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Sample records for osteoprotegerin total soluble

  1. Salivary soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in periodontal disease and health

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh; Azadmehr, Abbas; Tabrizi, Mohammad Amir Alizadeh; Hamissi, Jalaloddin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a significant role in osteoclastogenesis, activation of osteoclasts, and regulation of bone resorption. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the salivary soluble RANKL (sRANKL)/OPG ratio as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis in nonsmokers. Methods Twenty-five patients with chronic periodontitis and 25 individuals with a healthy periodontium were enrolled in this study. Samples containing 5 mL of unstimulated saliva were obtained from each subject. Salivary sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 18.0. Results The levels of sRANKL and OPG were detectable in all of the samples. Positive relationships were found between the plaque index and clinical attachment level and both the salivary concentration of sRANKL and the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio (P<0.05). The salivary concentration of sRANKL and the sRANKL/OPG ratio were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group (P=0.004 and P=0.001, respectively). In contrast, the OPG concentration showed no significant differences between the groups (P=0.455). Conclusions These findings suggest that the salivary sRANKL/OPG ratio may be helpful in the screening and diagnosis of periodontitis. However, longitudinal studies with larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24236245

  2. Osteoprotegerin protects against muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sébastien S; Dumont, Nicolas A; Bouchard, Patrice; Lavergne, Éliane; Penninger, Josef M; Frenette, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-activator of NF-κB, its ligand RANKL, and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin are the key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and bone remodeling. Although there is a strong association between osteoporosis and skeletal muscle atrophy/dysfunction, the functional relevance of a particular biological pathway that synchronously regulates bone and skeletal muscle physiopathology still is elusive. Here, we show that muscle cells can produce and secrete osteoprotegerin and pharmacologic treatment of dystrophic mdx mice with recombinant osteoprotegerin muscles. (Recombinant osteoprotegerin-Fc mitigates the loss of muscle force in a dose-dependent manner and preserves muscle integrity, particularly in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus.) Our data identify osteoprotegerin as a novel protector of muscle integrity, and it potentially represents a new therapeutic avenue for both muscular diseases and osteoporosis.

  3. Soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio is increased in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have lower bone mineral density and increased fracture risk when compared with healthy individuals, due to distinct factors and mechanisms. Bone remodeling is a tightly orchestrated process dependent on several factors, including the balance between receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Our aim was to assess serum OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) levels as well as sRANKL/OPG ratio in female SLE patients and compare it with female controls. Methods We have evaluated 103 SLE patients and 114 healthy controls, all Caucasian females. All participants underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation. sRANKL and OPG were quantified in serum by ELISA based methods. sRANKL, OPG and sRANKL/OPG ratio levels were compared between SLE patients and age, sex and race matched healthy controls. For SLE patients, a multivariate analysis was performed, to find the possible predictors of the changes in sRANKL, OPG and sRANKL/OPG ratio levels. Results Although sRANKL levels did not differ between the two groups, serum OPG was lower in SLE patients (P < 0.001). This led to an increased sRANKL/OPG ratio (P = 0.010) in the patients' group. The multivariate analysis was performed considering age and other clinical and laboratorial potential confounders for these variations in the SLE patients group. We have showed that age (P = 0.001) and levels of anti-Sm antibodies (P = 0.016) were independent predictors of sRANKL/OPG ratio variations in SLE patients. No relationship with therapy or disease activity measured by SLEDAI2K was found. Conclusions These results are suggestive of increased osteoclastic stimuli driven by the SLE disease mechanisms. PMID:22027240

  4. Osteoprotegerin and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saidenberg Kermanac'h, N; Bessis, Natacha; Cohen-Solal, M; De Vernejoul, M C; Boissier, Marie-Christophe

    2002-01-01

    RANK, RANKL, and OPG have well established regulatory effects on bone metabolism. RANK is expressed at very high levels on osteoclastic precursors and on mature osteoclasts, and is required for differentiation and activation of the osteoclast. The ligand, RANKL binds to its receptor RANK to induce bone resorption. RANKL is a transmembrane protein expressed in various cells type and particularly on osteoblast and activated T cells. RANKL can be cleaved and the soluble form is active. Osteoprotegerin decoy receptor (OPG), a member of the TNF receptor family expressed by osteoblasts, strongly inhibits bone resorption by binding with high affinity to its ligand RANKL, thereby preventing RANKL from engaging its receptor RANK. This system is regulated by the calciotropic hormones. Conversely, the effects of RANKL, RANK, and OPG on inflammatory processes, most notably on the bone resorption associated with inflammation, remain to be defined. The RANK system seems to play a major role in modulating the immune system. Activated T cells express RANKL messenger RNA, and knock-out mice for RANKL acquire severe immunological abnormalities and osteopetrosis. RANKL secretion by activated T cells can induce osteoclastogenesis. These mechanisms are enhanced by cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-17, which promote both inflammation and bone resorption. Conversely, this system is blocked by OPG, IL-4, and IL-10, which inhibit both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. These data may explain part of the abnormal phenomena in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis characterized by both inflammation and destruction. Activated T cells within the rheumatoid synovium express RANKL. Synovial cells are capable of differentiating to osteoclast-like cells under some conditions, including culturing with M-CSF and RANKL. This suggests that the bone erosion seen in rheumatoid arthritis may result from RANKL/RANK system activation by activated T cells. This opens up the possibility that OPG

  5. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273

  6. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  7. Determination of free and total carbohydrate profile in soluble coffee.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M; Lador, F; Martinez, C; Obert, L; Blanc, M B; Parchet, J M

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was evaluated for the determination of free and total carbohydrates in soluble coffee. Samples are solubilized in water for free carbohydrates or hydrolyzed with 1.00N hydrochloric acid for total carbohydrates. An aliquot of the sample solution is analyzed on a pellicular anion-exchange polystyrene-divinylbenzene column using pure water as the mobile phase. Carbohydrates are quantitated by a pulsed amperometric detector. All major carbohydrates found in soluble coffee are determined in a single run. The technique allowed the detection of fraudulent addition of coffee husks or parchments as well as cereals or caramelized sugar for the 63 commercial products analyzed. High levels of free mannitol, free fructose, free glucose, sucrose, total glucose, and total xylose are a good indication of adulteration. Data were compared with those obtained from separate enzymatic determinations and from a different LC procedure. A close agreement among the methods was observed. However, the original method was superior in precision and was the only procedure that enabled the quantitation of all major carbohydrates. The technique is, therefore, a very powerful tool for routine analysis and for purity assessment of soluble coffee.

  8. Soluble and total myrosinase activity in defatted Crambe abyssinica meal.

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, M G; Iori, R; Palmieri, S

    2001-02-01

    Crambe defatted meal contains 4-6% w/w of glucosinolates, with epiprogoitrin accounting for >90% of the total. This feature limits the use of the meal as feed due to the antinutritional properties of myrosinase-glucosinolate breakdown products. In this context, myrosinase activity assumes particular importance. In this study the total and soluble myrosinase activities have been evaluated directly on defatted meals of eight Crambe abyssinica varieties. The pH-stat method, which is the most suitable for assays in heterogeneous solid-water systems, was used. The total myrosinase activity in C. abyssinica varieties, determined using epiprogoitrin as substrate, ranged from 288 to 653 units g(-1). These activity values were up to 26 times higher than those obtained using other substrates, namely, sinigrin, glucosinalbin, glucotropaeolin, progoitrin, and glucoraphenin. Crambe myrosinase is unusual in that, unlike other Brassicaceae containing a typical main glucosinolate, it does not show the same specificity toward its natural substrates.

  9. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  10. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... corresponding total soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II...

  15. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7-8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78-0.90 and 0.79-0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties.

  16. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH < 7, 7–8 and > 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78–0.90 and 0.79–0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH < 7, was relatively reasonable for pH 7 to 8, and gave an overestimation for pH > 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH < 8 and meanwhile quite reasonable results for pH > 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties. PMID:26217951

  17. Plasma osteoprotegerin is associated with mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Morena, Marion; Terrier, Nathalie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Chalabi, Lotfi; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Maurice, François; Delcourt, Cécile; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Canaud, Bernard; Dupuy, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    Expression of bone proteins resulting from transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblasts suggests that vascular calcifications are a bioactive process. Regulating molecules such as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) could play a key role in bone-vascular calcification imbalance. This study investigated the contribution of these proteins as well as mineral metabolism disorders in hemodialysis (HD) patient outcome. A total of 185 HD patients were followed up prospectively for 2 yr. In addition to clinical characteristics, mineral metabolism markers as well as OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) were measured at baseline. After 2 yr, survival rates were described with Kaplan-Meier and compared with Cox regression analyses; 50 patients died (27 from cardiovascular diseases). Calcium, phosphate, and calcium x phosphate product were not associated with mortality. Both hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone > or =300 pg/ml) and hypoparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone <150 pg/ml) were poorly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. By contrast, elevated OPG levels predicted all-cause (relative risk [RR] 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 5.41; P = 0.006) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14 to 8.69; P = 0.03). Low levels of sRANKL were associated with a protective effect for all-cause mortality (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.94; P = 0.03). The association of OPG with all-cause mortality was stronger in patients with C-reactive protein > or =12.52 mg/L. In this condition, both highest (RR 5.68; 95% CI 1.48 to 22.73; P = 0.01) and lowest tertiles (RR 5.37; 95% CI 147 to 1968; P = 0.01) significantly predicted poor outcome. These results show that regulating-bone molecules, especially OPG, are strong predictors of mortality in HD patients, suggesting that OPG is a vascular risk factor, in particular in patients who have high C-reactive protein levels. OPG determination therefore should

  18. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min.

  19. Total soluble solids from banana: evaluation and optimization of extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Santos, Júlio C; Izário Filho, Hélcio J; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida e Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Banana, an important component in the diet of the global population, is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. This fruit is also very favorable to industry processes (e.g., fermented beverages) due to its rich content on soluble solids and minerals, with low acidity. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of factors such as banana weight and extraction time during a hot aqueous extraction process on the total soluble solids content of banana. The extract is to be used by the food and beverage industries. The experiments were performed with 105 mL of water, considering the moisture of the ripe banana (65%). Total sugar concentrations were obtained in a beer analyzer and the result expressed in degrees Plato (degrees P, which is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution at 20 degrees C), aiming at facilitating the use of these results by the beverage industries. After previous studies of characterization of the fruit and of ripening performance, a 2(2) full-factorial star design was carried out, and a model was developed to describe the behavior of the dependent variable (total soluble solids) as a function of the factors (banana weight and extraction time), indicating as optimum conditions for extraction 38.5 g of banana at 39.7 min. PMID:19082923

  20. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  1. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  2. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets. 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Burton, J W; Brake, J

    2008-03-01

    Dietary Ca has been reported to influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and affect the solubility of P in excreta. To address the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion, 12 dietary treatments were fed to broilers from 16 to 21 d of age. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of phytate P (0.10, 0.24, and 0.28%) and 4 levels of Ca (0.47, 0.70, 0.93, and 1.16%) in a randomized complete block design. Feed phytate concentrations were varied by formulating diets with 3 different soybean meals (SBM): a low-phytate SBM, a commercial SBM, and a high phytate Prolina SBM having phytate P concentrations of 0.15 to 0.51%. Fresh excreta was collected from cages during 2 separate 24-h periods; collection I commenced after the start of dietary treatments (16 to 17 d) and collection II followed a 3-d adaptation period (19 to 20 d). Ileal samples were also collected at 21 d. Excreta samples were analyzed for total P, water soluble P (WSP), and phytate P, whereas ileal samples were analyzed for total P and phytate P. Results indicated that excreta total P could be reduced by up to 63% and WSP by up to 66% with dietary inclusion of low-phytate SBM. There was a significant effect of dietary Ca on both the excreta WSP and the ratio of WSP:total P. As dietary Ca increased, the excreta WSP and WSP:total P decreased, with the effects being more pronounced following a dietary adaptation period. There was a linear relationship between the slope of the response in WSP to dietary Ca and feed phytate content for excreta from collection II (r(2) = 0.99). There was also a negative correlation between excreta phytate concentration and excreta WSP during both excreta collections. The response in WSP to dietary manipulation was important from an environmental perspective because WSP in excreta has been related to potential for off-site P losses following land application. PMID:18281571

  3. Systemic release of osteoprotegerin during oxaliplatin-containing induction chemotherapy and favorable systemic outcome of sequential radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Sebastian; Kalanxhi, Erta; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Dueland, Svein; Flatmark, Kjersti; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2016-01-01

    In colorectal cancer, immune effectors may be determinative for disease outcome. Following curatively intended combined-modality therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer metastatic disease still remains a dominant cause of failure. Here, we investigated whether circulating immune factors might correlate with outcome. An antibody array was applied to assay changes of approximately 500 proteins in serial serum samples collected from patients during oxaliplatin-containing induction chemotherapy and sequential chemoradiotherapy before final pelvic surgery. Array data was analyzed by the Significance Analysis of Microarrays software and indicated significant alterations in serum osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B) during the treatment course, which were confirmed by osteoprotegerin measures using a single-parameter immunoassay. Patients experiencing increase in circulating osteoprotegerin during the chemotherapy had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival than those without increase (78% versus 48%; P = 0.009 by log-rank test). Hence, systemic release of this soluble tumor necrosis factor decoy receptor following the induction phase of neoadjuvant therapy was associated with favorable long-term outcome in patients given curatively intended chemoradiotherapy and surgery but with metastatic disease as the main adverse event. This finding suggests that osteoprotegerin may mediate or reflect systemic anti-tumor immunity invoked by combined-modality therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:27145458

  4. Anthropogenic Influence on Secondary Aerosol Formation and Total Water-Soluble Carbon on Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, Adriana; Mateus, Vinicius; Monteiro, Isabela; Taira, Fabio; Esteves, Veronica; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    On a global scale, the atmosphere is an important source of nutrients, as well as pollutants, because of its interfaces with soil and water. Important compounds in the gaseous phase are in both organic and inorganic forms, such as organic acids, nitrogen, sulfur and chloride. In spite of the species in gas form, a huge number of process, anthropogenic and natural, are able to form aerosols, which may be transported over long distances. Sulfates e nitrates are responsible for rain acidity; they may also increase the solubility of organic compounds and metals making them more bioavailable, and also can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected in a rural and industrial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to quantify chemical species and evaluate anthropogenic influences in secondary aerosol formation and organic compounds. Samples were collected during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from August 2010 to July 2011. The aerosol mass was determined by Gravimetry. The water-soluble ionic composition (WSIC) was obtained by Ion Chromatography in order to determine the major anions (NO3-, SO4= and Cl-); total water-soluble carbon (TWSC) was determined by a TOC analyzer. The average aerosol (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 1 to 43 ug/m3 in the industrial site and from 4 to 35 ug/m3 in the rural area. Regarding anions, the highest concentrations were measured for SO42- (10.6 μg/m3-12.6 μg/m3); where the lowest value was found in the rural site and the highest in the industrial. The concentrations for NO3- and Cl- ranged from 4.2 μg/m3 to 9.3 μg/m3 and 3.1 μg/m3 to 6.4 μg /m3, respectively. Sulfate was the major species and, like nitrate, it is related to photooxidation in the atmosphere. Interestingly sulfate concentrations were higher during the dry period and could be related to photochemistry activity. The correlations between nitrate and non-sea-salt sulfate were weak, suggesting different sources for these

  5. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Tenuta, Livia M. A.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children’s toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used. PMID:24189183

  6. Osteoprotegerin and Vascular Calcification: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Makarović, Sandra; Makarović, Zorin; Steiner, Robert; Mihaljević, Ivan; Milas-Ahić, Jasminka

    2015-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a key regulator in bone metabolism, that also has effect in vascular system. Studies suggest that osteoprotegerin is a critical arterial calcification inhibitor, and is released by endothelial cells as a protective mechanism for their survival in certain pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and other metabolic disorders. That has been shown in studies in vitro and in animal models. The discovery that OPG deficient mice (OPG -/- mice) develop severe osteoporosis and arterial calcification, has led to conclusion that osteoprotegerin might be mulecule linking vascular and bone system. Paradoxically however, clinical trials have shown recently that OPG serum levels is increased in coronary artery disease and correlates with its severity, ischemic cardial decompensation, and future cardiovascular events. Therefore it is possible that osteoprotegerin could have a new function as a potential biomarker in early identification and monitoring patients with cardiovascular disease. Amongst that osteoprotegerin is in association with well known atherosclerosis risc factors: undoubtedly it is proven its relationship with age, smoking and diabetes mellitus. There is evidence regarding presence of hyperlipoproteinemia and increased serum levels of osteoprotegerin. Also the researches have been directed in genetic level, linking certain single nucleotid genetic polymorphisms of osteoprotegerin and vascular calcification appearance. This review emphasises multifactorial role of OPG, presenting numerous clinical and experimental studies regarding its role in vascular pathology, suggesting a novel biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, showing latest conclusions about this interesting topic that needs to be further explored. PMID:26753467

  7. Development of a Total Organic Carbon method for the quantitative determination of solubility enhancement by cyclodextrins: Application to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) is known to enhance guest solubility in aqueous medium. Different techniques allow determining the evolution in solubility of individual guest compounds. However, examination of mixtures solubility encapsulated in CDs is still a challenge. This is mainly related to the difference in the response of mixture components to the applied technique or to the fact that most of the conventional methods examine the signal of an individual constituent of the mixture. Thus, applying current techniques may not reflect the behavior of the whole mixture. Here, we used for the first time Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis to explore and assess the efficiency of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to enhance the solubility of natural complex mixtures such as essential oils (EOs). Phase solubility studies were performed for eleven EOs with HP-β-CD. The TOC method has provided good validation parameters for linearity, precision and accuracy. For further validation of the method, phase solubility studies were performed with HP-β-CD for eugenol, as a model EO component. The eugenol solubility was determined by UV-Visible and TOC analyses in order to compare the results. Data obtained from both methods were similar (p < 0.05), thereby proving the effectiveness of the developed TOC method. Finally, the phase solubility diagrams of EOs showed that the solubilizing potential of CD increased proportionally with the decrease in EO intrinsic solubility. Results proved that TOC could be successfully applied to investigate CD/guest inclusion complexes and is expected to have a broad range of applications in the field of mixtures encapsulation. PMID:27046206

  8. Development of a Total Organic Carbon method for the quantitative determination of solubility enhancement by cyclodextrins: Application to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Miriana; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-28

    Formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs) is known to enhance guest solubility in aqueous medium. Different techniques allow determining the evolution in solubility of individual guest compounds. However, examination of mixtures solubility encapsulated in CDs is still a challenge. This is mainly related to the difference in the response of mixture components to the applied technique or to the fact that most of the conventional methods examine the signal of an individual constituent of the mixture. Thus, applying current techniques may not reflect the behavior of the whole mixture. Here, we used for the first time Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis to explore and assess the efficiency of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to enhance the solubility of natural complex mixtures such as essential oils (EOs). Phase solubility studies were performed for eleven EOs with HP-β-CD. The TOC method has provided good validation parameters for linearity, precision and accuracy. For further validation of the method, phase solubility studies were performed with HP-β-CD for eugenol, as a model EO component. The eugenol solubility was determined by UV-Visible and TOC analyses in order to compare the results. Data obtained from both methods were similar (p < 0.05), thereby proving the effectiveness of the developed TOC method. Finally, the phase solubility diagrams of EOs showed that the solubilizing potential of CD increased proportionally with the decrease in EO intrinsic solubility. Results proved that TOC could be successfully applied to investigate CD/guest inclusion complexes and is expected to have a broad range of applications in the field of mixtures encapsulation.

  9. Effect of UV-B light on total soluble phenolic contents of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...

  10. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  11. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750

  12. Characterisation of osteoprotegerin autoantibodies in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Real, Ana; Gilbert, Nick; Hauser, Barbara; Kennedy, Nick; Shand, Alan; Gillett, Helen; Gillett, Peter; Goddard, Clive; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina; Fraser, William D; Satsangi, Jack; Ralston, Stuart H; Riches, Philip L

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies neutralising the effect of the bone regulatory cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been described in a patient with severe osteoporosis and coeliac disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and epitope specificity of autoantibodies to OPG in patients with coeliac disease, and correlate their presence with bone mineral density. A direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed and used to screen patients with coeliac disease for autoantibodies to OPG. Recombinant fragments of OPG were made to evaluate the epitope specificity and affinity of these antibodies. Phenotype information of the patients was obtained by case note review. Raised titres of antibodies to OPG were found in 7/71 (9.8 %) patients with coeliac disease, compared with 1/72 (1.4 %) non-coeliac osteoporosis clinic control patients (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that a polyclonal antibody response to OPG is raised in these patients capable of recognising different epitopes of OPG with varying affinity. The titre of OPG antibodies was associated with lower bone mineral density Z-score of the hip in coeliac patients on univariate (p < 0.05) and multivariate analysis including age, sex height and weight as covariates (p < 0.01). Polyclonal antibodies to OPG are more common in patients with coeliac disease and are independently associated with lower bone mineral density Z-scores of the hip. Further work is required to establish the clinical utility of testing for OPG antibodies.

  13. Determination of total and non-water soluble iodine in atmospheric aerosols by thermal extraction and spectrometric detection (TESI).

    PubMed

    Gilfedder, B S; Chance, R; Dettmann, U; Lai, S C; Baker, A R

    2010-09-01

    Iodine has recently been of interest in atmospheric chemistry due to its role in tropospheric ozone depletion, modification of the HO/HO(2) ratio and aerosol nucleation. Gas-phase iodine chemistry is tightly coupled to the aerosol phase through heterogeneous reactions, which are dependent on iodine concentrations and speciation in the aerosol. To date, the only method available for total iodine determination in aerosols is collection on filters by impaction and quantification by neutron activation analysis (NAA). NAA is not widely available to all working groups and is costly to commission. Here, we present a method to determine total iodine concentrations in aerosol impact filter samples by combustion of filter sub-samples (approximately 5 cm(2)) at 1,000 degrees C, trapping in deionised water and quantification by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Both quartz and cellulose filters were analysed from four separate sampling campaigns. The method proved to be sensitive (3sigma = 6 ng absolute iodine approximately 3 pmol m(-3)) precise (RSD approximately 5%) and accurate, as determined by external and standard addition calibrations. Total iodine concentrations ranged from 10 pmol m(-3) over the Southern Ocean to 100 pmol m(-3) over the tropical Atlantic, in agreement with previous estimates. The soluble iodine concentration (extracted with water and measured by ICP-MS) was then subtracted from the total iodine to yield non-water-soluble iodine (NSI). The NSI fraction ranged from 20% to 53% of total iodine, and thus can be significant in some cases.

  14. Osteoprotegerin: a novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density.

    PubMed

    Simonet, W S; Lacey, D L; Dunstan, C R; Kelley, M; Chang, M S; Lüthy, R; Nguyen, H Q; Wooden, S; Bennett, L; Boone, T; Shimamoto, G; DeRose, M; Elliott, R; Colombero, A; Tan, H L; Trail, G; Sullivan, J; Davy, E; Bucay, N; Renshaw-Gegg, L; Hughes, T M; Hill, D; Pattison, W; Campbell, P; Sander, S; Van, G; Tarpley, J; Derby, P; Lee, R; Boyle, W J

    1997-04-18

    A novel secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone resorption has been identified. The protein, termed Osteoprotegerin (OPG), is a novel member of the TNF receptor superfamily. In vivo, hepatic expression of OPG in transgenic mice results in a profound yet nonlethal osteopetrosis, coincident with a decrease in later stages of osteoclast differentiation. These same effects are observed upon administration of recombinant OPG into normal mice. In vitro, osteoclast differentiation from precursor cells is blocked in a dose-dependent manner by recombinant OPG. Furthermore, OPG blocks ovariectomy-associated bone loss in rats. These data show that OPG can act as a soluble factor in the regulation of bone mass and imply a utility for OPG in the treatment of osteoporosis associated with increased osteoclast activity. PMID:9108485

  15. Osteoprotegerin: a novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density.

    PubMed

    Simonet, W S; Lacey, D L; Dunstan, C R; Kelley, M; Chang, M S; Lüthy, R; Nguyen, H Q; Wooden, S; Bennett, L; Boone, T; Shimamoto, G; DeRose, M; Elliott, R; Colombero, A; Tan, H L; Trail, G; Sullivan, J; Davy, E; Bucay, N; Renshaw-Gegg, L; Hughes, T M; Hill, D; Pattison, W; Campbell, P; Sander, S; Van, G; Tarpley, J; Derby, P; Lee, R; Boyle, W J

    1997-04-18

    A novel secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone resorption has been identified. The protein, termed Osteoprotegerin (OPG), is a novel member of the TNF receptor superfamily. In vivo, hepatic expression of OPG in transgenic mice results in a profound yet nonlethal osteopetrosis, coincident with a decrease in later stages of osteoclast differentiation. These same effects are observed upon administration of recombinant OPG into normal mice. In vitro, osteoclast differentiation from precursor cells is blocked in a dose-dependent manner by recombinant OPG. Furthermore, OPG blocks ovariectomy-associated bone loss in rats. These data show that OPG can act as a soluble factor in the regulation of bone mass and imply a utility for OPG in the treatment of osteoporosis associated with increased osteoclast activity.

  16. The ligand for osteoprotegerin (OPGL) directly activates mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Burgess, T L; Qian, Y; Kaufman, S; Ring, B D; Van, G; Capparelli, C; Kelley, M; Hsu, H; Boyle, W J; Dunstan, C R; Hu, S; Lacey, D L

    1999-05-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and OPG-ligand (OPGL) potently inhibit and stimulate, respectively, osteoclast differentiation (Simonet, W.S., D.L. Lacey, C.R. Dunstan, M. Kelley, M.-S. Chang, R. Luethy, H.Q. Nguyen, S. Wooden, L. Bennett, T. Boone, et al. 1997. Cell. 89:309-319; Lacey, D.L., E. Timms, H.-L. Tan, M.J. Kelley, C.R. Dunstan, T. Burgess, R. Elliott, A. Colombero, G. Elliott, S. Scully, et al. 1998. Cell. 93: 165-176), but their effects on mature osteoclasts are not well understood. Using primary cultures of rat osteoclasts on bone slices, we find that OPGL causes approximately sevenfold increase in total bone surface erosion. By scanning electron microscopy, OPGL-treated osteoclasts generate more clusters of lacunae on bone suggesting that multiple, spatially associated cycles of resorption have occurred. However, the size of individual resorption events are unchanged by OPGL treatment. Mechanistically, OPGL binds specifically to mature OCs and rapidly (within 30 min) induces actin ring formation; a marked cytoskeletal rearrangement that necessarily precedes bone resorption. Furthermore, we show that antibodies raised against the OPGL receptor, RANK, also induce actin ring formation. OPGL-treated mice exhibit increases in blood ionized Ca++ within 1 h after injections, consistent with immediate OC activation in vivo. Finally, we find that OPG blocks OPGL's effects on both actin ring formation and bone resorption. Together, these findings indicate that, in addition to their effects on OC precursors, OPGL and OPG have profound and direct effects on mature OCs and indicate that the OC receptor, RANK, mediates OPGL's effects. PMID:10225954

  17. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  18. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  19. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  20. Bone Turnover Markers and Osteoprotegerin in Uncomplicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Styczynska, Hanna; Sobanska, Izabela; Pater, Agnieszka; Pollak, Joanna; Mankowska, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    Although calcium metabolism during pregnancy is well described the mechanisms involved in bone metabolism are not quite clear. Increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG) with elevated bone turnover is supposed to be a homeostatic mechanism limiting bone loss. The aim of the study was to assess bone turnover in pregnancy in relation to serum osteoprotegerin level. Osteocalcin (OC), beta-crosslaps (CTx), OPG, vitamin 25 OH D3, parathormone (PTH), and calcium (Ca) were determined in 30 healthy women at 1st and at 3rd trimester of pregnancy and 27 healthy age-matched non pregnant women. In pregnant women average OPG, CTx and serum calcium concentrations were found to be highly elevated. During pregnancy OPG and bone resorption significantly rised whereas only slight increase in OC level was found with concomitant decrease in serum calcium. OPG correlated positively with OC and Ca only at 1st trimester. Serum CTx and OPG at 1st trimester seemed to be the only parameters to differentiate between elevated and normal bone turnover among pregnant women. In pregnancy bone turnover increases mainly due to enhanced bone resorption. The determination of osteocalcin at the beginning of pregnancy seems to be of limited clinical use, whereas measuring bone resorption markers such as CTx and/or osteoprotegerin may have a good predictive value for later pregnancy-associated bone loss.

  1. Influence of total soluble salt concentration on growth and elemental concentration of winged bean seedlings, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L. ) DC

    SciTech Connect

    Csizinszky, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (L.) DC) seedlings of the accession TPT-1, were grown in a greenhouse with graded, balanced total soluble salt (TSS) concentrations. After 45 days, plant height increased quadratically, with a maximum (149 cm) at 3000 ppm TSS. Seedlings were shortest at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS, 44.0 and 79.0 cm, respectively. Fresh weight of shoots increased quadratically with greatest weight, 29.03 g, at 5000 ppm TSS. Percent dry matter increased linearly with increasing TSS. Concentration of N, K and P increased quadratically with an increase in the TSS concentration in the growth medium. Concentration of Ca decreased quadratically with increasing TSS. Among the micronutrients, Fe and Mo concentration was quadratic, both elements were highest in the seedlings at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS rates. Concentrations of Mn and Zn increased linearly with increasing TSS. Winged bean seedlings at the 1000 to 3000 ppm TSS rates had spindly stems and a sparse, yellow foliage, typical for winged bean seedlings observed in the field during the first 4 to 5 weeks of growth. Seedlings at the 4000 and 5000 ppm TSS rates had sturdy stems and an abundant green foliage. At higher TSS concentrations, 5000 to 10,000 ppm TSS, seedlings had short intermodes and dark green foliage.

  2. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) region (380–1030 nm) were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS) in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands) and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF) method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM) models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits. PMID:26451273

  3. Simplified sample treatment for the determination of total concentrations and chemical fractionation forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Stelmach, Ewelina; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2014-11-15

    A simpler, and faster than wet digestion, sample treatment was proposed prior to determination of total concentrations for selected macro- (Ca, Mg) and microelements (Fe, Mn) in soluble coffees by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were dissolved in water and acidified with HNO3. Precision was in the range 1-4% and accuracy was better than 2.5%. The method was used in analysis of 18 soluble coffees available on the Polish market. Chemical fractionation patterns for Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in soluble coffees, as consumed, using a two-column solid-phase extraction method, determined Ca, Mg and Mn were present predominantly as cations (80-93% of total content). This suggests these elements are likely to be highly bioaccessible. PMID:24912692

  4. LUNG INJURY IS INDUCED BY INSOLUBLE AND TOTAL BUT NOT SOLUBLE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) COLLECTED IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient air PM has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects; however, causative components have not been identified. The solubility of PM constituents and their bioavalability may influence their toxicity. Chemically characterized PM10 an...

  5. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  6. Quantification of Total Particulate Matter and Benzene-Soluble Fraction Inhalation Exposures in Roofing Workers Performing Tear-off Activities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ronald H; Ferraro, John R; Dodson, James L; Hockman, Edwin L; McGovern, Amy E; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt shingle removal (tear-off) from roofs is a major job task for an estimated 174,000 roofers in the United States. However, a literature search showed that there are no published studies that characterize worker inhalation exposures to asphalt particulates during shingle tear-off. To begin to fill this gap, the present study of inhalation exposures of roofers performing asphalt shingle tear-off was undertaken. The airborne agents of interest were total particulate matter (TP) and organic particulates measured as the benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulate. The study's objectives were to measure the personal breathing zone (PBZ) exposures of roofing tear-off workers to BSF and TP; and to assess whether these PBZ exposures are different from ambient levels. Task-based PBZ samples (typical duration 1-5 hours) were collected during asphalt shingle tear-off from roofs near Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado. Samples were analyzed for TP and BSF using National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5042. As controls, area samples (typical duration 3-6 hours) were collected on the ground near the perimeter of the tear-off project Because of the presence of significant sources of inorganic particulates in the work environment, emphasis was placed on the BSF data. No BSF exposure higher than 0.25 mg/m3 was observed, and 69% of the PBZ samples were below the limit of detection (LOD). Due to unforeseen confounding, however, statistical comparisons of on-the-roof PBZ samples with on-the-ground area samples posed some special challenges. This confounding grew out of the interaction of three factors: statistical censoring from the left; the strong inverse correlation between LOD concentration and sampling duration; and variation in sampling durations between on-the-ground area samples and on-the-roof PBZ samples. A general linear model analysis of variance (GLM-ANOVA) was applied to help address the confounding. The results of this analysis

  7. Neptunium, plutonium, and americium solubility and speciation studies in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate concentration simulating UE-25P No. 1 well water

    SciTech Connect

    Becraft, K.A.; Torretto, P.C.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    In these experiments we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation. Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}+, {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte (0.1 M NaC1O{sub 4}) containing a total carbonate concentration similar to UE-25p No. 1 groundwater (0.015 M) at 25{degrees} C and at three pH values (6, 7, and 8.5). In these experiments, the solubility-controlling solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined. Trivalent neodymium was used as an oxidation state analog for {sup 241}Am(III) in order to reduce the radiolysis effects in the solutions. The {sup 241}Am(III) was included as a tracer for radioanalytical counting of samples.

  8. Role of osteoprotegerin and its ligands and competing receptors in atherosclerotic calcification.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda

    2006-11-01

    Vascular calcification significantly impairs cardiovascular physiology, and its mechanism is under investigation. Many of the same factors that modulate bone osteogenesis, including cytokines, hormones, and lipids, also modulate vascular calcification, acting through many of the same transcription factors. In some cases, such as for lipids and cytokines, the net effect on calcification is positive in the artery wall and negative in bone. The mechanism for this reciprocal relation is not established. A recent series of reports points to the possibility that two bone regulatory factors, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and its soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), govern vascular calcification and may explain the phenomenon. Both RANKL and OPG are widely accepted as the final common pathway for most factors and processes affecting bone resorption. Binding of RANKL to its cognate receptor RANK induces NF-kappaB signaling, which stimulates osteoclastic differentiation in preosteoclasts and induces bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) expression in chondrocytes. A role for RANKL and its receptors in vascular calcification is spported by several findings: a vascular calcification phenotype in mice genetically deficient in OPG; an increase in expression of RANKL, and a decrease in expression of OPG, in calcified arteries; clinical associations between coronary disease and serum OPG and RANKL levels; and RANKL induction of calcification and osteoblastic differentiation in valvular myofibroblasts. PMID:17169261

  9. Osteoprotegerin Induces Apoptosis of Osteoclasts and Osteoclast Precursor Cells via the Fas/Fas Ligand Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hongyan; Xia, Pengpeng; Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Bian, Jianchun; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is known to inhibit differentiation and activation of osteoclasts (OCs) by functioning as a decoy receptor blocking interactions between RANK and RANKL. However, the exact role of OPG in the survival/apoptosis of OCs remains unclear. OPG caused increased rates of apoptosis of both OCs and osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs). The expression of Fas and activated caspase-8 was increased by both 20 ng/mL and 40 ng/mL of OPG, but was markedly decreased at 80 ng/mL. Interestingly, we noted that while levels of Fas ligand (FasL) increased with increasing doses of OPG, the soluble form of FasL in the supernatant decreased. The results of a co-immunoprecipitation assay suggested that the decrease of sFasL might be caused by the binding of OPG. This would block the inhibition of the apoptosis of OCs and OPCs. Furthermore, changes in expression levels of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspased-3 and the translocation of cytochrome c, illustrated that OPG induced apoptosis of OCs and OPCs via the classic Fas/FasL apoptosis pathway, and was mediated by mitochondria. Altogether, our results demonstrate that OPG induces OCs and OPCs apoptosis partly by the Fas/FasL signaling pathway.

  10. Generalized Degenerative Joint Disease in Osteoprotegerin (Opg) Null Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Bolon, B; Grisanti, M; Villasenor, K; Morony, S; Feige, U; Simonet, W S

    2015-09-01

    Bone structure is modulated by the interaction between receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL). Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, modifies osteoclast-mediated bone resorption directly and spares articular cartilage indirectly in rodents with immune-mediated arthritis by preventing subchondral bone destruction. The OPG/RANKL balance also seems to be critical in maintaining joint integrity in osteoarthritis, a condition featuring articular bone and cartilage damage in the absence of profound inflammation. The current study explored the role of OPG in sparing articular cartilage by evaluating joint lesions in adult C57BL/6J mice lacking osteoprotegerin (Opg (-) (/-)). At 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 months of age, both sexes of Opg (-) (/-) mice developed severe degenerative joint disease (DJD) characterized by progressive loss of cartilage matrix and eventually articular cartilage. Lesions developed earlier and more severely in Opg (-) (/-) mice relative to age-matched, wild-type (Opg (+) (/+)), or heterozygous (Opg (+) (/-)) littermates (P ≤ .05). The femorotibial joint was affected bilaterally at 3 months, while other key weight-bearing diarthrodial joints (eg, coxofemoral, scapulohumeral, humeroradioulnar) were affected later and unilaterally. Cortical bone in subchondral plates and long bone diaphyses of Opg (-) (/-) mice but not Opg (+/+) or Opg (+) (/-) animals was osteoporotic by 3 months of age (P ≤ .05); the extent of porosity was less than the degree of DJD. Closure of the physes in long bones (P ≤ .05) and cartilage retention in the femoral primary spongiosa (P ≤ .05) affected chiefly Opg (-) (/-) mice. These data suggest that OPG plays an essential direct role in maintaining cartilage integrity in the articular surfaces and physes.

  11. [Determination of six C-Glycoside flavones and antitumor activity of water-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Hai-ming; Li, Ai; Xu, Lan-fang; Chen, Jian-nan; Huang, Song; He, Lian

    2015-04-01

    This research established an HPLC method for determination of six C-Glycoside flavones of warer-soluble total flavonoids from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus (Benth.) H. Hara, and studied the antitumor activity of the warer-soluble total flavonoids. The HPLC system consisted of Kromasil 100-5 C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column and a solution system of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid gradient elution at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL x min(-1) and the wavelength of detector was at 334 nm. The column temperature was 25 degrees C. The antitumor activity of water-soluble flavonoids was assayed using HepG2 cell as the tested cell. The linear ranges of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabinosylapigenin were 0.25-2.53, 0.12-1.20, 0.37-3.69, 0.16-1.63, 0.19-1.92, 0.14-1.42 microg, respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 99.6% (RSD 0.87%), 100.2% (RSD 2.0%), 99.6% (RSD 1.8%), 97.9% (RSD 1.5%), 98.8% (RSD 1.2%), 98.6% (RSD 1.2%), respectively. After exposure in 24, 48, 72 h, the total flavonoids showed inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells with IC50 as the evaluation index, the IC50 values of 1.89, 1.71, 1.51 g x L(-1), respectively. The method is quick, simple and accurate with good re- producibility, and can be used for determination of vicenin II, vicenin III, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, 6, 8-di-C-a-L-arabino- sylapigenin in the warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides var. gerardianus. The warer-soluble total flavonoids from L lophanthoides have inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. PMID:26281595

  12. Relation of Osteoprotegerin, Visfatin and Ghrelin to Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Manal Basyouni; Ismail, Maha Imam Ahmed; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is now realized that insulin resistance plays a principal role in initiating the pathologic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of osteoprotegerin, visfatin and ghrelin in the pathogenesis of MetS among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and methods Serum blood samples were obtained from 116 subjects (39 T2DM; 48 T2DM with MetS; 29 healthy controls). Glycemic status and lipid profile were assessed by enzymatic method. Osteoprotegerin, visfatin, ghrelin and insulin were measured by ELISA method. Results Osteoprotegerin and visfatin were significantly higher, while ghrelin was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared to healthy control group (p<0.05). Moreover, Osteoprotegerin and visfatin showed significant higher levels in T2DM patients with MetS than those without MetS (p<0.05). The best cut-off values for the investigated markers were determined by ROC curve. Osteoprotegerin (1.06 ng/mL), visfatin (32.27 ng/mL) and ghrelin (33.65 pg/mL) presented sensitivity of 76%, 92% and 39.1%; respectively and specificity of 41%, 69.2% and 62.9%; respectively, in predicting MetS among T2DM. Among the investigated parameters, Visfatin was the one which predicts MetS among diabetic patients [AUC=0.88, p<0.05]. Conclusion Osteoprotegerin, visfatin and ghrelin might be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Moreover, osteoprotegerin and visfatin may have additional potential role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Visfatin was superior among studied parameters in predicting MetS among T2DM. PMID:26309431

  13. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  14. Osteoprotegerin Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis upon Microbial Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Maruyama, Kenta; Fujii, Hideki; Sugawara, Isamu; Ko, Shigeru B. H.; Yasuda, Hisataka; Matsui, Hidenori; Matsuo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL’s osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria or influenza virus also show elevated serum OPG levels. We then asked whether OPG upregulation following microbial invasion had an effect outside of bone. To do so, we treated mice with LPS and observed OPG production in pancreas, especially in β-cells of pancreatic islets. Insulin release following LPS administration was enhanced in mice lacking OPG, suggesting that OPG inhibits insulin secretion under acute inflammatory conditions. Consistently, treatment of MIN6 pancreatic β-cells with OPG decreased their insulin secretion following glucose stimulation in the presence of LPS. Finally, our findings suggest that LPS-induced OPG upregulation is mediated in part by activator protein (AP)-1 family transcription factors, particularly Fos proteins. Overall, we report that acute microbial infection elevates serum OPG, which maintains β-cell homeostasis by restricting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly preventing microbe-induced exhaustion of β-cell secretory capacity. PMID:26751951

  15. Role of RANKL-RANK/Osteoprotegerin Pathway in Cardiovascular and Bone Disease Associated with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Currier, Judith S.; Yang, Otto O.; Brown, Todd T

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HIV-1 infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities, including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis has been identified as a possible common link between osteoporosis and vascular diseases. Since the discovery of this axis, much has been learned about its role in controlling skeletal biology and less about its role in the context of vascular biology. However, the exact role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis in HIV infection is not completely understood. In this review we examine the mechanisms by which inflammation and immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection may impact bone turnover and atherogenesis through perturbations in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand/osteoprotegerin axis. PMID:25102334

  16. Heparin enhances osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting osteoprotegerin activity.

    PubMed

    Irie, Atsushi; Takami, Masamichi; Kubo, Hideo; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Kasahara, Kohji; Sanai, Yutaka

    2007-08-01

    Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan and has been shown to activate osteoclastic bone resorption though how is not yet clear. Here we investigate the molecule involved in heparin-induced activation of osteoclasts using an in vitro osteoclast culture assay. The formation and activation of osteoclasts are induced by receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts, and inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor of RANKL, which is secreted from osteoblasts. In a coculture of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and prostaglandin E(2) on dentin slices, the bone marrow cells differentiate into osteoclasts, and resorption pits are formed on the dentin slices. Addition of heparin, various glycosaminoglycans, and chemically modified heparins to the coculture reveals that heparin enhances the pit-forming activity of osteoclasts, and this effect of heparin on the activation of osteoclasts is dependent on its sugar chain structure. By contrast, mRNA expression levels of RANKL, RANK, and OPG in the coculture are not altered by heparin treatment. Furthermore, neither RANK nor RANKL binds to heparin, suggesting that heparin does not directly interact with these proteins. Instead, heparin specifically binds to OPG and prevents OPG-mediated inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption in the coculture. Heparin treatment does not enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in a monoculture of osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cells, and in the coculture using osteoblasts from OPG-deficient mice. A (125)I-OPG binding assay showed that OPG binds to osteoblasts and that this binding is inhibited by the addition of heparin, suggesting that OPG binds to RANKL on the osteoblast membrane and that heparin blocks this interaction. These results demonstrate that heparin enhances osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting OPG activity.

  17. Total and water-soluble trace metal content of urban background PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke in Edinburgh, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heal, Mathew R.; Hibbs, Leon R.; Agius, Raymond M.; Beverland, Iain J.

    Toxicological studies have implicated trace metals in airborne particles as possible contributors to respiratory and/or cardiovascular inflammation. As part of an epidemiological study, co-located 24 h samples of PM 10, PM 2.5 and black smoke (BS) were collected for 1 year at an urban background site in Edinburgh, and each sample sequentially extracted with ultra-pure water, then concentrated HNO 3/HCl, and analysed for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. This yields a comprehensive data set for UK urban airborne trace metal. The median ( n>349) daily water-soluble metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.05 ng m -3 for Ti to 5.1 ng m -3 for Pb; and in PM 10 from 0.18 ng m -3 for Ti to 11.7 ng m -3 for Fe. Median daily total (i.e. water+acid-extractable) metal concentration in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.3 ng m -3 for As to 27.6 ng m -3 for Fe; and in PM 10 from 0.37 ng m -3 for As to 183 ng m -3 for Fe. The PM 2.5:PM 10 ratio varied considerably with metal, from <17%, on average, for Ti and Fe, to >70% for V, As, Cd and Pb. The 11 trace metals constituted proportionally more of the PM 10-2.5 fraction than of the PM 2.5 fraction (0.9%). The proportion of water-soluble metal in each size-fraction varied considerably, from <10% water-soluble Fe and Ti in PM 10-2.5, to >50% water-soluble V, Zn, As and Cd in PM 2.5. Although Fe generally dominated the trace metal, water-soluble metal also contained significant Zn, Pb and Cu, and for all size and solubility fractions >90% of trace metal was comprised of Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu. Statistical analyses suggested three main sources: traffic; static combustion; and crustal. The association of metals with traffic (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) was consistent with traffic-induced non-exhaust "resuspension" rather than direct exhaust emission. Meteorology contributed to the wide variation in daily trace metal concentration. The proportion of trace metal in particles varied significantly with the air mass source and was highest on days for

  18. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-06-19

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  19. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB Ligand (RANKL)/Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Ratio Is Increased in Severe Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Grimaud, Eva; Soubigou, Luc; Couillaud, Séverine; Coipeau, Patrick; Moreau, Anne; Passuti, Norbert; Gouin, François; Redini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Pathological osteolyses are considered a consequence of a disturbance in the mechanisms that govern the bone remodeling, mainly the communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) are newly discovered molecules that play a key role in these communications. RANKL is essential for osteoclast differentiation via its receptor RANK located on the osteoclast membrane. OPG is a soluble decoy receptor that inhibits osteoclast differentiation through its binding to RANKL. The aim of this study is the analysis of the RANKL/OPG balance by complementary methods (semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in human osteolysis associated to various bone etiologies (n = 60), tumoral (primitive, secondary) or not, compared to healthy tissues (n = 16). Results demonstrated that RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly increased in patients suffering from severe osteolysis compared to the control group and that this imbalance is involved in bone resorption mechanisms. In this study, OPG expression appears to reflect a protective mechanism of the skeleton to compensate increased bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorbing activity. Moreover, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, RANKL and OPG were colocalized in all of the tissues analyzed. To define the veracity of RANKL/OPG index in assessing and managing patients with severe osteolysis, an extended population of patients suffering from severe osteolysis must be now monitored. PMID:14578201

  20. Effects of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy on Osteoprotegerin, Neopterin, and sRANKL Concentrations in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Katharina; Herold, Manfred; Russe, Elisabeth; Klotz, Werner; Weiss, Guenter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint erosions, progressive focal bone loss, and chronic inflammation. Methods. 20 female patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis were treated with anti-TNF-antibody adalimumab in addition to concomitant antirheumatic therapies. Patients were assessed for overall disease activity using the DAS28 score, and neopterin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) concentrations were determined before therapy and at week 12. Neopterin as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by commercial ELISAs. Results. Before anti-TNF therapy patients presented with high disease activity and elevated concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers. OPG concentrations correlated with neopterin (rs = 0.494, p = 0.027), but not with DAS28. OPG concentrations and disease activity scores declined during anti-TNF-treatment (both p < 0.02). Patients who achieved remission (n = 7) or showed a good response according to EULAR criteria (n = 13) presented with initially higher baseline OPG levels, which subsequently decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.018 for remission, p = 0.011 for good response). Conclusions. Adalimumab therapy was effective in modifying disease activity and reducing proinflammatory and bone remodelling cascades. PMID:26576067

  1. Free and total leptin serum levels and soluble leptin receptors levels in two models of genetic obesity: the Prader-Willi and the Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Proto, Caterina; Romualdi, Daniela; Cento, Rosa Maria; Romano, Corrado; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in energy balance and feeding behavior and the subsequent high frequency of obesity are hallmarks of 2 chromosomal diseases: the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the Down syndrome (DS). Leptin, an important regulator of food intake and energy homeostasis, circulates in 2 forms: a free, therefore active, fraction and a fraction bound to the soluble leptin receptor, whose bioavailability consequently participates in the regulation of leptin action. To investigate the possible role of the free-bound leptin balance in the pathogenesis of obesity in PWS and DS, we enrolled 7 obese women with DS, 5 obese women with PWS, 7 obese women, and 7 normal-weight healthy control women. Basal hormonal concentrations, total and free leptin levels, and leptin receptors levels were measured in plasma samples obtained from the 4 groups. No significant differences were observed in the hormonal milieu. Women with DS exhibited lower total leptin concentrations (P<.01), comparable leptin receptor level and, therefore, lower free leptin values (P<.01) when compared with obese controls, then resembling the profile peculiar to normal-weight control women. At variance, subjects with PWS did not differ from obese controls regarding both leptin and leptin receptor levels. Our data suggest that, whereas subjects with PWS have a leptin assessment corresponding to their degree of obesity, subjects with DS may have a defect in the secretion of leptin that could at least partially account for this form of syndromal obesity.

  2. Intra-species characterization of clinical isolates and biotechnologically used strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus by analysis of the total soluble cytoplasmatic proteins with silver staining.

    PubMed

    Klein, G; Hack, B; Hanstein, S; Zimmermann, K; Reuter, G

    1995-05-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is often used in milk products because of its technological properties, however it is supposed to be related to human infections as well. Therefore, 23 L. rhamnosus strains, including the type strain, were investigated. Nine strains resulted from biotechnological sources, 14 isolates had a clinical background, 13 came from a swedish culture collection. Biochemical and physiological properties were proved by classical tests. Analysis of the total soluble cytoplasmatic protein patterns was performed with diamine silver staining, a technique not previously applied to lactobacilli. Classical tests were able to confirm all strains as L. rhamnosus. Analysis of protein patterns allowed to differentiate between three clusters. Cluster I contained the type strain and biotechnologically used strains and one clinical strain isolated in Berlin. The second consisted of both, technological and clinical strains. The third cluster contained clinical isolates alone. SDS-PAGE of proteins together with diamine silver staining seems to be helpful to detect intra-species differences. It was stated, that technologically used strains of L. rhamnosus could clearly be differentiated from each other and also from clinical isolates.

  3. The estimation of melting points and fusion enthalpies using experimental solubilities, estimated total phase change entropies, and mobile order and disorder theory.

    PubMed

    Chickos, James S; Nichols, Gary; Ruelle, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Melting points and fusion enthalpies are predicted for a series of 81 compounds by combining experimental solubilities in a variety of solvents and analyzed according to the theory of mobile order and disorder (MOD) and using the total phase change entropy estimated by a group additivity method. The error associated in predicting melting points is dependent on the magnitude of the temperature predicted. An error of +/- 12 K (+/- 1 sigma) was obtained for compounds melting between ambient temperature and 350 K (24 entries). This error increased to +/- 23 K when the temperature range was expanded to 400 K (46 entries) and +/- 39 K for the temperature range 298-555 K (79 entries). Fusion enthalpies were predicted within +/- 2sigma of the experimental values (+/- 6.4 kJ mol(-1)) for 79 entries. The uncertainty in the fusion enthalpy did not appear dependent on the magnitude of the melting point. Two outliers, adamantane and camphor, have significant phase transitions that occur below room temperature. Estimates of melting temperature and fusion enthalpy for these compounds were characterized by significantly larger errors.

  4. Study on size distribution of total aerosol and water-soluble ions during an Asian dust storm event at Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Song, C B; Kim, M C; Kwon, S B; Lee, K W

    2004-01-01

    Soil dust particles transported from loess regions of the Asian continent, called Asian dust, highly influences the air quality of north-eastern Asia and the northern Pacific Ocean. In order to investigate the effects of these dust storms on the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles with different size, measurements of size distributions of total aerosol and major ion species were carried out on Jeju Island, Korea during April 2001. Juju Island was chosen for the study because the levels of emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants are very low. A 5-stage cascade impactor was used to sample size-fractionated aerosol particles. Samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ions using Dionex DX-120 ion chromatograph. The average mass concentration of total aerosol was found to be 24.4 and 108.3 microg m(-3) for non-Asian dust and Asian dust periods, respectively. The total aerosol size distribution, measured during the non-Asian dust period, was bimodal, whereas the coarse particles dominated the size distribution of total aerosol during the Asian dust period. It was found that SO4(2-), NH4+ and K+ were mainly distributed in fine particles, while Cl-, NO3-, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were in coarse particles. Although SO4(2-) was mainly distributed in fine particles, during the Asian dust period, the concentrations in coarse particles were significantly increased. This indicates heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on wet surfaces of basic soil dust particles. The NH4+ was found to exist as (NH4)2SO4 in fine particles, with a molar ratio of NH4+ to SO4(2-) of 2.37 and 1.52 for non-Asian dust and Asian dust periods, respectively. Taking into account the proximity of the sampling site to the sea, and the observed chloride depletion, coarse mode nitrate, during the non-Asian dust period, is assumed to originate from the reaction of nitric acid with sodium chloride on the surfaces of sea-salt particles although the chloride depletion was not shown to be large enough to

  5. Association of the g.27563G>A osteoprotegerin genetic polymorphism with bone mineral density in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y P; Zhao, D W; Wang, W M; Wang, B J; Zhang, Y; Li, Z G

    2014-02-14

    Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disease in postmenopausal women. This study aimed to investigate the association of the g.27563G>A osteoprotegerin (OPG) genetic polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. A case-control study was carried out with 435 osteoporosis postmenopausal women cases and 442 age-matched healthy controls. The BMD at the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), and total hip were assessed by Norland XR-46 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The genotypes of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism were detected by created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction and verified by DNA sequencing methods. We detected that the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism was a non-synonymous mutation that resulted in an arginine (Arg) to glutamine (Gln) amino acid replacement (p.Arg333Gln). Significant differences were found in the BMD of the femoral neck hip, lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), and total hip among different genotypes of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism. Subjects with the genotype GG had significantly higher BMD values than those with genotypes GA and AA (P < 0.05). Our data indicated that the A allele of the g.27563G>A genetic polymorphism in OPG could be associated with lower BMD values in the Chinese postmenopausal women evaluated, and that it might be an increased risk factor for osteoporosis.

  6. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment. PMID:27085177

  7. Factors affecting ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations during ripening: Incidence on final dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity of mango fruit.

    PubMed

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Ripening of climacteric fruits is associated with pronounced changes in fruit gas composition caused by a concomitant rise in respiration and ethylene production. There is a discrepancy in the literature since some authors reported that changes in fruit gas compositions differ in attached and detached fruits. This study presents for the first time an overview of pre- and post-harvest factors that lead to variations in the climacteric respiration and ethylene production, and attempts to determine their impacts on fruit composition, i.e., dry matter, total soluble solids content and acidity. The impact of growing conditions such as the fruit position in the canopy and the fruit carbon supply; fruit detachment from the tree, including the maturity stage at harvest; and storage conditions after harvest, i.e., relative humidity and temperature were considered as well as changes in fruit skin resistance to gas diffusion during fruit growth and storage. Results showed that fruit gas composition vary with all pre and post-harvest factors studied. Although all mangoes underwent a respiratory climacteric and an autocatalytic ethylene production, whatever pre and post-harvest factors studied, large differences in ethylene production, climacteric respiration and fruit quality were measured. Results suggested that the ripening capacity is not related to the fruit ability to produce great amount of ethylene. In agreement with precedent studies, this work provided several lines of evidence that gas composition of fruit is related to its water balance. Our measurements indicated that skin resistance to gas diffusion increased after the harvest and during storage. It was so suggested that the faster ripening of detached fruit may be explained in part by changes in fruit water balance and skin resistance to gas diffusion caused by fruit detachment.

  8. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  9. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  10. Osteoprotegerin and bone mass in squamous cell head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Valero, C; Olmos, J M; Rivera, F; Hernández, J L; Vega, M E; Macías, J González

    2006-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is considered one of the main regulators of bone remodeling. Various patterns of serum OPG levels have been described in different types of tumors. We undertook this study to determine serum OPG levels in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCHNC), analyzing their relationship with other metabolic bone parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as the possible influence of chemotherapy. Forty male patients with localized SCHNC were studied, and their results were compared with those of 40 healthy male controls. The type of treatment followed by each patient was noted. Age, weight, height, and lifestyle habits were recorded; and OPG, Ca(2+), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D), bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and serum C-terminal cross-links telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were determined. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and hip was also measured. Serum OPG was higher in patients than in controls (91.7 +/- 25.8 vs. 77.2 +/- 26.3, P = 0.02). ICTP (a bone resorption marker) was 37% higher in patients (P = 0.007). Bone mass was lower in patients at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Lumbar spine Z-score showed a significant progressive decrease in controls, stage I-III patients, and stage IV patients. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the disease and serum OPG levels, the odds ratio per standard deviation increase of this being 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.8, P = 0.04) after adjusting for bone mass and ICTP serum levels, as well as for alcohol and smoking history. Adjustment for alcohol intake and tobacco use did not cancel out BMD differences between patients and controls. Patients with SCHNC show increased OPG serum levels, increased bone resorption, and decreased bone mass. The OPG rise appears to be unrelated to the BMD decrease, and the BMD

  11. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

  12. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total tract digestibility of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d ol...

  13. Effect of fluoride and low versus high levels of dietary calcium on mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    The ratio of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) determines the delicate balance between bone resorption and synthesis. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible role of OPGL and OPG in the bone metabolism of rats exposed to fluoride and the protective or aggravating effect of calcium (Ca). In a 6-month study, 270 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 70 and 90 g were divided randomly into six groups of 45 rats in each group. Three groups (groups I, III, and V)served as controls and drank deionized water and were fed purified rodent diets containing either 1,000 mg Ca/kg (low Ca), 5,000 mg Ca/kg (normal Ca), or 20,000 mg Ca/kg (high Ca). The three experimental groups (groups II, IV, and VI) were given the same diets but they drank water containing 100 mg F ion/L (from NaF). Every 2 months 15 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed for the study. The ratio of OPGL mRNA to OPG mRNA was significantly increased by the sixth month in the distal femur joints of the F-exposed rats. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and serum calcitonin activity in the F-exposed groups was increased, although changes were not apparent in the serum alkaline phosphatase or Gla-containing proteins, especially in the low calcium and high calcium diet F-exposed groups. The results indicated that OPG and OPGL may play important roles in skeletal fluorosis, and that fluoride may enhance osteoclast formation and induce osteoclastic bone destruction. A high Ca diet did not play a protective role, but rather may aggravate the damage of fluoride.

  14. Changes in RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression after chronic exposure to indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with biomass fuel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Hirak; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    The impact of indoor air pollution as a result of cooking with unprocessed biomass on membrane-bound and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand 1 (RANKL), its soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast precursor CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was investigated. Seventy-four pre-menopausal women from eastern India using biomass and 65 control women who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas were enrolled. PM10 and PM2.5 levels in their indoor air were measured with real-time aerosol monitors. The levels of membrane-bound RANKL on leukocytes and percentage CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in the subjects' blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Soluble RANKL and OPG in serum were measured by ELISA. The results showed that PM10 and PM2.5 levels were significantly higher in the indoor air of biomass-using households. Compared with the control women, the levels of CD4(+) and CD19(+) lymphocytes and circulating granulocytes with elevated levels of membrane-bound RANKL were higher in biomass users. The serum levels of RANKL were increased by 41% whereas serum OPG was reduced by 22% among biomass users. The absolute number of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes was significantly increased in biomass users than the control women. After controlling for potential confounders, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were found to be positively associated with leukocyte and serum RANKL and CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels, but negatively with serum OPG. From these results, we can conclude that chronic exposure to biomass smoke increased membrane-bound and soluble RANKL and circulating osteoclast precursors but decreased OPG, suggesting an increased risk of bone resorption and consequent osteoporosis in biomass-exposed women of a child-bearing age. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  16. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of osteoprotegerin accelerates osteointegration of titanium implants in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, G; Chen, J; Wei, S; Wang, H; Chen, Q; Lin, Y; Hu, J; Luo, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of human osteoprotegerin (hOPG) transgene to accelerate osteointegration of titanium implant in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Bone marrow stromal cells transduced with Ad-hOPG-EGFP could sustainedly express hOPG. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells treated by the hOPG were examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone slice resorption assay. The results showed differentiation and function of osteoclasts were significantly suppressed by hOPG in vitro. Ad-hOPG-EGFP was locally administered to the bone defect prior to implant placement in OVX and sham rats. After 3, 7, 28 days of implantation, the femurs were harvested for molecular and histological analyses. Successful transgene expression was confirmed by western blot and cryosectioning. A significant reduction in TRAP+ numbers was detected in Ad-hOPG-EGFP group. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR examination revealed that hOPG transgene markedly diminished the expression of cathepsin K and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand in vivo. The transgene hOPG modification revealed a marked increasing osteointegration and restored implant stability in OVX rats (P<0.01), compared with the control groups (Ad-EGFP or sterilized phosphate-buffered saline) 28 days after implantation. In conclusion, hOPG via direct adenovirus-mediated gene transfer could accelerate osteointegration of titanium implants in OVX rats. Osteoprotegerin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to osteointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions.

  17. Isoliquiritigenin Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell-induced Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Ratio in Human Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Bone destruction induced by the metastasis of breast cancer cells is a frequent complication that is caused by the interaction between cancer cells and bone cells. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and the endogenous soluble RANKL inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), directly play critical roles in the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts. In patients with bone metastases, osteoclastic bone resorption promotes the majority of skeletal-related events and propagates bone metastases. Therefore, blocking osteoclast activity and differentiation via RANKL inhibition can be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer-associated bone diseases. We investigated the potential of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which has anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects, as a preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer cell-induced bone destruction. ISL at non-toxicity concentrations significantly inhibited the RANKL/OPG ratio by reducing the production of RANKL and restoring OPG production to control levels in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ISL reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated by CM of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, ISL may have inhibitory potential on breast cancer-induced bone destruction. PMID:26734591

  18. Diagnostic and Prognostic Properties of Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Acute Dyspnoea: Observations from the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Mohammed Osman; Pedersen, Marit Holmefjord; Brynildsen, Jon; Høiseth, Arne Didrik; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels are increased in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The diagnostic and prognostic merit of OPG measurement in patients admitted with acute dyspnoea is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of measuring OPG in patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea. Methods OPG was analysed by ELISA in 308 patients admitted due to acute dyspnoea. Investigators blinded to OPG results adjudicated the diagnosis for the index hospitalization. Clinical outcomes were obtained from hospital records. Results In total, 139 patients (45%) were hospitalized with acute HF. OPG levels on hospital admission were higher in patients with acute HF vs. no acute HF, 7.8 (5.5–10.4) vs. 5.4 (3.8–7.2) pmol/L, p<0.001. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC AUC) of OPG to discriminate between HF vs. non-HF was 0.695 [95% CI 0.636–0.754]. OPG did not provide incremental information to the ED physician’s prediction or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide regarding the diagnosis of acute HF. OPG levels (log transformed) were associated with mortality in crude analysis (HR (95% CI) 1.87 (1.34 to 2.61), p<0.001), but this association was attenuated and no longer significant after including established cardiac biomarkers into the model. Conclusion In patients admitted to hospital with acute dyspnoea, OPG levels are higher in patients with acute HF than in those with dyspnoea from other causes. However, OPG does not provide incremental information beyond ED physician assessment for the diagnosis of acute HF or beyond clinical risk variables and established cardiac biomarkers concerning prognosis. PMID:27463973

  19. Total Soluble and Endogenous Secretory Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as Predictive Biomarkers of Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colhoun, Helen M.; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham; Neil, Andrew; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Bao, Weihang; DeMicco, David A.; Preston, Gregory M.; Deshmukh, Harshal; Tan, Kathryn; Fuller, John H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) likely comprise both a secreted isoform (esRAGE) and wild-type RAGE cleaved from the cell membrane. Both sRAGE and esRAGE have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but prospective data are limited. We examined the relationship of sRAGE and esRAGE to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in type 2 diabetic patients followed for 3.9 years in a trial of atorvastatin: the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used a nested case-control design sampling all incident cases of CVD with available plasma and randomly selecting three control subjects, who were free of CVD throughout follow-up, per case. Analysis was by Cox regression with adjustment for treatment allocation and relevant covariates. RESULTS sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.88) and were both higher in those with lower BMI (P < 0.001), higher adiponectin (P < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.009), and white ethnicity (P < 0.001). Both sRAGE and esRAGE were associated with incident CHD events, independently of treatment allocation and the above factors; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74 (95% CI 1.25–2.41; P = 0.002) for a doubling of the sRAGE level; HR = 1.45 (1.11–1.89; P = 0.006) for a doubling of the esRAGE level. There was no significant association with stroke; HR for sRAGE = 0.66 (0.38–1.14). Atorvastatin, 10 mg daily, did not alter sRAGE. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of sRAGE and esRAGE are associated with incident CHD but not stroke in type 2 diabetes. PMID:21771973

  20. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  1. Stability of fat-soluble vitamins A (retinol palmitate), E (tocopherol acetate), and K1 (phylloquinone) in total parenteral nutrition at home.

    PubMed

    Billion-Rey, F; Guillaumont, M; Frederich, A; Aulagner, G

    1993-01-01

    Our purpose was to extend previous studies of the stability of vitamins A (retinol palmitate), E (tocopherol acetate), and K1 (phylloquinone) to total parenteral nutrition at-home (TPNH) admixtures. First, stability over 20 days was tested. Experimental conditions included presence or absence of lipids, presence or absence of trace elements, and storage in a glass bottle or in a single or multi-layer plastic bag (ethylene vinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride, Stedim 5, and Stedim 6). The 20-day storage studies were conducted at 4 degrees C or at ambient air temperature. The second part of the study consisted of exposing to natural light TPNH admixtures with or without lipids, but with trace elements, in the same containers (except polyvinyl chloride). Finally, a clinical situation of TPNH was simulated with a TPNH admixture prepared 11 days before the test in a Stedim 6 plastic bag and stored at 4 degrees C in total darkness. For vitamins A, E, and K1, we observed good stability for 20 days; the final concentrations ranged from 75% to 100% of initial concentrations whatever the conditions studied. It appears that there is no significant difference of action between all containers and that the presence or absence of lipids and trace elements in admixtures stored at 4 degrees C or ambient temperature makes no difference. With exposure to sunlight, vitamin losses were 100% at 3 hours for vitamin A and 50% for vitamin K1; vitamin E concentrations were unchanged after 12 hours of experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A fast and accurate method for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its comparison with established techniques.

    PubMed

    Gleisner, Heike; Einax, Jürgen W; Morés, Silvane; Welz, Bernhard; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    A fast and reliable method has been developed for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste, important quality control parameters in dentifrices. The method is based on the molecular absorption of gallium mono-fluoride, GaF, using a commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. Transversely heated platform tubes with zirconium as permanent chemical modifier were used throughout. Before each sample injection, a palladium and zirconium modifier solution and a gallium reagent were deposited onto the graphite platform and thermally pretreated to transform them into their active forms. The samples were only diluted and introduced directly into the graphite tube together with additional gallium reagent. Under these conditions the fluoride was stable up to a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, and the optimum vaporization (molecule formation) temperature was 1550 °C. The GaF molecular absorption was measured at 211.248 nm, and the limits of detection and quantification were 5.2 pg and 17 pg, respectively, corresponding to a limit of quantification of about 30 μg g(-1) (ppm) F in the original toothpaste. The proposed method was used for the determination of total and soluble fluorine content in toothpaste samples from different manufactures. The samples contained different ionic fluoride species and sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) with covalently bonded fluorine. The results for total fluorine were compared with those obtained with a modified conventional headspace gas chromatographic procedure. Accuracy and precision of the two procedures were comparable, but the proposed procedure was much less labor-intensive, and about five times faster than the latter one.

  3. A fast and accurate method for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its comparison with established techniques.

    PubMed

    Gleisner, Heike; Einax, Jürgen W; Morés, Silvane; Welz, Bernhard; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    A fast and reliable method has been developed for the determination of total and soluble fluorine in toothpaste, important quality control parameters in dentifrices. The method is based on the molecular absorption of gallium mono-fluoride, GaF, using a commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. Transversely heated platform tubes with zirconium as permanent chemical modifier were used throughout. Before each sample injection, a palladium and zirconium modifier solution and a gallium reagent were deposited onto the graphite platform and thermally pretreated to transform them into their active forms. The samples were only diluted and introduced directly into the graphite tube together with additional gallium reagent. Under these conditions the fluoride was stable up to a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, and the optimum vaporization (molecule formation) temperature was 1550 °C. The GaF molecular absorption was measured at 211.248 nm, and the limits of detection and quantification were 5.2 pg and 17 pg, respectively, corresponding to a limit of quantification of about 30 μg g(-1) (ppm) F in the original toothpaste. The proposed method was used for the determination of total and soluble fluorine content in toothpaste samples from different manufactures. The samples contained different ionic fluoride species and sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) with covalently bonded fluorine. The results for total fluorine were compared with those obtained with a modified conventional headspace gas chromatographic procedure. Accuracy and precision of the two procedures were comparable, but the proposed procedure was much less labor-intensive, and about five times faster than the latter one. PMID:21215545

  4. Diel Variability of Total and Speciated Water-Soluble Inorganic Iodine in PM2.5 Aerosol at a Southern California Coastal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A.; Cotter, K.; Deegan, B.; Fischer, E.; Johnson, D.

    2007-12-01

    PM2.5 aerosol was sampled over nominal 3-hour intervals at the head of Zuma Beach in Malibu, California (USA) from 6 to 24 October 2006 by filtration at 1.13 m3 min-1 (STP) through 20 x 25 cm cellulose fiber (Whatman 41) filters that had been rinsed with deionized water (DIW). Exposed filters were removed from support cartridges as soon as possible after retrieval (usually within 2 hours), immediately sealed in clean polyethylene bags, and stored frozen until further processing. Following the field campaign one quarter of each filter was pressed into a pellet (2.0 cm diameter x 0.5 cm thick) and analyzed by neutron activation for total concentrations of I and several other trace elements. Our preliminary analyses indicate that sodium and iodine show a clear diel variation characterized by higher concentrations from late morning to early evening. We hypothesize that this diel variability is related to a persistent land/sea breeze circulation associated with the nearby coastal region. Other elements are indicative of variability in other aerosol sources such as soil dust (Al, Mn) and fossil fuel combustion (V). Second quarters are currently being extracted in DIW and analyzed in two ways: 1) for iodide by ion chromatography, and 2) for inorganic iodine in higher oxidation states (i.e., V to 0) by chemical reduction with ascorbic acid followed by determination of iodide by ion chromatography. Results of the trace element and speciated iodine analyses will be presented.

  5. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) activates integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Akt signaling in ovarian cancer cells to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a major problem in ovarian cancer (OC) and correlates with poor prognosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble secreted factor that acts as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG has been reported to attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, including OC cells. OPG-mediated protection against TRAIL has been attributed to its decoy receptor function. However, OPG activates integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in endothelial cells. In OC cells, activation of integrin/FAK signaling inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that OPG could attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in OC cells through integrin/FAK signaling. Methods In vitro experiments including immunoblots, colony formation assays, and apoptosis measurements were used to assess the effect of OPG on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Results Exogenous OPG protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a TRAIL binding-independent manner and OPG protection was αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin/FAK signaling-dependent. Moreover, OPG-mediated activation of integrin/FAK signaling resulted in the activation of Akt. Inhibition of both integrin/FAK and Akt signaling significantly inhibited OPG-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Although OPG also stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling did not significantly altered OPG protection. Conclusions Our studies provide evidence, for the first time, that OPG can attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a TRAIL binding-independent manner through the activation of integrin/FAK/Akt signaling in OC cells. PMID:24267510

  6. Effects of ethanol and heat treatments of soybean meal and infusion of sodium chloride into the rumen on ruminal degradation and escape of soluble and total soybean meal protein in steers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, G L; Berger, L L; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C; Baker, E C

    1987-12-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) treated with 70% ethanol at 80 C (ET), nontreated SBM (NT) or a ureacasein-corn mix (UC) was fed to steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae to study ruminal N metabolism. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was ruminally infused at 0 or 500 g/d. Nitrogen supplements provided approximately 70% of total dietary N. Experimental design was a 6 X 6 Latin square with a 3 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Total duodenal N flows and non-ammonia, non-bacterial-N (NANB-N) flows were higher (P less than .05) when steers were fed SBM treatments compared with UC, and higher (P less than .05) when steers were fed ET compared with NT. Percentage of SBM-N escaping ruminal degradation was greater (P less than .05) when steers were fed ET compared with NT, and greater (P less than .05) when NaCl was infused into the rumen. Duodenal flows of total, indispensible and dispensible amino acids were increased (P less than .05) when steers were fed SBM treatments compared with UC, and greater (P less than .05) when steers were fed ET compared with NT. No differences in soluble N flows at the omasum were observed due to treatment. Bacterial protein comprised the majority of the N leaving the rumen. Both ruminal NaCl infusion and ethanol and heat treatment of SBM increased ruminal SBM-N escape.

  7. Osteopontin and Osteoprotegerin as Potential Biomarkers in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm before and after Treatment.

    PubMed

    Filis, Konstantinos; Martinakis, Vasilios; Galyfos, George; Sigala, Fragiska; Theodorou, Dimitris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Zografos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Although osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), no association of these two biomarkers with AAA surgical or endovascular treatment has been reported. Material and Methods. Seventy-four AAA patients were prospectively selected for open or endovascular repair. All aneurysms were classified (Types A-E) according to aneurysmal extent in CT imaging (EUROSTAR criteria). All patients had preoperative serum OPN and OPG values measurements and 1 week after the procedure. Preoperative and postoperative values were compared with a control group of twenty patients (inguinal hernia repair). Results. Preoperative OPN values in patients with any type of aneurysm were higher than in the control group, while OPG values showed no difference. Postoperative OPN values in AAA patients were higher than in the control group. OPN values increased after open surgery and after EVAR. OPG values increased after open surgery but not after EVAR. There was no difference in OPN/OPG values between EVAR and open surgery postoperatively. Conclusions. OPN values are associated with aneurysm presence but not with aneurysm extent. OPG values are not associated either with aneurysm presence or with aneurysm extent. OPN values increase after AAA repair, independently of the type of repair.

  8. Osteopontin and Osteoprotegerin as Potential Biomarkers in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm before and after Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinakis, Vasilios; Sigala, Fragiska; Theodorou, Dimitris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Zografos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Although osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), no association of these two biomarkers with AAA surgical or endovascular treatment has been reported. Material and Methods. Seventy-four AAA patients were prospectively selected for open or endovascular repair. All aneurysms were classified (Types A–E) according to aneurysmal extent in CT imaging (EUROSTAR criteria). All patients had preoperative serum OPN and OPG values measurements and 1 week after the procedure. Preoperative and postoperative values were compared with a control group of twenty patients (inguinal hernia repair). Results. Preoperative OPN values in patients with any type of aneurysm were higher than in the control group, while OPG values showed no difference. Postoperative OPN values in AAA patients were higher than in the control group. OPN values increased after open surgery and after EVAR. OPG values increased after open surgery but not after EVAR. There was no difference in OPN/OPG values between EVAR and open surgery postoperatively. Conclusions. OPN values are associated with aneurysm presence but not with aneurysm extent. OPG values are not associated either with aneurysm presence or with aneurysm extent. OPN values increase after AAA repair, independently of the type of repair. PMID:27379275

  9. The role of biosilica in the osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio in human osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Kolb, Ute; Schlossmacher, Ute; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-10-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that biosilica, synthesized by the enzyme silicatein, induces hydroxyapatite formation in osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Here we study the effect of biosilica on the expressions of osteoprotegerin [OPG] and the receptor activator for NF-kappaB ligand [RANKL] in the SaOS-2 cell model. We show that during growth of SaOS-2 cells on biosiliceous matrices hydroxyapatite formation is induced, while syntheses of cartilaginous proteoglycans and sulfated glycosaminoglycans are down-regulated. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed a strong time-depended increase in expression of OPG in biosilica exposed SaOS-2 cells while the steady-state expression level of RANKL remained unchanged. These results have been corroborated on the protein level by ELISA assays. Therefore, we propose that biosilica stimulated OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like cells counteracts those pathways that control RANKL expression and function (e.g. maturation of pre-osteoclasts and activation of osteoclasts). Hence, the data obtained in the present study reveal the considerable biomedical potential of biosilica for treatment and prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders.

  10. Down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression as a novel biomarker for colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of tumor biology is important in the identification of molecules that are down-regulated in malignancy and in determining their role in tumor suppression. The aim of this study was to analyze osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and to investigate the underlying mechanism for changes in the expression of OPG. OPG expression was assessed in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. The methylation status of the OPG promoter region was determined, and the effects of demethylation on OPG expression were analyzed. The effects of recombinant OPG (rOPG) administration on cellular functions were also investigated. Clinical and prognostic implications of OPG protein expression in CRC patients were analyzed. The CRC tissues and cells showed significantly lower OPG expression. Pyrosequencing of OPG-silenced CRC cells revealed that the OPG gene promoter was highly methylated. Treatment with demethylating agent significantly elevated OPG mRNA and protein expression. rOPG significantly decreased cell viability and MMP-2 and VEGF-A production in CRC cells. Reduced OPG immunoreactivity was associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior in CRC. Also, OPG expression was found to be an independent predictor of recurrent hepatic metastasis and independent prognostic factor for worse survival rates. We demonstrated that OPG silencing in CRC occurs through epigenetic repression, and is involved in the development and progression of CRC. Our data suggest that OPG is a novel prognostic biomarker and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with CRC. PMID:26942563

  11. Mammary gland-specific expression of biologically active human osteoprotegerin in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chul-Sang

    2013-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone resorption by inhibiting differentiation and activation of osteoclast, thereby potentially useful for the treatment of many bone diseases associated with increased bone loss. In this study, we designed a novel cDNA expression cassette by modifying the potent and mammary gland-specific goat β-casein/hGH hybrid gene construct and examined human OPG (hOPG) cDNA expression in transgenic mice. Six transgenic mice all successfully expressed hOPG in their milk at the level of 0.06-2,000 µg/ml. An estimated molecular weight of the milk hOPG was 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE, which is the same as a naturally glycosylated monomer. This hOPG expression was highly specific to the mammary glands of transgenic mice. hOPG mRNA was not detected in any organs analyzed except mammary gland. Functional integrity of milk hOPG was evaluated by TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity assay in bone marrow cell cultures. OPG ligand (OPG-L) treatment increased TRAP activity by two fold but it was completely abolished by co-treatment with transgenic milk containing hOPG. Taken together, our novel cDNA expression cassette could direct an efficient expression of biologically active hOPG, a potential candidate pharmaceutical for bone diseases, only in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

  12. Effects of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL on bone destruction and collapse in avascular necrosis femoral head.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ming-Yue; Liu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Shi-Qiong; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Gao, Hang-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVFH) is a clinically recalcitrant disease of hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulates the balance, maturation and function of osteoclast and bone remodeling. This study aims to investigate molecular pathways which leads to AVN by studying expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR is used to evaluate mRNA expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL. mRNA and protein level in normal and necrotic tissue from 42 samples of ANFH specimens were analyzed. OPG and RANKL protein levels are estimated by western blotting. The results indicated that OPG mRNA levels are higher but not significantly different in necrotic tissue than that in normal tissue (P>0.05). Although expression of RANK and RANKL is significantly lower than that of OPG, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels are higher in necrotic tissue than normal tissue (P<0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL show no significant difference. In conclusion, OPG, RANK and RANKL play important role in progress of bone remodeling in necrotic area and in disturbance of bone homeostasis, which might have an effect on bone destruction and subsequent collapse of hip joint. PMID:27508034

  13. In vitro evaluation of osteoprotegerin in chitosan for potential bone defect applications

    PubMed Central

    Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, NA

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. OPG has been used systemically in the treatment of bone diseases. In searching for more effective and safer treatment for bone diseases, we investigated newly formulated OPG-chitosan complexes, which is prepared as a local application for its osteogenic potential to remediate bone defects. Methods We examined high, medium and low molecular weights of chitosan combined with OPG. The cytotoxicity of OPG in chitosan and its proliferation in vitro was evaluated using normal, human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts in 2D and 3D cell culture. The cytotoxicity of these combinations was compared by measuring cell survival with a tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and AlamarBlue assay. The cellular morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope. A propidium iodide and acridine orange double-staining assay was used to evaluate the morphology and quantify the viable and nonviable cells. The expression level of osteopontin and osteocalcin protein in treated normal human osteoblast cells was evaluated by using Western blot. Results The results demonstrated that OPG in combination with chitosan was non-toxic, and OPG combined with low molecular weight chitosan has the most significant effect on NHPL fibroblasts and stimulates proliferation of cells over the period of treatment. PMID:27635307

  14. Osteoprotegerin in Exosome-Like Vesicles from Human Cultured Tubular Cells and Urine

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Martin, Alberto; Ucero, Alvaro Conrado; Zubiri, Irene; Posada-Ayala, Maria; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Ortiz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Urinary exosomes have been proposed as potential diagnostic tools. TNF superfamily cytokines and receptors may be present in exosomes and are expressed by proximal tubular cells. We have now studied the expression of selected TNF superfamily proteins in exosome-like vesicles from cultured human proximal tubular cells and human urine and have identified additional proteins in these vesicles by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Human proximal tubular cells constitutively released exosome-like vesicles that did not contain the TNF superfamily cytokines TRAIL or TWEAK. However, exosome-like vesicles contained osteoprotegerin (OPG), a TNF receptor superfamily protein, as assessed by Western blot, ELISA or selected reaction monitoring by nLC-(QQQ)MS/MS. Twenty-one additional proteins were identified in tubular cell exosome-like vesicles, including one (vitamin D binding protein) that had not been previously reported in exosome-like vesicles. Twelve were extracellular matrix proteins, including the basement membrane proteins type IV collagen, nidogen-1, agrin and fibulin-1. Urine from chronic kidney disease patients contained a higher amount of exosomal protein and exosomal OPG than urine from healthy volunteers. Specifically OPG was increased in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease urinary exosome-like vesicles and expressed by cystic epithelium in vivo. In conclusion, OPG is present in exosome-like vesicles secreted by proximal tubular epithelial cells and isolated from Chronic Kidney Disease urine. PMID:24058411

  15. Osteoprotegerin Polymorphisms in a Mexican Population with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Generalized Osteoporosis: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria Guadalupe; Moran-Moguel, Maria Cristina; Cornejo-Toledo, Jesus Alejandro; Gonzalez-Montoya, Norma Guadalupe; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Aguilar-Chavez, Erika Anita; Alcaraz-Lopez, Miriam Fabiola; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Alicia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex phenomenon where genetic risk factors have been partially evaluated. The system formed by receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG): RANK/RANKL/OPG is a crucial molecular pathway for coupling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, since OPG is able to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and activation. We aim to evaluate the association between SNPs C950T (rs2073617), C209T (rs3134069), T245G (rs3134070) in the TNFRSF11B (OPG) gene, and osteoporosis in RA. We included 81 women with RA and 52 healthy subjects in a cross-sectional study, genotyped them, and measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. Mean age in RA was 50 ± 12 with disease duration of 12 ± 8 years. According to BMD results, 23 (33.3%) were normal and 46 (66.7%) had osteopenia/osteoporosis. We found a higher prevalence of C allele for C950T SNP in RA. Polymorphisms C209T and T245G did not reach statistical significance in allele distribution. Further studies including patients from other regions of Latin America with a multicenter design to increase the sample size are required to confirm our findings and elucidate if C950T SNP could be associated with osteoporosis in RA. PMID:26065000

  16. Detection and characterization of RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Kluger, Sibylle; Kühne, Christian A; Dunstan, Colin R; Burchert, Andreas; Schoppet, Michael; Zielke, Andreas; Heufelder, Armin E

    2002-01-01

    Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) play essential roles in bone metabolism and immune responses. RANKL activates RANK, which is expressed by osteoclasts and dendritic cells (DC), whereas OPG acts as its decoy receptor. The role of RANKL and OPG in thyroid physiology is unclear. Northern analysis revealed pronounced OPG mRNA levels in normal human thyroid. By contrast, RANKL mRNA levels were most abundant in lymph node and appendix, and low in the thyroid. In the human thyroid follicular cell line XTC and in primary human thyroid follicular cells, OPG mRNA levels and protein secretion were upregulated by interleukin (IL)-1beta (33-fold), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (eightfold), and thyrotropin (TSH) (threefold). RANKL mRNA was stimulated in XTC by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but inhibited by TSH. Conditioned medium harvested from IL-1beta-treated XTC (containing high concentrations of OPG) inhibited RANKL-induced CD40 upregulation and cluster formation of DC. OPG mRNA levels were three times more abundant in surgical thyroid specimens of Graves' disease as compared to other thyroid diseases. Our data suggest that RANKL and OPG are produced in the thyroid gland by thyroid follicular cells, are regulated by cytokines and TSH, and are capable of modulating dendritic cell functions. Thus, these cytokines may represent important local immunoregulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  17. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin’s effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  18. Expression of osteoprotegerin, RNAK and RANKL genes in femoral head avascular necrosis and related signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Qingtang; Hao, Sibin; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) causes the damage of hip joint and related dysfunctions, thus consisting of a clinical challenge. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) all regulate the formation of bones via gene transcriptional regulation for the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This study thus investigated the expressional profiles of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN patients, and explored related molecular mediating pathways. Real-time qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN femoral head tissue samples from 42 patients, along with normal tissues. Western blotting analysis was performed to quantify protein levels of OPG and RANKL. There was a trend but not statistically significant elevation of mRNA levels of OPG in femoral head AVN tissues compared to normal tissues (P>0.05). The expression of RNAK and RNAKL, however, was significantly elevated in necrotic tissues (P<0.05). No significant difference in protein levels of OPG or RANKL between groups. The expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes exert a crucial role in the progression of AVN, suggesting their roles in mediating bone homeostasis and potential effects on bone destruction. PMID:26617755

  19. Correlates of Osteoprotegerin and Association with Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Mary B.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Appel, Lawrence; Wolf, Myles; Budoff, Matt J.; Chen, Jing; Lustigova, Eva; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Glenn, Melanie; Hanish, Asaf; Raj, Dominic; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a cytokine that regulates bone resorption, has been implicated in the process of vascular calcification and stiffness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Serum OPG was measured in 351 participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from one site of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Cortical bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by quantitative computed tomography in the tibia. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between serum OPG and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, measures of abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and pulse wave velocity. Results Higher serum OPG levels were associated with older age, female gender, greater systolic BP, lower estimated GFR, and lower serum albumin. OPG was not associated with measures of abnormal bone or mineral metabolism including serum phosphorus, albumin-corrected serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, or cortical BMC. Among 226 participants with concurrent aortic pulse wave velocity measurements, increasing tertiles of serum OPG were associated with higher aortic pulse wave velocity after adjustment for demographics, traditional vascular risk factors, and nontraditional risk factors such as estimated GFR, albuminuria, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein or after additional adjustment for cortical BMC in a subset (n = 161). Conclusions These data support a strong relationship between serum OPG and arterial stiffness independent of many potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and inflammation. PMID:21940840

  20. In vitro evaluation of osteoprotegerin in chitosan for potential bone defect applications

    PubMed Central

    Misran, Misni; Baharuddin, NA

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. OPG has been used systemically in the treatment of bone diseases. In searching for more effective and safer treatment for bone diseases, we investigated newly formulated OPG-chitosan complexes, which is prepared as a local application for its osteogenic potential to remediate bone defects. Methods We examined high, medium and low molecular weights of chitosan combined with OPG. The cytotoxicity of OPG in chitosan and its proliferation in vitro was evaluated using normal, human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts in 2D and 3D cell culture. The cytotoxicity of these combinations was compared by measuring cell survival with a tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay and AlamarBlue assay. The cellular morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope. A propidium iodide and acridine orange double-staining assay was used to evaluate the morphology and quantify the viable and nonviable cells. The expression level of osteopontin and osteocalcin protein in treated normal human osteoblast cells was evaluated by using Western blot. Results The results demonstrated that OPG in combination with chitosan was non-toxic, and OPG combined with low molecular weight chitosan has the most significant effect on NHPL fibroblasts and stimulates proliferation of cells over the period of treatment.

  1. Use of spaceflight and spaceflight simulation to evaluate osteoprotegerin for treatment of disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Simske, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered naturally circulating protein (Amgen Inc.) that plays a role in regulating bone density. It inhibits the ability of osteoclasts to resorb bone by blocking the action of OPG ligand (OPGL). This limits osteoclastogenesis and the activation of mature osteoclasts and induces osteoclast apoptosis. Transgenic mice, altered to over-express OPG, develop increased bone density via dual X-ray absorptiometry analysis, similar to that of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice. Recombinant injection of OPG in mice increases metaphyseal trabecular bone volume of both the proximal tibia and distal femur. Recombinant OPG also ameliorates the effects of estrogen loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, causing an increase in bone volume and decreased osteoclast numbers relative to placebo controls. OPG has been examined for its ability to treat both tail suspension and nerve crush. OPG returns the mechanical properties of tail suspended mice to the levels of placebo treated nonsuspended controls. This increase in mechanical properties is not caused by returning formation levels to normal, but rather by inhibiting resorption while increasing percent mineral composition. OPG is also efficacious in treating nerve crush induced osteoporosis. The differences in bone mass (a consequence of disuse) between the crushed limb and contralateral control (noncrushed) is decreased by OPG treatment. .

  2. Expression of osteoprotegerin and its ligands, RANKL and TRAIL, in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Corrales, Alfonso; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathophysiology. In this study, we assessed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these molecules by qPCR in peripheral blood from 26 patients with RA (12 of them with ischemic heart disease –IHD) and 10 healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between OPG, RANKL and TRAIL expression levels in RA patients and their clinical and demographic characteristics were also evaluated. Whereas OPG and OPG/TRAIL ratio expression were significantly increased in RA patients compared to controls (fold change = 1.79, p = 0.013 and 2.07, p = 0.030, respectively), RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly decreased (fold change = 0.50, p = 0.020). No significant differences were found between patients and controls in RANKL and TRAIL expression. Interestingly, TRAIL expression was significantly higher in RA patients with IHD compared to those without IHD (fold change = 1.46, p = 0.033). Moreover, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) significantly decreased RANKL expression in RA patients (p = 0.016). Our study supports an important role of OPG and TRAIL in RA. Furthermore, it highlights an effect of biologic DMARDs in the modulation of RANKL. PMID:27403809

  3. Resveratrol amplifies BMP-4-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis via p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that possesses health‑related properties, and is predominantly found in grapes and berries. Bone morphogenetic protein‑4 (BMP‑4) stimulates osteocalcin synthesis via p38 mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on BMP‑4‑induced osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in MC3T3‑E1 cells. Resveratrol alone had no effect on OPG expression levels, but significantly enhanced BMP‑4‑induced OPG release. In addition, resveratrol markedly amplified the mRNA expression levels of BMP‑4‑induced OPG. SB203580 is an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, which was shown to suppress BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG release. BMP‑4‑induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was also enhanced by resveratrol. Furthermore, SB203580 significantly reduced the resveratrol‑induced amplification of BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG release. These results suggested that resveratrol was able to upregulate BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG synthesis via the amplification of p38 MAP kinase activity in osteoblasts.

  4. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteoprotegerin and reduces RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Shiju; Guo, Hua; Xia, Lu; Liu, Huifang; Qin, Yuxi; He, Chengqi

    2013-05-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown to increase bone mineral density in osteoporosis patients and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. But the mechanisms through which PEMF elicits these favorable biological responses are still not fully understood. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are cytokines predominantly secreted by osteoblasts and play a central role in differentiation and functional activation of osteoclasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEMF on RANKL and OPG expression in ovariectomized rats. Thirty 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (Sham), ovariectomy control (OVX), and ovariectomy with PEMF treatment (PEMF). After 12-week interventions, the results showed that PEMF increased serum 17β-estradiol level, reduced serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase level, increased bone mineral density, and inhibited deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in OVX rats. Furthermore, PEMF could suppress RANKL expression and improve OPG expression in bone marrow cells of OVX rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that PEMF can prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss through regulating the expression of RANKL and OPG.

  5. Effects of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL on bone destruction and collapse in avascular necrosis femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ming-Yue; Liu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Shi-Qiong; Liu, Zhen-Hui; Gao, Hang-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of femoral head (AVFH) is a clinically recalcitrant disease of hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulates the balance, maturation and function of osteoclast and bone remodeling. This study aims to investigate molecular pathways which leads to AVN by studying expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR is used to evaluate mRNA expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL. mRNA and protein level in normal and necrotic tissue from 42 samples of ANFH specimens were analyzed. OPG and RANKL protein levels are estimated by western blotting. The results indicated that OPG mRNA levels are higher but not significantly different in necrotic tissue than that in normal tissue (P>0.05). Although expression of RANK and RANKL is significantly lower than that of OPG, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels are higher in necrotic tissue than normal tissue (P<0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL show no significant difference. In conclusion, OPG, RANK and RANKL play important role in progress of bone remodeling in necrotic area and in disturbance of bone homeostasis, which might have an effect on bone destruction and subsequent collapse of hip joint. PMID:27508034

  6. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity. PMID:27110777

  7. Association between osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changlei; Hu, Fudong; Zhang, Shaoli; Wang, Yakun; Liu, Hengdao

    2013-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene polymorphisms (T245G, T950C and G1181C) have been associated with osteoporosis and early predictors of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these polymorphisms contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a case-control study with 178 CVD subjects with diabetes and 312 diabetic patients without CVD to assess the impact of variants of the OPG gene on the risk of CVD. The OPG gene polymorphisms were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). There was no significant association between the T245G and G1181C polymorphisms and CVD in the additive genetic model (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.64–1.45, p = 0.79; OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.81–1.39, p = 0.65, respectively). However, the C allele of the T950C polymorphism was independently associated with a risk of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients in this genetic model (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07–1.80, p = 0.01). This study provides evidence that the C allele of the T950C polymorphism is associated with increased risk of CVD in diabetic patients. However, well-designed prospective studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate these results. PMID:23885198

  8. Effects of Minocycline on Urine Albumin, Interleukin-6, and Osteoprotegerin in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Tong, Lili; Pak, Youngju; Andalibi, Ali; LaPage, Janine A.; Adler, Sharon G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We tested minocycline as an anti-proteinuric adjunct to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and measured urinary biomarkers to evaluate minocycline’s biological effects. Methods Design: Prospective, single center, randomized, placebo-controlled, intention-to-treat pilot trial. Inclusion. Type 2 diabetes/DN; Baseline creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min; proteinuria ≥ 1.0 g/day; Age ≥30 years; BP <150/95 mm Hg; intolerant of/at maximum RAASi dose. Protocol. 3-wk screening; Baseline randomization; Urine and blood measures at months 1, 2, 4, and Month 6 study completion. Urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin were measured in a subset. Primary outcome. Natural log of urine protein/creatinine (ln U P:Cr) ratio at Month 6 vs Baseline. Results 30 patients completed the study. The 15% decline in U P: Cr in minocycline patients (6 month P:Cr ÷ Baseline P:Cr, 0.85 vs. 0.92) was not significant (p = 0.27). Creatinine clearance did not differ in the 2 groups. Urine IL-6:Cr (p = 0.03) and osteoprotegerin/Cr (p = 0.046) decrements were significant. Minocycline modified the relationship between urine IL-6 and proteinuria, suggesting a protective biological effect. Conclusions Although the decline in U P:Cr in minocycline patients was not statistically significant, the significant differences in urine IL-6 and osteoprotegerin suggest that minocycline may confer cytoprotection in patients with DN, providing a rationale for further study. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01779089 PMID:27019421

  9. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sarlati, Fatemeh; Sattari, Mandana; Razzaghi, Shilan; Nasiri, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoclastogenesis is coordinated by the interaction of three members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily: Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK). The aim of this study was to investigate RANKL and OPG levels, and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this analytical study, GCF was obtained from healthy (n = 10), mild chronic periodontitis (n = 18), moderate chronic periodontitis (n = 18), severe chronic periodontitis (n = 20), and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 20) subjects. RANKL and OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical tests used were Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U rank sum test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Mean RANKL concentration showed no statistically significant differences between groups (P = 0.58). There were also no significant differences between mean OPG concentration in the five groups (P = 0.0.56). Moreover, relative RANKL/OPG ratio did not reveal a significant difference between the three study group subjects: healthy, chronic periodontitis (mild, moderate, severe), and aggressive periodontitis (P = 0.41). There was statistically significant correlation between the concentration of sRANKL and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) in moderate chronic periodontitis patients (R = 0.48, P = 0.04). There was also negative correlation between OPG concentration and CAL in moderate chronic periodontitis patients, although not significant (R = −0.13). Conclusion: RANKL was prominent in periodontitis sites, especially in moderate periodontitis patients, whereas OPG was not detectable in some diseased sites with bleeding on probing, supporting the role of these two molecules in

  10. Marked elevation in plasma osteoprotegerin constitutes an early and consistent feature of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Niamh; Moxon, Chris; Gegenbauer, Kristina; O'Sullivan, Jamie M; Chion, Alain; Smith, Owen P; Preston, Roger J S; Brophy, Teresa M; Craig, Alister G; O'Donnell, James S

    2016-04-01

    Adherence of infected erythrocytes to vascular endothelium causes acute endothelial cell (EC) activation during Plasmodium falciparum infection. Consequently, proteins stored in Weibel-Palade (WP) bodies within EC are secreted into the plasma. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) binds to VWF and consequently is stored within WP bodies. Given the critical role of EC activation in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, we investigated plasma OPG levels in children with P. falciparum malaria. At presentation, plasma OPG levels were significantly elevated in children with cerebral malaria (CM) compared to healthy controls (means 16.0 vs 0.8 ng/ml; p< 0.01). Importantly, OPG levels were also significantly higher in children with CM who had a fatal outcome, compared to children with CM who survived. Finally, in children with CM, plasma OPG levels correlated with other established prognostic indices (including plasma lactate levels and peripheral parasite density). To further investigate the relationship between severe malaria and OPG, we utilised a murine model of experimental CM in which C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. Interestingly, plasma OPG levels were increased 4.6 fold within 24 hours following P. berghei inoculation. This early marked elevation in OPG levels was observed before any objective clinical signs were apparent, and preceded the development of peripheral blood parasitaemia. As the mice became increasingly unwell, plasma OPG levels progressively increased. Collectively, these data suggest that OPG constitutes a novel biomarker with prognostic significance in patients with severe malaria. In addition, further studies are required to determine whether OPG plays a role in modulating malaria pathogenesis. PMID:26766771

  11. Marked Elevation in Plasma Osteoprotegerin Constitutes an Early and Consistent Feature of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    O’Regan, Niamh; Moxon, Chris; Gegenbauer, Kristina; O’Sullivan, Jamie M.; Chion, Alain; Smith, Owen P.; Preston, Roger J. S.; Brophy, Teresa M.; Craig, Alister G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adherence of infected erythrocytes to vascular endothelium causes acute endothelial cell (EC) activation during Plasmodium falciparum infection. Consequently, proteins stored in Weibel-Palade (WP) bodies within EC are secreted into the plasma. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) binds to VWF and consequently is stored within WP bodies. Given the critical role of EC activation in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, we investigated plasma OPG levels in children with P. falciparum malaria. At presentation, plasma OPG levels were significantly elevated in children with cerebral malaria (CM) compared to healthy controls (means 16.0 vs 0.8 ng/ml; p<0.01). Importantly, OPG levels were also significantly higher in children with CM who had a fatal outcome, compared to children with CM who survived. Finally, in children with CM, plasma OPG levels correlated with other established prognostic indices (including plasma lactate levels and peripheral parasite density). To further investigate the relationship between severe malaria and OPG, we utilised a murine model of experimental CM in which C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. Interestingly, plasma OPG levels were increased 4.6 fold within 24 hours following P. berghei inoculation. This early marked elevation in OPG levels was observed before any objective clinical signs were apparent, and preceded the development of peripheral blood parasitaemia. As the mice became increasingly unwell, plasma OPG levels progressively increased. Collectively, these data suggest that OPG constitutes a novel biomarker with prognostic significance in patients with severe malaria. In addition, further studies are required to determine whether OPG plays a role in modulating malaria pathogenesis. PMID:26766771

  12. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  13. Distribution of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in calcified human carotid atheroma.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Catherine L; Isbilir, Salim; Basto, Pamela; Chen, Iou Yih; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vaduganathan, Periyanan; Reardon, Michael J; Lawrie, Gerald; Peterson, Leif; Morrisett, Joel D

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic vascular calcification is a significant component of atherosclerotic disease. Osteopontin (OPN), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are each thought to play central roles in the calcification or demineralization of atherosclerotic lesions. Abnormalities in the balance of these proteins may lead to perturbations in bone remodeling and arterial calcification. The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of these proteins in human carotid lesions and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) whereby they control the deposition or depletion of arterial calcification. Thirty-three patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within the previous 18 months and 11 control patients were enrolled. CEA specimens were analyzed by EBCT for calcification content in terms of Agatston (AGAT) and Volume scores. CEA specimens were then cut into 5 mm segments which were homogenized and extracted. Extracts were analyzed for tissue levels of calcium, phosphorus, ALP, OPN, RANKL, and OPG. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for the same components. In CEA tissue segments, the calcification levels (CHA AGAT) were inversely associated with the levels of OPG (r = -0.432/-0.579, p < 0.05) and positively associated with the levels of RANKL (r = 0.332/0.415, p < 0.05). In turn, the tissue levels of OPG were associated with homologous serum levels of OPG (r = 0.820/0.389, p < 0.001), and the tissue levels of RANKL were associated with the serum levels of homologous RANKL (r = 0.739/0.666, p < 0.0001). This study suggests that serum levels of OPG and RANKL may be useful biomarkers for estimating the degree of calcification in carotid atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26307009

  14. Serum osteoprotegerin is associated with pulse pressure in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsofia K.; Mardare, Nicoleta G.; Czira, Maria E.; Deak, Gyorgy; Kiss, Istvan; Mathe, Zoltan; Remport, Adam; Ujszaszi, Akos; Covic, Adrian; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Mucsi, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP) reflects increased large artery stiffness, which is caused, in part, by arterial calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease. PP has been shown to predict both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in various patient populations, including kidney transplant (KTX) recipients. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a marker and regulator of arterial calcification, and it is related to cardiovascular survival in hemodialysis patients. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPG is associated with increased pulse pressure. We cross-sectionally analyzed the association between serum OPG and PP in a prevalent cohort of 969 KTX patients (mean age: 51 +/− 13 years, 57% male, 21% diabetics, mean eGFR 51 +/− 20 ml/min/1.73 m2). Independent associations were tested in a linear regression model adjusted for multiple covariables. PP was positively correlated with serum OPG (rho = 0.284, p < 0.001). Additionally, a positive correlation was seen between PP versus age (r = 0.358, p < 0.001), the Charlson Comorbidity Index (r = 0.232, p < 0.001), serum glucose (r = 0.172, p < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.133, p = 0.001) and serum cholesterol (r = 0.094, p = 0.003). PP was negatively correlated with serum Ca, albumin and eGFR. The association between PP and OPG remained significant after adjusting for multiple potentially relevant covariables (beta = 0.143, p < 0.001). We conclude that serum OPG is independently associated with pulse pressure in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:26459001

  15. Trabecular bone volume and osteoprotegerin expression in uremic rats given high calcium.

    PubMed

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Ettenger, Robert B; Salusky, Isidro B; Kuizon, Beatriz D

    2010-11-01

    Calcium (Ca)-containing phosphate binders have been recommended for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in children with chronic kidney disease. To study the effects of high Ca levels on trabecular bone volume (BV) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in uremic young rats, a model of marked overcorrection of secondary hyperparathyroidism was created by providing a diet of high Ca to 5/6 nephrectomized young rats (Nx-Ca) for 4 weeks. The results of chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, osteoclastic activity, OPG expression and BV were compared among intact rats given the control diet, intact rats given a high Ca diet and 5/6 nephrectomized rats given the control diet (Nx-Control) and the high Ca diet (Nx-Ca). Ionized Ca levels were higher and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in Nx-Ca rats than in the other groups. Final weight, final length and final tibial length of Nx-Ca rats were significantly less than those of the other groups, although the length gain did not differ among the groups. The hypertrophic zone width was markedly enlarged in Nx-Ca rats. Chondrocyte proliferation rates did not differ among the groups, whereas osteoclastic activity was decreased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control animals. The OPG expression and BV were increased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control rats. Increased BV should improve bone strength, whereas disturbance of osteoclastogenesis interferes with bone remodeling. Bone quality has yet to be determined in high Ca-fed uremic young rats.

  16. Serum, saliva, and GCF concentration of RANKL and osteoprotegerin in smokers versus nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Saied-Moallemi, Zahra; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Naseri, Roohollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of host response in periodontitis pathogenesis is confirmed, and it is well established that immune response plays a major role in the alveolar bone destruction. In the investigation of these responses, the role of receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is the most promising. Smoking can affect the RANKL-OPG system in a manner that will further enhance bone loss in periodontitis. The aim of this study is to assess the serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentration of RANKL and OPG in smoker versus nonsmoker untreated chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine subjects were included in the present cross-sectional study: 29 systemically healthy CP male patients (15 smokers, 14 nonsmokers) and 10 systemically and periodontally healthy nonsmoker male subjects. Serum, GCF, and whole saliva samples were obtained from the subjects. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used for assaying the concentrations of RANKL and OPG in the samples. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test were utilized to compare differences between the groups. Results: RANKL and OPG concentrations in saliva, serum, and GCF did not show any significant difference among all groups (P > 0.05). Salivary RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the nonsmoker CP group than in the healthy control group (P > 0.05) but they were not statistically significant among smoker periodontitis patients. Conclusions: The salivary RANKL/OPG ratio was higher in nonsmokers with periodontitis in comparison with smoker periodontitis patients. PMID:27195253

  17. Suppression by resveratrol of prostaglandin D2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Mizutani, Jun; Kondo, Akira; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-09-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with health-related properties mainly existing in grape skins and red wine, possesses beneficial effects on human being. We have previously reported that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) stimulates heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) induction via activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, p38 MAP kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind the effect of PGD2 on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and the effect of resveratrol on the OPG synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. PGD2 significantly stimulated both the OPG release and the expression levels of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol and SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, markedly suppressed the PGD2-induced OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, and SP600125, a specific SAPK/JNK inhibitor suppressed the PGD2-stimulated OPG release. PGD2-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK was attenuated by resveratrol or SRT1720. However, resveratrol or SRT1720 failed to affect the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit-1 (MYPT-1), a downstream substrate of Rho-kinase and p44/p42 MAP kinase. These results strongly suggest that resveratrol suppresses PGD2-stimulated OPG synthesis through inhibiting p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts, and that the suppressive effect is exerted at the point downstream of Rho-kinase but upstream of p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK.

  18. Regulation by resveratrol of prostaglandin E2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohiro; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Mizutani, Jun; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kondo, Akira; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2014-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol found in red grape skins, berries and red wine. Accumulating evidence suggests that resveratrol has various beneficial effects on the human body. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and the effects of resveratrol on OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE(2) significantly stimulated both the release of OPG and the mRNA expression levels of OPG, as shown by OPG assay and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Resveratrol markedly suppressed the release and the mRNA levels of OPG induced by PGE(2). On the contrary, SRT1720, an activator of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), hardly affected the PGE(2)-induced release of OPG. PD98059 [a specific inhibitor of the upstream kinase that activates p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase], SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase) and SP600125 [a specific inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK)], reduced the PGE(2)-induced release of OPG. Resveratrol attenuated the PGE(2)-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK. However, SRT1720 failed to affect the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK induced by PGE(2). These results strongly suggest that resveratrol reduces PGE(2)-stimulated OPG synthesis through the inhibition of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts, and that these suppressive effects are independent of the activation of SIRT1.

  19. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Ma, Hong; Rose, Rebecca; Qazi, Sanjive

    2015-01-01

    In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD) burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL”) fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI) combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1) xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS) mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2) radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT. PMID:26097891

  20. Characterization of osteoprotegerin binding to glycosaminoglycans by surface plasmon resonance: Role in the interactions with receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and RANK

    SciTech Connect

    Theoleyre, S.; Kwan Tat, S.; Vusio, P.; Blanchard, F.; Gallagher, J.; Ricard-Blum, S.; Fortun, Y.; Padrines, M.; Redini, F.; Heymann, D. . E-mail: dominique.heymann@univ-nantes.fr

    2006-08-25

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL), a key inducer of osteoclastogenesis via its receptor RANK. We previously showed that RANK, RANKL, and OPG are able to form a tertiary complex and that OPG must be also considered as a direct effector of osteoclast functions. As OPG contains a heparin-binding domain, the present study investigated the interactions between OPG and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by surface plasmon resonance and their involvement in the OPG functions. Kinetic data demonstrated that OPG binds to heparin with a high-affinity (K {sub D}: 0.28 nM) and that the pre-incubation of OPG with heparin inhibits in a dose-dependent manner the OPG binding to the complex RANK-RANKL. GAGs from different structure/origin (heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) exert similar activity on OPG binding. The contribution of the sulfation pattern and the size of the oligosaccharide were determined in this inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that sulfation is essential in the OPG-blocking function of GAGs since a totally desulfated heparin loses its capacity to bind and to block OPG binding to RANKL. Moreover, a decasaccharide is the minimal structure that totally inhibits the OPG binding to the complex RANK-RANKL. Western blot analysis performed in 293 cells surexpressing RANKL revealed that the pre-incubation of OPG with these GAGs strongly inhibits the OPG-induced decrease of membrane RANKL half-life. These data support an essential function of the related glycosaminoglycans heparin and heparan sulfate in the activity of the triad RANK-RANKL-OPG.

  1. Body Composition, Soluble Markers of Inflammation, and Bone Mineral Density in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd T.; Chen, Yun; Currier, Judith S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Rothenberg, Jennifer; Dubé, Michael P.; Murphy, Robert; Stein, James H.; McComsey, Grace A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between bone mineral density (BMD), inflammatory markers, and alterations in fat and lean mass in untreated HIV-infected individuals. Design Cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve persons enrolled into a randomized clinical trial Methods Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for BMD, lean and fat mass, and a laboratory assessment were performed. Soluble biomarkers included adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin), inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6), and markers related to bone metabolism (osteoprotegerin (OPG)), receptor activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL)). BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was expressed as a Z-score (number of standard deviations away from an age-, race-, sex-matched reference population). Results 331 subjects had a median (Q1, Q3) age of 36 (28,45) years, were 89% male, and 44% white. The prevalence of low BMD (Z-score ≤ −2 at any of the 3 sites) was 10%. No associations were detected between Z-scores and hsCRP, IL-6, or RANKL (P≥0.1). In a linear model adjusting for age, gender, race, and total fat mass, lower lumbar spine Z-scores were associated with lower total lean mass, higher serum adiponectin, and lower OPG. Results at the total hip or femoral neck were similar. Conclusions Among ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals, lower BMD was associated with lower lean mass, higher adiponectin, and lower OPG, but not HIV disease variables or any of the inflammatory markers. These findings may have implications for bone metabolism in untreated HIV, in which hypoadiponectinemia and higher OPG may mitigate bone loss. PMID:23591634

  2. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  3. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases

  4. Osteoprotegerin is an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A; Morony, Sean E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Simske, Steven J; Stodieck, Louis S; Warmington, Kelly S; Livingston, Eric W; Lacey, David L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss associated with microgravity exposure poses a significant barrier to long-duration spaceflight. Osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc) is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor that causes sustained inhibition of bone resorption after a single subcutaneous injection. We tested the ability of OPG-Fc to preserve bone mass during 12 days of spaceflight (SF). 64-day-old female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group) were injected subcutaneously with OPG-Fc (20mg/kg) or an inert vehicle (VEH), 24h prior to launch. Ground control (GC) mice (VEH or OPG-Fc) were maintained under environmental conditions that mimicked those in the space shuttle middeck. Age-matched baseline (BL) controls were sacrificed at launch. GC/VEH, but not SF/VEH mice, gained tibia BMD and trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) during the mission (P<0.05 vs. BL). SF/VEH mice had lower BV/TV vs. GC/VEH mice, while SF/OPG-Fc mice had greater BV/TV than SF/VEH or GC/VEH. SF reduced femur elastic and maximum strength in VEH mice, with OPG-Fc increasing elastic strength in SF mice. Serum TRAP5b was elevated in SF/VEH mice vs. GC/VEH mice. Conversely, SF/OPG-Fc mice had lower TRAP5b levels, suggesting that OPG-Fc preserved bone during spaceflight via inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Decreased bone formation also contributed to the observed osteopenia, based on the reduced femur periosteal bone formation rate and serum osteocalcin level. Overall, these observations suggest that the beneficial effects of OPG-Fc during SF are primarily due to dramatic and sustained suppression of bone resorption. In growing mice, this effect appears to compensate for the SF-related inhibition of bone formation, while preventing any SF-related increase in bone resorption. We have demonstrated that the young mouse is an appropriate new model for SF-induced osteopenia, and that a single pre-flight treatment with OPG-Fc can effectively prevent the deleterious effects of SF on mouse bone.

  5. Association Between Osteoprotegerin G1181C and T245G Polymorphisms and Diabetic Charcot Neuroarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zelano, Giovanni; Gioffrè, Giuseppina; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zaccardi, Francesco; Martini, Francesca; Musella, Tittania; Scavone, Giuseppe; Galli, Marco; Caputo, Salvatore; Mancini, Lorena; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Charcot neuroarthropathy is a disabling complication of diabetes. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, we suppose that genetics may play a relevant role. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a case-control study with 59 subjects with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (Ch group), 41 with diabetic neuropathy without Charcot neuroarthropathy (ND group), and 103 healthy control subjects (H group) to evaluate the impact of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the osteoprotegerin gene (G1181C and T245G) on the risk of Charcot neuroarthropathy. RESULTS Regarding the SNPs of G1181C, we found a significant linkage between the G allele and Charcot neuroarthropathy (Ch vs. ND, odds ratio [OR] 2.32 [95% CI 1.3–4.1], P = 0.006; Ch vs. H, 2.10 [1.3–3.3], P = 0.002; and ND vs. H, 0.90 [0.7–1.9], P = 0.452); similarly, we found a linkage with the G allele of T245G (Ch vs. ND, 6.25 [2.2–19.7], P < 0.001; Ch vs. H, 3.56 [1.9–6.7], P = 0.001; and ND vs. H, 0.54 [0.6–5.7], P = 0.304), supporting a protective role for the allele C and T, respectively. For this reason we investigated the frequency of the protective double homozygosis CC + TT (7% in Ch) that was significantly lower in Ch compared with H (0.18 [0.06–0.5], P = 0.002) and with ND (0.17 [0.05–0.58], P = 0.006), whereas there was no difference between H and ND (1.05 [0.43–2.0], P = 0.468). In a multivariate logistic backward regression model, only weight and the lack of CC and TT genotypes were independently associated with the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study that shows an association between genetic regulation of bone remodeling and Charcot neuroarthropathy. PMID:19502537

  6. Eurycoma longifolia upregulates osteoprotegerin gene expression in androgen- deficient osteoporosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into: Sham-operated group (SHAM); orchidectomised-control group (ORX); orchidectomised and given 15 mg/kg EL extract (ORX + EL) and orchidectomised and given 8 mg/kg testosterone (ORX + T). The rats were treated for 6 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone, osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured using the ELISA technique. The femoral bones were subjected to biomechanical testing. The tibial bone gene expressions of RANKL, OPG and MCSF were measured using the branch DNA technique. Results The post-treatment level of testosterone was found to be significantly reduced by orchiectomy (p < 0.05). Both ORX + EL and ORX + T groups have significantly higher post-treatment testosterone levels compared to their pre-treatment levels (p < 0.05). The bone resorption marker (CTx) was elevated after orchiectomy but was suppressed after treatment in the ORX + EL and ORX + T groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant finding for the femoral biomechanical parameters. The tibial OPG gene expression in the ORX group was significantly lower compared to the SHAM and ORX + EL groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Supplementation with EL extract elevated the testosterone levels, reduced the bone resorption marker and upregulated OPG

  7. Osteoprotegerin is an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A; Morony, Sean E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Simske, Steven J; Stodieck, Louis S; Warmington, Kelly S; Livingston, Eric W; Lacey, David L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A

    2015-12-01

    Bone loss associated with microgravity exposure poses a significant barrier to long-duration spaceflight. Osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc) is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor that causes sustained inhibition of bone resorption after a single subcutaneous injection. We tested the ability of OPG-Fc to preserve bone mass during 12 days of spaceflight (SF). 64-day-old female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group) were injected subcutaneously with OPG-Fc (20mg/kg) or an inert vehicle (VEH), 24h prior to launch. Ground control (GC) mice (VEH or OPG-Fc) were maintained under environmental conditions that mimicked those in the space shuttle middeck. Age-matched baseline (BL) controls were sacrificed at launch. GC/VEH, but not SF/VEH mice, gained tibia BMD and trabecular volume fraction (BV/TV) during the mission (P<0.05 vs. BL). SF/VEH mice had lower BV/TV vs. GC/VEH mice, while SF/OPG-Fc mice had greater BV/TV than SF/VEH or GC/VEH. SF reduced femur elastic and maximum strength in VEH mice, with OPG-Fc increasing elastic strength in SF mice. Serum TRAP5b was elevated in SF/VEH mice vs. GC/VEH mice. Conversely, SF/OPG-Fc mice had lower TRAP5b levels, suggesting that OPG-Fc preserved bone during spaceflight via inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Decreased bone formation also contributed to the observed osteopenia, based on the reduced femur periosteal bone formation rate and serum osteocalcin level. Overall, these observations suggest that the beneficial effects of OPG-Fc during SF are primarily due to dramatic and sustained suppression of bone resorption. In growing mice, this effect appears to compensate for the SF-related inhibition of bone formation, while preventing any SF-related increase in bone resorption. We have demonstrated that the young mouse is an appropriate new model for SF-induced osteopenia, and that a single pre-flight treatment with OPG-Fc can effectively prevent the deleterious effects of SF on mouse bone. PMID

  8. Osteoprotegerin induces podosome disassembly in osteoclasts through calcium, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zou, Hui; Dai, Nannan; Yao, Lulian; Gao, Qian; Liu, Wei; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Zongping

    2015-02-01

    Osteoclasts are critical for bone resorption and use podosomes to attach to bone matrix. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a negative regulator of osteoclast function that can affect the formation and function of podosomes. However, the signaling pathways that link OPG to podosome function have not been well characterized. Therefore, this study examined the roles of intracellular calcium and MAPKs in OPG-induced podosome disassembly in osteoclasts. We assessed the effects of the intracellular calcium chelator Bapta-AM, ERK inhibitor U0126, and p38 inhibitor SB202190 on OPG-treated osteoclast differentiation, adhesion structures, intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation state of podosome associated proteins (Pyk2 and Src). Mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated to osteoclasts using RANKL (30ng/mL) and M-CSF (25ng/mL). The cells were pretreated with Bapta-AM (5μM), U0126 (5μM), or SB202190 (10μM) for 30min, followed by 40ng/mL OPG for 3h. Osteoclastogenesis, adhesion structure, viability and morphology, intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation state of Pyk2 and Src were measured by TRAP staining, scanning electron microscopy, real-time cell analyzer, flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. OPG significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis, the formation of adhesion structures, and reduced the amount of phosphorylated Pyk2 and Src-pY527, but increased phosphorylation of Src-pY416. Bapta-AM, U0126, and SB202190 partially restored osteoclast differentiation and adhesion structures. Both Bapta-AM and U0126, but not SB202190, restored the levels of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, phosphorylated Pyk2 and Src-pY527. All three inhibitors blocked OPG-induced phosphorylation at Src-pY416. These results suggest OPG disrupts the attachment structures of osteoclasts and activates Src as an adaptor protein that competes for the reduced amount of phosphorylated Pyk2 through calcium- and ERK-dependent signaling

  9. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  10. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), but not Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), is Associated with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Ketlogetswe, Kerunne S; McKibben, Rebeccah; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xuihong; Dobs, Adrian S; Budoff, Matthew; Witt, Mallory D; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence; Margolick, Joseph B.; Post, Wendy S; Brown, Todd T.

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormalities in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis have been observed in HIV-infected persons and have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis in the general population. Objective To determine associations of serum OPG and RANKL concentrations with HIV infection and subclinical atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional study nested within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Setting Four US academic medical centers Participants There were 578 HIV-infected and 344 HIV-uninfected men. Main Outcome Measures Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT), and coronary stenosis and plaque characteristics (composition, presence and extent) were measured by coronary CT angiography. All statistical models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results OPG concentrations were higher and RANKL concentrations were lower among HIV-infected men compared to –uninfected men (p<0.0001 each). Among the HIV-infected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with the presence of CAC, mixed plaque, and coronary stenosis > 50%, but not with plaque extent. In contrast, among HIV-uninfected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with extent of both CAC and calcified plaque, but not their presence. RANKL concentrations were not associated with plaque presence or extent among HIV-infected men, but among HIV-uninfected men, lower RANKL concentrations were associated with greater extent of CAC and total plaque. Conclusions OPG and RANKL are dysregulated in HIV-infected men and their relationship to the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis varies by HIV-status. The role of these biomarkers in CVD pathogenesis and risk prediction may be different in HIV-infected men. PMID:26090754

  11. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  12. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand in Bone Loss Related to Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ugay, Ludmila; Kochetkova, Evgenia; Nevzorova, Vera; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent clinical and biological researches have increasingly delineated the biomolecular pathways of bone metabolism regulation in COPD. We extended this work by examining the specific association and potential contribution of the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in advanced COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of serum OPG, RANKL, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) with bone turnover in men with very severe COPD. Methods: Pulmonary function, T-score at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum OPG, RANKL, soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-I and II (sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II), osteocalcin (OC), and β-CrossLaps (βCL) levels were measured in 45 men with very severe stage COPD and 36 male non-COPD volunteers. COPD patients and healthy controls were compared using an independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. The Pearson coefficient was used to assess the relationships between variables. Results: OPG and OC were lower in male COPD patients than in control subjects whereas RANKL, serum βCL, TNF-α, and its receptors were higher. OPG directly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted (r = 0.46, P < 0.005), OC (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), LS (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and FN T-score (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). In contrast, serum RANKL inversely associated with LS and FN T-score (r = −0.62, P < 0.001 and r = −0.48, P < 0.001) but directly correlated with βCL (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). In addition, OPG was inversely correlated with RANKL (r = −0.39, P < 0.01), TNF-α (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and sTNFR-I (r = −0.40, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum OPG and RANKL levels are inversely associated with bone loss in men with advanced stage COPD. PMID:27411457

  13. [Soluble of Metals within TSP in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Feng, Chong; Qu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of metals within aerosol particles is meaningful to evaluate the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected in Shanghai. We extracted the water soluble and acid soluble (pH = 2) metals by the mini-recirculation-leach-system and measured their concentrations by the high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dissolution kinetics were rapid, the maximum solubility of metals could be reached in a few minutes. Overall, the average water-soluble concentrations were low for Co, Cr, Cd, V and Ni, median for Cu, Pb and Mn and high for Fe, Al, Zn and Mg. Combine the soluble metal concentrations with the back trajectory, the original air mass had significant impacts on water soluble metal concentrations. The water solubility and acid solubility were different for various metals, the water solubility of Fe was the lowest (2.0%), others followed an order: Al, Cr, V, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Mg, Zn. The metals' solubility was increased with the decrease of the solvent pH value. While the chemical speciation of metals was the internal cause of metals' solubility, the metals' ionic potential and the water solubility was negatively correlated.

  14. Higher Levels of Osteoprotegerin and Immune Activation/Immunosenescence Markers Are Correlated with Concomitant Bone and Endovascular Damage in HIV-Suppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    D’Abramo, Alessandra; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Oliva, Alessandra; D’Agostino, Claudia; Al Moghazi, Samir; De Luca, Giulia; Iannetta, Marco; d’Ettorre, Gabriella; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients appear to have a significantly greater risk of non-AIDS comorbidities such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Subjects with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal bone mass, therefore a possible relation between these two conditions can be hypothesized. In the setting of HIV infection, several factors might contribute to bone disease and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between bone and cardiovascular disease and to investigate the role of traditional factors, T-cell phenotype and osteoprotegerin in HIV positive subjects on effective antiretroviral therapy. We included 94 HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression and 41 healthy subjects matched for age and gender as a control group. Carotid-Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT) and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed by ultrasound and DEXA, respectively. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation, senescence and osteoprotegerin plasma levels were measured by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Among HIV positive patients, 56.4% had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 45.7% had pathological c-IMT (>0.9mm). Subjects with pathological c-IMT and BMD exhibited higher CD4+ and CD8+ activated, CD8+ senescent and osteoprotegerin than subjects with normal c-IMT and BMD. HIV positive subjects with osteopenia/osteoporosis had higher c-IMT than subjects with normal BMD, and linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMD and c-IMT. Several factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV positive patients. Osteoprotegerin together with inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV positive patients could affect bone and vascular system and could be considered as a possible common link between these two diseases. PMID:26913505

  15. Higher Levels of Osteoprotegerin and Immune Activation/Immunosenescence Markers Are Correlated with Concomitant Bone and Endovascular Damage in HIV-Suppressed Patients.

    PubMed

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Oliva, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Claudia; Al Moghazi, Samir; De Luca, Giulia; Iannetta, Marco; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients appear to have a significantly greater risk of non-AIDS comorbidities such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Subjects with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal bone mass, therefore a possible relation between these two conditions can be hypothesized. In the setting of HIV infection, several factors might contribute to bone disease and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between bone and cardiovascular disease and to investigate the role of traditional factors, T-cell phenotype and osteoprotegerin in HIV positive subjects on effective antiretroviral therapy. We included 94 HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression and 41 healthy subjects matched for age and gender as a control group. Carotid-Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT) and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed by ultrasound and DEXA, respectively. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation, senescence and osteoprotegerin plasma levels were measured by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Among HIV positive patients, 56.4% had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 45.7% had pathological c-IMT (>0.9 mm). Subjects with pathological c-IMT and BMD exhibited higher CD4+ and CD8+ activated, CD8+ senescent and osteoprotegerin than subjects with normal c-IMT and BMD. HIV positive subjects with osteopenia/osteoporosis had higher c-IMT than subjects with normal BMD, and linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMD and c-IMT. Several factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV positive patients. Osteoprotegerin together with inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV positive patients could affect bone and vascular system and could be considered as a possible common link between these two diseases. PMID:26913505

  16. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  17. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires A; de Almeida, Leonardo M; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A; de Souza, Vinicius C; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T P L; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C L; Navalta, James W; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  18. Two Consecutive Days of Crossfit Training Affects Pro and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteoprotegerin without Impairments in Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Tibana, Ramires A.; de Almeida, Leonardo M.; Frade de Sousa, Nuno M.; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Ivo V. de Sousa; de Almeida, Jeeser A.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; Lopes, Maria de Fátima T. P. L.; Nobrega, Otávio de Tolêdo; Vieira, Denis C. L.; Navalta, James W.; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg). The same sequence as repeated on session 2 with the following metabolic conditioning: 12 min AMRAP of: row 250 m and 25 target burpees. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and osteoprotegerin were measured before, immediately post and 24 h after workout of the day (WOD) 1, immediately post, 24 and 48 h after WOD 2. Peak and mean power were obtained for each repetition (back squat with 50% of 1 repetition maximum) using a linear position transducer measured before, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 1, immediately post and 24 h after WOD 2. Blood lactate and glucose were measured pre and immediately post WOD 1 and 2. Although both sessions of exercise elicited an significant increase in blood lactate (1.20 ± 0.41 to 11.84 ± 1.34 vs. 0.94 ± 0.34 to 9.05 ± 2.56 mmol/l) and glucose concentration (81.59 ± 10.27 to 114.99 ± 12.52 vs. 69.47 ± 6.97 to 89.95 ± 19.26 mg/dL), WOD 1 induced a significantly greater increase than WOD 2 (p ≤ 0.05). The training sessions elicited significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) in IL-6, IL-10 and osteoprotegerin concentration over time. IL-6 displayed an increase immediately after training WOD 1 [197 ± 109%] (p = 0.009) and 2 [99 ± 58%] (p = 0.045). IL-10 displayed an increase immediately after only WOD 1 [44 ± 52%] (p = 0.046), and decreased 24 and 48 h following WOD 2 (~40%; p

  19. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general. PMID:26496385

  20. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  1. Osteoprotegerin Reverses Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Endosteal Osteoclasts and Prevents Vascular Calcification by Blocking a Process Resembling Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hosung; Morony, Sean; Sarosi, Ildiko; Dunstan, Colin R.; Capparelli, Casey; Scully, Sheila; Van, Gwyneth; Kaufman, Steve; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Lacey, David L.; Boyle, William J.; Simonet, W. Scott

    2000-01-01

    High systemic levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in OPG transgenic mice cause osteopetrosis with normal tooth eruption and bone elongation and inhibit the development and activity of endosteal, but not periosteal, osteoclasts. We demonstrate that both intravenous injection of recombinant OPG protein and transgenic overexpression of OPG in OPG−/2 mice effectively rescue the osteoporotic bone phenotype observed in OPG-deficient mice. However, intravenous injection of recombinant OPG over a 4-wk period could not reverse the arterial calcification observed in OPG−/− mice. In contrast, transgenic OPG delivered from mid-gestation through adulthood does prevent the formation of arterial calcification in OPG−/− mice. Although OPG is normally expressed in arteries, OPG ligand (OPGL) and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) are not detected in the arterial walls of wild-type adult mice. Interestingly, OPGL and RANK transcripts are detected in the calcified arteries of OPG−/− mice. Furthermore, RANK transcript expression coincides with the presence of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells. These findings indicate that the OPG/OPGL/RANK signaling pathway may play an important role in both pathological and physiological calcification processes. Such findings may also explain the observed high clinical incidence of vascular calcification in the osteoporotic patient population. PMID:10952716

  2. Increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio exacerbates cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Ma, Li-Feng; Meng, Hai; Yu, Hao-Miao; Cheng, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Guo, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive cartilage destruction, matrix degradation and bony changes. Subchondral bone alterations in osteoarthritis are associated with cartilage destruction. It has previously been demonstrated that osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) mediate this process. The RANKL/OPG ratio is altered in OA chondrocytes compared with normal chondrocytes. In the pathogenesis of OA, abnormal expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) are secreted by chondrocytes has a vital role in the progression of cartilage erosion. In the present study, the effect of various RANKL/OPG ratios on MMP-13 expression levels was investigated in interleukin-1β-stimulated SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and MMP-13 mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and western blot analyses, respectively. The results demonstrated that an increase in MMP-13 mRNA and protein expression levels was observed with increasing RANKL/OPG ratio. These findings suggest that this mechanism may be used as a novel therapeutic strategy against OA.

  3. Increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio exacerbates cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Ma, Li-Feng; Meng, Hai; Yu, Hao-Miao; Cheng, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Guo, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive cartilage destruction, matrix degradation and bony changes. Subchondral bone alterations in osteoarthritis are associated with cartilage destruction. It has previously been demonstrated that osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) mediate this process. The RANKL/OPG ratio is altered in OA chondrocytes compared with normal chondrocytes. In the pathogenesis of OA, abnormal expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) are secreted by chondrocytes has a vital role in the progression of cartilage erosion. In the present study, the effect of various RANKL/OPG ratios on MMP-13 expression levels was investigated in interleukin-1β-stimulated SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and MMP-13 mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and western blot analyses, respectively. The results demonstrated that an increase in MMP-13 mRNA and protein expression levels was observed with increasing RANKL/OPG ratio. These findings suggest that this mechanism may be used as a novel therapeutic strategy against OA. PMID:27698783

  4. Resveratrol suppresses prostaglandin F(2α)-induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: inhibition of the MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kondo, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2014-01-15

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, possesses various beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and of resveratrol on the OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGF2α stimulated both the release of the OPG protein and the expression of OPG mRNA. Treatment with PD98059, SB203580 and SP600125, specific inhibitors of MEK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) all suppressed the OPG release induced by PGF2α. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the PGF2α-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. Similarly, treatment with SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, also suppressed the PGF2α-stimulated OPG release. Resveratrol and SRT1720 both attenuated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, MEK1/2, Raf-1, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK induced by PGF2α. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol suppresses PGF2α-stimulated OPG synthesis by inhibiting the MAP kinase pathways in osteoblasts, and that the effect is mediated via SIRT1 activation.

  5. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  6. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  7. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness, preclinical atherosclerosis, and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Erdoğan, Turan; Türkyılmaz, Aysegül Kücükali; Devrimsel, Gül; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Beyazal, Mehmet; Sahin, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reportedly have a higher mortality and morbidity risk. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was recently defined as an important cardiovascular (CV) marker in the general population. We aimed to assess the relationship of serum OPG levels with arterial stiffness, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and clinical and laboratory data in AS patients. We examined 60 AS patients without CV disease or risk factors and 50 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), whereas functional capacity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Serum OPG levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness, whereas CIMT (examined via carotid ultrasonography) was used to evaluate preclinical atherosclerosis. The mean serum OPG level, PWV, and CIMT were significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (106.7 ± 50.9 vs. 58.1 ± 12.7 pg/mL; 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 m/s; 0.72 ± 0.13 vs. 0.57 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). In AS patients, the serum OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV and CIMT but were significantly correlated with erthrocyte sedimentation rate, BASFI, and ASDAS. AS patients without CV disease or risk exhibited high OPG levels and increased PWV and CIMT values. Although OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV or CIMT, future long-term follow-up studies will help define the predictive value of OPG in these patients.

  8. Down-regulation by resveratrol of basic fibroblast growth factor-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis through suppression of Akt in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Otsuka, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Nakakami, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2014-10-06

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  9. Osteoprotegerin in pregnant adolescents differs by race and is related to infant birth weight z-score.

    PubMed

    Essley, B; McNanley, T; Cooper, B; McIntyre, A; Witter, F; Harris, Z; O'Brien, K

    2011-10-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover, but little is known about this protein during pregnancy or among neonates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study to identify relationships between OPG, markers of bone turnover and birth outcomes in 155 pregnant adolescents (13-18 years) and their newborns. Maternal blood samples were collected at mid-gestation and at delivery. Cord blood was obtained at delivery. Serum OPG, estradiol and markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (N-telopeptide) were assessed in all samples. Placental OPG expression was assessed in placental tissue obtained at delivery. Bone markers and OPG increased significantly from mid-gestation (26.0 ± 3.4 weeks) to delivery (39.3 ± 2.6 weeks). Neonatal OPG was significantly lower, but bone turnover markers were significantly higher than maternal values at mid-gestation and at parturition (P < 0.001). African-American adolescents had higher concentrations of OPG than Caucasian adolescents at mid-gestation (P = 0.01) and delivery (P = 0.04). Gestational age and estradiol were also predictors of maternal OPG at mid-gestation and delivery. OPG concentrations in cord blood were correlated with maternal OPG concentrations and were negatively associated with infant birth weight z-score (P = 0.02) and ponderal index (P = 0.02). In conclusion, maternal OPG concentrations increased across gestation and were significantly higher than neonatal OPG concentrations. Maternal and neonatal OPG concentrations were not associated with markers of bone turnover or placental OPG expression, but neonatal OPG was inversely associated with neonatal anthropometric measures. Additional research is needed to identify roles of OPG during pregnancy.

  10. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility.

    PubMed

    Smith, Madison A; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N; Johnston, Kathryn A; Lopez, Karlo M

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM(-1 )cm(-1). No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  11. Adulteration of soluble coffee with coffee husks and parchments.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M; Blanc, M B; Leloup, V; Cherix, G; Donnelly, C M; Viani, R

    1995-01-01

    Commercial soluble coffee can be adulterated with coffee husks or parchments. Xylose is a good tracer for this type of mispractice. The analysis of total xylose in a wide selection of green beans and the assessment of its fate during processing allowed the derivation of a maximum total xylose limit of 0.40%, above which a soluble coffee should be considered as adulterated. Out of the 700 commercial soluble coffees analyzed, 81 exhibited a total xylose level above this limit. Of the samples with total xylose level lower than the limit, 99% displayed concentrations in free mannitol and total glucose below 0.30 and 2.10%, respectively.

  12. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  13. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat ...

  14. A Variant in the Osteoprotegerin Gene Is Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results from a Candidate Gene Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cecilia P.; Solus, Joseph F.; Oeser, Annette; Li, Chun; Raggi, Paolo; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Stein, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have accelerated atherosclerosis, but there is limited information about the genetic contribution to atherosclerosis in this population. Therefore, we examined the association between selected genetic polymorphisms and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with RA. Methods: Genotypes for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 152 candidate genes linked with autoimmune or cardiovascular risk were measured in 140 patients with RA. The association between the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and SNP allele frequency was assessed by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, and race. To adjust for multiple comparisons, a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold was set at 20%. Results: Patients with RA were 54 ± 11 years old and predominantly Caucasian (89%) and female (69%). CAC was present in 70 patients (50%). A variant in rs2073618 that encodes an Asn3Lys missense substitution in the osteoprotegerin gene (OPG, TNFRSF11B) was significantly associated with the presence of CAC (OR = 4.09, p < 0.00026) and withstands FDR correction. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a polymorphism of the TNFRSF11B gene, which encodes osteoprotegerin, is associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with RA. Replication of this finding in independent validation cohorts will be of interest. PMID:25679449

  15. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  17. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  18. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  19. Solubility and secretability.

    PubMed

    Schein, C H

    1993-08-01

    The solubility and secretability of proteins can often be affected by extremely small changes in their primary structure. Attempts to determine empirical rules for the alteration of protein structure to improve either of these characteristics have met with only partial success. Those (mostly serendipitous) improvements in solubility that have been obtained via mutagenesis cannot be considered to be 'protein engineering'. The most successful examples where directed mutagenesis has been used to alter protein solubility, hemoglobin and insulin, have relied on established crystal structures and a wealth of data about the relationship between sequence and structure of the targeted protein. Currently, optimizing culture growth conditions by trial and error remains the fastest way to improve expression.

  20. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  3. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  5. Modeling aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Butina, Darko; Gola, Joelle M R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aqueous solubility model based on solubility data from the Syracuse database, calculated octanol-water partition coefficient, and 51 2D molecular descriptors. Two different statistical packages, SIMCA and Cubist, were used and the results were compared. The Cubist model, which comprises a collection of rules, each of which has an associated Multiple Linear Regression model (MLR), gave better overall results on a test set of 640 compounds with an overall squared correlation coefficient of 0.74 and an absolute average error of 0.68 log units. Both training and independent test sets had similar distributions of structures in terms of the different functionalities present-60% neutral, 14% acidic, 8% phenolic, 11% monobasic, 4% polybasic, and 3% zwitterionic molecules. Sets were designed by random selection, with 2688 (81%) and 640 (19%) molecules, respectively, forming the training and the test sets.

  6. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  7. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  8. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  9. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  10. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents.

  11. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  14. Intestinal solubility and absorption of poorly water soluble compounds: predictions, challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Jonas H; Bergström, Christel A S

    2015-01-01

    We have explored for which type of compounds biorelevant dissolution profiling in simulated intestinal fluids would accurately predict solubility in human intestinal fluid. In total, 460 solubility values in simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluid for 78 drugs were compiled and analyzed. Significant solubilization in the colloidal structures was obtained in fasted and fed state fluids for drug compounds with a logD(oct)>3. Highly lipophilic compounds with high melting points (Tm > 200 °C) could also be significantly solubilized, but typically such compounds had solubility values in the lower µg/ml range also in the presence of the colloidal structures. On the basis of our analysis, compounds with a logD(oct)>3 should be explored in biorelevant dissolution media to better predict in vivo performance after oral dosing.

  15. Osteoprotegerin-deficient male mice as a model for severe alveolar bone loss: comparison with RANKL-overexpressing transgenic male mice.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamura, Midori; Yasuda, Hisataka; Arai, Yoshinori; Okahashi, Nobuo; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues, is characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption. An increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio is thought to reflect the severity of periodontitis. Here, we examined alveolar bone loss in OPG-deficient (OPG(-/-)) mice and RANKL-overexpressing transgenic (RANKL-Tg) mice. Alveolar bone loss in OPG(-/-) mice at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that in RANKL-Tg mice. OPG(-/-) but not RANKL-Tg mice exhibited severe bone resorption especially in cortical areas of the alveolar bone. An increased number of osteoclasts was observed in the cortical areas in OPG(-/-) but not in RANKL-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed many OPG-positive signals in osteocytes but not osteoblasts. OPG-positive osteocytes in the cortical area of alveolar bones and long bones were abundant in both wild-type and RANKL-Tg mice. This suggests the resorption in cortical bone areas to be prevented by OPG produced locally. To test the usefulness of OPG(-/-) mice as an animal model for screening drugs to prevent alveolar bone loss, we administered an antimouse RANKL antibody or risedronate, a bisphosphonate, to OPG(-/-) mice. They suppressed alveolar bone resorption effectively. OPG(-/-) mice are useful for screening therapeutic agents against alveolar bone loss.

  16. Effect of gallium nitrate on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwu; Wang, Guang-Bin; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by the progressive loss of bone mass and the micro‑architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fracture. Gallium has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of several diverse disorders that are characterized by accelerated bone loss. Osteoblasts orchestrate bone degradation by expressing the receptor activator of NF‑κB ligand (RANKL), however they additionally protect the skeleton by secreting osteoprotegerin (OPG). Therefore, the relative concentration of RANKL and OPG in bone is a key determinant of bone mass and strength. The current study demonstrated that gallium nitrate (GaN) is able to counteract bone loss in an experimental model of established osteoporosis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibited significantly increased bone mineral density following GaN treatment for 4 and 8 weeks by 19.3 and 37.3%, respectively (P<0.05). The bone volume of the OVX + GaN group was increased by 40.9% (P<0.05) compared with the OVX group. In addition, the current study demonstrated that GaN stimulates the synthesis of OPG however has no effect on the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts, as demonstrated by RT‑qPCR, western blotting and ELISA, resulting in an increase in the OPG/RANKL ratio and a reduction in osteoclast differentiation in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes triple negative breast cancer cells to immune-mediated lysis through androgen receptor independent modulation of osteoprotegerin

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Richards, Jacob; Hall, Ashley B.; Hodge, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Among breast cancer types, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the fewest treatment options and the lowest 5-year survival rate. Androgen receptor (AR) inhibition has displayed efficacy against breast cancer preclinically and is currently being examined clinically in AR positive TNBC patients. Androgen deprivation has been shown to induce immunogenic modulation; the alteration of tumor cell phenotype resulting in increased sensitivity to immune-mediated killing. We evaluated the ability of AR inhibition to reduce the growth and improve the immune-mediated killing of breast cancer cells with differing expression of the estrogen receptor and AR. While AR expression was required for the growth inhibitory effects of enzalutamide on breast cancer cells, both enzalutamide and abiraterone improved the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to immune-mediated lysis independent of detectable AR expression. This increase in sensitivity was linked to an increase in cell surface tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor expression as well as a significant reduction in the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). The reduction in OPG was further examined and found to be critical for the increase in sensitivity of AR- TNBC cells to immune-mediated killing. The data presented herein further support the use of AR inhibition therapy in the AR+ TNBC setting. These data, however, also support the consideration of AR inhibition therapy for the treatment of AR- TNBC, especially in combination with cancer immunotherapy, providing a potential novel therapeutic option for select patients. PMID:27015557

  18. Relative solubility of cations in Class F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ann G; Kazonich, George; Dahlberg, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Coal utilization byproducts (CUB), such as fly ash, contain cations that may be released during exposure to fluids such as acid rain or acid mine drainage. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) have conducted a long-term column leaching study of 32 Class F fly ash samples from pulverized coal (PC) combustion, and quantified the release of 19 cations in four leachants with a pH between 1.2 and 12. The relative solubility (M(L/T)) of each cation was defined as the total mass leached (M(L)) relative to the concentration (M(T)) of that element in the fly ash sample. A frequency distribution of relative solubility values was computed with ranges defined as insoluble, slightly soluble, moderately soluble, and very soluble. On the basis of this sample set, Ba, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Se in PC fly ash are insoluble. The elements Al, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are slightly to moderately acid soluble. Only Ca and Na are water soluble; As and Ca are soluble in the basic solution, The results of this study indicate that the extent to which cations in Class F PC fly ash can be leached by naturally occurring fluids is very limited.

  19. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  20. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of the Ionization Constant and the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Drug Substances. A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroti, Andria; Leontidis, Epameinondas

    2001-06-01

    We examine the use of the inverse titration method for determining the ionization constant of weak organic bases when the basic form of the substance is highly insoluble in aqueous solutions. The inverse titration involves progressive dissolution of the precipitate of the insoluble basic form through addition of a strong acid, and determination of the total solubility at each step with a suitable analytical technique. Analysis of the experimental data allows the simultaneous determination of the ionization constant and the solubility of the basic form. We use dibucaine, a local anaesthetic, and analyze its total solubility after each acid addition using UV spectrophotometry. This simple experiment allows the accurate determination of the pKa of the compound at various temperatures, but provides only a rough estimate of the solubility of the basic form.

  2. Comparative Calculations of Solubility Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.

    2000-07-25

    The uncertainties in calculated solubilities in the Na-F-PO{sub 4}-HPO{sub 4}-OH system. at 25 C for NaOH concentrations up to 5 mol/kg were assessed. These uncertainties were based on an evaluation of the range of values for the Gibbs energies of the solids. Comparative calculations using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) and SOLGASMIX indicated that the variation in activity coefficients with NaOH concentration is much greater in the ESP code than in SOLGASMIX. This resulted in ESP calculating a higher solubility in water and a lower solubility in NaOH concentrations above 1 mol/kg: There was a marked discrepancy in the solubilities of the pure components sodium fluoride and trisodium phosphate predicted by ESP and SOLGASMIX. In addition, different solubilities for these components were obtained using different options in ESP. Because of these observations, a Best Practices Guide for ESP will be assembled.

  3. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  4. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation, and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. In addition, the purification procedure serves as an example of how to use classical protein purifications methods, which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  5. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively

  6. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  7. Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Pamela

    2001-02-01

    This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. Le Châtelier's principle, solubility, unit conversion, and thermodynamics are tied together to calculate heats of solution by two methods: heats of formation and an application of the van't Hoff equation. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting. Background information on the value of understanding and predicting solubility is provided.

  8. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), The Endogenous Inhibitor of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL), is Dysregulated in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Widschwendter, Martin; Burnell, Matthew; Fraser, Lindsay; Rosenthal, Adam N.; Philpott, Sue; Reisel, Daniel; Dubeau, Louis; Cline, Mark; Pan, Yang; Yi, Ping-Cheng; Gareth Evans, D.; Jacobs, Ian J.; Menon, Usha; Wood, Charles E.; Dougall, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer development in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is a net consequence of cell-autonomous and cell nonautonomous factors which may serve as excellent targets for cancer prevention. In light of our previous data we sought to investigate the consequences of the BRCA-mutation carrier state on RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signalling. We analysed serum levels of RANKL, OPG, RANKL/OPG complex, oestradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) during menstrual cycle progression in 391 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and 782 noncarriers. These studies were complemented by analyses of RANKL and OPG in the serum and mammary tissues of female cynomolgus macaques (n = 88) and serum RANKL and OPG in postmenopausal women (n = 150). BRCA-mutation carriers had lower mean values of free serum OPG in particular in BRCA1-mutation carriers (p = 0.018) compared with controls. Among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, lower OPG levels were associated with germline mutation locations known to confer an increased breast cancer risk (p = 0.003). P is associated with low OPG levels in serum and tissue, particularly in BRCA-mutation carriers (rho = − 0.216; p = 0.002). Serum OPG levels were inversely correlated (rho = − 0.545, p < 0.001) with mammary epithelial proliferation measured by Ki67 expression and increased (p = 0.01) in postmenopause. The P–RANKL/OPG system is dysregulated in BRCA-mutation carriers. These and previously published data provide a strong rationale for further investigation of antiprogestogens or an anti-RANKL antibody such as denosumab for breast cancer prevention. PMID:26629528

  9. Evaluation of bone mineral density, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of the NFκB ligand serum levels during treatment with infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vis, M; Havaardsholm, E A; Haugeberg, G; Uhlig, T; Voskuyl, A E; van de Stadt, R J; Dijkmans, B A C; Woolf, A D; Kvien, T K; Lems, W F

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether treatment with anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α prevents loss of bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and hip (generalised) and in the hands (local) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to study the changes in markers of bone metabolism, including receptor activator of the NFκB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), during anti‐TNF treatment. Patients and methods 102 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with infliximab during 1 year, were included in this open cohort study. The BMD of the spine and hip (dual x ray absorptiometry ) and hands dual x ray radiogrammetry was measured before the start of treatment and after 1 year. Changes in osteocalcin formation, β‐isomerised carboxy terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β‐CTx, resorption), RANKL and OPG were determined at 0, 14, 30 and 46 weeks. Results The BMD of the spine and hip was unchanged during treatment with infliximab, whereas BMD of the hand decreased significantly by 0.8% (p<0.01). The BMD of the hip in patients with a good European League Against Rheumatism response showed a favourable change compared with patients not achieving such a response. Serum β‐CTx and RANKL were both considerably decreased compared with baseline at all time points. The decrease in β‐CTx was associated with the decrease in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints and C reactive protein during the 0–14 weeks interval. Conclusion In patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab, spine and hip bone loss is arrested, whereas metacarpal cortical hand bone loss is not stopped. The outcome of the study also supports a relationship between clinical response, in terms of reduced inflammatory activity, and changes in bone loss of the spine, hip and hands. PMID:16606653

  10. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), The Endogenous Inhibitor of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL), is Dysregulated in BRCA Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Widschwendter, Martin; Burnell, Matthew; Fraser, Lindsay; Rosenthal, Adam N; Philpott, Sue; Reisel, Daniel; Dubeau, Louis; Cline, Mark; Pan, Yang; Yi, Ping-Cheng; Gareth Evans, D; Jacobs, Ian J; Menon, Usha; Wood, Charles E; Dougall, William C

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer development in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is a net consequence of cell-autonomous and cell nonautonomous factors which may serve as excellent targets for cancer prevention. In light of our previous data we sought to investigate the consequences of the BRCA-mutation carrier state on RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signalling. We analysed serum levels of RANKL, OPG, RANKL/OPG complex, oestradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) during menstrual cycle progression in 391 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and 782 noncarriers. These studies were complemented by analyses of RANKL and OPG in the serum and mammary tissues of female cynomolgus macaques (n = 88) and serum RANKL and OPG in postmenopausal women (n = 150). BRCA-mutation carriers had lower mean values of free serum OPG in particular in BRCA1-mutation carriers (p = 0.018) compared with controls. Among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, lower OPG levels were associated with germline mutation locations known to confer an increased breast cancer risk (p = 0.003). P is associated with low OPG levels in serum and tissue, particularly in BRCA-mutation carriers (rho = - 0.216; p = 0.002). Serum OPG levels were inversely correlated (rho = - 0.545, p < 0.001) with mammary epithelial proliferation measured by Ki67 expression and increased (p = 0.01) in postmenopause. The P-RANKL/OPG system is dysregulated in BRCA-mutation carriers. These and previously published data provide a strong rationale for further investigation of antiprogestogens or an anti-RANKL antibody such as denosumab for breast cancer prevention.

  11. Expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in human breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Van Poznak, C; Cross, S S; Saggese, M; Hudis, C; Panageas, K S; Norton, L; Coleman, R E; Holen, I

    2006-01-01

    Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the regulation of bone turnover through binding to the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and has also been reported to be a potential survival factor for several different cell types. The survival effects are mediated through inhibition of the activity of tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Both breast and prostate cancer cells produce sufficient amounts of OPG to be protected against the effects of TRAIL in vitro. Aims To investigate the spatial expression of OPG, RANKL, and TRAIL in non‐neoplastic breast tissue and breast cancer, and its relation with oestrogen receptor (ER) expression. Methods Forty breast cancers (20 ER+, 20 ER−) and five non‐neoplastic breast tissue samples were stained with antibodies against OPG, RANKL, and TRAIL. Results OPG was not expressed in non‐neoplastic breast tissue except when colocalised with altered columnar epithelium. RANKL was expressed at the apical surface of luminal epithelial cells and TRAIL was expressed in myoepithelial cells. All three proteins were expressed in some breast cancers but showed no significant association with tumour type. OPG expression showed a significant positive correlation with ER expression (p = 0.011). Conclusions This is the first published study of the spatial expression of OPG, RANKL, and TRAIL in breast tissue and breast cancer. The localisation of each protein was specific and they were not colocalised. This specificity may provide a useful marker of functional differentiation in breast cancer; for example, TRAIL expression as a marker of myoepithelial differentiation. PMID:16394281

  12. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) protects ovarian cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis but does not contribute to malignant ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a major problem in ovarian cancer and correlates with poor prognosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted factor in malignant ascites and acts as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer ascites attenuate TRAIL-induced apoptosis raising the possibility that OPG contained in ascites may abrogate the anti-tumor activity of TRAIL. Methods Determination of OPG levels in ascites was measured by ELISA. Effect of OPG on TRAIL-induced cell death was determined by XTT and colony forming assays in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA. Results We found that recombinant OPG and malignant ascites attenuates TRAIL-induced cell death and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumor cells. OPG is present at high levels in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer. We found a positive correlation between the levels of OPG in ascites and the ability of the ascites to attenuate TRAIL-induced cell death. The anti-apoptotic effect of ascites was not reversed by co-incubation with an OPG blocking antibody. Conclusions OPG and malignant ascites protect ovarian cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Although malignant ascites contain high levels of OPG, OPG is not a critical component that contributes to ascites-mediated attenuation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:23153223

  13. The effect of dried plum on serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Brisco, Jayme R Y; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-07-14

    Although several studies have confirmed the bone-protective properties of dried plum, its exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent research has shown that osteocytes may control bone formation via the production of sclerostin and bone resorption via the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG). To investigate the mechanism of action of dried plum in reversing bone loss, we measured serum levels of RANKL, OPG and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women (n 160). Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group of either 100 g dried plum/d or 75 g dried apple/d (comparative control) for 1 year. All participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Dried plum significantly increased the BMD of the ulna and spine in comparison with the control group. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, dried plum increased the RANKL levels by only +1·99 v. +18·33% and increased the OPG levels by +4·87 v. - 2·15% in the control group. Serum sclerostin levels were reduced by - 1·12% in the dried plum group v. +3·78% in the control group. Although percentage changes did not reach statistical significance (P≤ 0·05), these preliminary data may indicate that the positive effects of dried plum on bone are in part due to the suppression of RANKL production, the promotion of OPG and the inhibition of sclerostin.

  14. The osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1 contributes to the expression of osteoprotegerin, a potent inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, K; Halladay, D L; Miles, R R; Yang, X; Galvin, R J; Chandrasekhar, S; Martin, T J; Onyia, J E

    2000-08-18

    Bone formation and resorption are tightly coupled under normal conditions, and the interaction of osteoclast precursors with cells of the osteoblast lineage is a prerequisite for osteoclast formation. Cbfa1 is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. At present, it is not known whether Cbfa1 regulates any of the osteoblast-derived factors involved in the bone resorption pathway. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an osteoblast-secreted glycoprotein that functions as a potent inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Cloning and computer analysis of a 5.9-kilobase human OPG promoter sequence revealed the presence of 12 putative Cbfa1 binding elements (osteoblast-specific element 2 (OSE(2))), suggesting a possible regulation of OPG by Cbfa1. We cloned the promoter upstream of the beta-galactosidase reporter gene (pOPG5. 9betagal) and evaluated whether Cbfa1 could regulate its expression in transient transfection assays. The 5.9-kilobase promoter directed increased levels of reporter gene expression, reminiscent of OPG protein levels in osteoblastic cell lines (BALC and U2OS) as compared with the nonosteoblastic cell line COS1. Cotransfection of a Cbfa1 expression construct along with pOPG5.9betagal reporter construct led to 39-, 7-, and 16-fold increases in beta-galactosidase activity in COS1, BALC, and U2OS cells, respectively. Removal of all the putative OSE(2) elements led to an almost complete loss of transactivation. Mutational analysis demonstrated that the proximal OSE(2) element contributes to a majority of the effects of Cbfa1, and Cbfa1 bound to the proximal element in a sequence-specific manner. Further, overexpression of Cbfa1 led to a 54% increase in OPG protein levels in U2OS cells. These results indicate that Cbfa1 regulates the expression of OPG, thereby further contributing to a molecular link between bone formation and resorption.

  15. Resveratrol reduces prostaglandin E1-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: suppression of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Kondo, Akira; Kainuma, Shingo; Nakakami, Akira; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol mainly existing in red grapes and berries, possesses beneficial effects on human being. We have previously reported that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) but not p44/p42 MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the PGE1-effect on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and the effect of resveratrol on the synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE1 induced the expression levels of OPG mRNA and stimulated the OPG release. Resveratrol significantly reduced the PGE1-induced OPG release and the mRNA expression. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, suppressed the release of OPG. The protein levels of SIRT1 were not up-regulated by resveratrol with or without PGE1. Both SB203580 and SP600125, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor and a specific SAPK/JNK inhibitor, respectively, but not PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, reduced the PGE1-stimulated OPG release. Resveratrol or SRT1720 failed to affect the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. On the contrary, PGE1-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK was significantly attenuated by both resveratrol and SRT1720. Our results strongly suggest that resveratrol inhibits PGE1-stimulated OPG synthesis via suppressing SAPK/JNK but not p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts.

  16. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  17. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  18. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  19. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  20. Sulfide solubilities in Alteration-controlled Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Hodgson, C.J.; Thatcher, A.B.

    1967-01-01

    Solubilities of sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS) were determined at 300?? to 500??C and 1000 bars total pressure in a chemical environment buffered by silicate mineral equilibria. Chloride solutions and muscovite-bearing assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal wall-rock alteration were used; weak acidities at temperature were therefore involved. The metal concentrations encountered tended to be higher than those observed in high bisulfide-H2S systems at neutral to weakly basic pH used in most previous experimentation; the chemical conditions of the work, although not completely satisfactory, are geologically more realistic than previous experimentation done in the basic-pH region.

  1. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  2. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  3. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  4. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  5. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  6. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  7. Carbollide solubility and chemical compatibility summary

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.J.

    1993-08-17

    This report examines the value of the cobalt dicarbollide anion as an effective form of in-tank precipitation. The cobalt dicarbollide anion (CDC) has been investigated for the possible replacement of tetraphenyl borate anion (TPB) for precipitation of cesium in SRS High Level Waste (HLW). The solubility of the cesium CDC in 5 M salt solutions and the reactivity with caustic have been studied extensively. The solubility of CSCDC in a mixture of 4 M sodium nitrate and 1 m sodium hydroxide is {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M at 40{degrees}C. Furthermore, the CDC decomposes in 1 M sodium hydroxide solution with apparent first order kinetics with a half-life of 7.3 days at 60 {degrees}C and 94 days at 40{degrees}C. Tank temperatures are currently estimated to approach 60{degrees}C during the ITP filtration cycle. This solubility and rapid decomposition of the CDC under highly alkaline conditions and high temperature would require increasing the quantity of CDC and nonradioactive cesium which must be added, increasing the cost of production. Increasing the quantity of CDC would necessitate recovery of the material, probably using a solvent extraction system. Due to the large amount of nonradioactive cesium which must be added, the total amount of precipitate formed exceeds that for TPB precipitation. Also, formation of sodium and/or potassium precipitates compete with cesium salt precipitation in 5 M salt solutions at lower temperature (<30{degrees}C). Decomposition generates hydrogen, which may lead to process complications.

  8. New ideas about the solubility of drugs.

    PubMed

    Box, Karl; Comer, John E; Gravestock, Tom; Stuart, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Methods are described for detecting precipitation of ionisable drugs under conditions of changing pH, estimating kinetic solubility from the onset of precipitation, and measuring solubility by chasing equilibrium. Definitions are presented for kinetic, equilibrium, and intrinsic solubility of ionisable drugs, supersaturation and subsaturation, and for chasers and non-chasers, which are two classes of ionisable drug with significantly different solubility properties. The use of Bjerrum Curves and Neutral-Species Concentration Profiles to depict solubility properties are described and illustrated with case studies showing super-dissolving behaviour, conversion between crystalline forms and enhancement of solubility through supersaturation, and the use of additives and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. PMID:19937815

  9. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  10. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  11. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  12. Bridging solubility between drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Fish, Paul V; Mano, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Solubility has a crucial role in the success of a drug candidate. Compounds with low solubility not only cause problems for in vitro and in vivo assays, but also add significant burdens to drug development. Drug discovery and drug development often have different solubility screening requirements and methodologies have been developed to meet the needs of these different stages.

  13. Marangoni Flow of Soluble Amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roché, Matthieu; Li, Zhenzhen; Griffiths, Ian M.; Le Roux, Sébastien; Cantat, Isabelle; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    Surfactant distribution heterogeneities at a fluid-fluid interface trigger the Marangoni effect, i.e., a bulk flow due to a surface tension gradient. The influence of surfactant solubility in the bulk on these flows remains incompletely characterized. Here we study Marangoni flows sustained by injection of hydrosoluble surfactants at the air-water interface. We show that these flows have a finite size that increases with a decrease of the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. We document the universality of the surface velocity field of these finite flows and predict scaling laws based on hydrodynamics and surfactant physical chemistry that capture the flow features.

  14. Solubility of aluminum in the presence of hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberson, Charles Elmer; Hem, John David

    1969-01-01

    The total concentration of aqueous dissolved species of aluminum that will be present in equilibrium with microcrystalline gibbsite at various levels of complexing ligand concentration are shown graphically. The graphs can be used to estimate aluminum solubility, at 25?C and 1 atmosphere total pressure, when the pH of the solution, its ionic strength, and the total sulfate and fluoride concentrations are known. The standard free energy of formation of cryolite calculated from solubility experiments is --745.4 ? 1.0 kcal per mole at 25?C. Diagrams are included showing the solubility of cryolite in terms of aluminum, fluoride, and sodium concentrations. The stability fields of cryolite and microcrystalline gibbsite and their solubilities also are shown on pH-[F] diagrams.

  15. Genotoxicity of poorly soluble particles.

    PubMed

    Schins, Roel P F; Knaapen, Ad M

    2007-01-01

    Poorly soluble particles such as TiO2, carbon black, and diesel exhaust particles have been evaluated for their genotoxicity using both in vitro and in vivo assays, since inhalation of these compounds by rats at high concentrations has been found to lead to tumor formation. Two principle modes of genotoxic action can be considered for particles, referred to as primary and secondary genotoxicity. Primary genotoxicity is defined as genetic damage elicited by particles in the absence of pulmonary inflammation, whereas secondary genotoxicity implies a pathway of genetic damage resulting from the oxidative DNA attack by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated during particle-elicited inflammation. Conceptually, primary genotoxicity might operate via various mechanisms, such as the actions of ROS (e.g., as generated from reactive particle surfaces), or DNA-adduct formation by reactive metabolites of particle-associated organic compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Currently available literature data, however, merely indicate that the tumorigenesis of poorly soluble particles involves a mechanism of secondary genotoxicity. However, further research is urgently required, since (1) causality between pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity has not yet been established, and (2) effects of inflammation on fundamental DNA damage responses that orchestrate mutagenesis and carcinogenic outcome,that is, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, proliferation, and apoptosis, are currently poorly understood. PMID:17886067

  16. Determination of solubility parameters of ionic liquids and ionic liquid/solvent mixtures from intrinsic viscosity.

    PubMed

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Wong, Yuewen; Lim, Kok Hwa; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-11-10

    The total and partial solubility parameters (dispersion, polar and hydrogen-bonding solubility parameters) of ten ionic liquids were determined. Intrinsic viscosity approaches were used that encompassed a one-dimensional method (1D-Method), and two different three-dimensional methods (3D-Method1 and 3D-Method2). The effect of solvent type, the dimethylacetamide (DMA) fraction in the ionic liquid, and dissolution temperature on solubility parameters were also investigated. For all types of effect, both the 1D-Method and 3D-Method2 present the same trend in the total solubility parameter. The partial solubility parameters are influenced by the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. Considering the effect on partial solubility parameters of the solvent type in the ionic liquid, it was observed that in both 3D methods, the dispersion and polar parameters of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/solvent (60:40 vol %) mixture tend to increase as the total solubility parameter of the solvent increases. PMID:25145759

  17. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savjani, Ketan T.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.; Savjani, Jignasa K.

    2012-01-01

    Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. PMID:22830056

  18. Soluble fiber dextrin enhances the satiating power of beverages.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Carter, Brett E; Christiansen, Matthew; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four types of fiber on satiety and energy intakes at the next meal using a standard double-blinded preload study design. Study participants (14 men and 22 women) each took part in 6 study sessions. Study preloads were a combination of a solid snack and a liquid beverage (energy range 0.78-0.83 MJ) containing four different types of fiber: soluble fiber dextrin (12 g), soluble corn fiber (11.8 g), polydextrose (11.8 g), and resistant starch (11.2g). All four fibers were compared to two control conditions of equal volume: an isoenergetic, low-fiber preload and a lower-energy, low-fiber preload. All preloads were presented twice for a total of 0.35-1.65 MJ and 1-24 g fiber. Satiety ratings were collected for 20 min intervals for 220 min during the morning testing session. A test meal was served at 1200 h and plate waste measured. The five higher-energy preloads led to higher fullness and lower hunger ratings compared to the low-energy control but were not significantly different from each other. Relative to the isoenergetic control, only soluble fiber dextrin significantly suppressed energy intakes (p=0.023). Supplementing beverages with soluble fiber dextrin affects short term energy intake and may have implications for weight control.

  19. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jacob G

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the processability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono-, di- and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH)(4)-H(2)O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH)(4)-NaCl-H(2)O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than 2M. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above 2M. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  20. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2012-12-01

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  1. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  2. Relationship between solubility and toxicity of coal liquefaction materials to the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Gray, R.H.; Scott, A.J.; Thomas, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The potential ecological risk from complex coal liquids that may be released to freshwater ecosystems is ultimately dependent on both the degree of solubility of parent material and the toxic properties of constitutent compounds that an organism is exposed to. Thus, highly water-soluble components that remain bioavailable and are present in the water column at acutely toxic concentrations pose a problem for many aquatic organisms. We screened coal liquids derived from several processes and under different process designs to evaluate the acute toxicity of their water-soluble fractions (WSFs) to Daphnia magna. The solubility of materials treated varied and WSFs ranged from 44 to 2260 mg/L total carbon (TC). The most soluble materials in water exhibited greater toxicity based on percent dilution of the WSF. However, toxicity was similar for all materials tested when based on soluble components (TC in solution). Chemical characterization of the WSFs indicated that phenols comprised the majority of the TC in solution. Because toxicity based on total phenols was generally greater than that for individual phenolics tested separately, other soluble chemical classes in the complex mixtures likely contribute to observed toxicity.

  3. Nutritional composition and solubility of edible bird nest (Aerodramus fuchiphagus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimi, Nurfatin Mohd; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Edible bird nest (EBN) produced by certain swiftlet species mainly, Aerodromus fuciphagus. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the proximate and amino acid composition of EBN obtained from two regions in Peninsular Malaysia (Pahang-A & Terengganu-B). The solubility of edible bird nest with varying pH, temperature and time was also investigated in this study. The results showed that, the EBN contained crude protein accounted to 58.55% (A) and 55.48% (B), carbohydrate at22.28% (A) & 25.79% (B), moisture content 15.90% (A) & 15.87% (B), fat, 0.67% (A) & and 0.29% (B) and ash contents 2.60% (A) & 2.57% (B) respectively. The major amino acids found in edible bird nest EBN were Glutamic acid (9.61%), Aspartic acid (6.34%), Lysine (5.44 %) and also Leucine (5.30%). The total solubility of EBN was also found to be increased when the temperature was increased increase with distilled water yielding the highest total solubility of EBN compared to others buffer (different pH) solutions.

  4. Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinón, José L.; García-Antón, José; Pérez-Herranz, Valentín

    1999-08-01

    A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants. Practical examples of calculations are given and discussed.

  5. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  6. Calculation of Drug Solubilities by Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Lindley A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of estimating the solubilities of drugs in water is reported that is based on a principle applied in quantitative structure-activity relationships. This procedure involves correlation of partition coefficient values using the octanol/water system and aqueous solubility. (Author/MLW)

  7. Acid-Soluble Material of Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P. A.; Jaume, F.; Flamencourt, P.; Biserte, G.

    1970-01-01

    Two methods are described for adenovirus capsid disruption and extraction of acid-soluble proteins from the viral core. The acid-soluble material of adenovirus consisted of three major proteins, one of them being selectively extracted after mild disruption of the virus particle. Some chemical properties of these proteins are reported. Images PMID:4986288

  8. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  9. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  10. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  11. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  12. Soluble Manganese(III) in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Oldham, V.; Madison, A.; Tebo, B.; Jones, M.; Jensen, L.; Owings, S.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have confirmed the presence of soluble manganese(III), which along with Mn(II) passes through a 0.2 μm filter, in suboxic marine waters. Here we applied a spectrophotometric method using a soluble porphyrin as a competitive ligand to calculate the concentrations and kinetics of Mn(II) and Mn(III) recovery. Data will be presented from the suboxic porewaters of the Saint Lawrence estuary, the suboxic and anoxic waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) accounts for up to 100% of the dissolved Mn pool with concentrations ranging from the detection limit of 50 nM to 80 μM at the oxic/anoxic interface of the non-sulfidic porewaters from the hemipelagic sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Data indicate weak-ligand complexation of Mn(III) formed from Mn(II) oxidation as well as reduction of MnO2. Complexation of Mn(III) in the anoxic waters of Chesapeake Bay appears stronger as the porphyrin could not outcompete the natural ligands binding Mn(III). Mn(III) complexes were reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine or hydrogen sulfide and detected as Mn(II). Soluble Mn(III) comprised up to 52 % of total dissolved Mn. Profiles over the course of a five day cruise showed that high Mn(III) concentrations (7.3 μM) were observed at low H2S (4.9 μM) whereas low Mn(III) (1.1 μM) was detected at high H2S (40 μM). The presence of Mn(III) in sulfidic waters indicated that it is kinetically stabilized in situ by strong ligands so reduction to Mn(II) was incomplete. One electron reductive dissolution of solid MnO2 particles formed at the oxic-anoxic interface appear to be the source of Mn(III). Lastly, soluble Mn(III) was detected in the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway (salinity ranging from freshwater to 31) bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn (maximum of 1.92

  13. Barium solubility in colquiriite fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Yaobo Yin; Keszler, D.A. )

    1993-12-01

    Several crystals in the family of Colquiriite fluorides LiAEMF[sub 6] (AE = Ca, Sr; M = Al, Ga, Cr) have been reported to function as efficient, broadly tunable laser materials when doped with the ion Cr[sup 3+]. The optical characteristics of the Cr[sup 3+] ion are considerably affected by the specific AE atom in the crystal. In this paper the systems LiSr[sub 1[minus]x]Ba[sub x]MF[sub 6](M = Al, Ga) have been studied by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Solubility limits of x = 0.06 for the Al compound and x = 0.20 for the Ga compound have been established. The structures of LiSr[sub 0.94(1)]Ba[sub 0.06]AlF[sub 6] and LiSr[sub 0.80(1)]Ba[sub 0.20]GaF[sub 6] corresponding to these limits are isotypic to the mineral Colquiriite. Each crystallizes in space group P[bar 3]1c: LiSr[sub 0.94]Ba[sub 0.06]AlF[sub 6]: a = 5.096(1) [angstrom], c = 10.269(2) [angstrom], R = 0.034, R[sub w] = 0.041; and LiSr[sub 0.80]Ba[sub 0.20]GaF[sub 6]: a = 5.173(1) [angstrom], c = 10.415(1) [angstrom], R = 0.028, R[sub w] = 0.033. The trigonal F planes about the Al and Ga atoms are rotated, one relative to the other, by 68.0 and 69.0[degrees], respectively.

  14. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  15. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  16. Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G

    2005-06-13

    The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species.

  17. Co-solvent evaporation method for enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drug simvastatin: in vitro-in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Priyanka; Gattani, Surendra; Jain, Pankaj; Khirwal, Lokesh; Surana, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    A number of synthesized chemical molecules suffer from low aqueous solubility problems. Enhancement of aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of drug is a very challenging task in drug development. In the present study, solubility and dissolution of poorly aqueous soluble drug simvastatin (SIM) was enhanced using hydrophilic, low viscosity grade polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K(3)LV). The co-solvent evaporation method was developed for efficient encapsulation of hydrophobic drug in polymer micelles of HPMC K(3)LV. Spray drying and rotaevaporation method were applied for solvent evaporation. Co-solvent-evaporated mixture in solid state was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro-in vivo studies were performed on co-solvent-evaporated mixture and compared with SIM. In vivo study was conducted on healthy albino rats (Wister strain), and formulations were administered by oral route. Results of the study show the conversion of crystalline form of SIM into amorphous form. The dissolution rate was remarkably increased in co-solvent-evaporated mixtures compared to SIM. co-solvent-evaporated mixtures showed better reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels than the SIM. The low-viscosity grade HPMC acts as a surfactant, which enhances the wetting of drug and thus improves the solubility of drug. The co-solvent evaporation method provides good encapsulation efficiency and produces amorphous form of SIM, which gave better solubility and dissolution than the crystalline SIM.

  18. Solubility prediction of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures using extended hildebrand solubility approach.

    PubMed

    Rathi, P B

    2011-11-01

    Extended Hildebrand solubility approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various propylene glycol-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility equation employs term interaction energy (W) to replace the geometric mean (δ(1)δ(2)), where δ(1) and δ(2) are the cohesive energy densities for the solvent and solute, respectively. The new equation provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy, W, is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ(1) of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures. The expression yields an error in mole fraction solubility of ~3.74%, a value approximating that of the experimentally determined solubility. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design. PMID:23112403

  19. Solubility of drugs in aqueous solutions. Part 5. Thermodynamic consistency test for the solubility data.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, E; Shulgin, I

    2005-03-23

    This paper is devoted to the verification of the quality of experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble solids, such as drugs, environmentally important substances, etc. in mixed solvents. A thermodynamic consistency test based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation for ternary mixtures is suggested. This test has the form of an equation, which connects the solubilities of the solid, and the activity coefficients of the constituents of the solute-free mixed solvent in two mixed solvents of close compositions. The experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble substances can be verified with the suggested test if accurate data for the activity coefficients of the constituents of the solute-free mixed solvent are available. The test was applied to a number of systems representing the solubilities of sparingly soluble substances in mixed solvents. First, the test was scrutinized for four nonaqueous systems for which accurate solubility data were available. Second, the suggested test was applied to a number of systems representing experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble substances in aqueous mixed solvents.

  20. Reconciling modeled and observed atmospheric deposition of soluble organic nitrogen at coastal locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akinori; Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E.

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) species from air pollutants is a significant source of exogenous nitrogen in marine ecosystems. Here we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the supply of soluble organic nitrogen (ON) from anthropogenic sources to the ocean. Comparisons of modeled deposition with observations at coastal and marine locations show good overall agreement for inorganic nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen. However, previous modeling approaches result in significant underestimates of the soluble ON deposition if the model only includes the primary soluble ON and the secondary oxidized ON in gases and aerosols. Our model results suggest that including the secondary reduced ON in aerosols as a source of soluble ON contributes to an improved prediction of the deposition rates (g N m-2 yr-1). The model results show a clear distinction in the vertical distribution of soluble ON in aerosols between different processes from the primary sources and the secondary formation. The model results (excluding the biomass burning and natural emission changes) suggest an increase in soluble ON outflow from atmospheric pollution, in particular from East Asia, to the oceans in the twentieth century. These results highlight the necessity of improving the process-based quantitative understanding of the chemical reactions of inorganic nitrogen species with organics in aerosol and cloud water.

  1. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil. PMID:27391051

  2. The chemical control of soluble phosphorus in the Amazon estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L. E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Sager, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of sediments in controlling concentrations of soluble phosphorous in the Amazon estuary is examined. The efflux of phosphorous through the estuary is calculated using data collected on field excursions in December 1982 and May 1983, and laboratory mixing experiments. It is observed that soluble phosphorus was released from bottom sediments at a rate of 0.2 micro-M/day, when in seawater and deionizd water mixtures. The relation between release rates and salinity and sediment concentrations is studied. A one-dimensional dispersion model was developed to estimate phosphate inputs to the estuary. The model predicted total fluxes of soluble inorganic phosphorous of 15 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for December 1982 and 27 x 10 to the 6th mole/day for May 1983; the predictions correlate with field observations. It is noted that phosphorous removal is between 0 and 4 ppt at a rate of 0.044 + or - 0.01 micron-M/ppt per day and the annual mean input of phophorous from Amazon to outer-estuary is 23 x 10 to the 6th moles/day.

  3. Effect of pressure on ore mineral solubilities under hydrothermal conditions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Cygan, G.L.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combined solubilities of Fe, Zn and Pb sulphides were determined at elevated P and T in chloride solutions buffered in pH by a silicate assemblage of quartz monzonite composition plus added muscovite, and buffered in fS2 and fO2 by the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite. Higher T and higher chloride concentration favour higher metal solubilities, but the P effect is opposite. At 500oC, 0.5 kbar and 1 M total chloride, Fe, Zn, Pb solubilities were 8500, 4300 and 8700 ppm, respectively, whereas at 1 kbar they were 4200, 2400 and 2600 ppm, and at 2 kbar, 1700, 800 and 1200 ppm. The P effect is of considerable importance to problems of ore-mineral transport; the metal could be carried over long distances on a decreasing P gradient so long as the T decreases were sufficient; this condition could be approximated by a near-adiabatic transport cooling path. Such a condition is probably common for hydrothermal processes involving fairly deep-seated sources of heat and mineral components.-L.C.H.

  4. Soluble endoglin, hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rathouska, Jana; Jezkova, Katerina; Nemeckova, Ivana; Nachtigal, Petr

    2015-12-01

    A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) is known to be an extracellular domain of the full-length membrane endoglin, which is elevated during various pathological conditions related to vascular endothelium. In the current review, we tried to summarize a possible role of soluble endoglin in cardiovascular pathologies, focusing on its relation to endothelial dysfunction and cholesterol levels. We discussed sEng as a proposed biomarker of cardiovascular disease progression, cardiovascular disease treatment and endothelial dysfunction. We also addressed a potential interaction of sEng with TGF-β/eNOS or BMP-9 signaling. We suggest soluble endoglin levels to be monitored, because they reflect the progression/treatment efficacy of cardiovascular diseases related to endothelial dysfunction and hypercholesterolemia. A possible role of soluble endoglin as an inducer of endothelial dysfunction however remains to be elucidated. PMID:26520890

  5. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  6. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  7. Predicting the octanol solubility of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2013-07-01

    The molar octanol solubility of an organic nonelectrolytes can be reasonably predicted solely from its melting point provided that its liquid (or a hypothetical super-cooled liquid) form is miscible with octanol. The aim of this work is to develop criteria to determine if the real or hypothetical liquid form of a given compound will be miscible with octanol based on its molar volume and solubility parameter. Fortunately, most organic compounds (including most drugs) conform to the criteria for complete liquid miscibility, and therefore have solubilities that are proportional to their melting points. The results show that more than 95% of the octanol solubilities studied are predicted with an error of less than 1 logarithmic unit.

  8. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  9. The Solubility of Phenylborate Compounds in Benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The original goal of this scoping study was to determine if the solubility of sodium and potassium tetraphenylborates in benzene was sufficiently large to justify designing and performing kinetic studies on a benzene-phase catalytic reaction.

  10. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  12. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  13. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  14. Correlation of Catalytic Rates With Solubility Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; England, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Catalyst maximizes activity when its solubility parameter equals that of reactive species. Catalytic activities of some binary metal alloys at maximum when alloy compositions correspond to Hildebrand solubility parameters equal to those of reactive atomic species on catalyst. If this suggestive correlation proves to be general, applied to formulation of other mixed-metal catalysts. Also used to identify reactive species in certain catalytic reactions.

  15. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  16. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  17. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  18. Estimating the Aqueous Solubility of Pharmaceutical Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stephen J; Younis, Usir S; Myrdal, Paul B

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of crystalline solute solubility is well documented throughout the literature. However, the anhydrous crystal form is typically considered with these models, which is not always the most stable crystal form in water. In this study, an equation which predicts the aqueous solubility of a hydrate is presented. This research attempts to extend the utility of the ideal solubility equation by incorporating desolvation energetics of the hydrated crystal. Similar to the ideal solubility equation, which accounts for the energetics of melting, this model approximates the energy of dehydration to the entropy of vaporization for water. Aqueous solubilities, dehydration and melting temperatures, and log P values were collected experimentally and from the literature. The data set includes different hydrate types and a range of log P values. Three models are evaluated, the most accurate model approximates the entropy of dehydration (ΔSd) by the entropy of vaporization (ΔSvap) for water, and utilizes onset dehydration and melting temperatures in combination with log P. With this model, the average absolute error for the prediction of solubility of 14 compounds was 0.32 log units. PMID:27238488

  19. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  20. Determination of soluble aluminium concentration in alkaline humic water using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K L; Lewis, D M; Jolly, M; Robinson, J

    2004-11-01

    The steps of the standard method to determine soluble aluminium concentration are filtering, followed by acidifying, then analysing with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). When applied to alkaline humic water, acidification gives rise to the formation of humic acid as a brown particulate matter. Of the total soluble aluminium in the original water, 49-61% forms complexes with the particulate humic acid upon acidification. Although the AAS is capable of detecting the binding aluminium, the particulate nature of humic acid easily induces inaccurate readings as a result of the non-uniform distribution of the particulate matter. A more precise analysis of soluble aluminium concentration of alkaline humic water is shown to be achievable in basicified solutions instead. Basicified solutions keep humic acid in the soluble form; hence maintain the homogeneity of the sample.

  1. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  2. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  3. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Elless, M P; Armstrong, A Q; Lee, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the U.S. Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment. We recommend that characterization and measurement of target radionuclides/metals solubilities should also be required by the regulatory

  4. Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Basil L.

    A total energy system is a means for providing all of the varied energy requirements for a total plant from a single fuel source. This report evaluates some of the factors which are related to the development and use of total energy systems. The factors include--(1) initial and ultimate size of plant, (2) type and source of fuel, (3)…

  5. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  6. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  7. Low Soluble Syndecan-1 Precedes Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Gandley, Robin E.; Althouse, Andrew; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Bregand-White, Julia M.; McGonigal, Stacy; Myerski, Ashley C.; Gallaher, Marcia; Powers, Robert W.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndecan-1 (Sdc1; CD138) is a major transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the extracellular, luminal surface of epithelial cells and syncytiotrophoblast, thus comprising a major component of the glycocalyx of these cells. The “soluble” (shed) form of Sdc1 has paracrine and autocrine functions and is normally produced in a regulated fashion. We compared plasma soluble Sdc1 concentrations, in relation to placental Sdc1 expression, in uncomplicated (control) and preeclamptic pregnancies. Methods We evaluated soluble Sdc1 across uncomplicated pregnancy, and between preeclamptic, gestational hypertensive and control patients at mid-pregnancy (20 weeks) and 3rd trimester by ELISA. Placental expression level of Sdc1 was compared between groups in relation to pre-delivery plasma soluble Sdc1. Participants were recruited from Magee-Womens Hospital. Results In uncomplicated pregnancy, plasma soluble Sdc1 rose significantly in the 1st trimester, and reached an approximate 50-fold increase at term compared to post pregnancy levels. Soluble Sdc1 was lower at mid-pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia (P<0.05), but not gestational hypertension, compared to controls, and remained lower at late pregnancy in preeclampsia (P<0.01) compared to controls. Sdc1 was prominently expressed on syncytiotrophoblast of microvilli. Syncytiotrophoblast Sdc1 immunostaining intensities, and mRNA content in villous homogenates, were lower in preeclampsia vs. controls (P<0.05). Soluble Sdc1 and Sdc1 immunostaining scores were inversely associated with systolic blood pressures, and positively correlated with infant birth weight percentile. Conclusion Soluble Sdc1 is significantly lower before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, with reduced expression of Sdc1 in the delivered placenta, suggesting a role for glycocalyx disturbance in preeclampsia pathophysiology. PMID:27299886

  8. Lipopolysaccharide stimulates expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand in periodontal ligament fibroblasts through the induction of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Wada, Naohisa; Maeda, Hidefumi; Yoshimine, Yoshito; Akamine, Akifumi

    2004-09-01

    Our recent work showed that human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) secrete bioactive osteoprotegerin (OPG), which inhibits osteoclastic differentiation and activity. However, it is unknown how HPLF regulate bone metabolism in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a cell component of gram-negative bacteria and a pathogen in inflammatory bone diseases such as periodontitis. The present study examined the effects of Escherichia coli LPS on the gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), OPG, and receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in HPLF using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. In HPLF cultured with LPS for 48 h, expression of both OPG and RANKL mRNA was up-regulated, whereas for up to 24 h of stimulation, such up-regulation was not observed. However, LPS increased expression of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha mRNA within 6 h of treatment. Moreover, in HPLF cultured with IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha, OPG and RANKL expression was induced within 12 h of culture. The administration of neutralizing antibodies against human IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha to LPS-treated cultures of HPLF inhibited the induction of OPG and RANKL expression. These suggest that LPS stimulates both OPG and RANKL expression in HPLF by up-regulating IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. In addition, administration of conditioned medium (CM) from HPLF (HPLF-CM) stimulated with LPS for 48 h to mouse bone marrow culture failed to induce osteoclast-like cell (OCL) formation. When mouse spleen cells were cocultured with HPLF in the presence of LPS, OCL formation was completely blocked. Taken together, our results indicate that human periodontal ligament cells stimulated with LPS inhibit osteoclastogenesis by producing more effective OPG than RANKL via the induction of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha.

  9. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility. PMID:26548840

  10. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility.

  11. Estimation methods and parameter assessment for ethanol yields from total soluble solids of sweet sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation methods and evaluation of ethanol yield from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) based on agronomic production traits and juice characteristics is important for developing parents and inbred lines of sweet sorghum that can be used by the bio-ethanol industry. The objectives of th...

  12. Milled industrial beet color kinetics and total soluble solid contents by image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial beets are an emerging feedstock for biofuel and bioproducts industry in the US. Milling of industrial beets is the primary step in front end processing (FEP) for ethanol production. Milled beets undergo multiple pressings with water addition during raw beet juice extraction, and extracted...

  13. New recommendations for measuring collagen solubility.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María E; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-08-01

    The heat-solubility of intramuscular collagen is usually conducted in 1/4 Ringer's solution at pH7.4, despite this ionic strength and pH being inappropriate for post-rigor meat. The current work studied the percentage of soluble collagen and hydrothermal isometric tension characteristics of perimysial strips on bovine semitendinosus muscles in either 1/4 Ringer's solution, distilled water, PBS, or a solution of the same salt concentration as 1/4 Ringer's but at pH5.6. Values of % soluble collagen were lower at pH7.4 than 5.6. Increasing ionic strength reduced % soluble collagen. The maximum perimysial isometric tension was independent of the bathing medium, but the percent relaxation was higher at pH7.4 than at pH5.6, and increased with ionic strength of the media. It is recommended that future measurements of collagen solubility and tests on connective tissue components of post-rigor meat should be carried out in a solution of concentrations NaCl and KCl equivalent to those in 1/4 Ringer's, but at pH5.6, a pH relevant to post-rigor meat. PMID:27057755

  14. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  15. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the aqueous solubility and solubility/dose ratio of praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Stratos; Archontaki, Helen; Macheras, Panos; Valsami, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In this work, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were used in order to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility of a drug by complexation with CDs, a BCS-Class II compound like PZQ could behave as BCS-Class I (highly soluble/highly permeable) drug. Phase solubility and the kneading and lyophilization techniques were used for inclusion complex preparation; solubility was determined by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the water soluble polymer polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) to increase the complexation and solubilization efficiency of beta-CD and HP-beta-CD for PZQ was examined. Results showed significant improvement of PZQ solubility in the presence of both cyclodextrins but no additional effect in the presence of PVP. The solubility/dose ratios values of PZQ-cyclodextrin complexes calculated considering the low (150 mg) and the high dose (600 mg) of PZQ, used in practice, indicate that PZQ complexation with CDs may result in drug dosage forms that would behave as a BCS-Class I depending on the administered dose.

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  17. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  19. Improvement in solubility of poor water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Swati; Mathew, George; Joseph, Lincy

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to combine recent literature on solid dispersion technology for solubility enhancement with special emphasis on mechanism responsible for the same by solid dispersion, various preparation methods, and evaluation parameters. Solubility behavior is the most challenging aspect for various new chemical entities as 60% of the new potential products possess solubility problems. This is the biggest reason for new drug molecules not reaching to the market or not reaches to full potential. There are various techniques to enhance the drug solubility such as particle size reduction, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, solid dispersion, etc. From this article it may be concluded that solid dispersion is an important approach for improvement of bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:23071955

  20. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  1. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. PMID:27282539

  2. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  3. Soluble proteins in insect chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Zhou, J-J; Ban, L P; Calvello, M

    2006-07-01

    Our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects has been greatly improved after the discovery of olfactory and taste receptor proteins. However, the presence of soluble polypeptides in high concentration around the dendrites of sensory neurons still poses unanswered questions. More than 2 decades after their discovery and despite the wealth of structural information available, the physiological function of odorant-binding proteins is not well understood. More recently, members of a second family of soluble polypeptides, the chemosensory proteins, were also discovered in the lymph of chemosensilla. Here we review the structural properties of both classes of soluble proteins, their affinity to small ligands, and their expression in the different parts of the insect body and subcellular localisation. Finally, we discuss current ideas and models of the role of such proteins in insect chemoreception.

  4. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  5. Characteristics of water-soluble ions before, during and after fog events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Du, H.; Yang, C.; Yao, J.; Du, J.; Chen, J.

    2010-07-01

    Two atmospheric processes of rain-fog-haze and haze-fog-rain were observed on Feb.8th and Mar. 14th, 2010 in urban Shanghai. On-line characterization of water-soluble ions of aerosol was performed before, during and after two fog episodes by an instrument of Monitoring AeRosoles and GAses (MARGA). Fog water samples were also collected to study the chemical ion characteristics for identifying the property of fogs. After rain, total water-soluble ion concentration in PM2.5 increased by 71.9%. Afterwards, a fog formation was observed as a frontal fog. Six fog water samples were collected to measure concentration of water-soluble ions, whose total concentrations decreased from beginning to end of fog. At the end of fog, the total water-soluble ion concentration of aerosol was continually increased. Meanwhile with a sharp decline of RH down to 70% in two hours, and a haze episode was observed. The reverse process, haze-fog-rain process, was also investigated. After the haze episode, total water-soluble ions concentration of aerosol rarely increased, but fog appeared with sharp increase of RH. Concentration of water-soluble ions in the fog water sample was higher than mean concentration of samples in 2009. When the fog started to disperse, the ion concentration hardly changed. As water vapor continued to increase, rain was observed. The inorganic compositions of aerosol in both fog events were dominated by sulfate and ammonium. The in situ investigation clearly illustrated that fog water mainly influenced by continental sources was dirtier and contained more sediment comparing with fog water influenced by marine sources.

  6. Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight on Drug-Polymer Solubility: A Comparison between Experimentally Determined Solubility in PVP and Prediction Derived from Solubility in Monomer.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Langguth, Peter; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the influence of polymer molecular weight on drug-polymer solubility was investigated using binary systems containing indomethacin (IMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of different molecular weights. The experimental solubility in PVP, measured using a differential scanning calorimetry annealing method, was compared with the solubility calculated from the solubility of the drug in the liquid analogue N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP). The experimental solubility of IMC in the low-molecular-weight PVP K12 was not significantly different from that in the higher molecular weight PVPs (K25, K30, and K90). The calculated solubilities derived from the solubility in NVP (0.31-0.32 g/g) were found to be lower than those experimentally determined in PVP (0.38-0.40 g/g). Nevertheless, the similarity between the values indicates that the analogue solubility can provide valuable indications on the solubility in the polymer. Hence, if a drug is soluble in an analogue of the polymer, it is most likely also soluble in the polymer. In conclusion, the solubility of a given drug-polymer system is determined by the strength of the drug-polymer interactions rather than the molecular weight of the polymer. Therefore, during the first screenings for drug solubility in polymers, only one representative molecular weight per polymer is needed.

  7. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest.

  8. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest. PMID:26572009

  9. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided. PMID:12426143

  10. The origin and distribution of soluble salts in the sand seas of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yang, Xiaoping

    2010-11-01

    Based on samples taken from four large sand seas of northern China, this paper first provides basic data about the concentrations and chemistries of soluble salts in deserts of northern China and then discusses the origins and parameters triggering geographical variations. The total concentration of soluble salts in the aeolian sands of four large sand seas in northern China ranges between 0.14‰ and 1.32‰, with the pH of the soluble salts solution (mixing ratio of sand and water 1:5) changing between 8.4 and 9.6, confirming alkaline soil conditions in these regions. Sodium chloride and bicarbonate are the dominant salts occurring as soluble salts in the aeolian deposits of these sand seas. The geographical changes of soluble salts' concentration display a clear correlation with regional climatic parameters, i.e., precipitation and temperature. The domination of sedimentation of soluble salts in the aeolian sands deposited via atmospheric processes is discussed, which are heavily associated with dry deposition. The mean percentages of Na and Cl, derived from dry depositions, are estimated to be > 90% in both Badain Jaran and Taklamakan deserts.

  11. Solubility of KF and NaCl in water by molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, E.; Vega, C.

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of two ionic salts, namely, KF and NaCl, in water has been calculated by Monte Carlo molecular simulation. Water has been modeled with the extended simple point charge model (SPC/E), ions with the Tosi-Fumi model and the interaction between water and ions with the Smith-Dang model. The chemical potential of the solute in the solution has been computed as the derivative of the total free energy with respect to the number of solute particles. The chemical potential of the solute in the solid phase has been calculated by thermodynamic integration to an Einstein crystal. The solubility of the salt has been calculated as the concentration at which the chemical potential of the salt in the solution becomes identical to that of the pure solid. The methodology used in this work has been tested by reproducing the results for the solubility of KF determined previously by Ferrario et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 4947 (2002)]. For KF, it was found that the solubility of the model is only in qualitative agreement with experiment. The variation of the solubility with temperature for KF has also been studied. For NaCl, the potential model used predicts a solubility in good agreement with the experimental value. The same is true for the hydration chemical potential at infinite dilution. Given the practical importance of solutions of NaCl in water the model used in this work, whereas simple, can be of interest for future studies.

  12. Solubilities of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.H.; Shockley, W.E.; Greene, C.W.

    1984-07-01

    The solubility behavior of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane was investigated for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in support of the fluorocarbon absorption process. The solubility data derived from solute radioisotopes had uncertainties of approx. 0.1%. Values for Henry's law constants were initially determined under equilibrium conditions at infinite solute dilution. Based on these results, the study was extended to finite solute concentrations. Nonidealities in the two binary systems were expressed as gas phase fugacity coefficients for each solute at 10/sup 0/ intervals over the range -30 to +50/sup 0/C. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  14. Parallel Total Energy

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  15. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  16. Solubilities of significant compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions - FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-30

    The solubilities of two sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY1996 This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degrees}C, 30 {degrees}C, 40 {degrees}C, and 50 {degrees}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. Two types of tank supernate simulants were used - a 4.O M sodium nitrate - 0.97 M sodium nitrite solution with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from O.00003 M to 2.O M and a 2.O M sodium nitrite solution saturated with crystalline sodium nitrate with sodium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 2. 0 M. The solubilities of sodium butyrate and trisodium N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene- diaminetriacetate in both types of HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubilities of these compounds are similar (in terms of total organic carbon) to sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, dibutylphosphate, citrate, formate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and nitrilotriacetate which were measured previously. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generaly much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble

  17. Solubility of drugs in aqueous solutions. Part 4. Drug solubility by the dilute approximation.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, E; Shulgin, I

    2004-07-01

    As in our previous publications in this journal [Int. J. Pharm. 258 (2003a) 193; Int. J. Pharm. 260 (2003b) 283; Int. J. Pharm. 267 (2003c) 121], this paper is concerned with the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in aqueous mixed solvents. In the previous publications, the solubilities of drugs were assumed to be low enough for the so-called infinite dilution approximation to be applicable. In contrast, in the present paper, the solubilities are considered to be finite and the dilute solution approximation is employed. As before, the fluctuation theory of solutions is used to express the derivatives of the activity coefficient of a solute in a ternary solution (dilute solute concentrations in a binary solvent) with respect to the concentrations of the solvent and cosolvent. The expressions obtained are combined with a theoretical equation for the activity coefficient of the solute. As a result, the activity coefficient of the solute was expressed through the activity coefficients of the solute at infinite dilution, solute mole fraction, some properties of the binary solvent (composition, molar volume and activity coefficients of the components) and parameters reflecting the nonidealities of binary species. The expression thus obtained was used to derive an equation for the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in aqueous binary solvents which was applied in two different ways. First, the nonideality parameters were considered as adjustable parameters, determined from experimental solubility data. Second, the obtained equation was used to correct the solubilities of drugs calculated via the infinite dilution approximation. It was shown that both procedures provide accurate correlations for the drug solubility.

  18. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  19. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  20. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  1. Substrate stiffness regulates solubility of cellular vimentin

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Maria E.; Mendez, Melissa G.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein vimentin is involved in the regulation of cell behavior, morphology, and mechanical properties. Previous studies using cells cultured on glass or plastic substrates showed that vimentin is largely insoluble. Although substrate stiffness was shown to alter many aspects of cell behavior, changes in vimentin organization were not reported. Our results show for the first time that mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), endothelial cells, and fibroblasts cultured on different-stiffness substrates exhibit biphasic changes in vimentin detergent solubility, which increases from nearly 0 to 67% in hMSCs coincident with increases in cell spreading and membrane ruffling. When imaged, the detergent-soluble vimentin appears to consist of small fragments the length of one or several unit-length filaments. Vimentin detergent solubility decreases when these cells are subjected to serum starvation, allowed to form cell–cell contacts, after microtubule disruption, or inhibition of Rac1, Rho-activated kinase, or p21-activated kinase. Inhibiting myosin or actin assembly increases vimentin solubility on rigid substrates. These data suggest that in the mechanical environment in vivo, vimentin is more dynamic than previously reported and its assembly state is sensitive to stimuli that alter cellular tension and morphology. PMID:24173714

  2. Soluble arsenic removal at water treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic profiles were obtained from full-scale conventional treatment (coagulation, Fe-Mn oxidation, or softening) plants, facilitating testing of theories regarding arsenic removal. Soluble As(V) removal efficiency was controlled primarily by pH during coagulation, be Fe{sup +2} oxidation and Fe(OH){sub 3} precipitation during Fe-Mn oxidation, and by Mg(OH){sub 2} formation during softening. Insignificant soluble As(V) removal occurred during calcite precipitation at softening plants or during Mn{sup +2} oxidation-precipitation at Fe-Mn oxidation plants. The extent of soluble As(V) removal during coagulation and softening treatments was lower than expected. Somewhat surprisingly, during coagulation As(V) removal efficiencies were limited by particulate aluminum formation and removal, because much of the added coagulant was not removed by 0.45-{mu}m-pore-size filters. At one utility, reducing the coagulation pH from 7.4 to 6.8 (at constant alum dose) improved removal of particulate aluminum, thereby enhancing soluble As(V) removal during treatment.

  3. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  4. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  5. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, and Ar Solubility in Serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to constrain the solubility of He, Ne, and Ar in natural samples of antigorite from three locations. Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material [1] and well gases [2] indicate that noble gases are recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. The mechanism by which uncharged atoms can be bound to a mineral and subsequently recycled remains unclear, but recent experimental work suggests that ring structures in silicate minerals are ideal sites for noble gases [3]. Serpentine contains such ring structures and is abundant in subducting slabs, providing significant potential for control of the recycling of noble gases. Experiments were performed in a cold seal pressure vessel at 350°C using a mix of equal parts He, Ne, and Ar as the pressure media (Brown University, USA). Pressures varied from 0.15 to 1.13 kbar total pressure and durations varied from 20 to 188 hours. Samples were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry (Open University, UK). He and Ne reached equilibrium during the experiments and both exhibit Henrian behavior. Data from the cleanest sample reduces the error by approximately an order of magnitude over previous work [3] and confirms that He is significantly more soluble (HCHe=6.05x10-10 mol/g/bar) than Ne (HCNe=5.12x10-12 mol/g/bar) in antigorite. Preliminary data from the cleanest sample suggests that Ar is more soluble than both He and Ne (HCAr=1.94x10-10 mol/g/bar). This provides a mechanism for fractionation of noble gases during recycling. 1. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G., and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Jackson, C.R.M., Parman, S.W., Kelley, S.P., Cooper, R.F., GCA, 159, 1-15, 2015

  6. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT) protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP) methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM) and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO), 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV) for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html. PMID:20929563

  7. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  8. Total arm flap.

    PubMed

    Becker, D W

    1987-11-01

    The development of an unusual and rarely indicated total arm flap is described in the context of widely indicated and automatically used principles passed down by the recognized father of plastic surgery, Sir Harold G. Gillies.

  9. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  10. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed.

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  12. On the solubility of aluminum in cryolitic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ødegård, R.; Sterten, Å.; Thonstad, J.

    1988-06-01

    The solubility of aluminum in NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 melts with various additives was found to increase with increasing NaF/AlF3 molar ratio (CR) and increasing temperature and to decrease with additions of A12O3, CaF2, MgF2, and LiF to the melts. With the use of literature data for the activities of NaF and A1F3 in cryolitic melts, three dissolution reaction models were found to give a good fit to the experimental solubility data. According to the most probable of these models the total concentration of dissolved aluminum (aluminum and sodium species) is given by cAl = cNa(diss) + cAlF2- + cAl2F3- + cAl3F4- + cAl4F5- In NaF rich melts, aluminum will dominantly dissolve as sodium, while at cryolite ratios commonly used in aluminum electrowinning (CR = 2.25 to 2.7) the AlF{-2/-}-ion is the predominant dissolved metal species. Other species (A12F3 -, A13F4-, A14F5-) were found to be of some significance only in melts with high excess A1F3 (CR < 2).

  13. Water soluble organic constituents in Arctic aerosols and snow pack

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaomeng ); Winchester, J.W. )

    1993-01-08

    Eight water-soluble organic anions were measured in 70 aerosol samples and 10 snow samples at Barrow, Alaska in March-April, 1989. The ranking of the ions in aerosols according to total (coarse + fine aerosol) median concentrations was acetate (44 ng m[sup [minus]3]), oxalate (27), benzoate (23), formate (22), propionate (6), methanesulfonate (5), lactate (4), and pyruvate (4). When added up, the median organic anion mass was 156 ng m[sup [minus]3]. The organic anions/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio had a median of 0.18 and 0.07 in the coarse (>1 [mu]m) and fine (<1 [mu]m) size fractions, respectively, but can be very high on occasions. On average, the organic anions made up more than 10% of the water-soluble aerosol mass. A similar ranking in concentration was also found for the organic ions in the snow pack samples. The organic anion/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio in these samples was >0.5, substantially higher than in aerosols. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous mixtures of alkanolamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dawodu, O.F.; Meisen, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The solubility of CO[sub 2] in water + N-methyldiethanolamine + monoethanolamine (MDEA + MEA) and water + N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine (MDEA + DEA) are reported at two compositions of 3.4 M MDEA + 0.8 M MEA or DEA and 2.1 M MDEA + 2.1 M MEA or DEA at temperatures from 70 to 180 C and CO[sub 2] partial pressures from 100 to 3,850 kPa. The solubility of CO[sub 2] in the blends decreased with an increase in temperature but increased with an increase in CO[sub 2] partial pressure. At low partial pressures of CO[sub 2] and the same total amine concentration, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings were in the order MDEA + MEA > MDEA + DEA > MDEA. However, at high CO[sub 2] partial pressures, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings in the MDEA solutions were higher than those of the MDEA + MEA and MDEA + DEA blends of equal molar strengths due to the stoichiometric loading limitations of MEA and DEA. The nonadditivity of the equilibrium loadings for single amine systems highlights the need for independent measurements on amine blends.

  15. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  16. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  17. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Oviedo, I; Retchkiman-Corona, B; Quirino-Barreda, C T; Cárdenas, J; Schabes-Retchkiman, P S

    2012-11-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin.

  18. Solubility behavior and biopharmaceutical classification of novel high-solubility ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin pharmaceutical derivatives.

    PubMed

    Breda, Susana A; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F; Manzo, Ruben H; Olivera, María E

    2009-04-17

    The hydrochlorides of the 1:3 aluminum:norfloxacin and aluminum:ciprofloxacin complexes were characterized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) premises in comparison with their parent compounds. The pH-solubility profiles of the complexes were experimentally determined at 25 and 37 degrees C in the range of pH 1-8 and compared to that of uncomplexed norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Both complexes are clearly more soluble than the antibiotics themselves, even at the lowest solubility pHs. The increase in solubility was ascribed to the species controlling solubility, which were analyzed in the solid phases at equilibrium at selected pHs. Additionally, permeability was set as low, based on data reported in the scientific literature regarding oral bioavailability, intestinal and cell cultures permeabilities and also considering the influence of stoichiometric amounts of aluminum. The complexes fulfill the BCS criterion to be classified as class 3 compounds (high solubility/low permeability). Instead, the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) currently used in solid dosage forms, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, proved to be BCS class 4 (low solubility/low permeability). The solubility improvement turns the complexes as potential biowaiver candidates from the scientific point of view and may be a good way for developing more dose-efficient formulations. An immediate release tablet showing very rapid dissolution was obtained. Its dissolution profile was compared to that of the commercial ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets allowing to dissolution of the complete dose at a critical pH such as 6.8.

  19. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality.

  20. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality. PMID:27060638

  1. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  2. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  3. Total colonoscopy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. B.; Laage, N. J.; Campbell, C. A.; Douglas, J. R.; Walker-Smith, J. A.; Booth, I. W.; Harries, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-three total colonoscopies were performed on 115 children with ages ranging from 3 months to 16 years. The major indications were suspected inflammatory bowel disease and unexplained rectal bleeding. Ninety-seven per cent of all procedures were carried out with sedation only. Adult colonoscopes were used in most of the patients but in babies and small children paediatric instruments were preferable. Total colonoscopy was possible in all patients with a patent colon. The terminal ileum was examined in 63 patients. Endoscopic snare polypectomy was successfully carried out in 8 children and multiple haemangiomas were electrocoagulated in one. Total colonoscopy in this paediatric series proved to be at least as easy, rapid, well-tolerated, and safe as in adults. In selected patients as single colonoscopy can give an accurate diagnosis with biopsy proof and sometimes the opportunity for definitive treatment. PMID:7065694

  4. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  5. Comparison of hemolytic activities of coal fly ash and its soluble and insoluble fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Wong, M.H.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    1986-08-01

    Coal fly ash of a particle diameter smaller than 10 ..mu..m was collected from the precipitator of a power plant in Hong Kong. Comparison of hemolytic activities between fly ash and free silica showed that fly ash had a lower biological effect than free silica. The hemolytic activities of the soluble and insoluble fractions of fly ash were further compared by two methods: total hemoglobin method and cyanmethemoglobin method. An analysis of results showed significant differences for fly ash and its soluble fraction between methods. Fly ash, which contained a silicate level similar to its insoluble fraction, had a hemolytic activity higher than the summation of both its soluble and insoluble fractions. This indicates that the hemolytic activity was independent of the silicate content in the fly ash samples.

  6. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

  7. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  8. Effects of heat and high-pressure treatments on the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jieqiong; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Shuo; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-05-15

    The effects of dry and moist heat, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment on the biochemical characteristics and immunological properties of almond proteins were investigated. Changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins extracted from treated almond flour were evaluated using a total protein assay, indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Almond proteins were stable during dry-heat treatment at temperatures below 250°C. Dry heat at 400°C, boiling, autoclave sterilization and high-pressure treatment in the presence of water at ⩾ 500 MPa greatly reduced the solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein profiles of almond flour samples treated under these conditions also changed significantly. The synergistic effects of heat, pressure and the presence of water contributed to significant changes in solubility and immunoreactivity of almond proteins. PMID:26776044

  9. Analysis of effect of the solubility on gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, W. E., Jr.; Evans, J. W.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made of the gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lung models and in homogeneous lung models with the same total blood flow and ventilation. It is shown that the ratio of the rate of gas transfer of the inhomogeneous lung model over the rate of gas transfer of the homogeneous lung model as a function of gas solubility always has the qualitative features for gases with linear dissociation curves. This ratio is 1 for a gas with zero solubility and decreases to a single minimum. It subsequently rises to approach 1 as the solubility tends to infinity. The early portion of the graph of this function is convex, then after a single inflection point it is concave.

  10. Soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) from seven cultivars at three ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Ramírez-Coronel, Ma Ascención; Aranda-Delgado, Eduardo; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    The contents of soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) were analyzed in coffee pulp (CP) of seven cultivars of Coffea arabica at three different ripening stages. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of HCAs were evaluated and improved. HCAs were present mainly in the soluble fraction (68-97%). Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid (94-98%) in the soluble fraction, whereas caffeic acid was the most abundant HCA found in the bound fraction (72-88%). Small amounts of free and bound ferulic and p-coumaric acids were also detected. The content of total HCAs in CP reached the maximum concentration at the semiripe stage (7.4-25.5 mg/g CP, dw) but decreased at the ripe stage for six of the seven cultivars. These findings suggest that unripe or semiripe coffee cherries, considered as defective cherries, are a potential inexpensive source of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids.

  11. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  12. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    PubMed

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. PMID:27554487

  13. Soluble catalysts for improved Pschorr cyclizations

    SciTech Connect

    Wassmundt, F.W.; Kiesman, W.F.

    1995-01-13

    Several improved catalysts for the Pschorr phenanthrene synthesis have been discovered; all are soluble substances which initiate free-radical reactions by electron donation and thereby shorten the reaction time and increase the yield. One technique with K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} in water produced phenanthrene-9-carboxylic acid (6a) in 87% yield, but its application did not extend to substituted examples where the diazonium salt is less soluble in water. A more general procedure with ferrocene in acetone produced not only 6a but also substituted examples 6b-f in yields of 88-94%. A modification which avoids the isolation of diazonium salts was developed for occasional synthetic use. 3 tabs.

  14. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  15. Preparation of Hydrochlorothiazide Nanoparticles for Solubility Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vaculikova, Eliska; Cernikova, Aneta; Placha, Daniela; Pisarcik, Martin; Peikertova, Pavlina; Dedkova, Katerina; Devinsky, Ferdinand; Jampilek, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be considered as a useful tool for improving properties of poorly soluble active ingredients. Hydrochlorothiazide (Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System) was chosen as a model compound. Antisolvent precipitation-solvent evaporation and emulsion solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of 18 samples containing hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles. Water solutions of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Tween 80 and carboxymethyl dextran were used in mass concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5%. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as solvents of the model compound. The particle size of the prepared samples was measured by dynamic light scattering. The selected sample of hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl dextran sodium salt with particle size 2.6 nm was characterized additionally by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of this sample was 6.5-fold higher than that of bulk hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:27490530

  16. Soluble Aβ oligomer production and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Megan E; Lesné, Sylvain E

    2012-01-01

    For nearly 100 years following the first description of this neurological disorder by Dr Alois Alzheimer, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have been hypothesized to cause neuronal loss. With evidence that the extent of insoluble, deposited amyloid poorly correlated with cognitive impairment, research efforts focused on soluble forms of Aβ, also referred as Aβ oligomers. Following a decade of studies, soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ are now believed to induce the deleterious cascade(s) involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding about endogenous oligomeric Aβ production, their relative toxicity in vivo and in vitro, and explore the potential future directions needed for the field.

  17. Co-solubility in binary phospholipid crystals.

    PubMed

    Dorset, D L; Massalski, A K

    1987-10-01

    Crystalline binary solid solutions of phosphatidylethanolamines are obtained when various fractions of compounds with different chain lengths are dissolved in chloroform and allowed to evaporate to dryness. Phase diagrams and electron diffraction measurements on chain mixtures with a difference of two or four methylene groups indicate that solubility is continuous, although non-ideal. Average molecular volume appears to increase according to Vegard's rule although deviations are noted. These deviations are similar to those observed for binary paraffin solids. Substitution of ether-links for ester-links in one component does not alter solubility behavior. In general the rules of solid solution formation appear to conform to those originally proposed by Kitaigorodskii [1961) Organic Chemical Crystallography, pp. 231-240, Consultants Bureau, New York).

  18. Enhancing Dopant Solubility via Epitaxial Surfactant Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Yan, Y.; Wei, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    A general concept for enhancing dopant solubility via epitaxial surfactant growth is proposed. The key of the concept is to find the appropriate surfactants that generate high (low) levels that can transfer electrons (holes) to dopant acceptor (donor) levels in p-type (n-type) doping, thus significantly lowering the formation energy of dopants. Using first-principles density-functional calculations, our concept explains excellently the recently discovered dual-surfactant effect of Sb and H on enhancing Zn doping in epitaxially grown GaP(100) thin film and suggests that sole surfactant Te can also induce enhancement of N solubility in ZnSe(100) film. We also proposed the surfactants for enhancing p-type doing of ZnO with epitaxial growth with (000{bar 1}) surface. General rules for selecting surfactants for enhancing both p-type and n-type dopings are provided.

  19. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs. PMID:16399376

  20. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core–shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the 'confined effect' and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties. PMID:27308672

  1. Nomenclature for mammalian soluble glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt; Board, Philip G; Hayes, John D; Listowsky, Irving; Pearson, William R

    2005-01-01

    The nomenclature for human soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) is extended to include new members of the GST superfamily that have been discovered, sequenced, and shown to be expressed. The GST nomenclature is based on primary structure similarities and the division of GSTs into classes of more closely related sequences. The classes are designated by the names of the Greek letters: Alpha, Mu, Pi, etc., abbreviated in Roman capitals: A, M, P, and so on. (The Greek characters should not be used.) Class members are distinguished by Arabic numerals and the native dimeric protein structures are named according to their subunit composition (e.g., GST A1-2 is the enzyme composed of subunits 1 and 2 in the Alpha class). Soluble GSTs from other mammalian species can be classified in the same manner as the human enzymes, and this chapter presents the application of the nomenclature to the rat and mouse GSTs.

  2. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  3. Effect of radio frequency heating on nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amro B; Pawelzik, Elke; von Hoersten, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In this study, radio frequency heat treatment at varying temperatures (50, 55, and 60°C) was applied to investigate its impact on the nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn. The nutritive value was measured in terms of crude protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, bioavailability of Fe and Ca, and antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents. No significant change in total and digestible protein of corn flour was observed after treatments. On the other hand, the availability of Ca and Fe was significantly increased, whereas the antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents were decreased after radio frequency heating. Moreover, protein solubility was found significantly (P < 0.05) higher in treated corn than in control sample. Regarding these results, radio frequency heating at controlled temperature up to 60°C might be used as postharvest method to enhance the nutritional quality of corn.

  4. Effect of radio frequency heating on nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amro B; Pawelzik, Elke; von Hoersten, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In this study, radio frequency heat treatment at varying temperatures (50, 55, and 60°C) was applied to investigate its impact on the nutritional quality and protein solubility of corn. The nutritive value was measured in terms of crude protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, bioavailability of Fe and Ca, and antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents. No significant change in total and digestible protein of corn flour was observed after treatments. On the other hand, the availability of Ca and Fe was significantly increased, whereas the antinutritional factors, tannins and total polyphenols contents were decreased after radio frequency heating. Moreover, protein solubility was found significantly (P < 0.05) higher in treated corn than in control sample. Regarding these results, radio frequency heating at controlled temperature up to 60°C might be used as postharvest method to enhance the nutritional quality of corn. PMID:27625771

  5. Therapeutic effects of soluble dietary fiber consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunye; Zeng, Yuan; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Hongting; Liu, Jun; Fan, Rong; Zhu, Wenyi; Yuan, Lijia; Qin, Yu; Chen, Shihui; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Ying; Wan, Jing; Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (DF) reduces the risk of developing diabetes and may have therapeutic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soluble DF on metabolic control in patients with DM2. A total of 117 patients with DM2 between the ages of 40 and 70 were assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered extra soluble DF (10 or 20 g/day), or to a control group (0 g/day) for one month. Blood glucose, serum insulin and connecting peptide (C-peptide) levels, and the insulin resistance index, as determined using the homeostatic model assessment method, were measured during fasting and up to 2-h postprandially prior to and following one month of treatment. Other measurements included serum levels of glycated albumin (GA), blood lipid profiles, and an analysis of the blood pressure, body weight and waist/hip ratio of all patients. Following intervention, the levels of 2-h blood glucose, fasting insulin and lipoprotein(a), and the insulin resistance index, were significantly improved in all groups. Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose, 2-h insulin, fasting C-peptide, 2-h C-peptide, GA and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly improved in the soluble DF groups. The 20 g/day soluble DF group exhibited significantly improved fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein levels, as well as a significantly improved insulin resistance index. In addition, 10 and 20 g/day soluble DF significantly improved the waist and hip circumferences and levels of TGs and apolipoprotein A. The results of the present study suggested that increased and regular consumption of soluble DF led to significant improvements in blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and metabolic profiles, without improving the secretory function of the islets of Langerhans, over a short-term intervention period in patients with DM2. PMID:27446349

  6. Wormhole growth in soluble porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, R.H.; Griffiths, S.K. )

    1990-09-24

    Analytical solutions are derived for the quasisteady shape and speed of a single wormhole resulting from the coupled processes of Darcian fluid motion and chemical dissolution in a soluble permeable material. For an initially unsaturated medium, two-dimensional solutions are obtained by addressing an inverted free-boundary problem in which the spatial coordinates are treated as dependent variables on the plane of a complex potential. For initially saturated materials, solutions are obtained by analogy to Ivantsov's problem of dendrite growth.

  7. Murine lung immunity to a soluble antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, D.N.; Bice, D.E.; Siegel, D.W.; Schuyler, M.R. Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM )

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that soluble antigen triggers antigen-specific immunity in the respiratory tract in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen, the authors examined the development of local and systemic immunity in C57BL/6 mice after intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of a soluble, large molecular weight protein neoantigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Specific anti-KLH IgG and IgM first appeared in the sera of mice on day 7 after primary immunization by i.t. instillation of KLH, with specific serum antibody concentrations remaining elevated at day 11. Cultured spleen cells obtained from mice after primary immunization released only low levels of specific IgM, and no specific IgG. No specific antibody was released by cell populations derived from the lungs of animals undergoing primary immunization. When presensitized mice were given an i.t. challenge with KLH, responses differed markedly from those following primary immunization. Lung-associated lymph node cell populations from challenged mice released greater amounts of specific antibody earlier than did cell populations, which after primary immunization had not released detectable amounts of specific antibody in vitro, released easily detectable amounts of specific antibody after challenge. Thus, i.t. instillation of soluble KLH generates specific immunity in mice in a fashion similar to that reported for particulate antigen. Specific responses following primary immunization occur largely within draining lung-associated lymph nodes. In contrast, presensitized animals challenged i.t. with soluble KLH mount secondary antibody responses in both lung and lung-associated lymph nodes.

  8. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  9. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F.; Johnston, C.T.

    2013-07-01

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  10. Skin protection, Viton, and solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Perkins, J L; Ridge, M C; Holcombe, A B; Wang, M K; Nonidez, W E

    1986-12-01

    Permeation is a function of diffusion and solubility of the solvent/polymer system. A physical-chemical constant that has been used previously to predict solubility is the three-dimensional solubility parameter (3-DSP). This paper reports a method for calculating the 3-DSP for the polymer Viton, new permeation data for Viton and 14 solvents, and the application of the 3-DSP to a model for predicting permeation parameters. The 3-DSP values for Viton (J/cc)1/2 were dispersion = 17.0, polar = 10.6, and hydrogen bonding = 6.1. A correlation coefficient of 0.65 was obtained when the natural log of breakthrough time for 19 solvents was regressed against the differences of the 3-DSP's for these 19 solvents and Viton. A value of 0.69 was obtained for the natural log of the permeation rate vs 16 solvent-Viton 3-DSP differences. While the variance unaccounted for in these regression tests does not allow quantitative prediction of permeation parameters, qualitative prediction of polymer suitability is possible. PMID:3799483

  11. Fluorite solubility equilibria in selected geothermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Jenne, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Calculation of chemical equilibria in 351 hot springs and surface waters from selected geothermal areas in the western United States indicate that the solubility of the mineral fluorite, CaF2, provides an equilibrium control on dissolved fluoride activity. Waters that are undersaturated have undergone dilution by non-thermal waters as shown by decreased conductivity and temperature values, and only 2% of the samples are supersaturated by more than the expected error. Calculations also demonstrate that simultaneous chemical equilibria between the thermal waters and calcite as well as fluorite minerals exist under a variety of conditions. Testing for fluorite solubility required a critical review of the thermodynamic data for fluorite. By applying multiple regression of a mathematical model to selected published data we have obtained revised estimates of the pK (10,96), ??Gof (-280.08 kcal/mole), ??Hof (-292.59 kcal/mole), S?? (16.39 cal/deg/mole) and CoP (16.16 cal/deg/mole) for CaF2 at 25??C and 1 atm. Association constants and reaction enthalpies for fluoride complexes with boron, calcium and iron are included in this review. The excellent agreement between the computer-based activity products and the revised pK suggests that the chemistry of geothermal waters may also be a guide to evaluating mineral solubility data where major discrepancies are evident. ?? 1977.

  12. Structure and Aqueous Solubility of Sodium Isosaccharinate

    SciTech Connect

    Bontchev, Ranko P.; Moore, Robert; Tucker, Mark; Holt, Kathleen

    2004-03-29

    It has been recently shown that isosaccharinic acid, C6H12O6 (ISA), and its derivative salts have a great potential for practical application in the area of nuclear waste treatment and disposal sites management. Several studies demonstrated the effect of ISA complexation on radionuclide solubility and sorptive properties, especially on actinides in (+4) oxidation state like Np(IV) and Th(IV). The presence of ISA and/or its derivatives strongly affects the migration of radionuclides by increasing their solubility in water by several orders of magnitude and Na-ISA has been proposed as a component of decontamination formulations for actinide-contaminated surfaces. Here we report the synthesis, crystal's structure and characterization (FTIR, TGA) of sodium isosaccharate, NaC6H11O6-H2O (Na-ISA). The structure has been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The solubility of Na-ISA has been evaluated and compared to that of Ca-ISA based on the structural features of both compounds.

  13. Solubility of nitrous oxide in amine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bensetiti, Z.; Iliuta, I.; Larachi, F.; Grandjean, B.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in 13 amine solvents and solutions was correlated to amine mole fractions and temperature using feedforward neural networks. This general correlation, using a massive database, predicted N{sub 2}O solubility at temperatures between 283 and 398 K in pure solvents [H{sub 2}O, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanolamine (AMP)], in binary aqueous amine solutions [H{sub 2}O/MEA, H{sub 2}O/DEA, H{sub 2}O/MDEA, and H{sub 2}O/AMP], and in ternary aqueous amine blends [AMP/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, AMP/DEA/H{sub 2}O, DEA/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, MDEA/MEA/H{sub 2}O, and AMP/MEA/H{sub 2}O]. Combined with the N{sub 2}O analogy, this present improved correlation can be advantageously implemented in amine plant design software and procedures for the prediction of CO{sub 2} solubility in amine blend solutions over wide temperature and concentration ranges.

  14. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  15. Soluble iron dust export in the high altitude Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo-Pérez, L. M.; Rodríguez, S.; Galindo, L.; García, M. I.; Alastuey, A.; López-Solano, J.

    2016-05-01

    Every summer huge amounts of desert dust particles are exported from the hyperarid subtropical Sahara to the North Atlantic the so-called Saharan Air Layer (SAL), a dry, warm and dust-laden corridor that expands from the North African coast (1-5 km.a.s.l.) to the Americas above the marine boundary layer. Because of the potential impact of the dust deposited on the ocean on marine biogeochemistry and climate, we studied the Fe solubility (in seawater) of atmospheric aerosols samples directly collected in the SAL off the North African coast, i.e. the fresh aerosols recently exported from the Sahara in the SAL. The aerosol sampling was performed at ˜2400 m.a.s.l. in Izaña observatory in Tenerife island. In the total aerosols, we found low Fe concentrations and high fractional Fe solubility (FFS ˜2%) in the North Atlantic free troposphere airflows and high Fe concentrations and low FFS (˜0.7%) within the SAL; the resulting FFS versus total dust (or total Fe) plot shows a hyperbolic trend attributed to the conservative mixing of 'fine combustion aerosols' and 'lithogenic mineral dust'. We then focused on the soluble Fe in the SAL. Our results indicate that ˜70% of soluble Fe is associated with the dissolution of submicron dust particles, probably involving Fe-bearing clays. We found a FFS of submicron dust (˜6%) higher than that typically observed in submicron particles of soil dust samples (<1%). The correlation between FFS and the ammonium-sulphate/dust ratio and the low variability in the Fe/Al ratio in the dust samples, suggests that the increase in the FFS of submicron dust aerosols (with respect to soil dust particles) may be related to the presence of acid pollutants mixed with dust. Previous studies had focused on dust processing and changes of Fe solubility during the trans-Atlantic transport of dust in the SAL. We found that submicron dust exported off the coast of North Africa may have already experienced acid processing over the Sahara, i.e. before

  16. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND).

  17. Total synthesis of (-)-lepistine.

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Yusuke; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2014-06-01

    The first total synthesis of (-)-lepistine has been accomplished in 11 steps from (S)-glycidol. The synthesis features construction of the 10-membered ring via an intramolecular epoxide opening by nosylamide, regioselective dehydration to form an enol ether, and construction of the aminal moiety induced by cleavage of the nosyl groups.

  18. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  19. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  20. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  1. Total synthesis of (+)-sundiversifolide.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, Hiromasa; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Tomoyuki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Masahiro; Shishido, Kozo

    2007-03-15

    The first, enantiocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-sundiversifolide has been accomplished using the sequential ring-closing metathesis, [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, and iodolactonization for the key assembly of the cis-fused oxabicyclo[5.3.0]decene framework of the natural product. [structure: see text

  2. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  3. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  4. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  5. Total Synthesis of Nosiheptide.

    PubMed

    Wojtas, K Philip; Riedrich, Matthias; Lu, Jin-Yong; Winter, Philipp; Winkler, Thomas; Walter, Sophia; Arndt, Hans-Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Total synthesis of the bismacrocyclic thiopeptide antibiotic nosiheptide was achieved through the assembly of a fully functionalized linear precursor followed by consecutive macrocyclizations. Key features are a critical macrothiolactonization and a mild deprotection strategy for the 3-hydroxypyridine core. The natural product was identical to isolated authentic material in terms of spectral data and antibiotic activity. PMID:27345011

  6. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  7. Guidance for Total Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoose, William H.

    Elementary guidance, deriving much of its content from the developmental phenomena of middle childhood, is viewed as the maximization of human potentiality in the total range of the population. Included in the list of elementary school guidance objectives are (1) aiding academic development, (2) helping children develop health self-concepts, (3)…

  8. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  9. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  10. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  11. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  12. Entamoeba histolytica: soluble and membrane-associated neutral sphingomyelinase-C and other unidentified esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Hernández-Luna, Carlos; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Torres de la Cruz, Victor M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; González-Salazar, Francisco; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda Leticia; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    Sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity was measured in Entamoeba histolytica particulate and soluble subcellular fractions. The effects on SMase of incubation time, total protein concentration, pH, and several divalent cations were determined. SMase-C and other unidentified esterase activity were detected in soluble and particulate fractions. SMase-C was 94.5-96.0% higher than the unidentified esterase activity. Soluble and insoluble SMase-C specific activities increased with protein dose and incubation time. Soluble and insoluble SMase-C activities were maximum at pH 7.5 and were dependent on Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Co(2+), and inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Ca(2+), and EDTA. SMase-C was active in the pH range of 3-10 and its maximum activity was at pH 7.5. The soluble and insoluble SMases have remarkably similar physicochemical properties, strongly suggesting that E. histolytica has just one isoform of neutral SMase-C that had not been described before and might be essential for E. histolytica metabolism or virulence. PMID:20350542

  13. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens.

  14. Interconnection between the protein solubility and amino acid and dipeptide compositions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Nana; Chen, Dinyan; Wang, Zengzhen

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining soluble proteins in sufficient concentrations helps increase the overall success rate in various experimental studies. Protein solubility is an individual trait ultimately determined by its primary protein sequence. Exploring the interconnection between the protein solubility and the compositions of protein sequence is instrumental for setting priorities on targets in large scale proteomics projects. In this paper, amino acid composition (20 dimensions) and the dipeptide composition (400 dimensions) were extracted to form the total candidate feature pool (420 dimensions), and each feature was selected into the feature vectors one by one, which were sorted by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. Finally, we evaluated and recorded the 420 results of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the prediction engine. According to the results of SVM, the first 208 features were chosen from the 420 dimensions, which were considered as the efficient ones. By analyzing the composition of the former 208 features, we found that the protein solubility was significantly influenced by the occurrence frequencies of the acidic amino acids, basic amino acids, non-polar hydrophobic amino acids and the two polar neutral amino acids(C, Q) in the protein sequences. Additionally, we detected that the dipeptides composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E) and basic amino acids (K, R and H), especially the dipeptide composed by the acidic amino acids (D, E), had strong interconnection with the protein solubility.

  15. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems. PMID:23530342

  16. Chemical characterizations of soluble aerosols in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dui; Tie, Xuexi; Deng, Xuejiao

    2006-07-01

    Soluble aerosols are measured at Guangdong and Hainan Provinces of southern China. The measured chemical composition of aerosols includes F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The locations of measurements include a mega city (Guangzhou), a medium city along the coastline (Haiko), a small city along the coastline (Shanya), and a remote island site in the South China Sea (Yongxing island). The results reveal that aerosols in this region are complex and heterogeneous. Sulfate aerosol (SO4=) has the highest concentrations in Guangzhou (approximately 41% of total soluble aerosol mass), suggesting that anthropogenic activities (e.g., coal burning) play important roles in controlling aerosol concentrations in Guangzhou. By contrast, the concentrations of chlorine (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) are higher in Yongxing than in Guangzhou, indicating that the sea salt is the dominant aerosol in this marine environment site. In the medium (Haiko) and small (Shanya) city sites, the effects of anthropogenic and marine activities on aerosols fall in between the values in the mega city and the remote island site. The measured ratio of Cl-/Na+ shows that the ratio is less than 1.16 in all observation sites. The ratio in the Guangzhou city, the Haiko city, the Shanya city, and the Yongxing island is 0.52, 0.91, 0.24, and 0.53, respectively, indicating that significantly heterogeneous chemical reactions occur on sea salt particles. Unlike those in Europe and North America, there are high concentrations of calcium (Ca+) in all observation sites. The percentage of calcium mass to the measured total soluble aerosols mass is 21, 32, 34, and 30 at Guangzhou, Haiko, Sanya, and Yongxing, respectively. The calculations show that calcium plays an important role in neutralizing aerosols. The calculated "cation/anion" (summation operator[ion+]/summation operator[ion-]) ratio is 2.5, 2.5, 3.2, and 2.1, at Guangzhou, Haiko, Shanya, and Yongxing, respectively. The high "cation/anion" ratios

  17. Solubility of fluoranthene, chrysene, and triphenylene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, L.; Blanchard, J.M.; Rauzy, E.; Berro, C.

    1996-11-01

    The solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in supercritical carbon dioxide is very low, and very little experimental data exist. A method has been developed for the measurement of such low solubilities, and the solubilities of fluoranthene, chrysene, and triphenylene in a temperature range 308.15 K to 328.15 K and in a pressure range 84 bar to 251 bar have been determined. The solubilities have been fitted to the excess function-equation of state model.

  18. 21 CFR 524.1580c - Nitrofurazone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrofurazone soluble powder. 524.1580c Section... § 524.1580c Nitrofurazone soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.2 percent nitrofurazone in a water-soluble base. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000010, 000069, and 050749 in § 510.600(c) of...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1580c - Nitrofurazone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrofurazone soluble powder. 524.1580c Section... § 524.1580c Nitrofurazone soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.2 percent nitrofurazone in a water-soluble base. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000010 and 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1580c - Nitrofurazone soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrofurazone soluble powder. 524.1580c Section... § 524.1580c Nitrofurazone soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.2 percent nitrofurazone in a water-soluble base. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 000010 and 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  1. Solubility data are compiled for metals in liquid zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, I. G.; Johnson, I.

    1967-01-01

    Available data is compiled on the solubilities of various metals in liquid zinc. The temperature dependence of the solubility data is expressed using the empirical straight line relationship existing between the logarithm of the solubility and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c... Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of soluble powder contains lincomycin... water containing lincomycin. Not for use in layer and breeder chickens....

  5. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 70. The Solubility of Gases in Glassy Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Russell; Yampol'Skii, Yuri P.; Fogg, Peter G. T.; Bokarev, Alexandre; Bondar, Valerii; Ilinich, Oleg; Shishatskii, Sergey

    1999-09-01

    Solubility of gases in polymers is an important property of polymeric materials relevant to many practical applications. Sorption of small molecules in polymers is a fundamental concern in such areas as food packaging, beverage storage, and polymer processing. However, by far the main interest in the solubility of gases in polymers, and especially in glassy polymers, is related to development of novel advanced materials for gas separation membranes. This is because the concentration gradient of a dissolved gas is the driving force of membrane processes. Development of these novel separation methods resulted in a rapid accumulation, in the recent literature, of thermodynamic data related to the solubility of gases in polymers at different temperatures and pressures. Polymers can be regarded as special cases of media intermediate between liquids and solids. As a consequence, modeling of gas sorption in polymers is very difficult and presents a permanent challenge to theoreticians and experimenters. The collection and critical evaluation of solubility data for various gas-polymer systems is relevant to both practical aspects of polymer applications and to fundamental studies of polymer behavior. This volume of the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series summarizes the compilations and critical evaluations of the data on solubility of gases in glassy polymers. It is implied in this edition that "gases" are the components that are either permanent gases (supercitical fluids) or have saturated vapor pressure more than 1 atm at ambient conditions (298 K). The polymeric components of compilations and critical evaluations are primarily high molecular mass, amorphous, linear (noncross-linked) compounds that have the glass transition temperatures above ambient temperature. The data for each gas-polymer system have been evaluated, if the results of at least three independent and reliable studies have been reported. Where the data of sufficient accuracy and reliability are available

  6. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  7. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  8. Effect of maturity on digestion kinetics of water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions of alfalfa and brome hay.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, B; Pell, A N; Schofield, P

    1996-05-01

    Alfalfa and bromegrass, each harvested at five different stages of maturity, were separated into water-insoluble and -soluble fractions. The NDF concentrations ranged from 19 to 43% for alfalfa and from 42 to 58% for brome. The rates of digestion, by mixed ruminal microflora, of the unfractionated forage and of the water-insoluble and -soluble fractions were measured in vitro using pressure sensors to monitor gas production. Both forages showed the expected decline in fiber digestibility with increasing maturity. A dual-pool logistic model gave pool sizes, specific rates, and a single lag time for both the faster- and slower-digesting fractions. The main difference between alfalfa and brome was in the soluble pool. This pool produced approximately 40% of the total gas in alfalfa, 25% in brome. The specific digestion rates of the brome soluble pool were approximately 50% higher than those for alfalfa. Net VFA production showed a somewhat higher acetate: propionate ratio for brome (3.2) compared with alfalfa (2.2), but there was little change with increasing maturity within a given forage. Gas production curves for the unfractionated forage showed a 0 to 10% positive deviation from curves created by adding data from separate digestion of the insoluble and soluble forage fractions. Gas measurements offer a promising approach to the study of the water-soluble extracts of forages and the interaction of the soluble- and insoluble-fractions during fermentation.

  9. Total Synthesis of Isokidamycin

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, B. Michael; Mans, Douglas M.; Kaelin, David E.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of isokidamycin, which represents the first total synthesis of a bis-C-aryl glycoside natural product in the pluramycin family, has been completed. The synthesis features the use of a silicon tether as a disposable regiocontrol element in an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between a substituted naphthyne and a glycosyl furan and a subsequent O → C-glycoside rearrangement. PMID:20958036

  10. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  11. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone.

    PubMed

    Ndoile, Monica M; van Heerden, Fanie R

    2013-01-01

    The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

  12. Total synthesis of ochnaflavone

    PubMed Central

    Ndoile, Monica M

    2013-01-01

    Summary The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established. PMID:23946830

  13. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  14. Total femoral replacement.

    PubMed

    Nerubay, J; Katznelson, A; Tichler, T; Rubinstein, Z; Morag, B; Bubis, J J

    1988-04-01

    Between 1973 and 1983, 19 patients with sarcoma of the femur were treated by adjuvant chemotherapy, excision of the entire femur, and replacement by a total femoral prosthesis. Five patients had excellent and nine had good functional results. Twelve patients died an average of 23 months after the procedure and seven are at present disease free. This limb-saving procedure permits rapid rehabilitation, prevents severe psychological problems, and improves the quality of life.

  15. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  16. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  17. Predicting Melting Points of Organic Molecules: Applications to Aqueous Solubility Prediction Using the General Solubility Equation.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, J L; van Mourik, T; Mitchell, J B O

    2015-11-01

    In this work we make predictions of several important molecular properties of academic and industrial importance to seek answers to two questions: 1) Can we apply efficient machine learning techniques, using inexpensive descriptors, to predict melting points to a reasonable level of accuracy? 2) Can values of this level of accuracy be usefully applied to predicting aqueous solubility? We present predictions of melting points made by several novel machine learning models, previously applied to solubility prediction. Additionally, we make predictions of solubility via the General Solubility Equation (GSE) and monitor the impact of varying the logP prediction model (AlogP and XlogP) on the GSE. We note that the machine learning models presented, using a modest number of 2D descriptors, can make melting point predictions in line with the current state of the art prediction methods (RMSE≥40 °C). We also find that predicted melting points, with an RMSE of tens of degrees Celsius, can be usefully applied to the GSE to yield accurate solubility predictions (log10 S RMSE<1) over a small dataset of drug-like molecules. PMID:27491032

  18. Predicting Melting Points of Organic Molecules: Applications to Aqueous Solubility Prediction Using the General Solubility Equation.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, J L; van Mourik, T; Mitchell, J B O

    2015-11-01

    In this work we make predictions of several important molecular properties of academic and industrial importance to seek answers to two questions: 1) Can we apply efficient machine learning techniques, using inexpensive descriptors, to predict melting points to a reasonable level of accuracy? 2) Can values of this level of accuracy be usefully applied to predicting aqueous solubility? We present predictions of melting points made by several novel machine learning models, previously applied to solubility prediction. Additionally, we make predictions of solubility via the General Solubility Equation (GSE) and monitor the impact of varying the logP prediction model (AlogP and XlogP) on the GSE. We note that the machine learning models presented, using a modest number of 2D descriptors, can make melting point predictions in line with the current state of the art prediction methods (RMSE≥40 °C). We also find that predicted melting points, with an RMSE of tens of degrees Celsius, can be usefully applied to the GSE to yield accurate solubility predictions (log10 S RMSE<1) over a small dataset of drug-like molecules.

  19. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  20. Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. Most humeral components achieve successful long-term fixation without bone cement. Cemented all-polyethylene glenoid components remain the standard for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. The results of shoulder arthroplasty vary depending on the underlying diagnosis, the condition of the soft-tissues, and the type of reconstruction. Total shoulder arthroplasty seems to provide the best outcome for patients with osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathy. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures is somewhat unpredictable, though it seems to have improved with the use of fracture-specific designs, more attention to tuberosity repair, and the selective use of reverse arthroplasty, as well as a shift in indications towards internal fixation. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has become extremely popular for patients with cuff-tear arthropathy, and its indications have been expanded to the field of revision surgery. Overall, shoulder arthroplasty is a very successful procedure with predictable pain relief and substantial improvements in motion and function. PMID:21584206

  1. Profile and distribution of soluble and insoluble phenolics in Chinese rapeseed (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Wu, Li; Pu, Huiming; Li, Chunyang; Hu, Qiuhui

    2012-11-15

    The profile and distribution of soluble and insoluble phenolics in 10 rapeseed (Brassica napus) varieties were studied in this work. Photometric results show that the soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and the total tannin content (TTC) of rapeseed dehulled flours are much higher than those of rapeseed hulls. Soluble and insoluble phenolics were further analysed by HPLC/MS and MS/MS. For soluble phenolics, seven species were identified and quantified. Sinapine was found to be the major component in both defatted rapeseed hulls and dehulled flours, with its content ranging from 0.93 to 1.76 mg/g and 15.65 to 21.88 mg/g, respectively. For insoluble phenolics, eight phenolic acids were detected in rapeseed hulls, while only two of them were found in their dehulled flours. Sinapic acid and protocatechuic acid, which also were found in dehulled flours, were identified as two major insoluble phenolics in rapeseed hulls. Insoluble TPCs in defatted rapeseed hulls and dehulled flours were shown to be in the similar range.

  2. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement.

  3. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. PMID:26593554

  4. Head-To-Head Comparison of Different Solubility-Enabling Formulations of Etoposide and Their Consequent Solubility-Permeability Interplay.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Lindley, David; Carr, Robert A; Zocharski, Philip; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of different solubility-enabling formulations, and their consequent solubility-permeability interplay. The low-solubility anticancer drug etoposide was formulated in several strengths of four solubility-enabling formulations: hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, the cosolvent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400), the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The ability of these formulations to increase the solubility of etoposide was investigated, followed by permeability studies using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and examination of the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. All formulations significantly increased etoposide's apparent solubility. The cyclodextrin-, surfactant-, and cosolvent-based formulations resulted in a concomitant decreased permeability that could be modeled directly from the proportional increase in the apparent solubility. On the contrary, etoposide permeability remained constant when using the ASD formulation, irrespective of the increased apparent solubility provided by the formulation. In conclusion, supersaturation resulting from the amorphous form overcomes the solubility-permeability tradeoff associated with other formulation techniques. Accounting for the solubility-permeability interplay may allow to develop better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby maximizing the overall absorption of lipophilic orally administered drugs.

  5. The solubility-permeability interplay and its implications in formulation design and development for poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    While each of the two key parameters of oral drug absorption, the solubility and the permeability, has been comprehensively studied separately, the relationship and interplay between the two have been largely ignored. For instance, when formulating a low-solubility drug using various solubilization techniques: what are we doing to the apparent permeability when we increase the solubility? Permeability is equal to the drug's diffusion coefficient through the membrane times the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient divided by the membrane thickness. The direct correlation between the intestinal permeability and the membrane/aqueous partitioning, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggests that the solubility and the permeability are closely associated, exhibiting a certain interplay between them, and the current view of treating the one irrespectively of the other may not be sufficient. In this paper, we describe the research that has been done thus far, and present new data, to shed light on this solubility-permeability interplay. It has been shown that decreased apparent permeability accompanies the solubility increase when using different solubilization methods. Overall, the weight of the evidence indicates that the solubility-permeability interplay cannot be ignored when using solubility-enabling formulations; looking solely at the solubility enhancement that the formulation enables may be misleading with regards to predicting the resulting absorption, and hence, the solubility-permeability interplay must be taken into account to strike the optimal solubility-permeability balance, in order to maximize the overall absorption.

  6. Experimental data of solubility at different temperatures: a simple technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghoff, J.; Nolte, S.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-10-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive experimental technique, easy to set-up in a laboratory, for the measurement of solute solubilities in liquids (or gases). Experimental values of solubility were determined for the dissolution of benzoic acid in water, at 293 338 K, of 2-naphthol in water, at 293 373 K, and of salicylic acid in water, at 293 343 K. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical values of solubilities presented in literature. Empirical correlations are presented for the prediction of solubility over the entire range of temperatures studied, and they are shown to give the solubility value with very good accuracy.

  7. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular containers enhance the solubility and bioactivity of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Da; Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Nguyen, Duc; Zhang, Ben; Wittenberg, James B.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Briken, Volker; Isaacs, Lyle

    2012-06-01

    The solubility characteristics of 40-70% of new drug candidates are so poor that they cannot be formulated on their own, so new methods for increasing drug solubility are highly prized. Here, we describe a new class of general-purpose solubilizing agents—acyclic cucurbituril-type containers—which increase the solubility of ten insoluble drugs by a factor of between 23 and 2,750 by forming container-drug complexes. The containers exhibit low in vitro toxicity in human liver, kidney and monocyte cell lines, and outbred Swiss Webster mice tolerate high doses of the container without sickness or weight loss. Paclitaxel solubilized by the acyclic cucurbituril-type containers kills cervical and ovarian cancer cells more efficiently than paclitaxel alone. The acyclic cucurbituril-type containers preferentially bind cationic and aromatic drugs, but also solubilize neutral drugs such as paclitaxel, and represent an attractive extension of cyclodextrin-based technology for drug solubilization and delivery.

  8. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 84. Solubility of Inorganic Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hála, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    This volume presents the solubility of inorganic compounds of actinides except for carbonates, which are included in Volume 74 of this series, and nitrates, which are covered in Volume 55. Also included are solubility data of compounds such as organosulfates, phosphates, and arsenates, which are not covered in Volume 74. The predominant part of this volume covers solubility data of thorium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium compounds. Fewer data have been published for americium compounds and very few for compounds of actinium, protactinium, and transamericium elements. The literature has been covered up to the end of 2004. Documents which remained unavailable to the editor, and could not be included in the volume are listed in the Appendix. For some compounds it was not possible to show the Chemical Abstracts registry numbers since these have not been assigned.

  9. Cell Model of In-cloud Scavenging of Highly Soluble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Elperin, T.; Fominykh, A.; Krasovitov, B.

    2012-04-01

    active gas in a gaseous phase and for the total concentration in the liquid phase for the case of the hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid absorption by cloud droplets. The developed cell model of in-cloud scavenging of highly soluble gases or parameterizations based on its results can be easily integrated into online coupled meteorology-chemistry or climate-chemistry models, where the cloud processes and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants are considered together with two-way interactions.

  10. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  11. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  12. The Total Eclipse 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alexei B.

    1999-01-01

    The article represents an interview to the journalist Irina A. Anatol'eva (Subbotovich) from the "Nezavisimaya Moldova" Newspaper, concerning the Total Eclipse of the Sun from August 11, 1999. One discusses also about History of Astronomy, particularly about the Astronomer Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch (31.12.1900/1.01.1901-1986), astrometrist, professor and director of the Observatory in Pulkovo, born in the town of Reni (South Bessarabia). Another subjects were concerned to manifestations of gravity at cosmic scales (Time-mashine) and astrology.

  13. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  14. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  15. Total ankle joint replacement.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  16. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position. PMID:26252484

  17. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  18. Exactly soluble quantum wormhole in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.; Yoon, Myung Seok

    2004-11-15

    We are presenting a quantum traversable wormhole in an exactly soluble two-dimensional model. This is different from previous works since the exotic negative energy that supports the wormhole is generated from the quantization of classical energy-momentum tensors. This explicit illustration shows the quantum-mechanical energy can be used as a candidate for the exotic source. As for the traversability, after a particle travels through the wormhole, the static initial wormhole geometry gets a back reaction which spoils the wormhole structure. However, it may still maintain the initial structure along with the appropriate boundary condition.

  19. Water-soluble titanium alkoxide material

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2010-06-22

    A water soluble, water stable, titanium alkoxide composition represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.6N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.2(CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub- .3-2,4,6).sub.2 with a theoretical molecular weight of 792.8 and an elemental composition of 63.6% C, 8.1% H, 14.1% N, 8.1% O and 6.0% Ti.

  20. Solubilities of tetracosane, octacosane, and dotriacontane in supercritical ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaga, A.; Trebble, M.

    1997-03-01

    The solubilities of tetracosane, octacosane, and dotriacontane in ethane were determined at a temperature of 308.15 K and at pressures ranging from 50 bar to 200 bar. A dynamic single-pass flow system was used for this purpose. The extracted solute was dissolved in toluene after depressurizing the supercritical mixture. This method of measuring the solubilities facilitates the collection of dynamic solubility data since the concentration of solute in toluene can be determined as the experiment proceeds. Dynamic sampling provides more reliable and accurate solubility information compared to the conventional methods based on the weight of solute extracted. The experimental solubilities measured in this work are in agreement with most of the previously published data.The solubilities obtained in this work were modeled using the translated Trebble-Bishnoi-Salim (TBS) EOS which correlated the solubility data successfully to within an average error of 6% for all the systems studied.

  1. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  2. Laparoscopic Total Mesorectum Excision

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, F.A.; Cordeiro, F.; Reis, J.A.; Kagohara, O.; Simões Neto, J.

    2002-01-01

    The main controversy of colon-rectal laparoscopic surgery comes from its use as a cancer treatment. Two points deserve special attention: the incidence of portsite tumor implantation and the possibility of performing radical cancer surgery, such as total mesorectum excision. Once these points are addressed, the laparoscopic approach will be used routinely to treat rectal cancer. To clarify these points, 32 patients with cancer of the lower rectum participated in a special protocol that included preoperative radiotherapy and laparoscopic total mesorectum excision. All data were recorded. At the same time, all data recorded from the experience of a multicenter laparoscopic group (Brazilian Colorectal Laparoscopic Surgeons – 130 patients with tumor of the lower rectum) were analyzed and compared with the data provided by our patients. Analysis of the results suggests that a laparoscopic approach allows the same effective resection as that of conventional surgery and that preoperative irradiation does not influence the incidence of intraoperative complications. The extent of lymph nodal excision is similar to that obtained with open surgery, with an average of 12.3 lymph nodes dissected per specimen. The rate of local recurrence was 3.12%. No port site implantation of tumor was noted in this series of patients with cancer of the lower rectum. PMID:12113422

  3. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  4. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  5. The use of wetlands and chemical injections to control sediment and soluble phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, Jim; Bjorneberg, Dave

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture accounts for ~25% of the total US cropland, yet comprises 55% of the US crop value. These systems play a major role in US production agriculture, and thus it is important to manage irrigated systems to maintain or improve environmental quality. Irrigated agriculture in the western has historically utilized furrow irrigation. It has long been recognized that furrow irrigation causes particle detachment and transport, leading to increased sediment and nutrient (e.g. P) loads to receiving water bodies. The use of engineered wetlands in furrow irrigation settings can help capture sediment and sediment-bound P (>90-95%). One of the main water quality challenges that exists today is reducing soluble P in irrigation waters returning to receiving water bodies. This presentation will focus on the use of strategically located wetlands in conjunction with chemical injections (alum or polyaluminum chloride) to reduce water soluble P in order to meet total maximum daily P loads in receiving water bodies.

  6. The levels of water-soluble and triton-soluble Aβ are increased in Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Jessica M.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Holtzman, David; Walsh, Dominic M.

    2012-01-01

    Although plaques composed of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are considered a defining feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), they are also found in cognitively normal individuals and extensive evidence suggests that non-plaque, water-soluble forms of Aβ may play a role in AD pathogenesis. However, the relationship between the levels of water-soluble Aβ and the clinical severity of disease has never been investigated. Here, we present results of a pilot study designed to examine the levels of water-soluble forms of Aβ in brains of individuals who died at clinically distinct stages of AD. Using a serial extraction method, we also investigated the levels of triton-soluble and formic acid-soluble Aβ. We found that water-soluble and detergent-soluble Aβ monomer and SDS-stable dimer were elevated in AD and that the levels of water soluble Aβ did not increase with plaque pathology. These results support the notion that both water- and detergent-soluble Aβ are important in AD and are not simply released from plaques by mechanical disruption. Moreover, the fact that the levels of water- and triton-soluble Aβ were similar in very mild/mild AD and moderate/severe AD suggests that once a certain level of these species is attained, further accumulation is not necessary for the disease to progress. Consequently, therapeutic targeting of water-soluble Aβ should best benefit individuals in earliest phases of the disease process. PMID:22440675

  7. The Soluble Proteome of the Drosophila Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Taufika Islam

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best characterized chemosensory systems. Identification of proteins contained in the third antennal segment, the main olfactory organ, has previously relied primarily on immunohistochemistry, and although such studies and in situ hybridization studies are informative, they focus generally on one or few gene products at a time, and quantification is difficult. In addition, purification of native proteins from the antenna is challenging because it is small and encased in a hard cuticle. Here, we describe a simple method for the large-scale detection of soluble proteins from the Drosophila antenna by chromatographic separation of tryptic peptides followed by tandem mass spectrometry with femtomole detection sensitivities. Examination of the identities of these proteins indicates that they originate both from the extracellular perilymph and from the cytoplasm of disrupted cells. We identified enzymes involved with intermediary metabolism, proteins associated with regulation of gene expression, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism, proteins associated with microtubular transport, 8 odorant-binding proteins, protective enzymes associated with antibacterial defense and defense against oxidative damage, cuticular proteins, and proteins of unknown function, which represented about one-third of all soluble proteins. The procedure described here opens the way for precise quantification of any target protein in the Drosophila antenna and should be readily applicable to antennae from other insects. PMID:19917591

  8. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Donald T.

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  9. Selective Water-Soluble Gelatinase Inhibitor Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Lee, Mijoon; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Ikejiri, Masahiro; Suckow, Mark A.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2011-01-01

    SB-3CT (1), a selective and potent thiirane-based gelatinase inhibitor, is effective in animal models of cancer metastasis and stroke; however, it is limited by poor aqueous solubility and extensive metabolism. We addressed these issues by blocking the primary site of metabolism and capitalizing on a prodrug strategy to achieve >5000-fold increased solubility. The amide prodrugs were quantitatively hydrolyzed in human blood to a potent gelatinase inhibitor, ND-322 (3). The arginyl amide prodrug (ND-478, 5d) was metabolically stable in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes. Both 5d and 3 were non-mutagenic in the Ames II mutagenicity assay. The prodrug 5d showed moderate clearance of 0.0582 L/min/kg, remained mostly in the extracellular fluid compartment (Vd = 0.0978 L/kg), and had a terminal half-life of >4 h. The prodrug 5d had superior pharmacokinetic properties than 3, making the thiirane class of selective gelatinase inhibitors suitable for intravenous administration in treatment of acute gelatinase-dependent diseases. PMID:21866961

  10. Physical stability of solid dispersions with respect to thermodynamic solubility of tadalafil in PVP-VA.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, K; Sawicki, W; Kozyra, A; Tajber, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate physical stability of solid dispersions in respect to the drug, tadalafil (Td), in vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA). Nine solid dispersions of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) varied in terms of quantitative composition (1:9-9:1, w/w) were successfully produced by spray-drying. Their amorphous nature, supersaturated character and molecular level of mixing (a solid solution structure) were subsequently confirmed using DSC, PXRD, SEM and calculation of Hansen total solubility parameters. Due to thermal degradation of both components before the melting point of Td (302.3°C), an approach based on the drug crystallization from the supersaturated solid dispersion was selected to calculate the solubility of Td in the polymer. Annealing of the Td/PVP-VA solid dispersion (1:1, w/w) at selected temperatures above its Tg resulted in different stable solid dispersions. According to the Gordon-Taylor equation their new Tgs gave the information about the quantitative composition which corresponded to the thermodynamic solubility of Td in PVP-VA at given temperatures of annealing. The obtained relationship was fitted to the exponential function, with the calculated solubility of Td of 20.5% at 25°C. This value was in accordance with the results of hot stage polarizing light microscopy as well as stability tests carried out at 80°C and 0% RH, in which Td solid dispersions containing 10-20% of the drug were the only systems that did not crystallize within two months. A thermal analysis protocol utilizing a fast heating rate was shown to generate Td solubility data complementing the solid dispersion method. The Flory-Huggins model applied for the Td/PVP-VA system yielded the solubility value of 0.1% at 25°C, showing the lack of applicability in this case.

  11. The effect of preheating and opacity on the sorption and solubility of a composite resin.

    PubMed

    Castro, Fabrício Luscino Alves de; Pazinatto, Flávia Bittencourt; de Lima, Érick; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Reges, Rogério Vieira

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of material opacity and preheating on the sorption and solubility of a composite resin material. A commercially available composite resin and an 8 × 2-mm circular metallic matrix were used to fabricate a total of 60 specimens in 6 shades, of which 3 had conventional opacity (CA2, CA3, and CA3.5) and 3 were opaque (OA2, OA3, and OA3.5). Specimens were prepared at a room temperature of 25°C or preheated to 60°C (n = 5 per shade at each temperature). The specimens were weighed 3 times: M1, dried for 24 hours at 37°C; M2, stored for 7 days in 75% ethanol at 37°C; and M3, dried for an additional 24 hours at 37°C. The weights were used to calculate the sorption and solubility of the composite resin and were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 5%). Composite resin specimens heated at 60°C yielded lower values of sorption and solubility than did specimens prepared at 25°C (P < 0.05). The sorption and solubility of conventional and opaque composite shades were found to be similar (P > 0.05), except for shade CA2, which presented a greater mean solubility value than OA2 (P = 0.004). Therefore, preheating was beneficial, as it lowered both the sorption and solubility of the evaluated composite resin, but opacity had little effect on these properties.

  12. Solubility and Thermal Stability Investigation of Titan Tholins: New Insight from NMR Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the solubility and thermal stability of Titan’s aerosol analogs (tholins) to understand the basic property of organics on Titan and the potential for chemical modification upon in situ sampling. The tholin generated by AC discharge in CH4/N2 (5/95) mixture preferentially dissolves in polar solvent to non-polar solvent, totally soluble in DMSO (>21.5 mg/mL), 60% in mass soluble in methanol, 25% in acetone, 27% in acetonitrile and 30% in water while only 1% in benzene and chloroform. The 1H solution-state NMR spectra of respective deuterated solutions exhibit the structural information of the soluble fraction in each solvent, confirming the large percentage of polar species in tholins. The solubility study not only helps us understand the solubility of Titan’s aerosols in possible liquid phase in Titan’s surface/atmosphere, but also provides the basis for the solvent selection and methods development of liquid separation and/or solution based analysis in future Titan missions. These include methods such as NMR and LC/MS, which can be non-destructive providing objective information regarding nascent chemical identification. Thermal stability studies demonstrate the thermal lability of tholins and indicate significant structural changes of when heated beyond 150 oC for even short time periods in inert atmospheres. Dynamic studies at 200 oC demonstrate that several predominant chemical reactions fit first-order reaction kinetics with half-lives between 5 to 141 minutes. This study is critical to ongoing discussion regarding the development of in situ analysis methods and instruments for Titan mission and other outer planet exploration.

  13. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  14. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  15. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Borunda, Delia; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    In recent months, numerous reports concerning total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients have been published, including the guidelines and recommendations of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. The old controversy regarding the use of the enteral versus parenteral route still exists. Although the enteral route is indicated in those patients with normal gastrointestinal function, the parenteral route is obviously beneficial in several clinical conditions and appears to be associated with few procedure-related complications when performed by experienced clinicians. There is also continued interest in the supplementation of parenteral formulas with nutrients that were previously considered nonessential, such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids, but that may become essential in the setting of critical illness.

  17. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Polat, A. Aytekin; Çalişkan, Oğuzhan; Serçe, Sedat; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Kaya, Cemal; Özgen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included ‘Baduna 5’, Güzelyurt 1, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’, ‘Ottaviani,’ and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ and ‘Ottaviani’ had smaller fruits than others, although ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest pH and high soluble solids. ‘Baduna 5’ and ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 (‘Baduna 5’) to 578 (‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’) mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). ‘Hafif Çukurgöbek’ also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health. PMID:20548929

  18. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  19. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  20. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).

  1. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one.

  2. Controls on Calcite Solubility in Metamorphic and Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Eguchi, J.; Galvez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Calcite is an important hydrothermal alteration product in a wide range of environments. The role of calcite in hydrothermal alteration depends on its solubility in geologic fluids, especially H2O. At ambient T and P, calcite solubility is low and it exhibits well-known declining, or "reverse", solubility with rising T. However, experimental and theoretical studies show that increasing P yields higher solubility and restricts the region of reverse solubility behavior to higher temperature. At 0.2 GPa the reverse solubility region lies at T>600°C; at 0.5 GPa, >800°C. Thus, whereas calcite possesses relatively low solubility in pure H2O in shallow hydrothermal systems (typically <10 ppm C), it is substantially more soluble at conditions of middle and lower crustal metamorphism and magmatism, reaching concentrations ≥1000 ppm. At the higher P of subduction zones, aragonite solubility in H2O is even greater. Thus, neglecting other solubility controls, calcite precipitation is favored as crustal fluids cool and/or decompress. However, the solubility of calcite in H2O also depends strongly on other solutes, pH, and fO2. Sources of alkalinity decrease calcite solubility. In contrast, sources of acidity such as CO2 and Cl increase solubility. Crustal fluids can be enriched in alkali halides such as NaCl. Calcite solubility increases with increasing salt content at a given P and T. From approximately seawater salinity to salt saturation, the fluid behaves as a dilute molten salt and calcite solubility increases as the square of the salt mole fraction regardless of the alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) or halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) considered. Similar behavior is seen in mixed salt solutions. At lower salinities, solubility behavior is as expected in dilute electrolyte solutions. The transition from dilute electrolyte to molten salt is fundamental to the properties of crustal fluids. Reduction of carbonate species or CO2 in the fluid to CH4, which is common during serpentinization of

  3. Catalytic photoinduced electron transport across a lipid bilayer mediated by a membrane-soluble electron relay.

    PubMed

    Limburg, B; Bouwman, E; Bonnet, S

    2015-12-14

    Unidirectional photocatalytic electron transfer from a hydrophilic electron donor encapsulated in the interior of a liposome, to a hydrophilic electron acceptor on the other side of the membrane, has been achieved using the simple membrane-soluble electron relay 1-methoxy-N-methylphenazinium (MMP(+)). The total amount of photoproduct (>140 nmol) exceeds the number of moles of MMP(+) present (125 nmol), thus showing that the transport of electrons is catalytic.

  4. Experimental measurement of solid solutes solubility in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Manouchehr Manouchehrian; Beiki, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The solubility of benzoic and salicylic acids was measured at a temperature range from 293 to 333 K in two types of water based nanofluids employed as the solvent. Silica and γ-alumina nanoparticles with volume concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 % were dispersed into de-ionized water as the based fluid. The results revealed that the solubility of nanofluid followed the same trend as pure water solubility with increasing temperature. At low temperatures, below 330 K for γ-Al2O3 nanofluids and 323 K for SiO2 nanofluids, nanoparticles had no effect on solubility, but by increasing the temperature, nanofluid solubility decreased. The maximum reduction in the solubility of compounds was observed at the temperature of 333 K and in 0.1 % γ-Alumina nanofluid and 0.025 % Silica nanofluids. Nanofluids solubility decreased up to a critical nanoparticles concentration while increased by increasing nanoparticles concentration further. The maximum reduction of nanofluids solubility at critical concentration was about 12.43 % for salicylic acid and 10.24 % for benzoic acid in 0.025 % SiO2 nanofluid. Nanofluids solubility was found to be strongly dependent on nanoparticles size. Bigger nanoparticles were more effective than smaller ones on nanofluids solubility.

  5. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  6. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  7. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  8. Total Solar Eclipse 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nahide; Hawkins, Isabel

    Evaluation and assessments of informal education programs small or large such as science museum traveling exhibits interpretive kiosks hands-on activities and very large public programs have been challenging due to the diverse nature of objectives setups and expected outcomes of these programs. Almost all institutions that develop and present such programs include in their staff evaluation specialists. However for very large public outreach efforts which include participation of multi institutions located across the country larger evaluation groups/institutions can contribute more objective and extensive evaluation and assessment instruments that will help to identify weather the program was successful and if the learning objectives were achieved. Total Solar Eclipse 2001 event was participated by approximately 42000 people at museums science centers and Planetaria all over the world. I will share with you the results of an evaluation of this event that was surveyed and reported by an independent evaluation company. I will expand further on the properties of this program that helps to determine weather the program was successful or not including the discussion on how personal interest in the content publicity connectivity to a group educational as well as entertainment value and the challenges of using high technology can define success.

  9. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  10. Comparison of a miniaturized shake-flask solubility method with automated potentiometric acid/base titrations and calculated solubilities.

    PubMed

    Glomme, A; März, J; Dressman, J B

    2005-01-01

    Solubility is one of the most important parameters for lead selection and optimization during drug discovery. Its determination should therefore take place as early as possible in the process. Because of the large numbers of compounds involved and the very low amounts of each compound available in the early development stage, it is highly desirable to measure the solubility with as little compound as possible and to be able to improve the throughput of the methods used. In this work, a miniaturized shake-flask method was developed and the solubility results were compared with those measured by semiautomated potentiometric acid/base titrations and computational methods for 21 poorly soluble compounds with solubilities mostly in the range 0.03-30 microg/mL. The potentiometric method is very economical (approximately 100 microg of a poorly soluble compound is needed) and is able to create a pH/solubility profile with one single determination, but is limited to ionizable compounds. The miniaturized shake-flask method can be used for all compounds and a wide variety of media. Its precision and throughput proved superior to the potentiometric method for very poorly soluble compounds. Up to 20 compounds a week can be studied with one set-up. Calculated solubility data seem to be sufficient for a first estimate of the solubility, but they cannot currently be used as a substitute for experimental measurements at key decision points in the development process.

  11. Prediction of the solubility in lipidic solvent mixture: Investigation of the modeling approach and thermodynamic analysis of solubility.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shruti V; Patel, Sarsvatkumar

    2015-09-18

    Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is one of the methods to improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug(s). The knowledge of the solubility of pharmaceuticals in pure lipidic solvents and solvent mixtures is crucial for designing the SMEDDS of poorly soluble drug substances. Since, experiments are very time consuming, a model, which allows for solubility predictions in solvent mixtures based on less experimental data is desirable for efficiency. Solvents employed were Labrafil® M1944CS and Labrasol® as lipidic solvents; Capryol-90®, Capryol-PGMC® and Tween®-80 as surfactants; Transcutol® and PEG-400 as co-solvents. Solubilities of both drugs were determined in single solvent systems at temperature (T) range of 283-333K. In present study, we investigated the applicability of the thermodynamic model to understand the solubility behavior of drugs in the lipiodic solvents. By using the Van't Hoff and general solubility theory, the thermodynamic functions like Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of solution, mixing and solvation for drug in single and mixed solvents were understood. The thermodynamic parameters were understood in the framework of drug-solvent interaction based on their chemical similarity and dissimilarity. Clotrimazole and Fluconazole were used as active ingredients whose solubility was measured in single solvent as a function of temperature and the data obtained were used to derive mathematical models which can predict solubility in multi-component solvent mixtures. Model dependent parameters for each drug were calculated at each temperature. The experimental solubility data of solute in mixed solvent system were measured experimentally and further correlated with the calculates values obtained from exponent model and log-linear model of Yalkowsky. The good correlation was observed between experimental solubility and predicted solubility.

  12. Solubility increases associated with crystalline drug nanoparticles: methodologies and significance.

    PubMed

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Vermant, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Froyen, Ludo; Humbeeck, Jan Van; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-10-01

    In this manuscript, the determination of solubility of crystalline drug nanosuspensions by a range of methods is critically investigated. As the determinations of solubility were performed in the presence of the solubilizing nanosuspension stabilizer d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), the potential effects of this excipient on the measurements were studied first. Solubility data of nanosuspensions of itraconazole, loviride, phenytoin and naproxen were generated using different methodologies. Data obtained using separation-based methodologies (centrifugation, filtration and ultracentrifugation) proved to be of limited use, due to poor nanoparticle separation efficiencies and/or significant adsorption of TPGS onto the nanoparticle surfaces. Light scattering and turbidity were found to be more suitable for the determination of nanosuspension solubility. The obtained data show that, unlike earlier reports, the solubility increases due to nanosizing are small, with measured increases of only 15%. These solubility increases are in fair agreement with what would be predicted based on the Ostwald-Freundlich equation.

  13. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  14. Comparison of solubility databases used for HLW performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Ian G.; Savage, David

    1996-02-01

    Elemental solubility limits are employed in many performance assessment studies of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A comparison of solubility databases used in a number of recent assessments from Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.S.A. is presented. Despite similarities in the chemical conditions under which such solubilities are defined, there are very large ranges in the values selected for most elements (several orders of magnitude). In some cases, differences in solubilities can be attributed to differences in the thermodynamic databases used but, due to generally incomplete documentation, both of such databases and the criteria for data selection, detailed analysis of the reason for such discrepancies is precluded. A key factor, however, is the fairly subjective choice of the solid phase considered to be "solubility-limiting". Procedures are recommended which would increase the transparency of solubility database compilation in future analyses.

  15. Stability and solubility of proteins from extremophiles.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Richard B; Warwicker, Jim

    2009-03-13

    Charges are important for hyperthermophile protein structure and function. However, the number of charges and their predicted contributions to folded state stability are not correlated, implying that more charge does not imply greater stability. The charge properties that distinguish hyperthermophile proteins also differentiate psychrophile proteins from mesophile proteins, but in the opposite direction and to a smaller extent. We conclude that charge number relates to solubility, whereas protein stability is determined by charge location. Most other structural properties are poorly separated over the ambient temperature range, apart from the burial of certain amino acids. Of particular interest are large non-polar sidechains that tend to increased exposure in proteins evolved to function at higher temperatures. Looking at tryptophan in more detail, this increase is often located close to the termini of secondary structure elements, and is discussed in terms of a novel potential role in protein thermostabilisation.

  16. Soluble variants of human recombinant glutaminyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Ciambellotti, Silvia; de Pablo-Latorre, Raquel; Lalli, Daniela; Porcari, Valentina; Turano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23977104

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Per Redelius

    2006-03-01

    In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

  18. Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Meili, Dimirela; Salathe, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is integral for many physiological processes. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was recently identified as a widely expressed intracellular source of cAMP in mammalian cells. sAC is evolutionary, structurally, and biochemically distinct from the G-protein-responsive transmembranous adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). The structure of the catalytic unit of sAC is similar to tmAC, but sAC does not contain transmembranous domains, allowing localizations independent of the membranous compartment. sAC activity is stimulated by HCO3-, Ca2+ and is sensitive to physiologically relevant ATP fluctuations. sAC functions as a physiological sensor for carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and therefore indirectly for pH. Here we review the physiological role of sAC in different human tissues with a major focus on the lung. PMID:25064591

  19. Orally Bioavailable Potent Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of N,N′-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane α to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models. PMID:17616115

  20. Soluble Variants of Human Recombinant Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Ciambellotti, Silvia; de Pablo-Latorre, Raquel; Lalli, Daniela; Porcari, Valentina; Turano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human Glutaminyl Cyclase expressed in E. coli is produced as inclusion bodies. Lack of glycosylation is the main origin of its accumulation in insoluble aggregates. Mutation of single isolated hydrophobic amino acids into negative amino acids was not able to circumvent inclusion bodies formation. On the contrary, substitution with carboxyl-terminal residues of two or three aromatic residues belonging to extended hydrophobic patches on the protein surface provided soluble but still active forms of the protein. These mutants could be expressed in isotopically enriched forms for NMR studies and the maximal attainable concentration was sufficient for the acquisition of 1H-15N HSQC spectra that represent the starting point for future drug development projects targeting Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23977104

  1. Communication: Epistructural thermodynamics of soluble proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    2012-03-01

    The epistructural tension of a soluble protein is defined as the reversible work per unit area required to span the interfacial solvent envelope of the protein structure. It includes an entropic penalty term to account for losses in hydrogen-bonding coordination of interfacial water and is determined by a scalar field that indicates the expected coordination of a test water molecule at any given spatial location. An exhaustive analysis of structure-reported monomeric proteins reveals that disulfide bridges required to maintain structural integrity provide the thermodynamic counterbalance to the epistructural tension, yielding a tight linear correlation. Accordingly, deviations from the balance law correlate with the thermal denaturation free energies of proteins under reducing conditions. The picomolar-affinity toxin HsTX1 has the highest epistructural tension, while the metastable cellular form of the human prion protein PrPC represents the least tension-balanced protein.

  2. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  3. Solubility of magnesium carbonate in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.

    1915-01-01

    (1) Under atmospheric conditions it appears possible to attain practically the same state in a solution saturated with MgCO33H2O, whether one starts with a solution containing an excess of magnesium bicarbonate or with the pure trihydrate and water, but the adjustment occurs very slowly. The solution finally contains 0.36 g. magnesium and 1.01 g. carbon dioxide per liter at 20??. (2) The solubility found for magnesite, however, is much smaller, viz., 0.02 g. magnesium and 0.07 g. carbon dioxide per liter. (3) Certain natural waters, freely exposed to the atmosphere, appear to be supersaturated with respect to magnesite but none approaches very closely to the point of saturation of the trihydrate MgCO3.3H2O.

  4. Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Budke, C.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Niedermeier, D.; Felgitsch, L.; Kampf, C. J.; Huber, R. G.; Liedl, K. R.; Loerting, T.; Moschen, T.; Schauperl, M.; Tollinger, M.; Morris, C. E.; Wex, H.; Grothe, H.; Pöschl, U.; Koop, T.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud glaciation is critically important for the global radiation budget (albedo) and for initiation of precipitation. But the freezing of pure water droplets requires cooling to temperatures as low as 235 K. Freezing at higher temperatures requires the presence of an ice nucleator, which serves as a template for arranging water molecules in an ice-like manner. It is often assumed that these ice nucleators have to be insoluble particles. We point out that also free macromolecules which are dissolved in water can efficiently induce ice nucleation: the size of such ice nucleating macromolecules (INMs) is in the range of nanometers, corresponding to the size of the critical ice embryo. As the latter is temperature-dependent, we see a correlation between the size of INMs and the ice nucleation temperature as predicted by classical nucleation theory. Different types of INMs have been found in a wide range of biological species and comprise a variety of chemical structures including proteins, saccharides, and lipids. Our investigation of the fungal species Acremonium implicatum, Isaria farinosa, and Mortierella alpina shows that their ice nucleation activity is caused by proteinaceous water-soluble INMs. We combine these new results and literature data on INMs from fungi, bacteria, and pollen with theoretical calculations to develop a chemical interpretation of ice nucleation and water-soluble INMs. This has atmospheric implications since many of these INMs can be released by fragmentation of the carrier cell and subsequently may be distributed independently. Up to now, this process has not been accounted for in atmospheric models.

  5. A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Abhilasha; Murray, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods

  6. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Benezeth, P.

    1996-01-01

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2-10, depending on ionic strength) temperature (100- 250{degrees}C) and ionic strength (0.03-1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen- electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results as low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90{degrees}C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  7. The aqueous chemistry of aluminum: A new approach to high temperature solubility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.; Benezeth, Pascale

    1996-01-24

    The solubility of boehmite, AlO(OH), has been measured as a function of pH (2 - 10, depending on ionic strength), temperature (100 - 250°C) and ionic strength (0.03 - 1 molal, NaCl) in a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell, HECC, which provided in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Samples of the solution were withdrawn after the pH reading stabilized for analysis of total aluminum content by ion chromatography. Acidic or basic titrant could then be metered into the cell to affect a change in the pH of the solution. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturated state could be readily varied to ensure that the system was reversible thermodynamically. This represents our second application of direct pH measurement to high temperature solubility studies. The results at low ionic strength are compared with those from two recently-reported high-temperature studies of boehmite solubility, which relied on the conventional batch technique. Comparisons are also made with the low temperature (<90°C) hydrolysis constants for aluminum garnered from solubility measurements with gibbsite as the stable phase. Based on these preliminary results, it is possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the relative importance of the aluminum species in solution and to reduce significantly the number of experiments needed to define this complex system in a thermodynamic sense.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble chitosan grafted with hydrophilic aliphatic polyester.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajia; Zheng, Liuchun; Chen, Xiaonong; Wang, Zhaodong; Li, Chuncheng; Xiao, Yaonan; Guan, Guohu; Zhu, Wenxiang

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, hydrophobic aliphatic polyester has been employed to modify chitosan and organic soluble or swellable graft copolymers have been obtained. In this work, linear poly(butylene tartrate) (PBT) with hydrophilic pendant hydroxyl groups, which was synthesized by direct polycondensation of tartaric acid and butanediol under mild condition, was chosen to modify chitosan and synthesize PBT grafted chitosan (CS-g-PBT) with the mediation of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide in aqueous solution of an ionic liquid. The chain length of the grafted PBT could be facilely controlled by varying the molecular weight of PBT. The chemical structures of CS-g-PBT were systematically characterized by 1H NMR, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The water solubility of chitosan has been effectively improved after grafting with PBT and a water-soluble chitosan derivative has been synthesized. Meanwhile, the water solubility of grafts varies regularly with chain length of grafted PBT. PMID:25576746

  9. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH<2 and pH>8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products. PMID:27132828

  10. Solubility of xenon in amino-acid solutions. II. Nine less-soluble amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Pollack, Gerald L.

    1988-05-01

    Ostwald solubility (L) of xenon gas, as the radioisotope 133Xe, has been measured as a function of solute concentration, at 25.0 °C, in aqueous solutions of nine amino acids. The amino-acid concentrations investigated covered much of their solubility ranges in water, viz., asparagine monohydrate (0-0.19 M), cysteine (0-1.16 M), glutamine (0-0.22 M), histidine (0-0.26 M), isoleucine (0-0.19 M), methionine (0-0.22 M), serine (0-0.38 M), threonine (0-1.4 M), and valine (0-0.34 M). We have previously reported solubility results for aqueous solutions of six other, generally more soluble, amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, lysine, and proline), of sucrose and sodium chloride. In general, L decreases approximately linearly with increasing solute concentration in these solutions. If we postulate that the observed decreases in gas solubility are due to hydration, the results under some assumptions can be used to calculate hydration numbers (H), i.e., the number of H2O molecules associated with each amino-acid solute molecule. The average values of hydration number (H¯) obtained at 25.0 °C are 15.3±1.5 for asparagine, 6.8±0.3 for cysteine, 11.5±1.1 for glutamine, 7.3±0.7 for histidine, 5.9±0.4 for isoleucine, 10.6±0.8 for methionine, 11.2±1.3 for serine, 7.7± 1.0 for threonine, and 6.6±0.6 for valine. We have also measured the temperature dependence of solubility L(T) from 5-40 °C for arginine, glycine, and proline, and obtained hydration numbers H¯(T) in this range. Between 25-40 °C, arginine has an H¯ near zero. This may be evidence for an attractive interaction between xenon and arginine molecules in aqueous solution.

  11. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of reduced-oil distillers dried grains with solubles fed to broilers from 23 to 31 days of age.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Perryman, K R; Hess, J B

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using male Ross×Ross 708 broiler chicks to determine the effect of oil extraction from corn distillers dried grains with solubles on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility from 23 to 31 d of age. On an as-fed basis, ether extract concentrations were determined as 5.4% (L-distillers dried grains with solubles), 7.9% (M-distillers dried grains with solubles), and 10.5% (H-distillers dried grains with solubles) for the 3 experimental distillers dried grains with solubles sources. Prior to experimentation, each sample (H-distillers dried grains with solubles (control), M-distillers dried grains with solubles and L-distillers dried grains with solubles) was analyzed on an as-fed basis for crude protein (29.2, 27.6, and 27.9%), starch (4.4, 5.2, and 6.1%), neutral detergent fiber (29.5, 33.2, and 29.9%), and total dietary fiber (31.4, 36.6, and 33.6 %). Four hundred and thirty-two male chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.04 m2 per bird) were randomly assigned to 36 battery grower cages. Broilers were fed one of 3 semi-purified diets, which were comprised of 76% L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M- distillers dried grains with solubles, or H-distillers dried grains with solubles as the sole amino acid source from 23 to 31 d of age. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients were negatively affected (P<0.05) by oil extraction for Met (0.722, 0.788, and 0.791), Lys (0.504, 0.510, and 0.552), Thr (0.563, 0.566, and 0.612), Trp (0.708, 0.733, and 0.767), and Arg (0.762, 0.776, and 0.799) for L-distillers dried grains with solubles, M-distillers dried grains with solubles, and H-distillers dried grains with solubles, respectively. Conversely, no differences in apparent amino acid coefficients were reported for Ile, Leu, and Val. These results indicated that L-distillers dried grains with solubles had lower apparent amino acid digestibility coefficients for Met, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Arg compared with H-distillers dried grains with

  12. Are soluble and membrane-bound rat brain acetylcholinesterase different

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, C.; el Mourabit, M.; Stutz, C.; Mark, J.; Waksman, A. )

    1990-11-01

    Salt-soluble and detergent-soluble acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from adult rat brain were purified to homogeneity and studied with the aim to establish the differences existing between these two forms. It was found that the enzymatic activities of the purified salt-soluble AChE as well as the detergent-soluble AChE were dependent on the Triton X-100 concentration. Moreover, the interaction of salt-soluble AChE with liposomes suggests amphiphilic behaviour of this enzyme. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) did not bind to liposomes but its activity was also detergent-dependent. Detergent-soluble AChE remained in solution below critical micellar concentrations of Triton X-100. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified, Biobeads-treated and iodinated detergent-soluble 11 S AChE showed, under non reducing conditions, bands of 69 kD, 130 kD and greater than 250 kD corresponding, respectively, to monomers, dimers and probably tetramers of the same polypeptide chain. Under reducing conditions, only a 69 kD band was detected. It is proposed that an amphiphilic environment stabilizes the salt-soluble forms of AChE in the brain in vivo and that detergent-soluble Biobeads-treated 11 S AChE possess hydrophobic domain(s) different from the 20 kD peptide already described.

  13. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  14. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  15. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated, 1) conductive boiling time, 2...

  16. The Comparison of Sorption and Solubility Behavior of Four Different Resin Luting Cements in Different Storage Media

    PubMed Central

    Giti, Rashin; Vojdani, Mahroo; Abduo, Jaafar; Bagheri, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Structural integrity and dimensional stability are the key factors that determine the clinical success and durability of luting cements in the oral cavity. Sorption and solubility of self-adhesive resin luting cements in food-simulating solutions has not been studied sufficiently. Purpose This study aimed to compare the sorption and solubility of 2 conventional and 2 self-adhesive resin-based luting cements immersed in four different storage media. Materials and Method A total of 32 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of four resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Clearfil SA Cement (Kuraray), and Choice 2 (Bisco). Eight specimens of each material were immersed in all tested solutions including n-heptane 97%, distilled water, apple juice, or Listerine mouth wash. Sorption and solubility were measured by weighing the specimens before and after immersion and desiccation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test with p≤ 0.05 set as the level of significance. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the materials and solutions. The effect of media on the sorption and solubility was material-dependent. While seT showed the highest values of the sorption in almost all solutions, Choice 2 showed the least values of sorption and solubility. Immersion in apple juice caused more sorption than other solutions (p≤ 0.05). Conclusion The sorption and solubility behavior of the studied cements were significantly affected by their composition and the storage media. The more hydrophobic materials with higher filler content like Choice 2 resin cement showed the least sorption and solubility. Due to their lower sorption and solubility, these types of resin-based luting cements are recommended to be used clinically. PMID:27284553

  17. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  18. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  19. The Effects of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartledge, B. T.; Marcotte, A.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.; Majestic, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current study focuses on studying how iron (Fe) solubility is affected by particle size, relative humidity, and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fe, the most abundant transition metal in atmospheric particulate matter, plays a critical role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle and is a micronutrient for phytoplankton in remote regions of the ocean. To mimic oceanic particles, iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, goethite, and illite) were resuspended with sodium chloride and size-segregated on Teflon filters into five different size fractions: 10-2.5 μm, 2.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-0.5 μm, 0.5-0.25 μm, and <0.25 μm. Mineral phases were then exposed to 5 ppm SO2 in air at marine environment humidity (>80%) and arid environment humidity (24%). Trials with no SO2 ­were also performed as comparisons. Total Fe was determined by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and soluble Fe was determined by extracting the samples in a simulated cloud water buffer (pH 4.25, 0.5 mM acetate, 0.5 mM formate, and 0.2 mM ammonium nitrate). Both total and soluble Fe concentrations were determined via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that, as particle size decreased, Fe percent solubility increased for hematite, magnetite, and goethite. The percent solubility of Fe in these mineral phases steadily increased from 0.5-10% as particle size decreased. In contrast, the Fe percent solubility in illite was relatively constant for the largest four size fractions but increased dramatically in the smallest size fraction. The percent solubility of Fe in illite ranged from 5-20% as the particle size decreased. Additionally, increased Fe solubility was linked to increased relative humidity with higher percent solubility generally observed in all mineral phases for the samples exposed at the higher humidity. No correlation was observed for the effects of the SO2 on Fe percent solubility. The likely lack of Fe-SO2 interactions were also supported by synchrotron

  20. Increased expression of cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, soluble apoptosis ligand and apoptosis in dengue.

    PubMed

    Arias, Julia; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Montiel, Milagros; Reyes, Eduardo; Larreal, Yraima; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have been performed to determine biomarkers that define the risk factors to developing severe forms of dengue. In this study, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1, IL-17, soluble interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (sST2), soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), IL-12 and soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII) were determined by ELISA in dengue patients and monocyte/macrophage cultures. Dengue was classified as dengue without warning symptoms (DNWS), with warning symptoms (DWWS) and severe dengue (SD). High values of IL-6, sTNFRI, sTNFRII and sST2 were observed in DWWS and/or SD and IL-12 and sTRAIL in DNWS. TNF-α and IL-17 were increased not associated to the disease severity. High production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17, sST2 and sTRAIL and apoptosis expression were observed in dengue monocyte/macrophage cultures. This study shows that beneficial or deleterious biomarkers can be present in dengue regardless the disease severity and that monocytes may be in part the source of studied molecules.

  1. pH-metric solubility. 3. Dissolution titration template method for solubility determination.

    PubMed

    Avdeef, A; Berger, C M

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop an effective potentiometric saturation titration protocol for determining the aqueous intrinsic solubility and the solubility-pH profile of ionizable molecules, with the specific aim of overcoming incomplete dissolution conditions, while attempting to shorten the data collection time. A modern theory of dissolution kinetics (an extension of the Noyes-Whitney approach) was applied to acid-base titration experiments. A thermodynamic method was developed, based on a three-component model, to calculate interfacial, diffusion-layer, and bulk-water reactant concentrations in saturated solutions of ionizable compounds perturbed by additions of acid/base titrant, leading to partial dissolution of the solid material. Ten commercial drugs (cimetidine, diltiazem hydrochloride, enalapril maleate, metoprolol tartrate, nadolol, propoxyphene hydrochloride, quinine hydrochloride, terfenadine, trovafloxacin mesylate, and benzoic acid) were chosen to illustrate the new titration methodology. It was shown that the new method is about 10 times faster in determining equilibrium solubility constants, compared to the traditional saturation shake-flask methods.

  2. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  3. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water. PMID:25362971

  4. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.; Minond, Dmitriy; Smith, A. Ian

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC{sub 50} values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17.

  5. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Candore, Giuseppina; Cigna, Diego; Colucci, Antonio Tobia; Modica, Maria Assunta

    1993-01-01

    A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC) activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R) is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting findings are

  6. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  7. Short communication: characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species. PMID:26188581

  8. Soluble, light-absorbing species in snow at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beine, Harry; Anastasio, Cort; Esposito, Giulio; Patten, Kelley; Wilkening, Elizabeth; Domine, Florent; Voisin, Didier; Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Hall, Sam

    2011-07-01

    As part of the international multidisciplinary Ocean - Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Snowpack (OASIS) program we analyzed more than 500 terrestrial (melted) snow samples near Barrow, AK between February and April 2009 for light absorption, as well as H2O2 and inorganic anion concentrations. For light absorption in the photochemically active region (300-450 nm) of surface snows, H2O2 and NO3- make minor contributions (combined < 9% typically), while HUmic LIke Substances (HULIS) and unknown chromophores each account for approximately half of the total absorption. We have identified four main sources for our residual chromophores (i.e., species other than H2O2 or NO3-): (1) vegetation and organic debris impact mostly the lowest 20 cm of the snowpack, (2) marine inputs, which are identified by high Cl- and SO42- contents, (3) deposition of diamond dust to surface snow, and (4) gas-phase exchange between the atmosphere and surface snow layers. The snow surfaces, and accompanying chromophore concentrations, are strongly modulated by winds and snowfall at Barrow. However, even with these physical controls on light absorption, we see an overall decline of light absorption in near-surface snow during the 7 weeks of our campaign, likely due to photo-bleaching of chromophores. While HULIS and unknown chromophores dominate light absorption by soluble species in Barrow snow, we know little about the photochemistry of these species, and thus we as a community are probably overlooking many snowpack photochemical reactions.

  9. Water soluble folate-chitosan nanogels crosslinked by genipin.

    PubMed

    Pujana, Maite Arteche; Pérez-Álvarez, Leyre; Iturbe, L Carlos Cesteros; Katime, Issa

    2014-01-30

    Folate-chitosan conjugates were prepared by a concurrent functionalization and crosslinking reaction with the natural crosslinker genipin. Genipin molecule was employed simultaneously as crosslinker agent and spacer molecule in order to allow the functionalization with folic acid for active tumor targeting. The reaction was carried out in reverse microemulsion which provided colloidal size and monodisperse particle size distribution. The water solubility of the obtained folate-genipin-chitosan nanogels was studied as function of the pH of the medium and all nanoparticles were totally dispersible at physiological pH. The enzymatic degradability of the nanogels in a lysozyme solution was evaluated at acidic and physiological pH. QELS analyses of the swelling behavior of the nanogels with the pH did not show a clear pH-sensitivity. However, the study on the loading and release capacity of 5-fluorouracil revealed an interesting pH-responsive behavior of the nanogels that makes them promising as nanodevices for targeted anticancer drug delivery.

  10. Short communication: characterization of soluble thiols in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Niero, G; De Marchi, M; Masi, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2015-09-01

    Antioxidants are molecules essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis and their intake through the diet has positive effects on human health. Among antioxidants, low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols represent an important class of compounds. The aim of this study was to identify LMW thiols in bovine milk. A total of 96 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, Alpine Grey, and Simmental cattle breeds were collected in 8 herds. The LMW thiols were extracted from the soluble fraction of milk and, following a derivatization protocol, they were separated by reverse phase HPLC and detected fluorimetrically. Six thiol species were detected and 2, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine-glycine (Cys-Gly), were identified and quantified. Regardless of the breed, the average concentration of Cys-Gly in milk was greater than that of GSH. Overall, milk from dual-purpose breeds (Simmental and Alpine Grey) was richer in LMW thiols than milk from dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss). Glutathione and Cys-Gly, closely linked metabolically, were strongly correlated. Pearson correlations of Cys-Gly with protein and casein contents were moderately low, and no relationship was found between GSH and milk chemical composition. Future research should focus on the identification of all detected LMW thiol species.

  11. Mining the soluble chloroplast proteome by affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Roman G; Stael, Simon; Csaszar, Edina; Teige, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts are fundamental organelles enabling plant photoautotrophy. Besides their outstanding physiological role in fixation of atmospheric CO2, they harbor many important metabolic processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids, vitamins or hormones. Technical advances in MS allowed the recent identification of most chloroplast proteins. However, for a deeper understanding of chloroplast function it is important to obtain a complete list of constituents, which is so far limited by the detection of low-abundant proteins. Therefore, we developed a two-step strategy for the enrichment of low-abundant soluble chloroplast proteins from Pisum sativum and their subsequent identification by MS. First, chloroplast protein extracts were depleted from the most abundant protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by SEC or heating. Further purification was carried out by affinity chromatography, using ligands specific for ATP- or metal-binding proteins. By these means, we were able to identify a total of 448 proteins including 43 putative novel chloroplast proteins. Additionally, the chloroplast localization of 13 selected proteins was confirmed using yellow fluorescent protein fusion analyses. The selected proteins included a phosphoglycerate mutase, a cysteine protease, a putative protein kinase and an EF-hand containing substrate carrier protein, which are expected to exhibit important metabolic or regulatory functions. PMID:21365755

  12. Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 and Echocardiography in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Hur, Mina; Kim, Hanah; Magrini, Laura; Marino, Rossella; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-11-01

    Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) has emerged as a biomarker of cardiac stretch or remodeling, and has demonstrated a role in acutely decompensated heart failure. However, its role in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is still unknown. We explored whether sST2 serum concentration reflects either systolic or diastolic dysfunction as measured by Doppler echocardiography. In a total of 127 patients with sepsis, correlations between sST2 and blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV diastolic filling (ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity), and resting pulmonary arterial pressure were evaluated. Correlations between sST2 and other sepsis biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and procalcitonin) were also examined. sST2 showed a moderate correlation with mean arterial pressure (r=-0.3499) but no correlation with LV ejection fraction, diastolic filling, or resting pulmonary hypertension. It showed moderate correlations with hs-CRP and procalcitonin (r=0.2608 and r=0.3829, respectively). sST2 might have a role as a biomarker of shock or inflammation, but it cannot reflect echocardiographic findings of LV ejection fraction or diastolic filling in sepsis. PMID:27578513

  13. Soluble dust as source of nutrients to the oceans and the role of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Kanakidou, M.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Nikolaou, P.; Daskalakis, N.; Theodosi, C.; Nenes, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. The link between the soluble iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity, as well as anthropogenic sources, is investigated. The global atmospheric Fe, P and N cycle are parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL. Both primary emissions of total and soluble Fe and P associated with dust and combustion processes are taken into account, as well as inorganic and organic N emissions. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility is parameterised based on experimental findings. The model results are evaluated by comparison with available observations. The impact of air-quality changes on soluble nutrient deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial, present and future emission scenarios. The response of the chemical composition of nutrient-containing aerosols to environmental changes is demonstrated and quantified. This work has been supported by ARISTEIA - PANOPLY grant co-financed by European Union (ESF) and Greek national funds NSRF.

  14. Soluble dust as source of nutrients to the global ocean and the role of humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Daskalakis, Nikos; Theodosi, Christina; Nenes, Athanassios; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. The link between the soluble iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity, as well as anthropogenic sources, is investigated. The global atmospheric Fe, P and N cycle are parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL. Both primary emissions of total and soluble Fe and P associated with dust and combustion processes are taken into account, as well as inorganic and organic N emissions. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility is parameterised based on experimental findings. The model results are evaluated by comparison with available observations. The impact of air-quality changes on soluble nutrient deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial, present and future emission scenarios. The response of the chemical composition of nutrient-containing aerosols to environmental changes is demonstrated and quantified. This work has been supported by ARISTEIA - PANOPLY grant co-financed by European Union (ESF) and Greek national funds NSRF.

  15. Neptunium Solubility in the Near-Field Environment of A Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Sassani

    2004-05-14

    For representing the source-term of a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, total system performance assessment models evaluate the disequilibrium degradation of the waste forms to capture a bounding rate for radionuclide source-term availability and use solubility constraints that are more representative of longer-term, equilibrium processes to limit radionuclide mass transport from the source-term. These solubility limits capture precipitation processes occurring either as the waste forms alter, or in the near-field environment as chemical conditions evolve. A number of alternative models for solubility controls on dissolved neptunium concentrations have been evaluated. These include idealized models based on precipitation of neptunium as separate oxide minerals and more complex considerations of trace amounts of neptunium being incorporated into the secondary uranyl phases from waste form alteration. Thermodynamic models for neptunium under oxidizing conditions indicate that tetravalent neptunium (NpO{sub 2}) solids are more stable relative to pentavalent (Np{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phases, and thereby set lower dissolved concentrations of neptunyl species. Data on solids and solutions from slow flow through (dripping) tests on spent fuel grains indicate that neptunium is tetravalent in the spent fuel and that over {approx}9 years the neptunium concentrations are near to or below calculated NpO{sub 2} solubility. The possibility of kinetic rate limitations to NpO{sub 2} precipitation has led to temperature-dependent studies of NpO{sub 2} precipitation kinetics and solubility to reduce uncertainties and confirm application of the model.

  16. The Speciation and Solubility of Aerosol Iron and Aluminum in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Results From the 2002 NSF/IOC Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. S.; Landing, W. M.; Resing, J.; Lebon, G. T.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the 2002 NSF/IOC cruise in the northwest Pacific, we collected separate 10-hour aerosol samples during both the day and night aboard the R/V Melville leaving Osaka, Japan on May 1, 2002 and arriving in Honolulu, HI on June 5, 2002. The goal of this research was to measure the solubility and speciation of Fe and Al in Asian continental dust. Four replicate samples were collected using an automatic sector-controlled aerosol sampling system that collected only when the wind was \\pm90o off the bow of the ship and exceeded 0.5 m/sec. The aerosols were collected on 47 mm PCTE and polypropylene filters for roughly 10-hour periods, filtering as much as 35 m3 of air through each filter. The filters were changed twice each day for a total of 60 samples. The filters were quickly leached with 100 mL of either freshly collected 0.2μm filtered surface seawater at natural pH or 100 mL of unacidified ultrapure water. Seawater filtrates were analyzed for soluble Fe(II) using the FeLume chemiluminescent system. These samples were also analyzed for total soluble Fe using the ICP-MS isotope dilution method upon returning to FSU. The ultrapure water filtrate samples were frozen until they could be analyzed at FSU for major anions using ion chromotography. A replicate PCTE filter was analyzed for total Fe (and other elements) using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence at the NOAA/PMEL laboratory. Soluble total aerosol Fe concentrations ranged from 8-130 pmol/m3 of filtered air. The concentrations of soluble Fe(II) ranged from 0.35-95 pmol/m3 and total soluble Al ranged from 20-600 pmol/m3. We will also compare total Fe and Al solubilities in seawater and ultrapure water.

  17. Aqueous solubility prediction: do crystal lattice interactions help?

    PubMed

    Salahinejad, Maryam; Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2013-07-01

    Aqueous solubility is a very important physical property of small molecule drugs and drug candidates but also one of the most difficult to predict accurately. Aqueous solubility plays a major role in drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. It is believed that crystal lattice interactions are important in solubility and that including them in solubility models should improve the accuracy of the models. We used calculated values for lattice energy and sublimation enthalpy of organic molecules as descriptors to determine whether these would improve the accuracy of the aqueous solubility models. Multiple linear regression employing an expectation maximization algorithm and a sparse prior (MLREM) method and a nonlinear Bayesian regularized artificial neural network with a Laplacian prior (BRANNLP) were used to derive optimal predictive models of aqueous solubility of a large and highly diverse data set of 4558 organic compounds over a normal ambient temperature range of 20-30 °C (293-303 K). A randomly selected test set and compounds from a solubility challenge were used to estimate the predictive ability of the models. The BRANNLP method showed the best statistical results with squared correlation coefficients of 0.90 and standard errors of 0.645-0.665 log(S) for training and test sets. Surprisingly, including descriptors that captured crystal lattice interactions did not significantly improve the quality of these aqueous solubility models.

  18. 21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.44... Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing acetazolamide sodium, USP equivalent to 25 percent acetazolamide activity. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in §...

  19. 21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.44... Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing acetazolamide sodium, USP equivalent to 25 percent acetazolamide activity. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in §...

  20. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... trihydrate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to...