and in different solvents have been determined by measuring total concentration of uric acid and magnesium ions in solutions at different time periods. Results show that in water at 37 degrees C thermodynamically less stable phase I is more soluble (Ksp = (5.64 +/- 0.20).10(-9) mol3 dm(-9)) than phase II (Ksp = (1.66 +/- 0.13).10(-9) mol3 dm(-9)). Solubility of Mg(HU)2.8H2O phase II increases with temperature. At equilibrium the solubility of phase II is the lowest in the presence of excess of magnesium ions, while solubility in the presence of uric acid is comparable with the one obtained in water.

  20. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (p<0.001), fibroblast growth factor-23 (p<0.001), soluble α-Klotho levels (p=0.001) and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (p<0.001) as compared with healthy volunteers. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23, soluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases.