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Sample records for ostis poole kohvikuketist

  1. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  2. Exciting Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  3. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  4. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  5. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  6. The science of pooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  7. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As...

  8. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Pools for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Three institutions in Ohio now stress hydrotherapy and water recreation as important parts of individual educational programs for the handicapped. Specially designed and adapted pools provide freedom of movement and ego building as well as physical education and recreation. (Author)

  10. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  11. Swimming Pool Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for the teaching of equilibrium in a poolside atmosphere. Illustrates the practical application of knowledge about equilibrium as demonstrated by pool staff as they satisfy the needs of both the swimmers and local health inspectors. (DDR)

  12. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  13. Vernal Pool Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nancy; Colburn, Betsy

    This curriculum guide accompanies Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools which is designed to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of…

  14. Swimming Pools for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Donald W.; Nixon, John E.

    The increasing interest in swimming instruction and recreation for elementary and secondary school children has resulted in the development of this guide for swimming pool use, design, and construction. Introductory material discussed the need for swimming in the educational program and the organization of swimming programs in the school. Design…

  15. The Future of Pooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  16. NEW APPROACHES: Pool table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-05-01

    This article explains a novel way of demonstrating the principle of conservation of energy. This can be difficult to demonstrate in the laboratory, but if students have been convinced of the conservation of momentum, two-dimensional collisions on a pool table may be used.

  17. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  18. Allergic to Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To identify the allergy problem of a 36-year old swimming instructor, who experiences heavy itching and rashes whenever she comes in contact with pool water. Patch tests were performed with European standard series and materials from the work floor. A positive patch test to aluminum chloride and flocculant was observed. Occupational dermatitis is, based on a contact allergy to aluminum chloride in the flocculant. PMID:22993713

  19. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  20. ECS DAAC Data Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiebuzinski, A. B.; Bories, C. M.; Kalluri, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of its Earth Observing System (EOS), NASA supports operations for several satellites including Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. ECS (EOSDIS Core System) is a vast archival and distribution system and includes several Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located around the United States. EOSDIS reached a milestone in February when its data holdings exceeded one petabyte (1,000 terabytes) in size. It has been operational since 1999 and originally was intended to serve a large community of Earth Science researchers studying global climate change. The Synergy Program was initiated in 2000 with the purpose of exploring and expanding the use of remote sensing data beyond the traditional research community to the applications community including natural resource managers, disaster/emergency managers, urban planners and others. This included facilitating data access at the DAACs to enable non-researchers to exploit the data for their specific applications. The combined volume of data archived daily across the DAACs is of the order of three terabytes. These archived data are made available to the research community and to general users of ECS data. Currently, the average data volume distributed daily is two terabytes, which combined with an ever-increasing need for timely access to these data, taxes the ECS processing and archival resources for more real-time use than was previously intended for research purposes. As a result, the delivery of data sets to users was being delayed in many cases, to unacceptable limits. Raytheon, under the auspices of the Synergy Program, investigated methods at making data more accessible at a lower cost of resources (processing and archival) at the DAACs. Large on-line caches (as big as 70 Terabytes) of data were determined to be a solution that would allow users who require contemporary data to access them without having to pull it from the archive. These on-line caches are referred to as "Data Pools." In the Data Pool concept

  1. Morphology of drying blood pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  2. 1. OVERVIEW OF POOLE POWERHOUSE COMPLEX SETTING. POOLE POWERHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF POOLE POWERHOUSE COMPLEX SETTING. POOLE POWERHOUSE AND TRIPLEX COTTAGE ARE VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER IN SMALL CLEARING AMONG TREES IN LEE VINING CREEK VALLEY. VIEW TO SOUTH EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  3. Tidal Pools--Miniature Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Linda Perry

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the biological activity in tidal pools is provided. The importance of environmental factors such as oxygen supply, temperature, salinity, and light is detailed. Plants and animals that might be found in a tidal pool are identified and described. (BT)

  4. Staphylococci in swimming pool water

    PubMed Central

    Crone, P. B.; Tee, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    During a period of five years 1192 water samples from swimming pools were examined for staphylococci and 338 for coliform organisms only. Eighty-nine different pools were sampled. Numbers of staphylococci, estimated by the membrane filtration technique did not bear any significant relation to either bathing load or concentration of free chlorine. Wide variation in the staphylococcal count was observed when different parts of a pool were sampled on the same occasion. The only practicable standard for pool samples in relation to staphylococci would appear to be that these organisms should be absent from 100 ml. water when the pool has been out of use during at least ten hours before sampling if filtration and chlorination are adequate. PMID:4608265

  5. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  6. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

  7. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  8. Carbon concentrations and transformations in peatland pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Pippa; Holden, Joseph; Baird, Andrew; Turner, Edward; Dooling, Gemma; Billett, Mike; McKenzie, Rebecca; Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Peatland pools may act as important features for aquatic and gaseous carbon production, transformation and release. Peatland restoration often results in new pools being created. Here we compare aquatic carbon concentrations in nearby natural and artificial pool systems monitored at three sites in northern Scotland over a three-year period. We found significant differences in pool water carbon concentrations between pool types with larger dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in artificial pools. The differences were strong for all sites and occurred in all seasons. Importantly, the DOC outflows from natural pools were markedly lower than the DOC flowing into natural pools showing that processes in these pools were transforming and removing the DOC. These effects were not found in the artificial pools. Data on the composition of the DOC (absorbance ratios, specific ultraviolet absorbance) suggested that natural pools tended to have DOC that had been processed, and was older (radiocarbon dating) while the DOC in artificial pools was young and had not undergone much biochemical processing. Slope position was an important factor influencing pool DOC with those pools with a longer upslope contributing area and collecting water with a longer hillslope residence time having larger DOC concentrations. Dissolved methane (CH4) concentrations were not significantly different between pool types but the concentrations were always above atmospheric levels with values ˜ 200 times atmospheric concentrations not uncommon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in the artificial pools were extremely large; typically ˜20 times atmospheric levels while those in natural pools were typically only just above atmospheric levels. The pools were strong sources of CH4 and CO2 evasion from the peat system. The smaller size of the artificial pools means that more of their CO2 is stored in the water until it reaches the stream system, while the larger natural pools have

  9. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment of... Investor is entitled. If an Obligor misses a scheduled payment pursuant to the terms of the Pool Note... the schedule of interest and principal payments to the Pool Investor. If SBA makes such payments,...

  10. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment of... Investor is entitled. If an Obligor misses a scheduled payment pursuant to the terms of the Pool Note... the schedule of interest and principal payments to the Pool Investor. If SBA makes such payments,...

  11. European Swimming Pool Designs Cross the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskulak, Neil

    1983-01-01

    Conventional swimming pools have been built with the needs of competitive swimmers in mind. Planners in several European countries have greatly increased swimming pool attendance by designing "leisure pools," based primarily on the needs and behavior of recreationists. Design of these pools and their equipment requirements are discussed.…

  12. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vernal pools are shaped by hydrologic processes which influence many aspects of pool function. The hydrologic budget of a pool can be summarized by a water balance equation that relates changes in the amount of water in the pool to precipitation, ground- and surface-water flows, ...

  13. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  14. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  15. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  16. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  18. Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities, Guide 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, safety in the handling of chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains some technical terms,…

  19. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  20. Flame spread across liquid pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard; Miller, Fletcher; Schiller, David; Sirignano, William A.

    1993-01-01

    For flame spread over liquid fuel pools, the existing literature suggests three gravitational influences: (1) liquid phase buoyant convection, delaying ignition and assisting flame spread; (2) hydrostatic pressure variation, due to variation in the liquid pool height caused by thermocapillary-induced convection; and (3) gas-phase buoyant convection in the opposite direction to the liquid phase motion. No current model accounts for all three influences. In fact, prior to this work, there was no ability to determine whether ignition delay times and flame spread rates would be greater or lesser in low gravity. Flame spread over liquid fuel pools is most commonly characterized by the relationship of the initial pool temperature to the fuel's idealized flash point temperature, with four or five separate characteristic regimes having been identified. In the uniform spread regime, control has been attributed to: (1) gas-phase conduction and radiation; (2) gas-phase conduction only; (3) gas-phase convection and liquid conduction, and most recently (4) liquid convection ahead of the flame. Suggestions were made that the liquid convection was owed to both vuoyancy and thermocapillarity. Of special interest to this work is the determination of whether, and under what conditions, pulsating spread can and will occur in microgravity in the absence of buoyant flows in both phases. The approach we have taken to resolving the importance of buoyancy for these flames is: (1) normal gravity experiments and advanced diagnostics; (2) microgravity experiments; and (3) numerical modelling at arbitrary gravitational level.

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=poolpumps.pr_crit_poolpumps

  2. Sustainability of common pool resources

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  3. Pool power control in remelting systems

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Rodney L [Albuquerque, NM; Melgaard, David K [Albuquerque, NM; Beaman, Joseph J [Austin, TX

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  4. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  5. Pool Safety: A Few Simple Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents suggestions by the National Swimming Pool Safety Committee on how to keep children safe while swimming. Ideas include maintaining strict adult supervision, pool and spa barriers, and knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (SM)

  6. Swimming Pool Survey, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    70-RIl9 236 SWIMMING POOL SIEVEY OFFUTT NWD NEURASIR(U) AIR FORCE 1/1 OCCUIPATIONAL AND EIWIRONHENTAL HEALTH LAIDBOOKS NFl TX ft 0 INGY! DEC 87... test in swimming pool evaluations to determine the severity of’ future contamination problems. C. In order to maintain pool water stability...154EQ0146MSB I4 Swimming Pool Survey, Offutt AFB NE ROBERT D. BINOVI, Lt Col, USAF, BSC vTO ELECTEOEC 3 1197 ,: i December 1987 Final Report Distribution

  7. Swimming pools soak up the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoghi, D.; Hesse, P.; Schiller, T.

    1996-05-01

    Solar pool heaters survived the boom and bust solar years of the 1970s and 1980s. Today they are even popular and cost-effective in parts of the country where many people think solar is impractical. This article discusses the following topics: how solar pool heaters work; types of solar pool heater collectors; collector and pump sizing; collector siting and mounting; systems costs and economics; pool covers. 3 figs.

  8. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  9. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  13. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  2. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  4. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  8. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  9. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  10. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...

  11. Apparatus for heating a swimming pool

    SciTech Connect

    Kremen, R.D.

    1983-09-06

    This disclosure relates to a solar heater apparatus for a swimming pool which incorporates a submersible suspendible black body sheet to serve as a device to absorb solar radiation and transfer the collected energy to the pool water so that the pool water can be efficiently heated.

  12. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  14. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  6. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  8. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  2. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of transmittal must accompany each Pool Certificate which a Pool Investor submits to the CSA for transfer. The Pool Investor must supply the following information in the letter: (1) Pool number; (2) Pool... recovery. At the same time a Pool Investor submits a letter of transmittal for a Pool Certificate...

  3. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of transmittal must accompany each Pool Certificate which a Pool Investor submits to the CSA for transfer. The Pool Investor must supply the following information in the letter: (1) Pool number; (2) Pool... recovery. At the same time a Pool Investor submits a letter of transmittal for a Pool Certificate...

  4. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  5. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  6. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE POOL 308, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Pool Building & Swimming Pool, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. Solar powered swimming pool skimmer

    SciTech Connect

    Distinti, J.A.; Fonti, R.G.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a swimming pool skimmer assembly. It comprises: a U-shaped housing which includes two spaced-apart pontoons and a leg connecting the pontoons together, a paddle wheel assembly mounted on the housing and including, a motor having an output shaft, a gear reduction assembly connected to the motor output shaft and a paddle wheel means connected to the gear reduction assembly; a debris catcher mounted on the housing adjacent to the paddle wheel; power means on the housing and connected to the motor, including a solar cell array mounted on the housing connecting leg, and electrically connected to the motor, and a solar concentrator mounted on the housing adjacent to the solar cell; and an alarm circuit means connected to the debris catcher.

  8. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  9. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  10. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  11. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  12. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  13. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  14. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  16. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  17. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  18. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  19. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  20. Camera Would Monitor Weld-Pool Contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.; Gutow, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Weld pool illuminated and viewed coaxially along welding torch. Proposed monitoring subsystem for arc welder provides image in which horizontal portions of surface of weld pool highlighted. Monitoring and analyzing subsystems integrated into overall control system of robotic welder. Control system sets welding parameters to adapt to changing conditions, maintaining surface contour giving desired pattern of reflections.

  1. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  2. A Training Program for Swimming Pool Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, James R., Jr.; Mihalik, Brian J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States today, there is a dramatic shortage of qualified public swimming pool operators. This article describes a training program initiated in South Carolina to serve the needs of everyone responsible for and involved in the safe operation and management of a public swimming pool. (MT)

  3. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  4. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  5. Pool-riffle Maintenance in Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Pool-riffles are maintained through a combination of at least several mechanisms that operate and interact over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Velocity or shear reversal is subsumed within several of these mechanisms, however a growing body of work suggests that (1) flow convergence into pools, (2) structuring of riffle crest sediments, and (3) local feedbacks between flood stage bedform evolution and hydrodynamics may be disproportionately important. We additionally propose that temporal and spatial patterns of sediment sorting across pool-riffles may also provide some level of bedform maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of these maintenance mechanisms is needed. We will report results of several flume experiments for autogenic pool-riffles. The experiments examined pool-riffle maintenance processes under variable flood and sediment supply conditions. A focus of our work is to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of pool-riffle sediment sorting, and to examine this in relation to temporal patterns of bedform evolution. The experiments represent a 5:1 scale-model of a prototype reach of a pool-riffle stream located within the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, Maple Ridge, BC.

  6. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  7. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  8. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  9. Swimming Pools. A Guide to Their Planning, Design and Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, M. Alexander, Ed.

    Information is presented regarding all phases of swimming pool development and operation from earliest planning considerations to final programing. This comprehensive book covers--(1) the steps involved in planning a pool, (2) designing the pool, (3) water circulation, filtration, and treatment, (4) community pools, school and agency pools, and…

  10. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  11. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  12. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  13. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electronic Media , Office of Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study ... Calendar Resources Resources Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions CDC Quick Links Data & Statistics Freedom of Information Act ...

  14. Profit pools: a fresh look at strategy.

    PubMed

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    In charting strategy, many managers focus on revenue growth, assuming that profits will follow. But that approach is dangerous: today's deep revenue pool may become tomorrow's dry hole. To create strategies that result in profitable growth, managers need to look beyond revenues to see the shape of their industry's profit pool. The authors define an industry's profit pool as the total profits earned at all points along the industry's value chain. Although the concept is simple, the structure of a profit pool is usually quite complex. The pool will be deeper in some segments of the value chain than in others, and depths will vary within an individual segment as well. Segment profitability may, for example, vary widely by customer group, product category, geographic market, and distribution channel. Moreover, the pattern of profit concentration in an industry will often be very different from the pattern of revenue concentration. The authors describe how successful companies have gained competitive advantage by developing sophisticated profit-pool strategies. They explain how U-Haul identified new sources of profit in the consumer-truck-rental industry; how Merck reached beyond its traditional value-chain role to protect its profits in the pharmaceuticals industry; how Dell rebounded from a misguided channel decision by refocusing on its traditional source of profit; and how Anheuser-Busch made a series of astute product, pricing, and operating decisions to dominate the beer industry's profit pool. The companies with the best understanding of their industry's profit pool, the authors argue, will be in the best position to thrive over the long term.

  15. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  16. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  17. Visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Pools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    flow visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc weld pools for HY-80 steel is presented using a pulsed laser light source and a conventional night~vision...visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc weld pools for HY-80 steel is presented using a pulsed laser light source and a conventional night-vision image-intensifier...effects of electromagnetic stirring on GTA welds in austenitic stainless steel . Changes in shape and solidification structure of welds observed

  18. Electromagnetic Interference in a Private Swimming Pool

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Sandia; Lavu, Madhav; Atoui, Moustapha; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Although current lead design and filtering capabilities have greatly improved, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from environmental sources has been increasingly reported in patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED) [1]. Few cases of inappropriate intracardiac Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) associated with swimming pool has been described [2]. Here we present a case of 64 year old male who presented with an interesting EMI signal that was subsequently identified to be related to AC current leak in his swimming pool. PMID:27479205

  19. Characterisation of the Permafrost Carbon Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhry, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Ping, C.-L.; Schirrmeister, L.; Tarnocai, C.

    2013-01-01

    The current estimate of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the northern permafrost region of 1672 Petagrams (Pg) C is much larger than previously reported and needs to be incorporated in global soil carbon (C) inventories. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), extended to include the range 0–300 cm, is now available online for wider use by the scientific community. An important future aim is to provide quantitative uncertainty ranges for C pool estimates. Recent studies have greatly improved understanding of the regional patterns, landscape distribution and vertical (soil horizon) partitioning of the permafrost C pool in the upper 3 m of soils. However, the deeper C pools in unconsolidated Quaternary deposits need to be better constrained. A general lability classification of the permafrost C pool should be developed to address potential C release upon thaw. The permafrost C pool and its dynamics are beginning to be incorporated into Earth System models, although key periglacial processes such as thermokarst still need to be properly represented to obtain a better quantification of the full permafrost C feedback on global climate change.

  20. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many Earthbound applications, such as steam-generation power plants, petroleum, and other chemical plants. Also, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  1. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Five Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    1997-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many earthbound applications in steamgeneration power plants, petroleum plants, and other chemical plants. In addition, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  2. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  3. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  4. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  5. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  6. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  7. 77 FR 76952 - Rescinding Spent Fuel Pool Exclusion Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 Rescinding Spent Fuel Pool Exclusion Regulations AGENCY... fuel pool storage impacts from license renewal environmental reviews. This action is necessary...

  8. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  9. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating.

  10. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B. ); Hughes, E.D. )

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  11. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-12-31

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  12. Species pool and dynamics of marine paleocommunities.

    PubMed

    Buzas, M A; Culver, S J

    1994-06-03

    Foraminiferal communities in the Cenozoic shelf deposits of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain exhibit little unity during almost 55 million years of successive transgressions and regressions. Transgression communities are composed of a dynamic mixture of immigrants and newly evolved species. During regressions, species within these communities either became extinct or emigrated. Some emigrants returned during subsequent transgressions, but many did not. The neritic species of the Atlantic and Gulf continental margins constitute a species pool. Immigrants and emigrants transferred into and out of the species pool, while extinctions and originations repeatedly altered its species composition. While the results indicate a lack of local community unity, at the same time they demonstrate the necessity of a species pool to sustain species diversity.

  13. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  14. Automatic swimming pool identification for fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Bo; Buck, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Southern California experienced some of the largest wildfires ever seen in 2003 and 2007. The Cedar fire in 2003 resulted in 2,820 lost structures and 15 deaths, and the Witch fire in 2007 resulted in 1,650 lost structures and 2 deaths according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Fighting fires of this magnitude requires every available resource, and an adequate water supply is vital in the firefighting arsenal. Utilizing the fact that many homes in Southern California have swimming pools, firefighters could have access to strategically placed water supplies. The problem is accurately and quickly identifying which residences have actively filled swimming pools at the time of the emergency. The proposed method approaches the problem by employing satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Specifically, swimming pool identification is attempted with Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on multispectral imagery from the Worldview-2 satellite.

  15. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  17. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  20. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  1. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  2. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  3. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120.1705 Section 120.1705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... roles. (d) When the Pool Originator does not own the Pool Loan. When a Pool Originator proposes to...

  4. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120.1705 Section 120.1705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... roles. (d) When the Pool Originator does not own the Pool Loan. When a Pool Originator proposes to...

  5. IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the superconducting magnets and the plasma is the first wall. The first wall is a stand-alone structure with no coolant connection and is cooled by Flibe at the atmospheric pressure. There is also no need of the primary coolant loop. The design is expected to improve the safety, reliability, and maintainability aspects of the fusion system.

  6. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  7. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section 320.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF...

  8. Contractor's case study: the Petaluma pool

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, J.

    1983-11-01

    The design of a solar heating system for a swim center is discussed. The heating system for the 12,000 ft/sup 2/ municipal pool employs a massive array of solar collectors along with the necessary piping, pumps, and sensors.

  9. The Pool Is Not Just for Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzker, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Participating in water fitness workouts is one way to benefit one's health at very little cost. If the pool at a school is used only for swimming, then the benefits of having one barely causes a ripple. When the properties of water and how humans react to water are understood and applied to water activity programs, health benefits and enjoyment…

  10. Women in Elite Pools and Elite Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Uses characteristic education, occupation, and job experience credentials of current elites in U.S. institutions to approximate the proportion of women in the pool of potential elites. Includes breakdowns for law, Ph.D. programs, managers, accountants, and M.B.A.s. Concludes that women's representation in elite positions is consistent with their…

  11. Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Dale D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)

  12. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  13. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  14. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  15. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  16. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  17. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  18. Increasing Accessibility by Pooling Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There are now many CALL authoring packages that can create interactive websites and a large number of language teachers are writing materials for the whole range of such packages. Currently, each product stores its data in different formats thus hindering interoperability, pooling of digital resources and moving between software packages based in…

  19. The Pool with the Movable Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major diagnostic, therapeutic, educational, and training center for the handicapped has under construction a swimming pool with a floor that will rise to deck level to enable handicapped persons to roll their wheel chairs on and then float free as the floor is lowered. (Author/MLF)

  20. Weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding

    SciTech Connect

    Aendenroomer, A.J.R.; Ouden, G. den

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding and with the possibility to use this oscillation for in-process control of weld penetration. Welding experiments were carried out under different welding conditions. During welding the weld pool was triggered into oscillation by the normal welding pulses or by extra current pulses. The oscillation frequency was measured both during the pulse time and during the base time by analyzing the arc voltage variation using a Fast Fourier Transformation program. Optimal results are obtained when full penetration occurs during the pulse time and partial penetration during the base time. Under these conditions elliptical overlapping spot welds are formed. In the case of full penetration the weld pool oscillates in a low frequency mode (membrane oscillation), whereas in the case of partial penetration the weld pool oscillates in a high frequency mode (surface oscillation). Deviation from the optimal welding conditions occurs when high frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (underpenetration) or when low frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (overpenetration). In line with these results a penetration sensing system with feedback control was designed, based on the criterion that optimal weld penetration is achieved when two peaks are observed in the frequency distribution. The feasibility of this sensing system for orbital tube welding was confirmed by the results of experiments carried out under various welding conditions.

  1. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  2. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  3. Platelet storage pool deficiency in Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2007-11-01

    Jacobsen syndrome and Paris-Trousseau Syndrome share similar congenital anomalies, thrombocytopenia, giant platelet alpha granules resulting from fusion of smaller organelles, and an 11q terminal deletion at 11q23.3. Similarities in the two cohorts have suggested that the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome is a variant of Jacobsen syndrome, or the same disorder. The present study has pointed out a significant difference between the two syndromes. Platelets from six patients with Jacobsen syndrome were markedly diminished in serotonin adenine nucleotide rich dense bodies, indicating the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency. Since platelet dense bodies are reported to be normal in size, number and distribution in the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome, the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency in six patients evaluated in the present study may distinguish the two disorders.

  4. Conceptual design for spacelab pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, J. H.; Peck, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A pool boiling heat transfer experiment to be incorporated with a larger two-phase flow experiment on Spacelab was designed to confirm (or alter) the results of earth-normal gravity experiments which indicate that the hydrodynamic peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes vanish at very low gravity. Twelve small sealed test cells containing water, methanol or Freon 113 and cylindrical heaters of various sizes are to be built. Each cell will be subjected to one or more 45 sec tests in which the surface heat flux on the heaters is increased linearly until the surface temperature reaches a limiting value of 500 C. The entire boiling process will be photographed in slow-motion. Boiling curves will be constructed from thermocouple and electric input data, for comparison with the motion picture records. The conduct of the experiment will require no more than a few hours of operator time.

  5. The hydrology of natural and artificial bog pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; McKenzie, Rebecca; Baird, Andy; Billett, Mike; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    Twelve bog pools were monitored over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the Cross Lochs blanket peatland in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. Six pools were located in a natural pool complex while the other six were in an adjacent area where the peat had been ditched in the 1970s. The ditches had been subsequently dammed with peat in 2002 resulting in dozens of artificial pools along each ditch, with one pool upslope of each dam. The natural pools ranged in area from 15 m2 to 850 m2, while the artificial pools are a more uniform size at c.3 - 4 m2. Following a dry first summer, water levels in the 12 pools were lower throughout the subsequent winter and spring than they were in proceeding years showing strong inter-annual variability in pool levels even for winter months. Over the three year study, water level fluctuations in the natural pools were very different to those in the artificial pools. The natural pools showed subdued responses to rainfall and, after rainfall, slow falls in water level dominated by evaporation; the hydraulic conductivity of the peat was very low at depths of 30 and 50 cm below the peat surface around the pools (median values of 2.49 × 10-5 and 1.09 × 10-5 cm s-1 respectively). The artificial pools had much larger monthly interquartile ranges of water levels and a greater rise and fall of pool water level in response to each individual rainfall event compared with the natural pools. Thus the biogeochemistry and carbon cycling processes that occur within the natural pools is not likely to be replicated in the artificial pools as their hydrological behaviour is quite different. Slope position was a factor in terms of hydrological response of pools with those further downslope having higher relative water levels for longer periods of time compared to upslope pools. Thus we anticipate that local biogeochemical processes in and around bog pools may be impacted by slope position and by whether they are natural pools or artificial pools

  6. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor

    DOEpatents

    Habermehl, Scott D.

    2004-08-03

    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  7. On pool spreading around tanks: geometrical considerations.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Sara; Manca, Davide

    2008-10-01

    The paper discusses a straightforward approach for evaluating the distance covered by a spreading liquid pool, when the axisymmetric hypothesis is no longer valid. This distance is evaluated by a three-steps methodology: the pre-processing of input data (bund radius, if present, and radial velocity); the simulation of pool spreading by a model based on the axisymmetric hypothesis; and the post-processing of results. The paper reports some geometrical correlations to pre- and post-process the data, with regard to four case-studies. Some numerical examples are also presented to prove that the pre-processed input data and post-processed results differ from those based on the axisymmetric hypothesis. Finally, we validate our modeling approach with the experimental data of Cronin and Evans [P.S. Cronin, J.A. Evans, A series of experiments to study the spreading of liquid pools with different bund arrangements, HSE Contract Research Report 405/2002, Advantica Technologies Limited, 2002].

  8. Amino acid pools in cultured muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Low, R B; Stirewalt, W S; Rittling, S R; Woodworth, R C

    1984-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular amino acid pools occurs in cultures of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, but the factors involved in this are not clear. We have further defined this problem by analyzing the intracellular free leucine and the transfer-RNA-(tRNA)-bound leucine pool in cultures of skeletal and cardiac muscle incubated with 3H-leucine in the presence and absence of serum and amino acids. Withdrawal of nitrogen substrates caused substantial changes in leucine pool relationships--in particular, a change in the degree to which intracellular free leucine and tRNA-leucine were derived from the culture medium. In separate experiments, the validity of our tRNA measurements was confirmed by measurements of the specific activity of newly synthesized ferritin after iron induction. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to factors involved in the control of amino acid flux through the cell, as well as with regard to design of experiments using isotopic amino acids to measure rates of amino acid utilization.

  9. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, David R.; Schirra, Claudia; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP) and a slowly releasable (SRP) pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation, and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin, and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles. PMID:21423410

  10. Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by Elm Walks to the north and south, Seventeenth Street to the east and the Reflecting Pool to the west, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  12. 23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND WEST ELEVATION OF OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. 3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. 18. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in the Johnson City Village Offices) showing WAITING ROOM SEAT - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  17. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Garfield County, CO

  19. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  20. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  1. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  2. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Interior view of pool facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 AND THE DIVING TOWER (STRUCTURE No. S659) IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Swimming Pool, Oakley Road & Cromwell Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Pool area with mezzanine at rear Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area with mezzanine at rear - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING WEST WALL OF BUILDING 22, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Swimming Pool, Reeves Avenue, enclosed by Building No. 22 & Arcade, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dongping

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  11. Hemangioma of the tongue demonstrating a perfusion blood pool mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Groshar, D.; Israel, O.; Robinson, E.

    1986-02-01

    Perfusion blood pool mismatch using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) in a hemangioma of the tongue is described. The method is useful in the evaluation of size of the residual blood pool after irradiation of the tumor.

  12. 75 FR 10243 - Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 22, 2010, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. filed a revision to its Open Access Transmission Tariff to conform the matching.... Power Pool, Inc., 130 FERC ] 61,049 (2010) (January 21 Order). Any person desiring to intervene or...

  13. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  14. Improving the performance of floating solar pool covers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.A.; Lowrey, P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    Experimental and analytical analyses are presented for the evaluation of heat transfer through floating solar swimming pool covers. Two improved floating solar swimming pool cover designs are proposed and investigated in this paper. The results conclusively show that both new cover designs should have significantly better performance than conventional floating solar swimming pool covers.

  15. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  16. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  17. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  18. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  19. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  20. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  1. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including interest and dividends earned on funds not paid as premiums or used to margin the pool's commodity... during the reporting period; (v) The net asset value of the pool as of the end of the reporting period; and (vi)(A) The net asset value per outstanding participation unit in the pool as of the end of...

  2. New algebraic constructions for pooling design in DNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Zengti; Gao, Suogang; Du, Hongjie; Shi, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Pooling design is an important mathematical tool in DNA library screening. It has been showed that using pooling design, the number of tests in DNA library screening can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we present some new algebraic constructions for pooling design.

  3. A Three-Pool Model Dissecting Readily Releasable Pool Replenishment at the Calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles. PMID:25825223

  4. A three-pool model dissecting readily releasable pool replenishment at the calyx of held.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-03-31

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles.

  5. An introduction to mid-Atlantic seasonal pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-Atlantic region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, periodic drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-Atlantic region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-Atlantic region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-Atlantic region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.

  6. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  7. Spatial variation in the charcoal pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlson, M.; Bjune, A. E.; Kasin, I.; Nordtug Wist, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mikael Ohlson, Anne E. Bjune, Isabella Kasin and Anveig Nordtug Wist It is well known that the soil charcoal pool varies significantly in size across different types of forest landscapes and regional climates. However, the level of variation on fine spatial scales within a given forest landscape remains poorly known. Here we use a geostatistical approach to describe the spatial structure and variability of the soil charcoal pool in a boreal forest landscape. Our study landscape is a watershed including a small lake and two distinct types of forests, viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. The study is based on 200 forest soil cores and one lake sediment core in which the amount of macroscopic charcoal was measured. The amount of charcoal in the forest soil cores was very variable and ranged from 0 to 3600 g per square meter. The variation was profound also on fine spatial scales, i.e. 0.05 - 0.2 m, and geostatistical analysis revealed only weak spatial structuring on scales from 0.05 up to 200 m. Although weak spatial structuring, there were three significant and general patterns in the soil charcoal pool. First, there was a positive relationship between the amount of charcoal in the soil and the density of the contemporary forest. Second, there was more charcoal in the spruce forest than in the pine forest. Third, the amount of charcoal in the soil increased with increasing distance from the lake. The lake sediment core, which had a depth of 3 m and an age of 11 000 years, recorded a continuous influx of macroscopic charcoal throughout the Holocene. Interestingly, the amount of charcoal in the lake sediment exceeded that in the majority of the forest soil cores, indicating a relatively high degradation rate of charcoal in the forest soil and that charcoal is well preserved in the lake sediment.

  8. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  9. Experience with solar systems for heating swimming pools in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Croy, R.; Peuser, F.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The results of the demonstration programme [open quotes]Efficient Use of Energy in Swimming Pool Construction[close quotes] has had a positive effect on the dissipation of solar systems for swimming pools. Infrared measurements show how a homogeneous flow can be achieved in the absorber field. The fact that solar systems are acceptable can be clearly in evidence that the behaviour of visitors to purely solar-heated pools with variable water temperature does not differ in principle from conventionally-heated pools with constant temperature. Economic considerations of the operation show that swimming pool solar systems are competitive with conventional heating systems.

  10. On Trade-wind cumulus cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, P.; Li, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Shallow, precipitating, cumuli within the easterly trades were investigated using ship-board measurements, scanning radar data, and visible satellite imagery from two weeks in January 2005 of the Rain in Cumulus over Ocean experiment. One focus was to identify the mechanism(s) triggering convection. Shipboard rainfall rates of up to 2 mm hr-1 were recorded almost daily, if only for 10-30 minutes typically, almost always from clouds within mesoscale arcs. The precipitating cumuli, capable of reaching above 4 km, cooled surface air by 1-2 K, in all cases lowered surface specific humidities by up to 1.5 g kg-1, reduced surface equivalent potential temperatures by up to 6 K, and were often associated with short-lived increases in wind speed of up to 4 m s-1. Cohesive downdrafts producing surface air drier than the environment differed from previous observations of moist cold pools under stratocumulus. Upper-level downdrafts were also inferred to explain double-lobed moisture and temperature sounding profiles, as well as multiple inversions in wind profiler data. In two cases investigated further, the precipitating convection propagated faster westward than the mean surface wind by ˜ 2-3 m s-1, consistent with a density current of depth ˜ 200 m. In the cold pool recovery zones of the two cases, the surface air temperatures equilibrated with time to the sea surface temperatures, but the surface air specific humidities stayed relatively constant after initial quick recoveries. This suggested entrainment of drier air from above fully compensated moistening from surface latent heat fluxes as the new surface-based mixed-layer deepened. Recovery zone surface wind speeds and latent heat fluxes were not higher than environmental values. Non-precipitating shallow clouds were observed after the surface buoyancy had sufficiently recovered (barring encroachment of other convection from outside the original cold pool). The mesoscale arcs favored atmospheres with higher water vapor

  11. Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.

    1981-07-28

    A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

  12. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    SciTech Connect

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  13. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non-steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) δ13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. Based on simple simulation of C aging in

  14. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  15. Electrohydrodynamic Pool Boiling in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.; Stahl, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research is concerned with studying the effects of applied electric fields on pool boiling in a reduced-gravity environment. Experiments are conducted at the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec Drop tower using a drop rig constructed at UC Davis. In the experiments, a platinum wire is heated while immersed in saturated liquid refrigerants (FC-72 and FC-87), or water, causing vapor formation at the wire surface. Electric fields are applied between the wire surface and an outer screen electrode that surrounds the wire. Preliminary normal-gravity experiments with water have demonstrated that applied electric fields generated by the rig electronics can influence boiling characteristics. Reduced-gravity experiments will be performed in the summer of 1996. The experiments will provide fundamental data on electric field strengths required to disrupt film boiling (for various wire heat generation input rates) in reduced gravity for a cylindrical geometry. The experiments should also shed light on the roles of characteristic bubble generation times and charge relaxation times in determining the effects of electric fields on pool boiling. Normal-gravity comparison experiments will also be performed.

  16. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  17. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  18. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  19. Weld Pool Stability in the Flat Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Coan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Soft Plasma Arc (SPA) process was devised to avoid interactions between backshield and full penetration mode plasma jet in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Occasional sudden and mysterious losses in penetration were encountered in flat position SPA welding. To understand what was happening a model of the dynamics of the molten metal meniscus at the root of the weld was worked out. When the power input to the weld P(sub in) exceeds the power leakage P(sub out) the difference in power is absorbed by an increase in the molten weld pool volume V, Rho X L(SUB m) X (d(V)/dt)) = P(sub in) - P(sub out) where rho is the density and L(sub m) the specific heat of the weld metal.

  20. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  1. Burning of liquid pools in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanury, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    The existing literature on the combustion of liquid fuel pools is reviewed to identify the physical and chemical aspects which require an improved understanding. Among the pre-, trans- and post-ignition processes, a delineation was made of those which seem to uniquely benefit from studies in the essential environment offered by spacelab. The role played by the gravitational constant in analytical and experimental justifications was developed. The analytical justifications were based on hypotheses, models and dimensional analyses whereas the experimental justifications were based on an examination of the range of gravity and gravity-dependent variables possible in the earth-based laboratories. Some preliminary expositions into the questions of feasibility of the proposed spacelab experiment are also reported.

  2. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools.

    PubMed

    Gentine, Pierre; Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung-Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-28

    The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud-resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection.

  3. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung‐Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud‐resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection. PMID:27134320

  4. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Richard; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Escartín, Javier; Ridao, Pere; Mallios, Angelos; Kilias, Stephanos P.; Argyraki, Ariadne; Andreani, Muriel; Ballu, Valerie; Campos, Ricard; Deplus, Christine; Gabsi, Taoufic; Garcia, Rafael; Gracias, Nuno; Hurtós, Natàlia; Magí, Lluis; Mével, Catherine; Moreira, Manuel; Palomeras, Narcís; Pot, Olivier; Ribas, David; Ruzié, Lorraine; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:26179858

  5. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites.

  6. Installation for a nuclear power station with staggered swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Gigou, R.

    1982-12-28

    In an installation for a nuclear power station comprising a ''reactor building'' with a first swimming pool for handling of fuel units and a fuel building with a second swimming pool for the transfer, storage and deactivation of the units, the second swimming pool is located at a lower level than that of the first and is connected to the first by an intermediate auxiliary chamber filled with water and located under the first swimming pool. The auxiliary chamber is connected by a vertical pipeline to the first swimming pool and by a horizontal connecting pipeline to the second swimming pool. Each of the pipelines is provided with a shut-off valve, with interlocking means which prevents the simultaneous opening of the two valves. There is negligible dead space around a conveyor basket for fuel units when it is in the vertical or horizontal pipelines.

  7. Spread of large LNG pools on the sea.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2007-02-20

    A review of the standard model of LNG pool spreading on water, comparing it with the model and experiments on oil pool spread from which the LNG model is extrapolated, raises questions about the validity of the former as applied to spills from marine tankers. These questions arise from the difference in fluid density ratios, in the multi-dimensional flow at the pool edge, in the effects of LNG pool boiling at the LNG-water interface, and in the model and experimental initial conditions compared with the inflow conditions from a marine tanker spill. An alternate supercritical flow model is proposed that avoids these difficulties; it predicts significant increase in the maximum pool radius compared with the standard model and is partially corroborated by tests of LNG pool fires on water. Wind driven ocean wave interaction has little effect on either spread model.

  8. [Normobaric intermittent hypoxia and functional state of the erythrocyte pool].

    PubMed

    Dlusskaia, I G; Stepanov, V K; Radchenko, S N; Dvornikov, M V

    2004-01-01

    Functional state of the pool of erythrocytes was evaluated in ten essentially healthy male subjects before, during and in 2 months after a series of 15 exposures to normobaric intermittent hypoxia (NIH). The erythrocyte pool dynamics, hemoglobin content, low and highly resistive fractions of erythrocytes were analyzed using a modified acidic histogram technique. It was demonstrated that the erythrocyte pool was either in the state of destruction (concurrent to the NIH exposure) or ensuing persistent improvement of the functional characteristics under study.

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  10. 48 CFR 873.114 - Best value pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation. These vendors constitute the best value pool. This determination is within the sole discretion of... the resources available to conduct the source selection. Provided the solicitation notifies...

  11. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-07-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  12. Experiment poseidon: Elemental iodine retention in water pools

    SciTech Connect

    Guentay, S.

    1990-01-01

    Although gaseous fraction of iodine is expected to be small in quantity compared with its other forms such as CsI, because of its radiological consequence, removal of elemental iodine vapor from the gas bubbles in water pools defines an important boundary condition for the severe-accident scenarios that involve water pools. The Muehleberg nuclear power plant (a boiling water reactor Mark 1 type) in Switzerland has a unique feature, namely, a second suppression pool surrounding the reactor building in addition to the regular pressure suppression pool. For those hypothetical accident scenarios that involve the second pool, scrubbing in the second suppression pool would ultimately determine the magnitude and constitution of the release. An experimental program, pool scrubbing effect on iodine decontamination (POSEIDON), was initiated at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland in 1987 to provide a data base on gaseous iodine scrubbing. Bubbles containing elemental iodine vapor and nitrogen as the carrier gas are generated using certain sized orifices immersed in a water pool. Objectives of the experimental program are defined as (a) to understand the iodine removal phenomena from bubbles and (b) to provide a data base for iodine retention under controlled boundary conditions for the development and verification of the BUSCA-PSI pool scrubbing code.

  13. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This mini-review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or a few years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes and are based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) &delta13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a~prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. The future challenges

  14. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  15. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    DOEpatents

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  16. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  17. Chlorate as an inorganic disinfection by product in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Erdinger, L; Kirsch, F; Sonntag, H G

    1999-06-01

    Chlorate and chlorite concentrations were determined in water samples taken from 33 swimming pools. In the pools under investigation, disinfection of the water is carried out either by gaseous chlorine (n = 14) or hypochlorite solution in conjunction with flocculation and sand filtration. A number of the pools also use ozone treatment to augment the disinfection process. Chlorite was not detectable in any of the samples (detection limit 1 mg/l). High concentrations of chlorate were detected in samples from a number of the pools; in one case as high as 40 mg/l. Higher chlorate concentrations were found to be associated with those pools using hypochlorite solution as a disinfecting agent. In contrast, relatively low chlorate concentrations were found in pools treated with gaseous chlorine. In order to elucidate any relationship between the chlorate content of pool water and that of the respective hypochlorite stock solution, chlorate and bromate concentrations were determined in the hypochlorite stock solutions of nine pools. Bromate concentration in the stock solutions were not found to exceed 1.2 g/l, chlorate was measured in concentrations of up to 44.5 g/l. The additional use of ozone as part of the water purification process appears to have no significant influence on chlorate concentration. Chlorate has no bactericidal properties and does not interfere with the measurement of certain parameters relevant to hygiene in swimming pools such as free and combined chlorine, pH or redox potential. At present, the effects of high chlorate concentrations in swimming pool water are unclear. Our initial investigations indicate that chlorate has no cytotoxic (Neutral-Red assay) or irritating properties (HET-CAM assay). However, both chlorate and chlorite are known to interfere with the haematopoetic system. In Germany, the MCL for chlorite in drinking water is 0.2 mg/l. It is therefore strongly recommended that measures should be taken to reduce chlorate concentrations in

  18. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  19. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  20. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  1. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    SciTech Connect

    Cranston, J.S.; Taglianetti, J.N.; Schaeffer, D.G.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities` specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost.

  2. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    PubMed

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  3. 46 CFR 401.300 - Authorization for establishment of pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorization for establishment of pools. 401.300 Section 401.300 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... § 401.300 Authorization for establishment of pools. (a) Voluntary associations of U.S. registered...

  4. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  5. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  6. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  7. 47 CFR 90.20 - Public Safety Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.20 Public Safety Pool. (a) Eligibility. The following... basic or advanced life support services on an ongoing basis are eligible to hold authorization...

  8. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including a description of any differences from the criteria used to select the current asset pool. (8... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1111) Pool assets. 229... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1111...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., including a description of any differences from the criteria used to select the current asset pool. (8... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1111) Pool assets. 229... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1111...

  10. 49 CFR 1184.2 - Contents of a pooling application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is a lessening of such alternatives, an estimate of the public benefits that will accrue from... would affect the public and the national transportation system; (k) If any known non-pooling carriers authorized to transport the subject traffic are not included in the pooling arrangement explain why,...

  11. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  12. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  13. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  14. 76 FR 54764 - Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on August 24, 2011, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. filed to supplement its May 24, 2011 filing of revisions to its...

  15. Suggested Ordinance and Regulations Covering Public Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Public Health Association, Inc., New York, NY.

    In preparing this publication, the Joint Committee on Swimming Pools and Bathing Places intended to promote the proper installation of public swimming pool facilities and their efficient operation. Objectives were--(1) to be concerned with the development of realistic and reasonable minimum standards to safeguard the health and safety of swimmers…

  16. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  17. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  18. In-Class Simulation of Pooling Safety Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, D. Brent

    2005-01-01

    In managing business process flows, safety stock can be used to protect against stockouts due to demand variability. When more than one location is involved, the concept of aggregation enables the pooling of demands and associated inventories, resulting in improved service levels without increasing the total level of safety stock. This pooling of…

  19. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  20. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  1. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  2. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  3. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  4. DROWNING IN DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS? ASSESSING SWIMMING POOL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of treated water for swimming pools has made swimming a year round activity, widely enjoyed for leisure as well as exercise. Swimming pools can be found in different kinds and sizes in public areas, hotels and spas, or at private homes. In Germany ~250-300 million...

  5. Drowning in Disinfection Byproducts? Swimming Pool Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection is mandatory for swimming pools, because transmission of disease by bacteria, virus and protozoa is the most significant health issue. However another issue arises, and care should be taken to minimize the risks from disinfection by-products (DBPs). Public pools are ...

  6. Assessing Water Quality: Staphylococci as Microbial Indicators in Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jo. Bechaida T.; Adera, Tilahun

    1991-01-01

    This study suggests that staphylococci may be the preferred microbial indicators of swimming pool water quality because these organisms met all criteria for best microbial indicators in terms of amount of recovery, resistance to disinfectants, and risk to bathers using water samples from nine swimming pools in Linn and Benton Counties, Oregon. (30…

  7. 2. OVERVIEW OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE IN POOLE POWERHOUSE SETTING. TRIPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERVIEW OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE IN POOLE POWERHOUSE SETTING. TRIPLEX COTTAGE IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT. POOLE POWERHOUSE IS ADJACENT TRIPLEX COTTAGE AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT. SWITCHRACKS ARE VISIBLE ADJACENT TO POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  12. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  13. How are large western hemisphere warm pools formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, David B.; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai

    2006-08-01

    During the boreal summer the Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) stretches from the eastern North Pacific to the tropical North Atlantic and is a key feature of the climate of the Americas and Africa. In the summers following nine El Niño events during 1950-2000, there have been five instances of extraordinarily large warm pools averaging about twice the climatological annual size. These large warm pools have induced a strengthened divergent circulation aloft and have been associated with rainfall anomalies throughout the western hemisphere tropics and subtropics and with more frequent hurricanes. However, following four other El Niño events large warm pools did not develop, such that the mere existence of El Niño during the boreal winter does not provide the basis for predicting an anomalously large warm pool the following summer. In this paper, we find consistency with the hypothesis that large warm pools result from an anomalous divergent circulation forced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific, the so-called atmospheric bridge. We also find significant explanations for why large warm pools do not always develop. If the El Niño event ends early in the eastern Pacific, the Pacific warm anomaly lacks the persistence needed to force the atmospheric bridge and the Atlantic portion of the warm pool remains normal. If SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific do not last much beyond February of the following year, then the eastern North Pacific portion of the warm pool remains normal. The overall strength of the Pacific El Niño does not appear to be a critical factor. We also find that when conditions favor a developing atmospheric bridge and the winter atmosphere over the North Atlantic conforms to a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern (as in 1957-58 and 1968-69), the forcing is reinforced and the warm pool is stronger. On the other hand, if a positive NAO pattern develops the warm pool may remain normal even if other circumstances

  14. Habitat species pools for phylogenetic structure in microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne; Shen, Ji

    2013-06-01

    The processes underlying the phylogenetic structure of the biotic communities are typically scale-dependent and thus often poorly resolved. Illustrated by the study of macroorganisms, it is suggested that the relative influence of ecological processes on the phylogenetic structure of the communities can be inferred by the geographical definition of the species pools. However, given the high dispersal ability of microbes, the spatial delineation of the species pool may not be that practical for microbial taxa. This idea is supported by the observational data on bacteria along an elevational gradient. Significant negative values of standardized effect size of the mean nearest taxon distance were consistently observed for different sized species pools considered. Reviewing the reports on microbial phylogenetic structure so far, we suggested that the 'habitat species pools' are perhaps more important for microbes than spatial delineated 'regional species pools'.

  15. Inventory of Anchialine Pools in Hawaii's National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anchialine (?near the sea?) pools are rare and localized brackish waters along coastal lava flows that exhibit tidal fluctuations without a surface connection with the ocean (Fig. 1). In Hawai`i, these pools were frequently excavated or otherwise modified by Hawaiians to serve as sources of drinking water, baths and fish ponds. National Parks in Hawai`i possess the full spectrum of pool types, from walled fish ponds to undisturbed pools in collapsed lava tubes, cracks and caves. Pools contain relatively rare and unique fauna threatened primarily by invasive species and habitat loss. In collaboration with the National Park Service?s Inventory and Monitoring Program, the U.S. Geological Survey?s Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center undertook inventories of these unique ecosystems in two National Parks on the island of Hawai`i: Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

  16. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  17. The ecology of southern California vernal pools: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zedler, P.H.

    1987-05-01

    Vernal pools are shallow temporary bodies of water that form in winter and spring in the Mediterranean climate region of the Pacific coast. They occur in a diversity of natural settings, often in association with mounded topography. The origin of this mounded topography is still controversial. The short duration of pools and the extreme variation from standing water to severe drought favor a unique fauna and flora. The organisms of vernal pools have special life history features that fit them to this environment. Some of the plants and many of the animals have cosmopolitan distribution, and are found in temporary wetlands at widely scattered locations. Others are extremely restricted in distribution and many are endemic to clusters of pools within the California biotic province. Vernal pools have disappeared at an increasing rate over the past 100 years; because of this, several plant taxa associated with them are listed as rare and endangered by the Federal Government and the State of California.

  18. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  19. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence, implications and control.

    PubMed

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    A range of trace chemical contaminants have been reported to occur in swimming pools. Current disinfection practices and monitoring of swimming pool water quality are aimed at preventing the spread of microbial infections and diseases. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectants used react with organic and inorganic matter in the pool. Additional chemicals may be present in swimming pools originating from anthropogenic sources (bodily excretions, lotions, cosmetics, etc.) or from the source water used where trace chemicals may already be present. DBPs have been the most widely investigated trace chemical contaminants, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halobenzoquinones (HBQs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), N-nitrosamines, nitrite, nitrates and chloramines. The presence and concentrations of these chemical contaminants are dependent upon several factors including the types of pools, types of disinfectants used, disinfectant dosages, bather loads, temperature and pH of swimming pool waters. Chemical constituents of personal care products (PCPs) such as parabens and ultraviolet (UV) filters from sunscreens have also been reported. By-products from reactions of these chemicals with disinfectants and UV irradiation have been reported and some may be more toxic than their parent compounds. There is evidence to suggest that exposure to some of these chemicals may lead to health risks. This paper provides a detailed review of various chemical contaminants reported in swimming pools. The concentrations of chemicals present in swimming pools may also provide an alternative indicator to swimming pool water quality, providing insights to contamination sources. Alternative treatment methods such as activated carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes may be beneficial in improving swimming pool water quality.

  20. Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica

    2016-09-01

    A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface temperature (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a pre-monsoon spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8°C) than the pre-monsoon cooling (~0.8°C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model temperature equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the pre-monsoon period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between daily SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.

  1. Dual pools of actin at presynaptic terminals.

    PubMed

    Bleckert, Adam; Photowala, Huzefa; Alford, Simon

    2012-06-01

    We investigated actin's function in vesicle recycling and exocytosis at lamprey synapses and show that FM1-43 puncta and phalloidin-labeled filamentous actin (F-actin) structures are colocalized, yet recycling vesicles are not contained within F-actin clusters. Additionally, phalloidin also labels a plasma membrane-associated cortical actin. Injection of fluorescent G-actin revealed activity-independent dynamic actin incorporation into presynaptic synaptic vesicle clusters but not into cortical actin. Latrunculin-A, which sequesters G-actin, dispersed vesicle-associated actin structures and prevented subsequent labeled G-actin and phalloidin accumulation at presynaptic puncta, yet cortical phalloidin labeling persisted. Dispersal of presynaptic F-actin structures by latrunculin-A did not disrupt vesicle clustering or recycling or alter the amplitude or kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). However, it slightly enhanced release during repetitive stimulation. While dispersal of presynaptic actin puncta with latrunculin-A failed to disperse synaptic vesicles or inhibit synaptic transmission, presynaptic phalloidin injection blocked exocytosis and reduced endocytosis measured by action potential-evoked FM1-43 staining. Furthermore, phalloidin stabilization of only cortical actin following pretreatment with latrunculin-A was sufficient to inhibit synaptic transmission. Conversely, treatment of axons with jasplakinolide, which induces F-actin accumulation but disrupts F-actin structures in vivo, resulted in increased synaptic transmission accompanied by a loss of phalloidin labeling of cortical actin but no loss of actin labeling within vesicle clusters. Marked synaptic deficits seen with phalloidin stabilization of cortical F-actin, in contrast to the minimal effects of disruption of a synaptic vesicle-associated F-actin, led us to conclude that two structurally and functionally distinct pools of actin exist at presynaptic sites.

  2. Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented. PMID:9493630

  3. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  4. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, F.; Shi, W. D.; Jiang, H.; Lu, X. N.; Chen, B.

    2012-11-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  5. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cyndy; Bell, Kathleen P.; Freeman, Robert C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  6. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  7. Pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell transcriptome readout.

    PubMed

    Datlinger, Paul; Rendeiro, André F; Schmidl, Christian; Krausgruber, Thomas; Traxler, Peter; Klughammer, Johanna; Schuster, Linda C; Kuchler, Amelie; Alpar, Donat; Bock, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR-based genetic screens are accelerating biological discovery, but current methods have inherent limitations. Widely used pooled screens are restricted to simple readouts including cell proliferation and sortable marker proteins. Arrayed screens allow for comprehensive molecular readouts such as transcriptome profiling, but at much lower throughput. Here we combine pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell RNA sequencing into a broadly applicable workflow, directly linking guide RNA expression to transcriptome responses in thousands of individual cells. Our method for CRISPR droplet sequencing (CROP-seq) enables pooled CRISPR screens with single-cell transcriptome resolution, which will facilitate high-throughput functional dissection of complex regulatory mechanisms and heterogeneous cell populations.

  8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF POOL No. 1, SPRINGHILL LAKE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF POOL No. 1, SPRINGHILL LAKE, AND 6220 SPRINGHILL DRIVE (FORMERLY KNOWN AS THE FOUNTAIN LODGE/COMMUNITY CENTER, NOW A LEASING OFFICE). - Springhill Lake Apartments, 9230 Edmonston Road, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  9. [Labile iron pool formation in rat's blood under rhabdomyolysis].

    PubMed

    Shandrenko, S H

    2012-01-01

    The labile nonheme iron pool formation in blood under glycerol induced rhabdomyolysis in rats has been investigated. This iron is not included in transferrin, thereby it is redox-active. Rhabdomyolysis was caused by intramuscular injection of 50% glycerol in a dose of 10 ml/kg. In the first day it has been registered that the blood plasma free heme content increased 10 times and the liver heme-oxigenase activity increased 6 times. Plasma redox-active iron pool formation has been registered by EPR method. Such iron was absent in the control group. This iron pool content in the interval from the 1st to the 6st day was more than 2 mg/l and significantly higher than the transferrin iron level. The plasma iron pool unshielded by transferrin may be one of oxidative stress causes.

  10. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller... Regulations, and with SBA approval of a liquidation plan and any litigation plan, and any amendment of...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller... Regulations, and with SBA approval of a liquidation plan and any litigation plan, and any amendment of...

  12. 41 CFR 109-25.109-2 - Equipment pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness of equipment pools shall be submitted to the head of the DOE office at the discretion of that... by appropriate contractor management, DOE offices, and audit teams. (e) Heads of field...

  13. A 2D histogram representation of images for pooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinnan; Zhang, Yu-Jin

    2011-03-01

    Designing a suitable image representation is one of the most fundamental issues of computer vision. There are three steps in the popular Bag of Words based image representation: feature extraction, coding and pooling. In the final step, current methods make an M x K encoded feature matrix degraded to a K-dimensional vector (histogram), where M is the number of features, and K is the size of the codebook: information is lost dramatically here. In this paper, a novel pooling method, based on 2-D histogram representation, is proposed to retain more information from the encoded image features. This pooling method can be easily incorporated into state-of- the-art computer vision system frameworks. Experiments show that our approach improves current pooling methods, and can achieve satisfactory performance of image classification and image reranking even when using a small codebook and costless linear SVM.

  14. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  15. 1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH SCREEN. NOTE RETAINING WALL BESIDE PIPE. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. North side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. South side facing north Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side facing north - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. South side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Contextual view facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. North side facing south Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side facing south - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Rear (east) side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (east) side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. East side facing west Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side facing west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. 4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN MEMORIAL, February 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 30. CORNER OF PLUNGE POOL, AND 'MOTHER AND CHILD' BRONZE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. CORNER OF PLUNGE POOL, AND 'MOTHER AND CHILD' BRONZE SCULPTURE BY JACQUES LIPCHITZ LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO BRIDGE ACROSS BEAR RUN. - Fallingwater, State Route 381 (Stewart Township), Ohiopyle, Fayette County, PA

  5. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... specifies the terms and conditions under which Western markets power from the Central Valley Project and the... allocation from the 2015 Resource Pool. One commentor stated the cost of electricity is critical to...

  6. 2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. 1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING EAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  8. Linking soil organic carbon pools with measured fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Welp, G.; Amelung, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools play an important role for the understanding and the predictive modelling of heterotrophic respiration. One of the major issues concerning model carbon pools is their purely conceptual definition. They are just defined by a turnover rate. Despite some attempts to link the conceptual model pools to measurable SOC fractions, this challenge basically remains unsolved. In this study we introduce an empirical approach to link the model pools of RothC with measured particulate organic matter fractions and an inert carbon fraction. For 63 topsoil samples from arable fields a mid-infrared spectroscopic approach was applied to determine the carbon contents in three particle-size fractions (POM1: 2000-250 μm, POM2: 250-53 μm and POM3: 53-20 μm) and a black carbon fraction. To provide the model pools for the 63 sampling sites RothC was run into equilibrium based on site-specific soil properties and meteorological data ranging from 1961 to present. It was possible to prove a link between soil organic matter fractions and pools of RothC. The coefficient of correlation between fPOM (POM1+POM2) and the resistant plant material (RPM) pool was 0.73. However, establishing multiple linear regressions based on all measured fractions instead of using just the fraction between 2000 and 53 μm significantly improved the prediction of the RPM pool. The resultant adjusted coefficient of determination using all fractions to predict RPM was 0.94. A stepwise regression algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion retained all measured fractions in the regression, pointing to the relevance of all fractions. The same was observed when linking the humic fraction of RothC (HUM) to the measured humic fractions, which were calculated as the difference between TOC and the sum of particulate and black carbon. The adjusted coefficient of determination was 0.84. Using again all measured fractions as explanatory variables for HUM increased the coefficient of

  9. Linking soil organic carbon pools with measured fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Welp, G.; Amelung, W.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools play an important role for the understanding and the predictive modelling of heterotrophic respiration. One of the major issues concerning model carbon pools is their purely conceptual definition. They are just defined by a turnover rate. Despite some attempts to link the conceptual model pools to measurable SOC fractions, this challenge basically remains unsolved. In this study we introduce an empirical approach to link the model pools of RothC with measured particulate organic matter fractions and an inert carbon fraction. For 63 topsoil samples from arable fields a mid-infrared spectroscopic approach was applied to determine the carbon contents in three particle-size fractions (POM1: 2000-250 μm, POM2: 250-53 μm and POM3: 53-20 μm) and a black carbon fraction. To provide the model pools for the 63 sampling sites RothC was run into equilibrium based on site-specific soil properties and meteorological data ranging from 1961 to present. It was possible to prove a link between soil organic matter fractions and pools of RothC. The coefficient of correlation between fPOM (POM1+POM2) and the resistant plant material (RPM) pool was 0.73. However, establishing multiple linear regressions based on all measured fractions instead of using just the fraction between 2000 and 53 μm significantly improved the prediction of the RPM pool. The resultant adjusted coefficient of determination using all fractions to predict RPM was 0.94. A stepwise regression algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion retained all measured fractions in the regression, pointing to the relevance of all fractions. The same was observed when linking the humic fraction of RothC (HUM) to the measured humic fractions, which were calculated as the difference between TOC and the sum of particulate and black carbon. The adjusted R2 was 0.84. Using again all measured fractions as explanatory variables for HUM increased the R2 to 0.99. From these observations we

  10. Comparative evaluation of pooling strategy in soil metaproteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria; Fuchs, Stephan; Wegner, Uwe; Hentschker, Christian; Becher, Dörthe; Riedel, Kathrin; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Metaproteomics allow the simultaneous mapping of peptides of all known genomes and proteomes to disclose the identity of different organisms present in a sample; the simultaneous examination of microbial community structure and various protein functions is possible. However, metaproteomic studies of soils present a major challenge since (i) sample complexity hamper protein identification, and (ii) soil contains high microbial diversity but low protein amounts. The soil matrix is heterogeneous over diverse scales in space and time. Within the present study we test a pooling strategy for standardization of soil sample protein extraction. To this end we conducted a pooling experiment to evaluate the applicability and suitability for metaproteome analysis of the soil samples. Five individual replicate soil samples from small plots (1 m x 1 m size) on the larger plot scale (with the size of approximately 10 m x 10 m in a mature common beech stand) were analyzed and for pooling purposes a fraction of each individual sample was used to create a pooled soil sample prior to extraction. Extracted soil proteins were subject to protein separation on a 1D-SDS-PAGE, to remove interfering substances and reduce soil sample complexity. After trypsin digestion, the resulting peptide mixtures were analyzed on a LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Comparison of peptide mass spectra to protein groups for individual and pooled soil samples resulted in similar abundances of microbial taxa and functions. Our results indicate that pooling is a time- and cost-efficient practice for proteomic analyses of soils if the research questions are focusing on the variability of most abundant taxa and functions. In general, we think it will be necessary to test soils from each site or experiment individually if pooling is not suitable. We conclude that, the application of pooling for extraction purposes should be considered for metaproteomics from field studies that do not focus on within

  11. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  12. Predicting DNAPL mass discharge from pool-dominated source zones.

    PubMed

    Christ, John A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Pennell, Kurt D; Abriola, Linda M

    2010-05-20

    Models that link simplified descriptions of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone architecture with predictions of mass flux can be effective screening tools for evaluation of source zone management strategies. Recent efforts have focused on the development and implementation of upscaled models to approximate the relationship between mass removal and flux-averaged, down-gradient contaminant concentration (or mass flux) reduction. The efficacy of these methods has been demonstrated for ganglia-dominated source zones. This work extends these methods to source zones dominated by high-saturation DNAPL pools. An existing upscaled mass transfer model was modified to reproduce dissolution behavior in pool-dominated scenarios by employing a two-domain (ganglia and pools) representation of the source zone. The two-domain upscaled model is parameterized using the initial fraction of the source zone that exists as pool regions, the initial fraction of contaminant eluting from these pool regions, and the flux-averaged down-gradient contaminant concentration. Comparisons of model predictions with a series of three-dimensional source zone numerical simulations and data from two-dimensional aquifer cell experiments demonstrate the ability of the model to predict DNAPL dissolution from ganglia- and pool-dominated source zones for all levels of mass recovery.

  13. Correlates of vernal pool occurrence in the Massachusetts USA, landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Vernal pool wetlands are at risk of destruction across the northeast United States, due in part to their diminutive size and short hydroperiods. These characteristics make it difficult to locate vernal pool habitats in the landscape during much of the year, and no efficient method exists for predicting their occurrence. A logistic regression procedure was used to identify large-scale variables that influence the presence of a potential vernal pool, including surficial geology, land use and land cover, soil classification, topography, precipitation, and surficial hydrologic features. The model was validated with locations of field-verified vernal pools. The model demonstrated that the probability of potential vernal pool occurrence is positively related to slope, negatively related to till/bedrock surficial geology, and negatively related to the proportion of cropland, urban/commercial, and high density residential development in the landscape. The relationship between vernal pool occurrence and large-scale variables suggests that these habitats do not occur at random in the landscape, and thus, protection in situ should be considered.

  14. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  15. Rates of evaporation from swimming pools in active use

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.C.; Loef, G.O.G.; Jones, R.W.

    1998-10-01

    The rates of water evaporation from indoor and outdoor swimming pools in active use have been measured and compared with evaporation rates from unoccupied pools and with values calculated by the equation W = (95 + 0.425 v) (pw-pa)Y, where W is evaporation rate, lb/h ft{sup 2}; v is air velocity at water surface, ft/min.; pw is saturation vapor pressure at water temperature, in. Hg; pa is saturation vapor pressure at air dewpoint, in. Hg; and Y is latent heat at pool temperature, Btu/lb. In undisturbed pools, evaporation rates were measured and found to be 74% of the rates obtained by use of the equation. Rates of evaporation from pools in active use increase with the number of swimmers, rising 40--70% above the rates from a quiet water surface. Measurements of evaporation from a pool in use by 15--20 swimmers per 1,000 ft{sup 2} were found to average 26% higher than the rate calculated by the equation.

  16. Heated birthing pools as a source of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, S L; Afshar, B; Walker, J T; Aird, H; Naik, F; Parry-Ford, F; Phin, N; Harrison, T G; Chalker, V J; Sorrell, S; Cresswell, T

    2016-03-01

    In June 2014 Public Health England confirmed a case of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in a neonate following birth at home in a hired birthing pool incorporating a heater and a recirculation pump which had been filled in advance of labour. The case triggered a public health investigation and a microbiological survey of an additional ten heated birthing pools hired or recently hired to the general public across England. The birthing pool used by the parent of the confirmed case was identified as the source of the neonate's infection following detection of Legionella pneumophila ST48 in both patient and environmental samples. Legionella species were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction but not culture in a further three pools together with other opportunistic pathogens identified by culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. A Patient Safety Alert from NHS England and Public Health England was issued stating that heated birthing pools filled in advance of labour should not be used for home births. This recommendation remains in place. This investigation in conjunction with other recent reports has highlighted a lack of awareness regarding the microbiological safety of heated birthing pools and their potential to be a source of LD and other opportunistic infections. Furthermore, the investigation raised important considerations with regards to microbiological sampling and testing in such incidents. Public health authorities and clinicians should consider LD in the differential diagnosis of severe respiratory infection in neonates within 14 days of a water birth.

  17. Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized by a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.

  18. Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: new LBM pools prepared from reserves of antisera stored frozen for two decades

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Wimberly, Ira L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and test procedures for a second batch of lyophilized LBM combination antiserum pools, A through H, used for identifying 42 enteroviruses. Each pool is selectively composed of 10 or 11 of 42 individual enterovirus equine sera so that it contains 500 antibody units of each serum component per 0.1 ml. The new pools have been constituted from equine monovalent antisera that were prepared during the period 1962-67 and then evaluated and standardized in a series of collaborative international studies. An essential aspect of preparing the new pools was ensuring that the individual sera had retained high antibody titres through the long period of storage. At the time of retesting, the original stocks of these monovalent sera had been stored frozen at -20°C for periods ranging from 16 to 20 years. PMID:2994900

  19. Pool-hmm: a Python program for estimating the allele frequency spectrum and detecting selective sweeps from next generation sequencing of pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Kofler, Robert; Françoise, Pierre; Robelin, David; Schlötterer, Christian; Futschik, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Due to its cost effectiveness, next generation sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) is becoming a popular strategy for genome-wide estimation of allele frequencies in population samples. As the allele frequency spectrum provides information about past episodes of selection, Pool-seq is also a promising design for genomic scans for selection. However, no software tool has yet been developed for selection scans based on Pool-Seq data. We introduce Pool-hmm, a Python program for the estimation of allele frequencies and the detection of selective sweeps in a Pool-Seq sample. Pool-hmm includes several options that allow a flexible analysis of Pool-Seq data, and can be run in parallel on several processors. Source code and documentation for Pool-hmm is freely available at https://qgsp.jouy.inra.fr/. PMID:23311589

  20. Variability and Expansion of the Tropical Ocean Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The tropical warm pool plays a determining role in the global climate since it acts as a sorce of thermodynamic forcing for the atmospheric general circulation. The warm pools (SST>28°C) extend from the Indian Ocean, across the Indonesian Archipelago into the western Pacific with a secondary area crossing Central America into the Caribbean and the central Atlantic ocean. The heating in the atmosphere above the warm pool influences climate over wide ranges of the planet. As there are zonal asymmetries in the extent of the warm pool, and hence variations in the locations of total heating of the atmospheric column, the warm pools also create centers of diabatic heating along the equator which set up the position and strength of the east-west Circulations which play integral roles in the coupled ocean-atmosphere tropical climate. In fact, almost all of the global vertically integrated heating resides over waters >27°C. The tropical warm pool is characterized by large-scale variations of SST on time scales that range from intraseasonal to interdecadal, considerably altering the forcing to the atmosphere. In addition to the existence of the large variability of the tropical warm pool SST, there is an upward trend in the tropical warm pool area, which is evident in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with the area encompassed by the 28C isotherm groewing by 67% since 1920. Changes in the zonal and meridional circulation associated with the variability and expansion of the warm pool are studied using NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalsysis. It is found that the impacts extend around the tropics and are associated with a slowing down of the Asian monsoon circulation and modulation of the of the equatorial Walker cells. Analysis of the IPCC-CMIP3 models for the 20th century show similar changes in the warm pool extent suggesting that changes that occur under different future emission scenarios may poossess credence. With greenhouse warming it is found that the warm pool

  1. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Dorado Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Helle, Gerhard; Heinrich, Ingo; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Planells, Octavi; Leuenberger, Markus; Bürger, Carmen; Schleser, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    δ(13)C and δ(18)O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the δ(13)C and the δ(18)O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing δ(18)O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences.

  2. Darwinian Behavior in a Cold, Sporadically Fed Pool of Ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A testable, explicit origin for Darwinian behavior, feasible on a chaotic early Earth, would aid origins discussion. Here I show that a pool receiving unreliable supplies of unstable ribonucleotide precursors can recurrently fill this role. By using numerical integration, the differential equations governing a sporadically fed pool are solved, yielding quantitative constraints for the proliferation of molecules that also have a chemical phenotype. For example, templated triphosphate nucleotide joining is >104 too slow, suggesting that a group more reactive than pyrophosphate activated primordial nucleotides. However, measured literature rates are sufficient if the Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA) resembles a 5′-5′ cofactor-like dinucleotide RNA, synthesized via activation with a phosphorimidazolide-like group. A sporadically fed pool offers unforeseen advantages; for example, the pool hosts a novel replicator which is predominantly unpaired, even though it replicates. Such free template is optimized for effective selection during its replication. Pool nucleotides are also subject to a broadly based selection that impels the population toward replication, effective selection, and Darwinian behavior. Such a primordial pool may have left detectable modern traces. A sporadically fed ribonucleotide pool also fits a recognizable early Earth environment, has recognizable modern descendants, and suits the early shape of the phylogenetic tree of Earthly life. Finally, analysis points to particular data now needed to refine the hypothesis. Accordingly, a kinetically explicit chemical hypothesis for a terran IDA can be justified, and informative experiments seem readily accessible. Key Words: Cofactor—RNA—Origin of life—Replication—Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA). Astrobiology 12, 870–883. PMID:22946838

  3. Possible effect of biotechnology on plant gene pools in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. The application of in vitro methods in freeze storage and DNA protection techniques in fast production studies has made major advances. From that aspect, biotechnology is an indispensable means for the protection of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and development of species. Besides all the positive developments, one of the primary risks posed by the uncontrolled spreading of genetically modified organisms is the possibility for other non-target organisms to be negatively affected. Genes of plant origin should be given priority in this type of studies by taking into consideration such negative effects that may result in disruption of ecological balance and damage to plant genetic pools. Turkey, due to its ecological conditions and history, has a very important position in terms of plant gene pools. This richness ought to be protected without corrupting its natural quality and natural evolution process in order to provide the sources of species that will be required for future sustainable agricultural applications. Thus, attention should be paid to the use of biotechnological methods, which play an important role especially in the protection and use of local and original plant gene pools. PMID:26019612

  4. Identification of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Variables in Pooled Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pooled analyses integrate data from multiple studies and achieve a larger sample size for enhanced statistical power. When heterogeneity exists in variables’ effects on the outcome across studies, the simple pooling strategy fails to present a fair and complete picture of the effects of heterogeneous variables. Thus, it is important to investigate the homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of variables in pooled studies. In this paper, we consider the pooled cohort studies with time-to-event outcomes and propose a penalized Cox partial likelihood approach with adaptively weighted composite penalties on variables’ homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. We show that our method can characterize the variables as having heterogeneous, homogeneous, or null effects, and estimate non-zero effects. The results are readily extended to high-dimensional applications where the number of parameters is larger than the sample size. The proposed selection and estimation procedure can be implemented using the iterative shooting algorithm. We conduct extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed method and demonstrate it using a pooled analysis of gene expression in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25732747

  5. Estimating Disease Prevalence Using Inverse Binomial Pooled Testing

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring populations of hosts as well as insect vectors is an important part of agricultural and public health risk assessment. In applications where pathogen prevalence is likely low, it is common to test pools of subjects for the presence of infection, rather than to test subjects individually. This technique is known as pooled (group) testing. In this paper, we revisit the problem of estimating the population prevalence p from pooled testing, but we consider applications where inverse binomial sampling is used. Our work is unlike previous research in pooled testing, which has largely assumed a binomial model. Inverse sampling is natural to implement when there is a need to report estimates early on in the data collection process and has been used in individual testing applications when disease incidence is low. We consider point and interval estimation procedures for p in this new pooled testing setting, and we use example data sets from the literature to describe and to illustrate our methods. PMID:21743789

  6. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum].

    PubMed

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  7. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  8. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  9. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required.

  10. Statistical properties of the USP dissolution test with pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Carlos D; Meneces, Nora S; Tessore, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Montecarlo simulation method is used to study the statistical properties of the USP pooled dissolution test. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the dissolution test for pooled samples is studied, including: a) the operating characteristic curve showing the probability of passing the test versus the mean amount dissolved, b) the influence of measurement uncertainty on the result of the test, c) an analysis of the dependence of the statistical behavior on the underlying distribution of the individual amounts dissolved, d) a comparison of the statistical behavior of the unit dissolution test versus the pooled dissolution test, e) the average number of stages needed to reach a decision presented as a function of parameters of the lot, f) the relative influence of the three stages of the test on the probability of acceptance.

  11. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  12. [Appropriate concentrations of antimicrobial agents in used cadaver pools].

    PubMed

    Sarsilmaz, M; Arifoğlu, Y; Tuncer, S; Akşit, D

    1992-10-01

    Samples for microbiologic culture were taken from 17 cadaver and 4 cadaver pools in the Department of Anatomy of Gülhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Military Faculty of Medicine. Samples were inoculated on bacteriologic and mycologic media and were incubated in aerobic and 10% CO2 atmosphere conditions. From 3 of 4 pools containing different concentration of phenol and formalin, pathogenic bacteria that might be present in normal flora and saprophytic fungi were isolated. In the guidance of these results, in order to keep the cadavers for a long time and laboratory safety, use of formalin and phenol not less than 5% and 4% concentrations of the cadavers respectively and the pools should be taken into consideration.

  13. Solar swimming pool heating: Description of a validated model

    SciTech Connect

    Haaf, W.; Luboschik, U.; Tesche, B. )

    1994-07-01

    In the framework of a European Demonstration Programme, co-financed by CEC and national bodies, a model was elaborated and validated for open-air swimming pools having a minimal surface of 100 m[sup 2] and a minimal depth of 0.5 m. The model consists of two parts, the energy balance of the pool and the solar plant. The theoretical background of the energy balance of an open-air swimming pool was found to be poor. Special monitoring campaigns were used to validate the dynamic model using mathematical parameter identification methods. The final model was simplified in order to shorten calculation time and to improve the user-friendliness by reducing the input values to the most important one. The programme is commercially available. However, it requires the hourly meteorological data of a test reference year (TRY) as an input. The users are mainly designing engineers.

  14. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent.

    PubMed

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2017-03-01

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world's largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  15. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS OF THE GLACIATED NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrologic budget of a vernal pool influences many aspects of pool function and is the basis for pool life. Although alternating wet and dry periods occur in most wetlands, vernal pools can experience extreme moisture fluctuations. This variability results from intra- and i...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  1. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  2. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  3. Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools. 6th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    The objective of this manual is to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of temporary pond in which salamanders and other animals breed. The pools are unique…

  4. 76 FR 19355 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets Operations Policy Committee (MOPC), as... No. ER06-451, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. ER08-1419, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket...

  5. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  6. The central equipment pool, an opportunity for improved technology management.

    PubMed

    Gentles, W M

    2000-01-01

    A model for a central equipment pool managed by a clinical engineering department has been presented. The advantages to patient care and to the clinical engineering department are many. The distribution of portable technology that has been traditionally managed by the materials management function is a logical match to the expanding role of clinical engineering departments in technology management. Accurate asset management tools have allowed us to provide reliable measures of infusion pump utilization, permitting us to predict future needs as programs expand. Thus we are more actively involved in strategic technology planning. The central equipment pool is an excellent opportunity for the clinical engineering department to increase its technology management activities.

  7. Software for the Design of Swimming Pool Dehumidifiers Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, Aleš; Blasinski, Petr; Tesař, Zdeněk

    2013-06-01

    The article deals with the description and solution of physical phenomena taking place during evaporation of water. The topicality of the theme is given a number of built indoor swimming pool and wellness centers at present. In addressing HVAC systems serving these areas, it is necessary to know the various design parameters in the interior including the water temperature as the pool temperature and humidity. Following is a description of the calculation module, air handling units, including optimizing the settings of the physical changes in order to ensure the lowest energy consumption for air treatment and required maintaining internal microclimate parameters.

  8. Optically thin cirrus clouds - Radiative impact on the warm pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Kratz, D. P.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Vernekar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The role of the radiative effects of thin cirrus clouds in the energy balance of the 'warm pool' region is examined with reference to data obtained by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) flown on the Nimbus 4 satellite in 1970. First, the IRIS observations and a method for deriving the thin cirrus information are briefly discussed. A simple radiative energy balance model is then developed which is applicable to the mesoscale convective systems in the 'warm pool'. The radiative energy balance model, which does not explicitly account for the transports, is used to demonstrate the net radiative heating produced by the thin cirrus clouds.

  9. Carbon dynamics in peatland pool systems: the role of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Amy; Heal, Kate; McLeod, Andy; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Open-water pools are widespread in peatlands and are considered to represent biogeochemical hotspots within the peatland landscape. However the contribution of pool systems to wider peatland C cycling has not been quantified fully and there is a lack of knowledge of the role of photochemical processes in such environments. In this study, light exposure experiments were conducted in two contrasting pools to test the reactivity of aquatic C. The first study site was located at Cross Lochs (CL), Forsinard, in the Flow Country of Northern Scotland, in a 412 m2 pool characterised by low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (˜15 mg C L-1). The second site was located at Red Moss of Balerno (RM), a raised bog in central Scotland, in a 48 m2 pool with high DOC concentrations (˜35 mg C L-1). Experiments took place over 9 days in situ at each pool in mid-summer 2015, with 500 mL water samples contained in bags transparent to sunlight and in opaque control bags. After field exposure, optical, chemical and stable C isotope analyses were conducted on the samples. Significant differences in biogeochemical cycling of DOC were detected between the two systems, with DOC losses as a percentage of the total C pool 15% higher at RM than at CL after light exposure. The mean DOC concentration of light exposed samples at RM declined steeply initially, with 83% observed DOC degradation occurring by day 3 of the experiment. Total losses of 7.9 mg DOC L-1were observed in light exposed samples at RM, along with decreasing E4:E6 ratios, suggesting that material remaining at the end of the experiment was humified. Depletion of DOC was positively correlated with production of CO2 at both sites, with concentrations of up to 4.3 mg CO2-C L-1 recorded at RM. Stable C isotope signatures at both sites were altered under light treatment, as demonstrated by the production of enriched δ13C-DOC (+0.46 ‰ relative to opaque bags) and depleted δ13C-DIC (-0.97 ‰ relative to opaque bags) at

  10. Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool.

  11. Oblique drop impact onto a deep liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Marise V.; Sleutel, Pascal; Benschop, Jos; Riepen, Michel; Voronina, Victoria; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Versluis, Michel; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2016-11-01

    While perpendicular drop impact onto a deep liquid pool is widely studied, the dynamics after oblique drop impact remain to be quantified. Here we study, for the first time, oblique drop impact experiments onto a deep liquid pool using ultrafast imaging. We quantify the splashing behavior and derive a model to describe the splashing threshold based on the impact angle and Weber number of the impacting drop. In addition, we study the cavity formation below the water surface and quantify the cavity depth and displacement. Based on the asymmetric cavity dynamics, we develop a method to predict the direction in which a jetted droplet can escape the cavity.

  12. What’s in the Pool? A Comprehensive Identification of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in pool water and related those DBPs to the mutagenicity of pool wate...

  13. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  14. Crowdlearning: 8 Districts Pool Resources to Focus on Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Paula; Erkens, Cassandra; Sanna, Diane; Savastano, Linda F.

    2015-01-01

    Eight school districts in Rhode Island formed the East Bay Professional Learning Community to launch a joint effort to develop a culture of assessment literacy through ongoing professional learning focused on team-specific action plans tightly aligned to school, district, and state initiatives. To accomplish this, the districts pooled their…

  15. 3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TENSTALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TEN-STALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. How to Stay Afloat in the Academic Library Job Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Teresa Y., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's never been a more challenging time to find a position as an academic librarian, especially for those who have recently completed their library education. Whether job-hunters are jumping into the job pool for the very first time, or back in the water after a dry spell, Neely and her crack team of expert contributors have the information…

  17. A Computer-based Approach to Analyzing a Patient Pool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Ruth K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer system for analyzing a patient pool used by the division of dental hygiene at Virginia Commonwealth University is presented as a model for evaluating patient profiles. Descriptions of the various patient parameters are provided, and guidelines are presented to assist institutions considering such a system. (Author/MLW)

  18. 12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (more distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  19. 13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (less distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  20. Using pool noodles to teach mitosis and meiosis.

    PubMed

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E

    2005-05-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common "pool noodles" as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive.

  1. Biochar effects on phosphorus pools in three soils from Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This greenhouse study was set up to assess the changes in the soil phosphorus (P) pools of three soils used for agricultural production in Minnesota as a result of biochar application and crop nutrient uptake. The soils included: excessively well-drained Hubbard loamy sand; poorly drained, calcareou...

  2. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  3. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  4. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  5. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  6. 40 CFR 96.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 96.143 Section 96.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  7. 40 CFR 96.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 96.143 Section 96.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  8. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  9. Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

    1980-10-01

    Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

  10. A Microsoft FORTRAN 77 Program for Pooling Subgroup Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, N. Clayton; Hittner, James B.

    1997-01-01

    An interactive FORTRAN 77 program is presented that computes the pooled correlation from independent subgroups via the formula provided by R. Charter and R. Alexander (1993). In addition, the means and standard deviations for each variable are also provided for the composite group. (Author/SLD)

  11. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resulting in the destruction of natural habitat, high property loss, and the need for further hydraulic... smooth surface, and a finer substrate. Riffle and pool complexes are particularly valuable habitat for fish and wildlife. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharge of dredged or fill material can...

  12. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  13. Hiring Practices Initiative: Uncovering an Untapped Employment Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Patrick; Repetto, Jeanne B.; Andrews, Drew; Gritz, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Through current hiring practices, many school districts may be missing an untapped pool of potential employees--individuals with disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the Hiring Practice Initiative (HPI) and its implementation in 17 Florida school districts. The Hiring Practice Initiative Project goals are to: (a) increase the…

  14. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  15. 49 CFR 1184.2 - Contents of a pooling application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approval, or new competition that will arise, which would offset such lessening; (h) A narrative assessment of how the pooling arrangement will affect present and future competition in the area, including a... explain whether inclusion would enhance or restrain competition; (l) A statement of the energy...

  16. Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dionisio, Daniele; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Messeri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets. Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner’s rights. This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries. This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC ARVs quickly available and allow patent pool agreements with generic counterparts to be negotiated straight afterwards. The patent pool strategy highlighted in this paper would assert the primacy of health over for-profit policies, while aligning with the 61st WHO’s Assembly recommendations and G7, G8 and World Trade Organisation’s warnings and pledges against trade protectionism. PMID:20200604

  17. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  18. Fractal image coding based on replaced domain pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Masaki; Fujii, Toshiaki; Kimoto, Tadahiko; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    1998-01-01

    Fractal image coding based on iterated function system has been attracting much interest because of the possibilities of drastic data compression. It performs compression by using the self-similarity included in an image. In the conventional schemes, under the assumption of the self- similarity in the image, each block is mapped from that larger block which is considered as the most suitable block to approximate the range block. However, even if the exact self-similarity of an image is found at the encoder, it hardly holds at the decoder because a domain pool of the encoder is different from that of the decoder. In this paper, we prose a fractal image coding scheme by using domain pools replaced with decoded or transformed values to reduce the difference between the domain pools of the encoder and that of the decoder. The proposed scheme performs two-stage encoding. The domain pool is replaced with decoded non-contractive blocks first and then with transformed values for contractive blocks. It is expected that the proposed scheme reduces errors of contractive blocks in the reconstructed image while those of non- contractive blocks are kept unchanged. The experimental result show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  19. Stabilization of reactor fuel storage pool-TTP

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.

    1994-10-01

    The proposed work includes evaluating standard and improved technologies an designing an integrated demonstration system to clean the water and sludge the fuel storage pools. The water released would meet drinking water standards and tritium standards. The volume of radioactive sludge would be reduced by partial separation of the sludge and radionuclides and eventual solidification of the hazardous and radioactive waste. The scope of the wo includes a survey of needs and applicable technologies, system engineering evaluation, conceptual design, detailed design, fabrication of the integrat demonstration system, and testing of the system. The survey task will locate potential specific customers within the DOE complex, and outside of the DOE complex throughout the United States, that be able to utilize the narrowly focused technology to stabilize/shutdown reactor fuel storage pools, responsible parties will be located and asked respond to a survey about their specific process requirements. Literature searches will be run through technical and scientific databases to locate technologies that may be an improvement over the standard baselined technol for cleanup of radioactively-contaminated pools. Systems engineering will provide decision analysis support for the development, evaluation, design, test functions of the treatment of pool water and sludge.

  20. Using Pool Noodles to Teach Mitosis and Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E.

    2005-01-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common “pool noodles” as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive. PMID:15781711

  1. The Perspective of Undergraduate Research Participant Pool Nonparticipants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocchi, Meredith; Beaudry, Simon G.; Anderson, Craig; Pelletier, Luc G.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate research participant pools play an essential role in facilitating research, and many universities rely on them for participant recruitment. There is an abundance of information about those who do elect to participate in research through these recruitment systems but very little about those who do not. The present study examines both…

  2. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  3. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-r...

  4. Pool Rules: A Survival Guide for Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    In most sports and physical activities rules are present to facilitate participation, outlining courtesy during play as well as establishing guidelines for keeping any competition fair. In contrast, rules for appropriate behavior in swimming pools serve a much more important purpose--that of ensuring health and safety for all participants.…

  5. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    SciTech Connect

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  6. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  7. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Koschel, D; Pietrzyk, C; Sennekamp, J; Müller-Wening, D

    2006-05-01

    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). In this report we describe the case of a patient who developed episodes of fever, dyspnea and cough 4-6 hours after cleaning his indoor swimming pool. A diagnosis of EAA was made on finding a restrictive lung function pattern with gas exchange abnormalities, a predominant lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar lavage, diffuse ground-glass opacities in the lower lobes on high-resolution computer tomography, and specific IgG antibody activity to the swimming pool water. There was no precipitin reaction or specific IgG antibody activity to microbes extracted from the water. Interestingly, the water contained Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in huge amounts and in this case the histopathological features of the lung biopsy specimens differed from those seen in typical EAA, but were similar to those described in "hot tub lung" caused by mycobacteria. Solely by avoidance of cleaning the swimming pool, without any pharmacological treatment, the patient recovered completely within three months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EAA possibly associated with MAC exposure in a swimming pool environment.

  8. Some Considerations in Maintaining Adaptive Test Item Pools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    the Round 0 pool (bottom). 101 . II I1jj Some Consideratiaris 710.0 46 0 4" Selection Rule 2 021.5 RoALd 0 47. -3.nd -15+ . * 2.0 - 0 o Selection...Bruce Williams Department of Educational Dr. Ming-Mei Wang Psychology Lindquist Center University of Illinois for Measurement Urbana, IL 61801 University

  9. Book by Book, College Libraries Pool Their Collected Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Orbis Cascade Alliance is a consortium of 35 college libraries in Washington State and Oregon which allows the libraries to pool their resources in pursuit of what librarians call collaborative collection development. In its scope and diversity, Orbis Cascade is unusual among groups of colleges that collaboratively buy and share books, with…

  10. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.57... the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in such manner as to accurately account for its receipt, storage, and disposition. The Committee shall...

  11. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.57... the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in such manner as to accurately account for its receipt, storage, and disposition. The Committee shall...

  12. Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Daniele; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Messeri, Daniela

    2010-01-19

    Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets.Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner's rights.This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries.This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC ARVs quickly available and allow patent pool agreements with generic counterparts to be negotiated straight afterwards.The patent pool strategy highlighted in this paper would assert the primacy of health over for-profit policies, while aligning with the 61(st) WHO's Assembly recommendations and G7, G8 and World Trade Organisation's warnings and pledges against trade protectionism.

  13. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U3Si2Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system's performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm-3. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR's nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s-1 from the 4" pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.

  14. The Teacher Applicant Pool: What Top Administrators Seek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Faced with an applicant pool deficient in credentials and classroom skills, savvy administrators can spot applicants' potential, discerning those individuals likely to blossom into effective teachers. Important qualities include a strong work ethic, people and communication skills, and enthusiasm for teaching. Deciphering hidden meanings behind…

  15. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... received on or before December 22, 2011. ADDRESSES: Interested parties may file a comment online or on... section below. Write ``PoolCorp, File No. 101 0115'' on your comment, and file your comment online...

  16. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that

  17. Intense nonlinear migrations of the Pacific warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron; Van Gorder, Stephen

    1999-10-01

    An upper bound for the nonlinear eastward propagation rate of the Pacific warm pool is derived analytically using an inertial two-and-a-half-layer model on a β plane. The model is based on the familiar idea that, in most years, the eastward migration tendency is arrested by the drag imposed on the ocean by the westward trade winds. During El Nino years, however, when the wind partially (or completely) relaxes, the pool is freed to move toward the east. The upper bound that we focus on corresponds to a rapid migration associated with a complete relaxation of the westward winds. Nonlinear analytical solutions to the above state are constructed by integrating the (inviscid) horizontal momentum equations over a control volume in a coordinate system moving steadily toward the east. A balance between the eastward flow-force (i.e., the momentum flux resulting from the eastward density gradient) and the opposing westward form-drag (exerted by the westward flowing intermediate fluid diving under the pool) is examined. It involves integrated pressure forces, integrated inertia and the integrated Coriolis forces. In the limit of a control volume with an infinitesimal north-south extent, no recirculation (i.e., no lateral exchange of mass between the fraction of the pool occupying the immediate vicinity of the equator and regions immediately to the north and south), and no cross-equatorial flows, the governing equations reduce to the equations that govern the nonrotating (i.e., β≡0) intrusion of warm water into a resting two-layer system. This essentially means that the Coriolis force does not have any zonal component along the equator. For such conditions, the nonlinear eastward speed is found to be [2g(Δρ 1/ρ)H 1] 1/2 [1-(H 2/H 1)] 3/2, where Δρ1 is the density difference between the pool and the intermediate water underneath (i.e., the so-called intermediate layer), H1 the undisturbed thickness of the intermediate layer ahead of the pool, and H2 is the intermediate

  18. Pooled Genotyping of Microsatellite Markers in Parent–Offspring Trios

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, George; Williams, Nigel; Sham, Pak; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent–offspring trios affected with bipolar affective disorder (BP). Analysis of pooled DNA samples predicted very accurately the differences in individual allele frequency distributions between children and their parents. The mean error was <1% (range 0%–3.2%) when marker-specific corrections for stutter and differential amplification were performed. We show that if an individual allele is significantly preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring, the difference in the frequency of that allele would be sufficiently large to be detected with pooling in most situations. We propose recommendations for disequilibrium mapping with pooling in which both case-control samples and trios are used in an initial screen and markers are genotyped individually only if they satisfy very relaxed criteria for statistical significance. The use of case-control samples should reduce the false-negative rate as the differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls are twice as high in the presence of the same genetic effect. The use of trios will confirm or reject any suggested differences, thus reducing the false-positive rate that can be created by hidden population stratification. PMID:10645955

  19. Measurements in large pool fires with an actively cooled calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The pool fire thermal test described in Safety Series 6 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) in the United States is one of the most difficult tests that a container for larger ``Type B`` quantities of nuclear materials must pass. If retests of a container are required, costly redesign and project delays can result. Accurate measurements and modeling of the pool fire environment will ultimately lower container costs by assuring that containers past the pool fire test on the first attempt. Experiments indicate that the object size or surface temperature of the container can play a role in determining local heat fluxes that are beyond the effects predicted from the simple radiative heat transfer laws. An analytical model described by Nicolette and Larson 1990 can be used to understand many of these effects. In this model a gray gas represents soot particles present in the flame structure. Close to the container surface, these soot particles are convectively and radiatively cooled and interact with incident energy from the surrounding fire. This cooler soot cloud effectively prevents some thermal radiation from reaching the container surface, reducing the surface heat flux below the value predicted by a transparent medium model. With some empirical constants, the model suggested by Nicolette and Larson can be used to more accurately simulate the pool fire environment. Properly formulated, the gray gas approaches also fast enough to be used with standard commercial computer codes to analyze shipping containers. To calibrate this type of model, accurate experimental measurements of radiative absorption coefficients, flame temperatures, and other parameters are necessary. A goal of the calorimeter measurements described here is to obtain such parameters so that a fast, useful design tool for large pool fires can be constructed.

  20. Macroalgal communities of intertidal rock pools in the northwest coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rita; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Bárbara, I.; Quintino, V.

    2006-09-01

    Macroalgal communities in littoral rock pools of the Northwest coast of Portugal were studied along 60 km of coastline. Thirty-eight pools were sampled twice between March and August 2003. Rhodophyta were the dominant algue group, whether the pools were located lower or upper on the shore, except in pools located between 2 and 3 meters where Rhodophyta share the dominance with Chlorophyta. Species richness increased from pools located at higher levels on the beach to the ones located lower on the shore. The macroalgal communities' species composition was the major source of variability between rock pools. Each pool presented a unique combination of species, forming particular communities. A reduced number of species with high percent cover are the main factor creating the differences between the pools. Also, clear differences could be found between the species compositions of macroalgal communities located in the pools and in the surrounding emergent substrata. The environmental variables considered in this study (tidal height, maximum pool depth, maximum pool width and maximum pool length), were poorly related to the communities' species composition. The results suggest that each pool is unique regarding its macroalgal community structure and that the environmental factors considered in this study were not of major importance in determining the variability between pools.

  1. New England salt marsh pools: A quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    New England salt marsh pools provide important wildlife habitat and are the object of on-going salt marsh restoration projects; however, they have not been quantified in terms of their basic geomorphic and geographic traits. An examination of 32 ditched and unditched salt marshes from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound to southern Maine, USA, revealed that pools from ditched and unditched marshes had similar average sizes of about 200 m2, averaged 29 cm in depth, and were located about 11 m from the nearest tidal flow. Unditched marshes had 3 times the density (13 pools/ha), 2.5 times the pool coverage (83 m pool/km transect), and 4 times the total pool surface area per hectare (913 m2 pool/ha salt marsh) of ditched sites. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that an increasing density of ditches (m ditch/ha salt marsh) was negatively correlated with pool density and total pool surface area per hectare. Creek density was positively correlated with these variables. Thus, it was not the mere presence of drainage channels that were associated with low numbers of pools, but their type (ditch versus creek) and abundance. Tidal range was not correlated with pool density or total pool surface area, while marsh latitude had only a weak relationship to total pool surface area per hectare. Pools should be incorporated into salt marsh restoration planning, and the parameters quantified here may be used as initial design targets.

  2. Controls on Filling and Evacuation of Sediment in Waterfall Plunge Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Many waterfalls are characterized by the presence of deep plunge pools that experience periods of sediment fill and evacuation. These cycles of sediment fill are a first order control on the relative magnitude of lateral versus vertical erosion at the base of waterfalls, as vertical incision requires cover-free plunge pools to expose the bedrock floor, while lateral erosion can occur when pools are partially filled and plunge-pool walls are exposed. Currently, there exists no mechanistic model describing sediment transport through waterfall plunge pools, limiting our ability to predict waterfall retreat. To address this knowledge gap, we performed detailed laboratory experiments measuring plunge-pool sediment transport capacity (Qsc_pool) under varying waterfall and plunge-pool geometries, flow hydraulics, and sediment size. Our experimental plunge-pool sediment transport capacity measurements match well with a mechanistic model we developed which combines existing waterfall jet theory with a modified Rouse profile to predict sediment transport capacity as a function of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration at the plunge-pool lip. Comparing the transport capacity of plunge pools to lower gradient portions of rivers (Qsc_river) shows that, for transport limited conditions, plunge pools fill with sediment under modest water discharges when Qsc_river > Qsc_pool, and empty to bedrock under high discharges when Qsc_pool > Qsc_river. These results are consistent with field observations of sand-filled plunge pools with downstream boulder rims, implying filling and excavation of plunge pools over single-storm timescales. Thus, partial filling of waterfall plunge pools may provide a mechanism to promote lateral undercutting and retreat of waterfalls in homogeneous rock in which plunge-pool vertical incision occurs during brief large floods that expose bedrock, whereas lateral erosion may prevail during smaller events.

  3. Stability of Full Penetration, Flat Position Weld Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Coan, Al. B.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the dropthrough distance of a full penetration, flat position weld pool is described. Close to incipient root side penetration the dropthrough is metastable, so that a small drop in power can cause a loss of penetration if not followed soon enough by a compensating rise in power. The SPA (Soft Plasma Arc) process with higher pressure on top of the weld pool loses penetration more quickly than the GTA (Gas Tungsten Arc) process. 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy with a lower surface tension loses penetration more quickly than 2219 aluminum alloy. An instance of loss of penetration of a SPA weld in 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy is discussed in the light of the model.

  4. Nuclear Safety of RBMK Storage Pool under Seismic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool of spent fuel during of the maximum design earthquake is evaluated. The lower ends of the fuel assemblies are not fixed and they can deviate from the vertical position. The seismic action may be one of the reasons for such deviations. 3D model of fuel assemblies movements caused by seismic impact is used. The simulation of the dynamics of a fuel assemblies group under seismic impacts allows to find the dangerous configuration of closest approach of the fuel assemblies. Three-dimensional neutron program STEPAN calculates the Keff of the most dangerous systems. The maximum design earthquake is the design basis accident. In this case according to the regulatory documents the fuel is considered with zero burn-up. Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool under considered conditions is provided.

  5. Classification of upper Mississippi River pools based on contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koel, Todd M.

    2001-01-01

    Navigation pools of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) vary greatly in terms of available contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats. These habitats are critical for the biotic diversity and overall productivity of the floodplain corridor of each pool. In this study, similarities among pools 4-26 and an open river reach (river kilometer 47-129) of the UMR were determined from multivariate analysis of eleven habitat types that were hydrologically-contiguous (non-leveed). Isolated floodplain habitats were not included in final analyses because this isolation limits their contribution to overall riverine productivity, in part due to a lack of hydrological connectivity to the main channel during the flood pulse. Cluster analysis based on simple Euclidean distance was used to produce two major pool groups and five pool subgroups. Important habitat variables in defining pool groups, as interpreted from principal components analysis (PCA) axis 1, were contiguous floodplain shallow aquatic area and contiguous impounded area. The habitat variable most important in defining pool subgroups, as interpreted from PCA axis 2, was tertiary channel. Most notably, pool 6 was more similar to pools 14-24 than other upper pools, and pools 19 and 25 were more similar to pools 4-13 than other lower pools. These results were quite different from those of two previous investigators, primarily because only areas of non-isolated aquatic habitat were considered.

  6. Pool fires in a simulated aircraft cabin interior with ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted at the JPL to evaluate aircraft postcrash fire hazards are presented. The experiments were carried out in a one-third scale simulated aircraft cabin geometry to study pool fire and ventilation flow interactions. It is shown that wind-induced ventilation may significantly affect fire plume orientation, smoke transport, and heat fluxes and thus will affect subsequent fire spread and the immediate survivability of the passengers.

  7. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.

    2016-01-15

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  8. Two distinct pools of membrane phosphatidylglycerol in Bacillus megaterium

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, F.J.; Fulco, A.J.

    1980-02-01

    The predominant membrane lipid in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), is present in two distinct pools, as shown by (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation and chase experiments. One pool (PG/sub t/) undergoes rapid turnover of the phosphate moiety, whereas the second pool (PG/sub s/) exhibits metabolic stability in this group. The phosphate moiety of the other major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, is stable to turnover. (/sup 32/P)phosphate- and (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol-equilibrated cultures yielded the following glycerolipid composition: 56 mol% PG (34 mol% PG/sub t/ and 22 mol% PG/sub s/), 21 mol% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1 to 2 mol% phosphatidylserine, 20 mol% diglycerides, less than 0.5 mol% cardiolipin, and 0.2 to 0.4 mol% lysophosphatidylglycerol. Accumulation of PG was halted immediately after the addition of cerulenin, an inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine accumulation continued at the expense of the diglyceride and PG pools. Strikingly, initial rates of (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into PG were unaffected by cerulenin. In control cultures at 35/sup 0/C, incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into PG exhibited a biphasic time course, whereas incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine was concave upward and lagged behind that of PG during the initial rapid phase of PG incorporation. Finally, levels of lysophosphatidylglycerolexpanded rapidly after cerulenin addition at 20/sup 0/C, but not at 35/sup 0/C. Moreover, incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into lysophosphatidylglycerol lagged behind incorporation into PG in both the presence and absence of cerulenin at 20 and 35/sup 0/C.

  9. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-06-01

    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  10. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  11. Analysis of the Pentagon’s Press Pool Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-14

    the beginning of the Associated Press in 1849. Member organizations of a pool also have rules to abide by. As Victor Rosewater said: The original...parties to the arrangement. IVictor Rosewater , History of Cooperative News-Gathering in the United States (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1930...Company, Inc., 1984. Reston, James. The Artillery of the Press. New York: harper & Row, 1967. Rosewater , Victor. History of Cooperative News

  12. Spatial Pyramid Pooling in Deep Convolutional Networks for Visual Recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Kaiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ren, Shaoqing; Sun, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Existing deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) require a fixed-size (e.g., 224 × 224) input image. This requirement is "artificial" and may reduce the recognition accuracy for the images or sub-images of an arbitrary size/scale. In this work, we equip the networks with another pooling strategy, "spatial pyramid pooling", to eliminate the above requirement. The new network structure, called SPP-net, can generate a fixed-length representation regardless of image size/scale. Pyramid pooling is also robust to object deformations. With these advantages, SPP-net should in general improve all CNN-based image classification methods. On the ImageNet 2012 dataset, we demonstrate that SPP-net boosts the accuracy of a variety of CNN architectures despite their different designs. On the Pascal VOC 2007 and Caltech101 datasets, SPP-net achieves state-of-the-art classification results using a single full-image representation and no fine-tuning. The power of SPP-net is also significant in object detection. Using SPP-net, we compute the feature maps from the entire image only once, and then pool features in arbitrary regions (sub-images) to generate fixed-length representations for training the detectors. This method avoids repeatedly computing the convolutional features. In processing test images, our method is 24-102 × faster than the R-CNN method, while achieving better or comparable accuracy on Pascal VOC 2007. In ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) 2014, our methods rank #2 in object detection and #3 in image classification among all 38 teams. This manuscript also introduces the improvement made for this competition.

  13. Performance of concrete members subjected to large hydrocarbon pool fires

    DOE PAGES

    Zwiers, Renata I.; Morgan, Bruce J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss an investigation to determine analytically if the performance of concrete beams and columns in a hydrocarbon pool test fire would differ significantly from their performance in a standard test fire. The investigation consisted of a finite element analysis to obtain temperature distributions in typical cross sections, a comparison of the resulting temperature distribution in the cross section, and a strength analysis of a beam based on temperature distribution data. Results of the investigation are reported.

  14. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  15. Menaquinone as pool quinone in a purple bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Lieutaud, Clément; Baymann, Frauke; Verméglio, André; Friedrich, Thorsten; Kramer, David M.; Nitschke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Purple bacteria have thus far been considered to operate light-driven cyclic electron transfer chains containing ubiquinone (UQ) as liposoluble electron and proton carrier. We show that in the purple γ-proteobacterium Halorhodospira halophila, menaquinone-8 (MK-8) is the dominant quinone component and that it operates in the QB-site of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC). The redox potentials of the photooxidized pigment in the RC and of the Rieske center of the bc1 complex are significantly lower (Em = +270 mV and +110 mV, respectively) than those determined in other purple bacteria but resemble those determined for species containing MK as pool quinone. These results demonstrate that the photosynthetic cycle in H. halophila is based on MK and not on UQ. This finding together with the unusual organization of genes coding for the bc1 complex in H. halophila suggests a specific scenario for the evolutionary transition of bioenergetic chains from the low-potential menaquinones to higher-potential UQ in the proteobacterial phylum, most probably induced by rising levels of dioxygen 2.5 billion years ago. This transition appears to necessarily proceed through bioenergetic ambivalence of the respective organisms, that is, to work both on MK- and on UQ-pools. The establishment of the corresponding low- and high-potential chains was accompanied by duplication and redox optimization of the bc1 complex or at least of its crucial subunit oxidizing quinols from the pool, the Rieske protein. Evolutionary driving forces rationalizing the empirically observed redox tuning of the chain to the quinone pool are discussed. PMID:19429705

  16. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  17. The Evolution and Life Cycle of Valley Cold Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Travis Harold

    Despite our increased understanding in the relevant physical processes, forecasting radiative cold pools and their associated meteorological phenomena (e.g. fog and freezing rain) remains a challenging problem in mesoscale models. In this thesis we recognize that our current modeling approach is flawed and incomplete, rendering us unable to forecast these high impact events. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, fundamental deficiencies are exploited and new physical parameterizations are introduced to address these issues without degrading the model in other areas and time. It was found that the default model diffusion, which is calculated on model sigma coordinates, in addition to the 6th order numerical filter, prevented the formation of cold pools. Furthermore, soil moisture in and around valleys from both natural and anthropogenic sources, the vertical resolution, and model physics were all found to be important and play at least some role in forecasting these events. Finally, key physical processes governing the evolution and life cycle of cold pools were missing and subsequently introduced to a boundary layer parameterization to substantially improve its forecasting ability. Through the knowledge presented here, this and other key modifications have accomplished a numerical weather model of more general use and applicability which will not only be of use to the modeling community but society at large.

  18. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  19. Hydric soils in a southeastern Oregon vernal pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clausnitzer, D.; Huddleston, J.H.; Horn, E.; Keller, Michael; Leet, C.

    2003-01-01

    Vernal pools on the High Lava Plain of the northern Great Basin become ponded in most years, but their soils exhibit weak redoximorphic features indicative of hydric conditions. We studied the hydrology, temperature, redox potentials, soil chemistry, and soil morphology of a vernal pool to determine if the soils are hydric, and to evaluate hydric soil field indicators. We collected data for 3 yr from piezometers, Pt electrodes, and thermocouples. Soil and water samples were analyzed for pH, organic C, and extractable Fe and Mn. Soils were ponded from January through April or May, but subsurface saturation was never detected. Soil temperatures 50 cm below the surface rose above 5??C by March. Clayey Bt horizons perched water and limited saturation to the upper 10 cm. Redox potentials at a 5-cm depth were often between 200 and 300 mV, indicating anaerobic conditions, but producing soluble Fe2+ concentrations <1 mg L-1. Extractable soil Fe contents indicated Fe depletion from pool surface horizons and accumulation at or near the upper Bt1 horizon. Depletions and concentrations did not satisfy the criteria of any current hydric soil indicators. We recommend development of new indicators based on acceptance of fewer, less distinct redox concentrations for recognition of a depleted A horizon, and on presence of a thin zone containing redox concentrations located in the upper part of the near-surface perching horizon.

  20. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  1. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  2. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  3. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  4. Vortical structures in pool fires: Observation, speculation, and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Holen, J.K.

    1996-11-01

    While all fires are complex and involve many phenomena, this report is limited to large, turbulent liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires. Large, liquid-hydrocarbon pool fires present a risk in petrochemical storage and processing facilities and transportation systems that contain large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons. This report describes observations, speculations, and numerical simulations of vortical structures in pool fires. Vortical structures are observed in fires with length scales ranging from those that bend millimeter-thick flame zones to those that entrain air many meters from the edge of the fire to its centerline. The authors propose that baroclinic vorticity generation is primarily responsible for production of rotational motion at small scale and that amalgamation is responsible for the production of large-scale rotational structures from the myriad of small-scale structures. Numerical simulations show that vortical structures having time-mean definitions can be resolved with a Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. However, for vortical structures without time-mean definition, RANS is inappropriate, and another technique, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), should be employed. 39 refs., 52 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Comprehensive Identification of Chemical DBPs from Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming pools have been recently recognized as important routes of exposure to potentially harmful chemicals. Previous epidemiologic research has shown increased incidence of asthma and other respiratory effects for people who have significant indoor swimming pool exposures, an...

  6. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  7. VIEW OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL AND FILTER ROOM/ BATHHOUSE S196, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL AND FILTER ROOM/ BATHHOUSE S-196, FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Outdoor Swimming Pool, Corner of Liscome Bay Street & St. Lo Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 3. View to northwest showing swimming pool, filtration/chlorination building (at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View to northwest showing swimming pool, filtration/chlorination building (at left), and southeast elevation of Carpenter & Paint Shop (HABS No. VA-1287-L, at rear) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Shower Room & Swimming Pool, Green Street, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  9. Effects of pool isolation on trophic ecology of fishes in a highland stream.

    PubMed

    Christian, J M; Adams, G L

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of pool isolation on fish diet and to answer three questions: Were food resources different or reduced in isolated compared with connected pools? Were fishes more selective and did they increase resource partitioning in isolated pools? Would individuals exhibit increased gastrointestinal tract (GIT) length in isolation to aid nutrient absorption? Benthic macroinvertebrate density and richness were significantly lower in isolated pools compared with connected pools; fishes became more selective and partitioned resources more in isolated pools and all three species showed an increase in GIT length in isolated pools compared with connected pools. With a changing climate predicted to increase intermittency within headwater streams, the results show that these fishes have the adaptive ability to respond and continue to survive.

  10. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... requirement, Congress sought to make available to the SEC ``information regarding size, strategies and... in investment strategies that include significant risks having marketwide or even systemic... for all operated pools, including information regarding each pool's investment strategy; borrowings...

  11. Carbon Pool of Permafrost in Kolyma-Indigirka Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, D.; Veremeeva, A.; Kraev, G.; Kholodov, A. L.; Rivkina, E.

    2014-12-01

    The original database of total carbon, bulk density and iciness and new Geological map were compiled for carbon pool permafrost estimating in Quaternary deposits of North East Yakutia. The database was based on original drilling data on the main Quaternary stratigraphic units of Kolyma-Indigirka Lowland (12 key sites, 120 boreholes, 1000 samples). New geological map was created according Landsat-7 Satellite Image (spatial resolution - 30 m), the State Geological map of Quaternary Deposits (2000) and our field investigation for last 30 years in studying region. Studying area was divided into 3 regions according stratigraphy: East of Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Chukochya and Alazeya Rivers basins, East of Kolyma Lowland. Estimating was compiled for upper 25 m thickness.4 main geomorphological levels were selected for calculation: yedoma (12,8% of total area), alasses (48%), river valley (20,9%) and coastal accumulative lowland (16,7%). Our studies shows, that distribution of yedoma was overestimated in 3,5 times by State Geological Map, mainly due to underestimating of allases (increasing area on 60%).According our assessment, inorganic carbon doesn't exceed 10% of total carbon in the studying area. Permafrost stratigraphic units contain 0.6-2.1% of TC, with the highest concentrations found in Cover Layer and Ice Complex (Yedoma). The biggest carbon pool is found in Olyor, which refers to the most widespread sediments studied and high carbon concentration (up to 18 kg*m-3). The TC pool of Yedoma was 1.5-2 times overestimated by previous studies due to less samples and underestimated iciness. The TC pool of Kolyma delta is 5-7 times overestimated because of higher total organic carbon values considered. Taking the morphology into account, the TC pool assessed is 23.4 ± 9.5 Gt at near 95 000 km2 area. Mean specific carbon content is around 9.9 kg*m-3 in Kolyma Lowland permafrost. The stratigraphic unit-based approach used to compile the database and its analysis provides

  12. To pool or not to pool: The latest from California`s {open_quotes}Blue Book{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, B.W.

    1995-07-01

    This article is a review of the California Public Service Commission`s decision 95-05-045, culminating more than a year of `Blue Book Hearings` and inviting comments on two distinct proposals for a restructured electric utility industry. The debate is between direct access and power pooling, and key points of each are listed and proponents of each strategy are given a forum.

  13. Regional variation in the biogeochemical and physical characteristics of natural peatland pools.

    PubMed

    Turner, T Edward; Billett, Michael F; Baird, Andy J; Chapman, Pippa J; Dinsmore, Kerry J; Holden, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Natural open-water pools are a common feature of northern peatlands and are known to be an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Pool environmental variables, particularly water chemistry, vegetation community and physical characteristics, have the potential to exert strong controls on carbon cycling in pools. A total of 66 peatland pools were studied across three regions of the UK (northern Scotland, south-west Scotland, and Northern Ireland). We found that within-region variability of pool water chemistry was low; however, for many pool variables measured there were significant differences between regions. PCA analysis showed that pools in SW Scotland were strongly associated with greater vegetative cover and shallower water depth which is likely to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mineralisation rates, whereas pools in N Scotland were more open and deeper. Pool water DOC, particulate organic carbon and dissolved CH4 concentrations were significantly different between regions. Pools in Northern Ireland had the highest concentrations of DOC (mean=14.5 mg L(-1)) and CH4 (mean=20.6 μg C L(-1)). Chloride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in the pools in N Scotland (mean values 26.3 and 2.40 mg L(-1), respectively) than elsewhere, due to a stronger marine influence. The ratio of UV absorbance at 465 nm to absorbance at 665 nm for pools in Northern Ireland indicated that DOC was sourced from poorly humified peat, potentially increasing the bioavailability and mineralisation of organic carbon in pools compared to the pools elsewhere. This study, which specifically aims to address a lack of basic biogeochemical knowledge about pool water chemistry, clearly shows that peatland pools are highly regionally variable. This is likely to be a reflection of significant regional-scale differences in peatland C cycling.

  14. Evaluation and Treatment of Swimming Pool Avoidance Exhibited by an Adolescent Girl with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and treated swimming pool avoidance that was exhibited by a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism. In part, treatment involved blocking for flopping (dropping to the ground) and elopement (running away from the pool) and access to food for movements toward a swimming pool. Treatment also involved reinforcement for exposure to various…

  15. Sediment transport through self-adjusting, bedrock-walled waterfall plunge pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Many waterfalls have deep plunge pools that are often partially or fully filled with sediment. Sediment fill may control plunge-pool bedrock erosion rates, partially determine habitat availability for aquatic organisms, and affect sediment routing and debris flow initiation. Currently, there exists no mechanistic model to describe sediment transport through waterfall plunge pools. Here we develop an analytical model to predict steady-state plunge-pool depth and sediment-transport capacity by combining existing jet theory with sediment transport mechanics. Our model predicts plunge-pool sediment-transport capacity increases with increasing river discharge, flow velocity, and waterfall drop height and decreases with increasing plunge-pool depth, radius, and grain size. We tested the model using flume experiments under varying waterfall and plunge-pool geometries, flow hydraulics, and sediment size. The model and experiments show that through morphodynamic feedbacks, plunge pools aggrade to reach shallower equilibrium pool depths in response to increases in imposed sediment supply. Our theory for steady-state pool depth matches the experiments with an R2 value of 0.8, with discrepancies likely due to model simplifications of the hydraulics and sediment transport. Analysis of 75 waterfalls suggests that the water depths in natural plunge pools are strongly influenced by upstream sediment supply, and our model provides a mass-conserving framework to predict sediment and water storage in waterfall plunge pools for sediment routing, habitat assessment, and bedrock erosion modeling.

  16. A two-dimensional pooling strategy for rare variant detection on next-generation sequencing platforms.

    PubMed

    Zuzarte, Philip C; Denroche, Robert E; Fehringer, Gordon; Katzov-Eckert, Hagit; Hung, Rayjean J; McPherson, John D

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for pooling and sequencing DNA from a large number of individual samples while preserving information regarding sample identity. DNA from 576 individuals was arranged into four 12 row by 12 column matrices and then pooled by row and by column resulting in 96 total pools with 12 individuals in each pool. Pooling of DNA was carried out in a two-dimensional fashion, such that DNA from each individual is present in exactly one row pool and exactly one column pool. By considering the variants observed in the rows and columns of a matrix we are able to trace rare variants back to the specific individuals that carry them. The pooled DNA samples were enriched over a 250 kb region previously identified by GWAS to significantly predispose individuals to lung cancer. All 96 pools (12 row and 12 column pools from 4 matrices) were barcoded and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument with an average depth of coverage greater than 4,000×. Verification based on Ion PGM sequencing confirmed the presence of 91.4% of confidently classified SNVs assayed. In this way, each individual sample is sequenced in multiple pools providing more accurate variant calling than a single pool or a multiplexed approach. This provides a powerful method for rare variant detection in regions of interest at a reduced cost to the researcher.

  17. Velocity reversals and sediment sorting in pools and riffles controlled by channel constrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, D.M.; Wohl, E.E.; Jarrett, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Keller [Keller, E.A., 1971. Areal sorting of bed-load material; the hypothesis of velocity reversal. Geological Society of America Bulletin 82, 753-756] hypothesized that at high flow, near-bed velocities in pools exceed velocities in riffles and create pool scour. Pools, however, typically have larger cross-sectional areas of flow at bankfull discharge. This condition raises an inconsistency with Keller's velocity reversal hypothesis and the one-dimensional continuity of mass equation. To address this problem, a model of pool maintenance and sediment sorting is proposed that relies on constriction of flow by recirculating eddies and flow divergence over the exit-slopes of pools. According to the model, a narrow zone of high velocity occurs in the center of pools, creating scour. Along the downstream end of pools, an uphill climb of particles up the pool exit-slope promotes sediment deposition. The model is tested with field and flume measurements of velocity, water-surface elevation, and size of bed sediments in recirculating-eddy influenced pools. Local reversals of the water-surface gradient were measured in the field and a velocity reversal was created in the flume. The reversals that were measured indicate higher gradients of the water surface over the upstream portions of pools and higher velocities in pools at high flow. The distribution of bed sediments collected in the field also support the proposed model of pool maintenance.

  18. 17 CFR 4.21 - Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document. 4.21 Section 4.21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.21...

  19. 17 CFR 4.21 - Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document. 4.21 Section 4.21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.21...

  20. 17 CFR 4.21 - Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document. 4.21 Section 4.21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.21...

  1. 17 CFR 4.27 - Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional reporting by advisors of commodity pools. 4.27 Section 4.27 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.27...

  2. 17 CFR 4.21 - Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document. 4.21 Section 4.21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.21...

  3. 17 CFR 4.21 - Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required delivery of pool Disclosure Document. 4.21 Section 4.21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.21...

  4. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer...

  5. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer...

  6. 16 CFR 1633.5 - Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prototype pooling and confirmation testing... Prototype pooling and confirmation testing requirements. (a) Prototype pooling. One or more manufacturers may rely on a qualified prototype produced by another manufacturer or prototype developer...

  7. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  8. An Effective Method for Detecting Potential Woodland Vernal Pools Using High-Resolution LiDAR Data and Aerial Imagery

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective conservation of woodland vernal pools – important components of regional amphibian diversity and ecosystem services – depends on locating and mapping these pools accurately. Current methods for identifying potential vernal pools are primarily based on visual interpretat...

  9. Using Bayesian Multilevel Whole Genome Regression Models for Partial Pooling of Training Sets in Genomic Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Technow, Frank; Totir, L. Radu

    2015-01-01

    Training set size is an important determinant of genomic prediction accuracy. Plant breeding programs are characterized by a high degree of structuring, particularly into populations. This hampers the establishment of large training sets for each population. Pooling populations increases training set size but ignores unique genetic characteristics of each. A possible solution is partial pooling with multilevel models, which allows estimating population-specific marker effects while still leveraging information across populations. We developed a Bayesian multilevel whole-genome regression model and compared its performance with that of the popular BayesA model applied to each population separately (no pooling) and to the joined data set (complete pooling). As an example, we analyzed a wide array of traits from the nested association mapping maize population. There we show that for small population sizes (e.g., <50), partial pooling increased prediction accuracy over no or complete pooling for populations represented in the training set. No pooling was superior; however, when populations were large. In another example data set of interconnected biparental maize populations either partial or complete pooling was superior, depending on the trait. A simulation showed that no pooling is superior when differences in genetic effects among populations are large and partial pooling when they are intermediate. With small differences, partial and complete pooling achieved equally high accuracy. For prediction of new populations, partial and complete pooling had very similar accuracy in all cases. We conclude that partial pooling with multilevel models can maximize the potential of pooling by making optimal use of information in pooled training sets. PMID:26024866

  10. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  11. Synthetic copolymer kit for radionuclide blood-pool imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, A.A. Jr.; Callahan, R.J.; Wilkinson, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    A synthetic blood pool imaging agent labeled with {sup 99m}Tc is reported. The agent, methoxypolyethylene glycolpoly-L-Iysyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate monoamide was synthesized from a covalent graft copolymer of methoxypolyethylene glycol succinate (molecular weight 5.1 kD) with subsequent modification of the product with diethylenetriamineacetyl residues. The polymer was formulated into a kit that contained Sn(II) and sodium acetate for radiolabeling with {sup 99m}Tc. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats. Blood-pool imaging and blood clearance determination was carried out in rabbits and in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled agent [specific activity greater than 3.7 GBq/mg; radiochemical purity more than 98% by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] demonstrated remarkable stability in solution (pH 5.5-6.5) with no radioactive products of degradation detectable by HPLC even at 24 hr postlabeling. The agent exhibited prolonged circulation in the blood with a half-life of 31.5 hr in rabbits. Bio-distribution in rats showed a lack of substantial accumulation of the agent in the reticuloendothelial system. Sequential acquisitions were performed in a rhesus monkey. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled polymer kit was compared with the {sup 99m}Tc-red blood cells (RBCs) labeled in vitro. Both methods produced similar heart-to-lung ratios. The ratios remained essentially unchanged for up to 15 hr postinjection. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methaxypolyethylene glycol-poly-L-lysyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate monoamide is an attractive alternative to radiolabeled RBCs for blood pool imaging applications. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  12. A Fundamental Study of Nucleate Pool Boiling Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal-resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- 1 experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography (up to 1,000 frames per second) was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface, some observed here for the first time, are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels (on the order of 5 W/cm(exp 2)) is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  13. A fundamental study of nucleate pool boiling under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, and the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  14. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?

    PubMed

    Pietersz, R N I

    2009-10-01

    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  15. Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

  16. Microlayer formation characteristics in pool isolated bubble boiling of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Tomohide; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of microlayer formation characteristics is important for developing a reliable nucleate boiling heat transfer model based on accurate physical mechanisms. Although formation mechanisms of the thin liquid film in two-phase flow of confined spaces, such as micro-tubes and closely positioned parallel plates, have been thoroughly studied, microlayer formation mechanisms of pool boiling have been sparsely studied. In a previous study (Yabuki and Nakabeppu in Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286-297, 2014; Int J Heat Mass Transf 100:851-860, 2016), the spatial distribution of initial microlayer thickness under pool boiling bubbles was calculated by transient heat conduction analysis using the local wall temperature measured with a MEMS sensor. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of microlayer formation in pool boiling were investigated using the relationship between derived initial microlayer thickness and microlayer formation velocity determined by transient local heat flux data. The trend of microlayer thickness was found to change depending on the thickness of the velocity boundary layer outside the bubble foot. When the boundary layer thickness was thin, the initial microlayer thickness was determined by the boundary layer thickness, and the initial microlayer thickness proportionally increased with increasing boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, when the boundary layer was thick, the initial microlayer thickness decreased with increasing boundary layer thickness. In this thick boundary layer region, the momentum balance in the dynamic meniscus region became important, in addition to the boundary layer thickness, and the microlayer thickness, made dimensionless using boundary layer thickness, correlated with the Bond number.

  17. OBS FOMAR POOL: Gibraltar and ALERTES-RIM experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, Jose; Buforn, Elisa; Cabieces, Roberto; Santos, Jose; Sandoval, Nicolas; Roca, Antoni; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the south Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals, even with associated tsunamis, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) acquired three "LOSTERN" broad band (CMG-40T sensors) OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), and, more recently (2014), the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) acquired another three with Trillium 120 sensors. All of them conform the OBS FOMAR pool. Since January to November 2014, the FOMAR pool has been deployed along the Gibraltar strait (Gibraltar experiment), in collaboration with SECEGSA (Spanish society to study the fix communication through the Gibraltar Strait), to study the local microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. Also, since September 2015, the FOMAR pool has been deployed for 8 months in SW of the San Vicente Cape with an hexagonal array configuration as a part of ALERTES-RIM project. In this work the some preliminary results of the Gibraltar strait and ALERTES-RIM OBS experiment are shown.

  18. Mobilization of hepatic calcium pools by platelet activating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, D.S.; Hanahan, D.J.; Olson, M.S.

    1987-03-24

    In the perfused rat liver, platelet activating factor, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (AGEPC), infusion produces an extensive but transient glycogenolytic response which at low AGEPC concentrations is markedly dependent upon the perfusate calcium levels. The role of calcium in the glycogenolytic response of the liver to AGEPC was investigated by assessing the effect of AGEPC on various calcium pools in the intact liver. Livers from fed rats were equilibrated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/, and the kinetics of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were determined in control, AGEPC-stimulated, and phenylephrine-stimulated livers during steady-state washout of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. AGEPC treatment had only a slight if any effect on the pattern of steady-state calcium efflux from the liver, as opposed to major perturbations in the pattern of calcium efflux effected by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. Infusion of short pulses of AGEPC during the washout of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from labeled livers caused a transient release of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ which was not abolished at low calcium concentrations in the perfusate. Infusion of latex beads, which are removed by the reticuloendothelial cells, caused the release of hepatic /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in a fashion similar to the case with AGEPC. The findings indicate that AGEPC does not perturb a major pool of calcium within the liver as occurs upon ..cap alpha..-adrenergic stimulation; it is likely that AGEPC mobilizes calcium from a smaller yet very important pool, very possibly from nonparenchymal cells in the liver.

  19. Fundamental study of molten pool depth measurement method using an ultrasonic phased array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizota, Hirohisa; Nagashima, Yoshiaki; Obana, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The molten pool depth measurement method using an ultrasonic phased array system has been developed. The molten pool depth distribution is evaluated by comparing the times taken by the ultrasonic wave to propagate through a molten pool and a solid-phase and through only the solid-phase near the molten pool. Maximum molten pool depths on a flat type-304 stainless-steel plate, formed with a gas tungsten arc welding machine for different welding currents from 70 to 150 A, were derived within an error of ±0.5 mm.

  20. State high-risk pools: an update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Lynn A; Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E

    2011-02-01

    State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the "uninsurable." In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform.

  1. Physical and chemical differences between natural and artificial pools in blanket peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ed; Baird, Andy; Billett, Mike; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Holden, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Natural pools are common features of many northern peatlands. Numerous artificial pools are being created behind dams installed during drain-blocking, a common peatland restoration technique, significantly increasing the area of open water. Natural pools are known to be major sources of GHGs (e.g. Hamilton et al. 1994), but the reasons they are such 'hotspots' is poorly understood. We hypothesize that pools act as 'biochemical reactors' of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC) transported from surrounding peat that is processed into a range of products including CH4 and CO2. Therefore, understanding the processes operating in both natural and artificial pool systems is fundamental to elucidating this hypothesis. Water levels and temperature have been continuously monitored at six natural and six artificial pools within the 'Flow Country' blanket peatland in northern Scotland since May 2013. Bi-weekly sampling of waters from pools, peat matrix through-flow (via piezometers) and surface flow has been conducted for analysis of DOC, POC, DIC, CH4diss and CO2diss, together with GHG flux measurements from pool surfaces and adjacent peat. We show that, to date, pool water levels rapidly respond to rainfall, although artificial pools appear to respond with greater magnitude. For example, over the course of same rainfall event (20-23 June 2013), natural and artificial pool levels increased between 5.3 and 9.8 cm, and 12.5 and 22.6 cm respectively. Temperature measured at c. 5 cm from the base of each pool shows distinct diurnal fluctuations, which are of greater magnitude in all but one of the natural pools compared to the artificial pools: over the same period (20-23 July 2013), the maximum diurnal variation at the artificial pool site was 5.1 °C compared to 9.2 °C within the natural pools. Vegetation cover is generally higher in artificial pools and may have a moderating effect on variations in pool temperature. Results of pool-water DOC analysis from

  2. Alpine Valley Flows and Cold Pools during T-REX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, R.; Christman, A.; Retallack, C.; Fernando, H.

    2009-04-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar data and sodar/RASS profiles are used to study the evolution of nocturnal flows and cold pools in an alpine valley. Owens Valley, California was the site of the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) carried out during the months of March and April of 2006. The main objective of this experimental campaign was the observation of mountain wave and rotor activity in the lee of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. However, the opportunity existed during non-rotor events to focus on the stable boundary layer, as well as the creation and depletion of cold air pools. The unique local topography, set between two large and nearly parallel mountain ranges, offered the opportunity to study diurnal flow phenomena in an idealized valley setting. ASU deployed its coherent Doppler lidar during T-REX, in addition to a flux tower and a sodar/RASS. The presence of a second scanning coherent Doppler lidar situated near the ASU Doppler lidar, provided the opportunity to utilize a dual Doppler retrieval technique ("virtual towers") which was developed during the Joint Urban Dispersion Experiment (JU2003). The second Doppler lidar was deployed and operated by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Wind directions are frequently along the valley during more quiescent conditions, and several examples are given. In one case, there was a significant night-time drainage flow occuring with wind velocity magnitudes greater than 10m/s on vertical profiles obtained through dual-Doppler analysis. For this case, the velocity profile evolved gradually from a relatively smooth vertical velocity profile to a vertical velocity profile characterized by several local maxima. A low-level jet was seen below 500 m above ground level. Regarding cold pools during T-REX, some differences are noted with the classical expectations due to the complexity of the flow configuration considered here. In particular, classical cold pool destruction scenarios do not usually take into

  3. Fluid Management of and Flame Spread Across Liquid Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Miller, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of our research on flame spread across pools of liquid fuel remains the quantitative identification of the mechanisms that control the rate and nature of flame spread when the initial temperature of the liquid pool is below the fuel's flash point temperature. As described in, four microgravity (mu-g) sounding rocket flights examined the effect of forced opposed airflow over a 2.5 cm deep x 2 cm wide x 30 cm long pool of 1-butanol. Among many unexpected findings, it was observed that the flame spread is much slower and steadier than in 1g where flame spread has a pulsating character. Our numerical model, restricted to two dimensions, had predicted faster, pulsating flame spread in mu-g. In a test designed to achieve a more 2-D experiment, our investigation of a shallow, wide pool (2 mm deep x 78 mm wide x 30 cm long) was unsuccessful in mu-g, due to an unexpectedly long time required to fill the tray. As such, the most recent Spread Across Liquids (SAL) sounding rocket experiment had two principal objectives: 1) determine if pulsating flame spread in deep fuel trays would occur under the conditions that a state-of-the-art computational combustion code and short-duration drop tower tests predict; and 2) determine if a long, rectangular, shallow fuel tray could achieve a visibly flat liquid surface across the whole tray without spillage in the mu-g time allotted. If the second objective was met, the shallow tray was to be ignited to determine the nature of flame spread in mu-g for this geometry. For the first time in the experiment series, two fuel trays - one deep (30 cm long x 2 cm wide x 25 mm deep) and one shallow (same length and width, but 2 mm deep)-- were flown. By doing two independent experiments in a single flight, a significant cost savings was realized. In parallel, the computational objective was to modify the code to improve agreement with earlier results. This last objective was achieved by modifying the fuel mass diffusivity and adding a

  4. Key asset - inherent safety of LMFBR Pool Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Lancet, R.T.; Mills, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The safety approach used in the design of the Large Pool Plant emphasizes use of the intrinsic characteristics of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors to incorporate a high degree of safety in the design and reduce cost by providing simpler (more reliable) dedicated safety systems. Correspondingly, a goal was not to require the action of active systems to prevent significant core damage and/or provide large grace periods for all anticipated transients. The key safety features of the plant are presented and the analysis of representative flow and power transients are presented to show that the design goal has been satisfied.

  5. A Platelet Acquired Storage Pool Disorder Associated with Tamoxifen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Lalitha; Schmaier, Alvin H.

    2012-01-01

    The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, used in patients with breast cancer, is associated with an increase in arterial and venous thrombotic events, the mechanism of which is not clearly understood. We report a case of a lady who presented with new bruising and prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction 4–6 weeks after starting tamoxifen. Investigations were consistent with an acquired platelet storage pool disorder. Repeat platelet function analysis was normal, performed 3 months after discontinuation of tamoxifen. We present a previously clinically unreported effect of tamoxifen on platelet function. PMID:23326738

  6. Feasibility study of liquid pool burning in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanury, A. M.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of conducting experiments in the Spacelab on ignition and flame spread with liquid fuel pools which are initially at a temperature lower than the fuel's flash point temperature was studied. Theories were developed for the ignition and flame spread processes, and experiments were conducted to understand the factors influencing the ignition process and the spread rate. The results were employed to devise a conceptual Spacelab experiment which is expected to be feasible for a safe conduct and to be suitable for obtaining crucial data on the concerned processes.

  7. Assessment of carbon pools in production forest, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azian, M.; Nizam, M. S.; Samsudin, M.; Ismail, P.

    2016-11-01

    Forest is one of the main sources of carbon stock. Forest plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of forest ecosystem such as source of timber products, provide of clean water, food sources, etc. A study was conducted to assess carbon pools in selected production forest of Pahang, Malaysia. There are five main types of carbon pools that are recognized available in the forest, i.e. aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), deadwood, litter and soil; that these components of carbon pools can accumulate and release carbon into the atmosphere. Five sites with different years of logging period representing status of the forest were selected (i.e. before logging (PU), immediate after logging (P0), after 10 (P10), 20 (P20) and 30 (P30) years of logging). Twenty plots of 0.25 ha (50 m × 50 m) each were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each site. All trees with ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, identified and measured. Soil at 0-30 cm, litter and dead wood were sampled and collected in every each of sub-plots to determine and assess carbon stocks within sites. The results indicated that AGB carbon had highest portion of carbon compared to soil, BGB, deadwood and litter, which comprised about 63% of the total carbon pools. It was followed by soil and BGB that comprised about 22% and 13%, respectively. Deadwood and litter contributes the same percentage which is about 1%. In terms of status of the forest, AGB contained the highest carbon which is range from 110.49 tC ha-1 to 164.49 tC ha-1 compared with soil (33.72 tC ha-1 to 68.51 tC ha-1), BGB tC ha-1 to 34 tC ha-1), deadwood (1.57 tC ha-1 to 5.55 tC ha-1) and litter (1.42 tC ha-1 to 2.19 tC ha-1). Results from this study will be very helpful as baseline of carbon storage in different status of forest from before harvesting to logged-over forest and the impact of harvesting on the carbon stock in Pahang and Peninsular Malaysia as a whole.

  8. Effect of Convection on Weld Pool Shape and Microstructure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    as tracers to provide contrast. Microfocus x - ray is used to produce a focused x - ray beam. This x - ray beam is directed through the test section. An...119 Figure 3.4.2 Schematic Diagram of the Experimental Set Up - X - ray Shadow Graph .......................... 120 Figure 3.4.3 Mlcrograph of the Cross...section of the Laser Melted Pool, Laser Power = 8.0 kW, Beam Radius = 0.5 mm, Scanning Speed = 50 mm/sec ..... 121 Figure 3.4.4 X - ray Shadow Graph of

  9. Phytolith-Occluded Carbon Pools and Fluxes: New Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyerson, P. E.; Alexandre, A. E.; Santos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Phytoliths are microscopic grains of silica (SiO2•nH2O) formed within plants. The biomineralization process typically encapsulates small quantities of carbon termed phytC. Upon decomposition, phytoliths are released from biomass and into soils. Recent research has suggested that phytC may be a large sink of atmospheric CO2 in soils. Important steps, therefore, are to quantify phytC cycling across ecosystems and to measure it's importance relative to the organic C cycle as a whole. Thus, information regarding phytC pool sizes and flux rates are needed. To an extent this has been performed. PhytC quantities can be easily estimated as long as 1) phytolith quantities and 2) the amount of C present in phytoliths are known. The quantity of C within phytoliths is still a subject of debate, but recent work has found quantities of less than 0.22%. Older studies, which rely on extraction methods which are now known to incompletely remove surface organic residues, have found phytC quantities from 1% to 20%. Hence, studies of phytC cycling using outdated methods may lead to overestimates. In order to re-estimate phytC dynamics, we compiled an extensive list of published works which document phytolith pools in above-ground biomass and soils, as well as flux rates. From these data phytC quantities were calculated using revised estimates of phytolith C percentages. PhytC quantities were also compared to total organic C (TOC) pools and fluxes. These calculations were then extrapolated to biome and global scales. At the biome scale, our results indicate that phytC within living biomass and soil pools as well as fluxes are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than previously estimated. PhytC is generally less than 0.01% of biomass TOC, and less than 1% of soil TOC. Annual phytC fluxes are less than 0.01% of TOC fluxes. At the global scale, annual phytC production is approximately 0.01% to 0.10% of gross C production. The findings of the present study suggest that direct C

  10. Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci with selective DNA pooling data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Koehler, Kenneth J; Dekkers, Jack CM

    2007-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling is an efficient method to identify chromosomal regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTL) by comparing marker allele frequencies in pooled DNA from phenotypically extreme individuals. Currently used single marker analysis methods can detect linkage of markers to a QTL but do not provide separate estimates of QTL position and effect, nor do they utilize the joint information from multiple markers. In this study, two interval mapping methods for analysis of selective DNA pooling data were developed and evaluated. One was based on least squares regression (LS-pool) and the other on approximate maximum likelihood (ML-pool). Both methods simultaneously utilize information from multiple markers and multiple families and can be applied to different family structures (half-sib, F2 cross and backcross). The results from these two interval mapping methods were compared with results from single marker analysis by simulation. The results indicate that both LS-pool and ML-pool provided greater power to detect the QTL than single marker analysis. They also provide separate estimates of QTL location and effect. With large family sizes, both LS-pool and ML-pool provided similar power and estimates of QTL location and effect as selective genotyping. With small family sizes, however, the LS-pool method resulted in severely biased estimates of QTL location for distal QTL but this bias was reduced with the ML-pool. PMID:18053576

  11. Computational generation and screening of RNA motifs in large nucleotide sequence pools

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Izzo, Joseph A.; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Although identification of active motifs in large random sequence pools is central to RNA in vitro selection, no systematic computational equivalent of this process has yet been developed. We develop a computational approach that combines target pool generation, motif scanning and motif screening using secondary structure analysis for applications to 1012–1014-sequence pools; large pool sizes are made possible using program redesign and supercomputing resources. We use the new protocol to search for aptamer and ribozyme motifs in pools up to experimental pool size (1014 sequences). We show that motif scanning, structure matching and flanking sequence analysis, respectively, reduce the initial sequence pool by 6–8, 1–2 and 1 orders of magnitude, consistent with the rare occurrence of active motifs in random pools. The final yields match the theoretical yields from probability theory for simple motifs and overestimate experimental yields, which constitute lower bounds, for aptamers because screening analyses beyond secondary structure information are not considered systematically. We also show that designed pools using our nucleotide transition probability matrices can produce higher yields for RNA ligase motifs than random pools. Our methods for generating, analyzing and designing large pools can help improve RNA design via simulation of aspects of in vitro selection. PMID:20448026

  12. A computational proposal for designing structured RNA pools for in vitro selection of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2007-01-01

    Although in vitro selection technology is a versatile experimental tool for discovering novel synthetic RNA molecules, finding complex RNA molecules is difficult because most RNAs identified from random sequence pools are simple motifs, consistent with recent computational analysis of such sequence pools. Thus, enriching in vitro selection pools with complex structures could increase the probability of discovering novel RNAs. Here we develop an approach for engineering sequence pools that links RNA sequence space regions with corresponding structural distributions via a “mixing matrix” approach combined with a graph theory analysis. We define five classes of mixing matrices motivated by covariance mutations in RNA; these constructs define nucleotide transition rates and are applied to chosen starting sequences to yield specific nonrandom pools. We examine the coverage of sequence space as a function of the mixing matrix and starting sequence via clustering analysis. We show that, in contrast to random sequences, which are associated only with a local region of sequence space, our designed pools, including a structured pool for GTP aptamers, can target specific motifs. It follows that experimental synthesis of designed pools can benefit from using optimized starting sequences, mixing matrices, and pool fractions associated with each of our constructed pools as a guide. Automation of our approach could provide practical tools for pool design applications for in vitro selection of RNAs and related problems. PMID:17322501

  13. Variability of chlorination by-product occurrence in water of indoor and outdoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Simard, Sabrina; Tardif, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-04-01

    Swimming is one of the most popular aquatic activities. Just like natural water, public pool water may contain microbiological and chemical contaminants. The purpose of this study was to study the presence of chemical contaminants in swimming pools, in particular the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and inorganic chloramines (CAMi). Fifty-four outdoor and indoor swimming pools were investigated over a period of one year (monthly or bi-weekly sampling, according to the type of pool) for the occurrence of DBPs. The results showed that DBP levels in swimming pools were greater than DBP levels found in drinking water, especially for HAAs. Measured concentrations of THMs (97.9 vs 63.7 μg/L in average) and HAAs (807.6 vs 412.9 μg/L in average) were higher in outdoor pools, whereas measured concentrations of CAMi (0.1 vs 0.8 mg/L in average) were higher in indoor pools. Moreover, outdoor pools with heated water contained more DBPs than unheated pools. Finally, there was significant variability in tTHM, HAA9 and CAMi levels in pools supplied by the same municipal drinking water network, suggesting that individual pool characteristics (number of swimmers) and management strategies play a major role in DBP formation.

  14. Impact of grazing on the species richness of plant communities in Mediterranean temporary pools (western Morocco).

    PubMed

    Bouahim, Siham; Rhazi, Laïla; Amami, Btissam; Sahib, Nargis; Rhazi, Mouhssine; Waterkeyn, Aline; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Mesleard, François; Muller, Serge D; Grillas, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    The impact of grazing on the vegetation of Moroccan temporary pools has been studied at 2 scales: regional (inter-pools) and local (intra-pools). Half of the 16 forest pools studied is located in a reserve and ungrazed. The other half, located within public forest, is grazed. Vegetation relevés coupled to water-depths measurements were carried out in each pool. The results showed a significant effect of grazing on both scales of analysis. This effect was found in the species composition of the vegetation, which differed between the 2 types of pools, and in the lower species richness and abundance of plant species in the grazed pools. These differences are interpreted as resulting from the selection by herbivores and the differential tolerance of species to disturbance. These impacts are likely to expose certain species to local extinction by reducing their populations.

  15. The effect of whitening transformation on pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhe; Fan, Yangyu; Liu, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    Convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) are unsupervised feature extractors for high-resolution images. In the pre-processing step, whitening transformation has widely been adopted to remove redundancy by making adjacent pixels less correlated. Pooling is a biologically inspired operation to reduce the resolution of feature maps and achieve spatial invariance in convolutional neural networks. Conventionally, pooling methods are mainly determined empirically in most previous work. Therefore, our main purpose is to study the relationship between whitening processing and pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders for image classification. We propose an adaptive pooling approach based on the concepts of information entropy to test the effect of whitening on pooling in different conditions. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the performance of pooling strategies is associated with the distribution of feature activations, which can be affected by whitening processing. This provides guidance for the selection of pooling methods in convolutional autoencoders and other convolutional neural networks.

  16. Fulvestrant and male breast cancer: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer is an uncommon malignancy; little is known regarding hormonal manipulations for tamoxifen-resistant male breast cancer patients. This is the first pooled analysis of the literature to synthesize all available data and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fulvestrant in male breast cancer. This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. All studies that examined the efficacy of fulvestrant in male breast cancer, regardless of sample size, were considered eligible. The search strategy retrieved 31 articles; of these, five articles were eligible (23 patients) for this pooled analysis. The mean age of the study sample was 63.1 years. Adjuvant hormonal treatment was administered in 87.5 % of cases. Fulvestrant was given as first or second line in 40 % of patients, while as third line or beyond in 60 % of patients. 79.0 % of patients at fulvestrant administration had visceral metastases. Regarding best response, in 26.1 % PR was achieved, in 47.8 % of cases SD was recorded, whereas in 26.1 % of patients PD was noted. The median PFS was equal to 5 months. No grade 3 and 4 adverse events were recorded; of note, hot flashes were reported in 18.2 % of male breast cancer patients. Fulvestrant may potentially play a promising role in the optimal therapeutic strategy for male patients with breast cancer diagnosis. However, further clinical and pharmacokinetic investigations are more than warranted before fulvestrant use becomes a common practice in male breast cancer patients.

  17. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement), segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects. PMID:27610191

  18. Effect of pooled comparative information on judgments of quality

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Leigh A.; Bass, Ellen J.; Voss, John D.; Lyman, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Quality assessment is the focus of many health care initiatives. Yet it is not well understood how the type of information used in decision support tools to enable judgments of quality based on data impacts the accuracy, consistency and reliability of judgments made by physicians. Comparative pooled information could allow physicians to judge the quality of their practice by making comparisons to other practices or other specific populations of patients. In this study, resident physicians were provided with varying types of information derived from pooled patient data sets: quality component measures at the individual and group level, a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures using percentile rank, and an aggregate composite quality score. 32 participants viewed thirty quality profiles consisting of information applicable to the practice of thirty de-identified resident physicians. Those provided with quality component measures and a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures (rankings) judged quality of care more similarly to experts and were more internally consistent compared to participants who were provided with quality component measures alone. Reliability between participants was significantly less for those who were provided with a composite quality score compared to those who were not. PMID:26949581

  19. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bilousova, Ganna; Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C; Cardiff, Robert D; DeGregori, James

    2005-12-01

    Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  20. Initial fuel temperature effects on burning rate of pool fire.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Lu, Shou-Xiang; Li, Chang-Hai; Kang, Quan-Sheng; Lecoustre, Vivien

    2011-04-15

    The influence of the initial fuel temperature on the burning behavior of n-heptane pool fire was experimentally studied at the State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (SKLFS) large test hall. Circular pool fires with diameters of 100mm, 141 mm, and 200 mm were considered with initial fuel temperatures ranging from 290 K to 363 K. Burning rate and temperature distributions in fuel and vessel wall were recorded during the combustion. The burning rate exhibited five typical stages: initial development, steady burning, transition, bulk boiling burning, and decay. The burning rate during the steady burning stage was observed to be relatively independent of the initial fuel temperature. In contrast, the burning rate of the bulk boiling burning stage increases with increased initial fuel temperature. It was also observed that increased initial fuel temperature decreases the duration of steady burning stage. When the initial temperature approaches the boiling point, the steady burning stage nearly disappears and the burning rate moves directly from the initial development stage to the transition stage. The fuel surface temperature increases to its boiling point at the steady burning stage, shortly after ignition, and the bulk liquid reaches boiling temperature at the bulk boiling burning stage. No distinguished cold zone is formed in the fuel bed. However, boiling zone is observed and the thickness increases to its maximum value when the bulk boiling phenomena occurs.